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HEAT TRANSFER

Volume 34

a

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Advances in

HEAT

TRANSFER

Serial Editors

James P. Hartnett Thomas F. Irvine, Jr.

Energy Resources Center Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Illinois at Chicago State University of New York at Stony Brook

Chicago, Illinois Stony Brook, New York

Serial Associate Editors

Young I. Cho George A. Greene

Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Advanced Technology

Drexel University Brookhaven National Laboratory

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Upton, New York

Volume 34

San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Copyright 2001 by Academic Press

All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and

retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

The appearance of code at the bottom of the rst page of a chapter in this book indicates the

Publishers consent that copies of the chapter may be made for personal or internal use of

specic clients. This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay the stated

per-copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers,

Massachusetts 01923), for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U. S.

Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying

for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective

works, or for resale. Copy fees for chapters are as shown on the title pages; if no fee code

appears on the chapter title page, the copy fee is the same for current chapters.

0065-2717/01 $35.00

ACADEMIC PRESS

525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA

http://www.academicpress.com

Academic Press

Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK

International Standard Book Number: 0-12-020034-1

International Standard Serial Number: 0065-2717

Printed in the United States of America

00 01 02 03 QW 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CONTENTS

Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Media Based

on Volume Averaging Theory

V. S. T:vxiN :Nn I. C:11oN

I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

II. Fundamentals of Hierarchical Volume Averaging

Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

A. Theoretical Verication of Central VAT Theorem and Its Consequences . 10

III. Nonlinear and Turbulent Transport in Porous Media . . . . 14

A. Laminar Flow with Constant Coefcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

B. Nonlinear Fluid Medium Equations in Laminar Flow . . . . . . . . 19

C. Porous Medium Turbulent VAT Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

D. Development of Turbulent Transport Models in Highly Porous Media . 26

E. Closure Theories and Approaches for Transport in Porous Media . . . 32

IV. Microscale Heat Transport Description Problems and

VAT Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

A. Traditional Descriptions of Microscale Heat Transport . . . . . . . . 38

B. VAT-Based Two-Temperature Conservation Equations . . . . . . . . 43

C. Subcrystalline Single Crystal Domain Wave Heat Transport Equations . 45

D. Nonlocal Electrodynamics and Heat Transport in Superstructures . . . 46

E. Photonic Crystals Band-Gap Problem: Conventional DMM-DNM and

VAT Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

V. Radiative Heat Transport in Porous and Heterogeneous

Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

VI. Flow Resistance Experiments and VAT-Based Data

Reduction in Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

VII. Experimental Measurements and Analysis of Internal Heat

Transfer Coefcients in Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

VIII. Thermal Conductivity Measurement in a Two-Phase

Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

IX. VAT-Based Compact Heat Exchanger Design and

Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

A. A Short Review of Current Practice in Heat Exchanger Modeling . . . 112

v

B. New Kinds of Heat Exchanger Mathematical Models . . . . . . . . 116

C. VAT-Based Compact Heat Exchanger Modeling . . . . . . . . . . 117

D. Optimal Control Problems in Heat Exchanger Design . . . . . . . . 123

E. A VAT-Based Optimization Technique for Heat Exchangers . . . . . . 124

X. New Optimization Technique for Material Design Based

on VAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

XI. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Two-Phase Flow in Microchannels

S. M. Gni::si::N :Nn S. I. Annri-Kn:iix

I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

II. Characteristics of Microchannel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

III. Two-Phase Flow Regimes and Void Fraction in

Microchannels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

A. Denition of Major Two-Phase Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . 148

B. Two-Phase Flow Regimes in Microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

C. Review of Previous Experimental Studies and Their Trends . . . . . . 153

D. Flow Regime Transition Models and Correlations . . . . . . . . . 161

E. Flow Patterns in a Micro-Rod Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

F. Void Fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

G. Two-Phase Flow in Narrow Rectangular and Annular Channels . . . . 170

H. Two-Phase Flow Caused by the Release of Dissolved Noncondensables . 178

IV. Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

A. General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

B. Frictional Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 180

C. Review of Previous Experimental Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

D. Frictional Pressure Drop in Narrow Rectangular and Annular Channels . 189

V. Forced Flow Subcooled Boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

A. General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

B. Void Fraction Regimes in Heated Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

C. Onset of Nucleate Boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

D. Onset of Signicant Void and Onset of Flow Instability . . . . . . . 198

E. Observations on Bubble Nucleation and Boiling . . . . . . . . . . 205

VI. Critical Heat Flux in Microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

B. Experimental Data and Their Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

C. Effects of Pressure, Mass Flux, and Noncondensables . . . . . . . . 215

D. Empirical Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

E. Theoretical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

VII. Critical Flow in Cracks and Slits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

B. Experimental Critical Flow Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

vi coN1rN1s

C. General Remarks on Models for Two-Phase Critical Flow in

Microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

D. Integral Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

E. Models Based on Numerical Solution of Differential Conservation

Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

VIII. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

Turbulent Flow and Convection: The Prediction of Turbulent Flow

and Convection in a Round Tube

S1i:1 W. Cnicniii

I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

A. Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

B. Turbulent Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

II. The Quantitative Representation of Turbulent Flow . . . . . 260

A. Historical Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

B. New Improved Formulations and Correlating Equations . . . . . . . . . 294

III. The Quantitative Representation of Fully Developed

Turbulent Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

A. Essentially Exact Formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

B. Essentially Exact Numerical Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

C. Correlation for Nu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

IV. Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

A. Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

B. Turbulent Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356

Progress in the Numerical Analysis of Compact Heat

Exchanger Surfaces

R. K. Sn:n, M. R. Hrix:i, B. TnoNoN, :Nn P. TocnoN

I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

II. Physics of Flow and Heat Transfer of CHE Surfaces . . . . . 366

A. Interrupted Flow Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

B. Uninterrupted Complex Flow Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

C. Unsteady Laminar versus Low Reynolds Number

Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

III. Numerical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

A. Mesh Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

B. Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

C. Solution Algorithm and Numerical Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

vii coN1rN1s

IV. Turbulence Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

A. Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) Equations . . . . . . . . 381

B. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392

C. Direct Numerical Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

D. Concluding Remarks on Turbulence Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 397

V. Numerical Results of the CHE Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 397

A. Offset Strip Fins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

B. Louver Fins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

C. Wavy Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

D. Chevron Trough Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

VI. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432

Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

viii coN1rN1s

CONTRIBUTORS

Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors contributions begin

S. I. Annri-Kn:iix (145), G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineer-

ing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332.

I. C:11oN (1), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095.

S1i:1 W. Cnicniii (255), Department of Chemical Engineering, The

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.

S. M. Gni::si::N (145), G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineer-

ing, Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332.

M. R. Hrix:i (363), University of Brighton, Brighton, United Kingdom.

R. K. Sn:n (363), Delphi Harrison Thermal Systems, Lockport, New York

14094.

B. TnoNoN (363), CEA-Grenoble, DTP/GRETh, Grenoble, France.

P. TocnoN (363), CEA-Grenoble, DTP/GRETh, Grenoble, France.

V. S. T:vxiN (1), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095.

ix

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PREFACE

For over a third of a century this serial publication, Advances in Heat

Transfer, has lled the information gap between regularly published journals

and university-level textbooks. The series presents review articles on special

topics of current interest. Each contribution starts from widely understood

principles and brings the reader up to the forefront of the topic being

addressed. The favorable response by the international scientic and engin-

eering community to the thirty-four volumes published to date is an

indication of the success of our authors in fullling this purpose.

In recent years, the editors have undertaken to publish topical volumes

dedicated to specic elds of endeavor. Several examples of such topical

volumes are Volume 22 (Bioengineering Heat Transfer), Volume 28 (Trans-

port Phenomena in Materials Processing), and Volume 29 (Heat Transfer

in Nuclear Reactor Safety). As a result of the enthusiastic response of the

readers, the editors intend to continue the practice of publishing topical

volumes as well as the traditional general volumes.

The editorial board expresses their appreciation to the contributing

authors of this volume who have maintained the high standards associated

with Advances in Heat Transfer. Lastly, the editors acknowledge the efforts

of the professional staff at Academic Press who have been responsible for

the attractive presentation of the published volumes over the years.

xi

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ADVANCES IN

HEAT TRANSFER

Volume 34

aa

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Transport Phenomena in

Heterogeneous Media Based on

Volume Averaging Theory

V. S. TRAVKIN and I. CATTON

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles, California 90095

I. Introduction

Determination of ow variables and scalar transport for problems

involving heterogeneous (and porous) media is difcult, even when the

problem is subject to simplications allowing the specication of medium

periodicity or regularity. Linear or linearized models fail to intrinsically

account for transport phenomena, requiring dynamic coefcient models to

correct for shortcomings in the governing models. Allowing inhomogeneities

to adopt random or stochastic character further confounds the already

daunting task of properly identifying pertinent transport mechanisms and

predicting transport phenomena.

This problem is presently treated by procedures that are mostly heuristic

in nature because sufciently detailed descriptions are not included in the

description of the problem and consequently are not available. The ability

to describe the details, and features, of a proposed material with precision

will help reduce the need for a heuristic approach.

Some aspects of the development of the needed theory are now well

understood and have seen substantial progress in the thermal physics and

in uid mechanics sciences, particularly in porous media transport phenom-

ena. The basis for this progress is the so-called volume averaging theory

(VAT), which was rst proposed in the 1960s by Anderson and Jackson [1],

Slattery [2], Marle [3], Whitaker [4], and Zolotarev and Radushkevich [5].

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOLUME 34

1

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOL. 34

ISBN: 0-12-020034-1 Copyright 2001 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

0065-2717/01 $35.00

Further advances in the use of VAT are found in the work of Slattery [6],

Kaviany [7], Gray et al. [8], and Whitaker [9, 10]). Many of the important

details and examples of application are found in books by Kheifets and

Neimark [11], Dullien [12], and Adler [13].

Publications on turbulent transport in porous media based on VAT

began to appear in 1986. Primak et al. [14], Shcherban et al. [15], and later

studies by Travkin and Catton [16, 18, 20, 21], etc., Travkin et al. [17, 19,

22], Gratton et al. [26, 27] and Catton and Travkin [28] present a

generalized development of VAT for heterogeneous media applicable to

nonlinear physical phenomena in thermal physics and uid mechanics.

In most physically realistic cases, highly complex integraldifferential

equations result. When additional terms in the two- and three-phase

statements are encountered, the level of difculty in attempting to obtain

closure and, hence, effective coefcients, increases greatly. The largest

challenge is surmounting problems associated with the consistent lack of

understanding of new, advanced equations and insufcient development of

closure theory, especially for integraldifferential equations. The ability to

accurately evaluate various kinds of medium morphology irregularities

results from the modeling methodology once a porous medium morphology

is assigned. Further, when attempting to describe transport processes in a

heterogeneous media, the correct form of the governing equations remains

an area of continuously varying methods among researchers (see some

discussion in Travkin and Catton [16, 21]).

An important feature of VAT is being able to consider specic medium

types and morphologies, lower-scale uctuations of variables, cross-effects of

different variable uctuations, interface variable uctuations effects, etc. It is

not possible to include all of these characteristics in current models using

conventional theoretical approaches. The VAT approach has the following

desirable features:

1. Effects of interfaces and grain boundaries can be included in the

modeling.

2. The effect of morphology of the different phases is incorporated. The

morphology decription is directly incorporated into the eld equa-

tions.

3. Separate and combined elds and their interactions are described

exactly. No assumptions about effective coefcients are required.

4. Effective coefcients correct mathematical descriptionthose the-

ories presently used for that purpose are only approximate descrip-

tion, and often simply wrong.

5. Correct description of experiments in heterogeneous media again, at

present the homogeneous presentation of medium properties is used

2 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

for this purpose, and explanation of experiments is done via bulk

features. Those bulk features describe the eld as by classical homo-

geneous medium differential equations.

6. Deliberate design and optimization of materials using hierarchical

physical descriptions based on the VAT governing equations can be

used to connect properties and morphological characteristics to com-

ponent features. What is usually done is to carry out an experimental

search by adding a third or a fourth component to the piezoelectric

material, for example. This can be done in a more direct, more

observable way, and with a more correct understanding of the effects

of adding additional components and, of course, of the morphology of

the fourth component.

In this work we restrict ourselves to a brief analysis of previous work and

show that the best theoretical tool is the nonlocal description of hierarchical,

multiscaled processes resulting from application of VAT. Application of

VAT to radiative transport in a porous medium is based on our advances

in electrodynamics and microscale energy transport phenomena in two-

phase heterogeneous media. Some other governing conservation equations

for transport in porous media can be found in Travkin and Catton [21] and

the references therein.

One of the aims of this work is to outline the possibilities for a method

for optimizing transport in heterogeneous as well as porous structures that

can be used in different engineering elds. Applications range from heat and

mass exchangers and reactors in mechanical engineering design to environ-

mental engineering usage (Travkin et al. [19]). A recent application is in

urban air pollution, where optimal control of a pollutant level in a

contaminated area is determined, along with the design of an optimal

control point network for the control of constituent dispersion and remedi-

ation actions. Using second-order turbulent models, equation sets were

obtained for turbulent ltration and two-temperature or two-concentration

diffusion in nonisotropic porous media and interphase exchange and micro-

roughness. Previous work has shown that the ow resistance and heat

transfer over highly rough surfaces or in a rough channel or pipe can be

properly predicted using the technique of averaging the transport equations

over the near surface representative elementary volume (REV). Prescribing

the statistical structure of the capillary or globular porous medium mor-

phology gives the basis for transforming the integraldifferential transport

equations into differential equations with probability density functions

governing their coefcients and source terms. Several different closure

models for these terms for some uniform, nonuniform, nonisotropic, and

specically random nonisotropic highly porous layers were developed. Quite

3 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

different situations arise when describing processes occuring in irregular or

random morphology. The latest results, obtained with the help of exact

closure modeling for canonical morphologies, open a new eld of possibili-

ties for a purposeful search for optimal design of spacial heterogeneous

transport structures. A way to nd and govern momentum transport

through a capillary nonintersecting medium by altering its morphometrical

characteristics is given as validation of the process.

II. Fundamentals of Hierarchical Volume Averaging Techniques

Since the porosity in a porous medium is often anisotropic and randomly

inhomogeneous, the random porosity function can be decomposed into

additive components: the average value of m(x), in the REV and its

uctuations in various directions,

m

(x) m

(x), m`

(x), m

,

AD

AD

.

The averaged equations of turbulent ltration for a highly porous

medium are similar to those in an anisotropic porous medium. Five types

of averaging over an REV function f are dened by the following averaging

operators arranged in their order of seniority (Primak et al. [14]): average

of f over the whole REV,

f , f ,

f ,

`

m

, f

(1 m

,) f

`

, (1)

phase averages of f in each component of the medium,

f ,

,

1

AD

,

`'

`

f (t, x) dcm

, f

(2)

f ,

`

m

`

,

1

AD

`

,

`'

f (t, x) dcm

`

, f

`

(3)

and intraphase averages,

f }

1

AD

,

`'

`

f (t, x) dc (4)

f }

`

f

`

1

AD

`

,

`'

When the interface is xed in space, the averaged functions for the rst

and second phase (as liquid and solid) within the REV and over the entire

REV fulll the conditions

4 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

f g}

f }

g}

and a

} a const (6)

for steady-state phases and

c f

ct

c f }

ct

, fg}

fg` (7)

except for the differentiation condition,

V f }

V f

1

AD

,

c

`

U

fd

f f f, f AD

, (8)

where cS

"

is the inner surface in the REV, and d s is the solid-phase,

inward-directed differential area in the REV (d s n dS). The fourth condi-

tion implies an unchanging porous medium morphology.

The three types of averaging fulll all four of the preceding conditions as

well as the following four consequences:

f}

f, f}

f f}

0 (9)

fg` }

fg` , fg` }

f g` 0 (10)

Meanwhile, f ,

and f ,

`

fulll neither the third of the conditions,

a,

a, a,

,a, (11)

nor all the consequences of the other averaging conditions. Futher, the

differential condition becomes

Vf ,

V f ,

1

AD ,

c

`

`

f ds

, (12)

in accordance with one of the major averaging theorems the theorem of

averaging the V operator (Slattery [6]; Gray et al. [8]; Whitaker [10]).

If the statistical characteristics of the REV morphology and the averaging

conditions with their consequences lead to the following special ergodic

hypothesis: the spacial averages, ( f ,

, f, and f }

`

), then this theorem

converges with increases in the averaging volume to the appropriate

probability (statistical) average of the function f of a random value with

probability density distribution p. This hypothesis is stated mathematically

as follows:

f'(x)

,

`

`

f (x, :)p

:, x} d:

lim

`'`

f f'. (13)

5 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Quintard and Whitaker [29] expressed some concern about the connec-

tion between different scale volume averaged variables, for example,

T

1

AD ,

`'

D

T

dc (14)

T

1

AD

,

`'

D

T

dc. (15)

In a truly periodic system it is known that the steady temperature in phase

f can be written as

T

(r

) h r

(r

) T

"

, (16)

where h and T

"

are constants and T

(r

over the f-phase. Applying the phase averaging operator ,

to this

function, one nds

T

(x),

(x),

(r

),

m,T

"

,

while Quintard and Whitaker [29] obtain (their Eq. (13))

T

(r

),

(r

),

h r

m,T

"

, (17)

meaning that

T

(r

),

0. (18)

The parameter T

(r

),

depends on the peculiarities of the chosen REV. In some instances, when the

REV is not the volume that contains the known number of exact function

periods, the averaged function T

(r

),

assumed, however, that the REV volume AD contains the exact number of

spacial periods, then

T

(r

),

0.

Averaging the uid temperature, T

, over AD

T

(x)}

h r

T

"

h xh y

T

"

, (19)

because the averaging of r

r

x y

, (20)

while Quintard and Whitaker [29] obtain (their Eq. (15))

T

(r

)}

h r

T

"

(21)

They note (see p. 375), now represent r

x, that locates the centroid of the averaging volume, and the relative

6 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 1. Representative elementary averaging volume with the virtual points of representa-

tion inside of the REV (Carbonell and Whitaker [31]; Quintard and Whitaker [29]).

position vector y

r

x y

=r

(x, y

)}

x y

(r

, x)}

, (22)

so that Eq. (21) can be written with dependence on both x and r

,

T

(x, r

)}

(x, y

)}

h x h y

(r

, x)}

T

"

, (23)

meaning that after averaging, T

(r

position of the virtual point r

the AD

.

To do this, they introduce a so-called virtual REV allowing the

averaged value inside of the REV to be variable (see the remark on p. 354

of Quintard and Whitaker [30]: In all our previous studies of multiphase

transport phenomena, we have always assumed that averaged quantities

could be treated as constants within the averaging volume and that the

average of the spatial deviations was zero. We now wish to avoid these

assumptions. . . .), and the result is a virtual averaged variable that is not

7 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

constant within the xed volume of the REV. When Quintard and Whit-

taker derive the gradient of the average of the function (23), they use its

dependence on x for the two right-hand-side terms in (23) to obtain

VT

(x, r

)}

h h V

x

y

(r

, x)}

. (24)

Several comments about the Quintard and Whittaker treatment that need

to be considered are the following:

1. How the communication of the variables from different spaces r

at the

lower scale space and x at the upper scale space is established is not

meaningful. Their connection must be determined at the beginning of the

averaging process and their communication is very limited.

2. One should only connect a value at a point at the higher level to the

lower level REV, not only to a point within the lower level REV. When one

considers an averaged variable at any point other than the representative

point x for a particular REV, then

VT

(x)}

V(h xT

(x)}

T

"

),

and for the upper scale, the exact result is

VT

(x)}

V(h xT

"

) h. (25)

3. If a function and its gradient are periodic, then the averaged function

should be periodic. The VAT-based answer should be seen by determination

of the averaged values, which are not averaged, only the REV being used at

the lower scale.

The work by Quintard and Whittaker and the improving of understand-

ing of some basic principles of averaging has led us to state the following

lemma and then point out differences from the work of Whittaker and his

colleagues.

Lemma. If a function , representing any continuous physical eld, is

averaged over the subdomain AD

f ( uid phase) of the REV AD

1), and the averaged function (x)}

different locations x

'

within the AD

can

have discontinuities of the rst kind at the boundary cAD

of the REV AD

.

Proof. Consider the situation where the point y

`

(Fig. 1; see also Fig. 3,

p. 375, in the paper by Quintard and Whitaker [29]) is located an innitely

distance from the boundary of the REV AD

within cAD

. It represents the

intrinsic phase averaged value

`

}

AD

Whitaker [29], its value can be different from

or

`

}

.

8 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 2. Representative elementary averaging volumes with the xed points of representation.

Next, consider a point y

`

located an innitely small distance outside of

the initial REV AD

. The point y

`

represents the

averaged value

`

}

`

, as shown in Fig.

2, with its center at the point x

`

(y

`

c) (R

innitely small constant.

Following arguments of Carbonell and Whitaker [31], this point y

`

is

allowed to be in at least one more REV, AD

`

, which has its center x

`

just

shifted from the point x

`

from the

boundary cAD

.

Further, suppose that one is approaching the boundary cAD

from both

sides by points y

`

and y

`

. According to Carbonell and Whitaker [31] and

Quintard and Whitaker [29], the values

`

}

and

`

}

can be different

when cAD

experien-

ces (can have) a discontinuity at each and every point of the boundary

cAD

.

As long as the boundary cAD

changed or assigned, then the consequence of this change is that

can

have discontinuities at each point of a REV.

9 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

The relationships between different scale variables and their points of

representation can be found by noting the following points:

1. There is a xed relationship between the location of the point x

of the

upper scale eld and averaging within the REV AD

each determined AD

(x

)}

the same region (excluding close to boundary regions).

2. If there is the value

(x

`

)}

, (x

`

x

AD

`

AD

, and in it

(x

`

)}

1

AD

`

,

`'

D

(r

) dc

1

AD

,

`'

D`

(r

) dc, (26)

where

(r

) const.

A. Tnror1ic:i Vriric:1ioN or CrN1:i VAT Tnrorx

:Nn I1s CoNsrqirNcrs

When the coefcient of thermal conductivity k

uid stedy-state conduction regime is described by

k

V`(m,T

) V

_

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

U

VT

ds 0. (27)

The full 1D Cartesian coordinates version of this equation, without any

source, for a xed solid matrix in is

c

cx _

m,

cT

cx

c

cx _

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds 0, (28)

c

cx _

m,

cT

cx

MD

`

MD

`

0, (29)

where the second and third terms on the right-hand side are the so-called

morphodiffusive terms, MD

`

and MD

`

, respectively (see also, for example,

Travkin and Catton [21]),

The solid-phase equation with constant k

`

equation is of the same form,

c

cx

s,

cT

`

}

`

cx

c

cx _

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

`

cx

'

ds

0, (30)

which can also be written in terms of the uctuating variable,

s,

c`T

`

cx`

c

cx _

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

`

cx

'

ds

0. (31)

10 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Travkin and Catton [16, 18, 20] suggested that the integral heat transfer

terms in Eqs. (28, (30), and (31) be closed in a natural way by a third (III)

kind of heat transfer law. The second integral term reects the changing

averaged surface temperature along the x coordinate. Equations (28) and

(30) can be treated using heat transfer correlations for the heat exchange

integral term (the last term). Regular dilute arrangements of pores, spherical

particles, or cylinders have been studied much more than random mor-

phologies. Using separate element or cell modeling methods (Sangani and

Acrivos [32] and Gratton et al. [26]) to nd the interface temperature eld

allows one to close the second, surface diffusion integral terms in (28), (30),

and (27).

Many forms of the energy equation are used in the analysis of transport

phenomena in porous media. The primary difference between such equa-

tions and those resulting from a more rigorous development based on VAT

are certain additional terms. The best way to evaluate the need for these

additional more complex terms is to obtain an exact mathematical solution

and compare the results with calculations using the VAT equations. This

will clearly display the need for using the more complex VAT mathematical

statements.

Consider a two-phase heterogeneous medium consisting of an isotropic

continuous (solid or uid) matrix and an isotropic discontinuous phase

(spherical particles or pores). The volume fraction of the matrix, or f-phase,

is m,m

AD

m

`

1 m

AD

`

/AD, where ADAD

AD

`

is the volume of the REV.

The constant properties (phase conductivities, k

and k

`

), stationary (time-

independent) heat conduction differential equations for T

and T

`

, the local

phase temperatures, are

V q

V`T

0, V q

`

k

`

V`T

`

0,

with the fourth (IVth) kind interfacial ( f s) thermal boundary conditions

T

T

`

, ds

c

`

U

ds

q

`

c

`

U

.

Here q

VT

and q

`

k

`

VT

`

are the local heat ux vectors, cS

"

is the interfacial surface, and ds

No internal heat sources are present inside the composite sample, so the

temperature eld is determined by the boundary conditions at the external

surface of the sample. After correct formulation of these conditions, the

problem is completely stated and has a unique solution.

Two ways to realize a solution to this problem were compared (Travkin

and Kushch [33, 34]). The rst is the conventional way of replacing the

actual composite medium by an equivalent homogeneous medium with an

effective thermal conductivity coefcient, k k

(s,, k

, k

`

), assuming one

11 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

knows how to obtain or calculate it. The exact effective thermal coefcient

was obtained using direct numerical modeling (DNM) based on the math-

ematical theory of globular morphology multiphase elds developed by

Kushch (see, for example, [3538]).

Averaging the heat ux, q,, and temperature, T ,, over the REV yields

q,k

V (k

VT ,) 0. (32)

The boundary conditions for this equation are formulated in the same

manner as for a homogeneous medium.

The second way is to solve the problem using the VAT two-equation,

three-term integrodifferential equations (28) and (30). To evaluate and

compare solutions to these equations with the DNM results, one needs to

know the local solution characteristics, the averaged characteristics over the

both phases in each cell, and, in this case, the additional morphodiffusive

terms.

An innite homogeneous isotropic medium containing a three-dimen-

sional (3D) array of spherical particles is chosen for analysis. The particles

are arranged so that their centers lie at the nodes of a simple cubic lattice

with period a. The temperature eld in this heterogeneous medium is caused

by a constant heat ux Q

because of the absence of heat sources, leads to the equality of averaged

internal heat ux q,Q

.

When all the particles have the same radii, the result is the triple periodic

structure used widely, beginning from Rayleighs work [39], to evaluate the

effective conductivity of particle-reinforced composites.

The composite medium model consists of the three regions shown in Fig.

3. The half-space lying above the AA plane has a volume content of the

disperse phase m

`

m

m

`

m

"

. To dene the problem, let m

m

"

. The third part is the

composite layer between the plane boundaries AA and BB containing N

double periodic lattices of spheres (screens) with changing diameters.

Solutions to the VAT equations (28) and (30) for a composite with

varying volume content of disperse phase with accurate DNM closure of the

micro model VAT integrodifferential terms were obtained implicitly, mean-

ing that each term was calculated independently using the results of DNM

calculations.

For the one-dimensional case, Eq. (32) becomes

c

cz

k

cT

cz

0, (z

z z

`

), m

`

m

`

(z),

where k

(m

`

) is the effective conductivity coefcient.

12 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 3. Model of two-phase medium with variable volume fraction of disperse phase.

The normalized solution of the both models (VAT and DNM) for the case

of linearly changing porosity m

`

m''

`

z(m'`'

`

m''

`

), where m

`

(z

) m''

`

,

m

`

(z

`

) m'`'

`

, z

0, z

`

1, between AA and BB and with effective

conductivity coefcients of k

Fig. 4. There is practically no difference (less than 10`) between the

solutions, and what there is is probably because of numerical error accumu-

lation (Travkin and Kushch [34]).

Lines 15 represent solutions of the one-term equation, respectively,

whereas the points (circles, triangles, etc.) represent the solutions of the VAT

equations with accurate DNM closure of the micro model VAT integrodif-

ferential terms MD

`

and MD

`

for the composite with varying volume

content of disperse phase. Here the number of screens is nine, corresponding

to a relatively small particle phase concentration gradient.

The coincidence of the results of the exact calculation of the two-equation,

three-term conductive-diffusion transport VAT model (28) and (30) with the

exact DNM solution and with the one-temperature effective coefcient

model for heterogeneous media with nonconstant spatial morphology

clearly demonstrates the need for using all the terms in the VAT equations.

The need for the morphodiffusive terms in the energy equation is further

demonstrated by noting that their magnitudes are all of the same order.

Conrmation of the fact that there is no difference in solutions between

the correct one-term, one-temperature effective diffusivity equation and the

13 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Fic. 4. Comparison of VAT three-term equation particle temperature (symbols) with the

exact analytical based on the effective conductance coefcient obtained by exact DNM (solid

lines).

three-terms, two-temperature VAT equations does not mean that it is better

to take for modeling and analysis the effective diffusivity one-term, one-

temperature equation (see Subsection VI, E and arguments in Sections VII

and VIII). Among other issues one needs to analyze goals of modeling and

to understand that the good solution of the effective diffusivity one-term

one-temperature equation as it was found and described in the preceding

statements means nothing less than the ground of the exact solution of the

VAT problem. Also, it is important that for the exact (or accurate) solution

of conventional diffusivity equation, the effective coefcient needs to be

found, and this means in turn that nding the solution of the two-eld

problem is imperative and consequently appears to be the major problem.

Meanwhile, this is the problem that was posed just at the beginning as the

original one.

III. Nonlinear and Turbulent Transport in Porous Media

To a great extent, the analysis of porous media linear transport phenom-

ena are given in the numerous studies by Whitaker and coauthors; see, for

14 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

example, [10, 30, 31, 4046], as well as by studies by Gray and coauthors

[8, 4750]. Our present work is mostly devoted to the description of other

physical elds, along with development of their physical and mathematical

models. Still, the connection to linear and partially linear problem state-

ments needs to be outlined.

The linear Stokes equations are

VV 0,

0 Vp jV`V j

g, (33)

and although the Stokes equation is adequate for many problems, linear as

well as nonlinear processes will result in different equations and modeling

features.

The general averaged form of the transport equations will be developed

for permeable interface boundaries between the phases. Two forms of the

right-hand-side Laplacian term will be considered. First, one can have two

forms of the diffusive ux in gradient form that can be written

jVV ,

jVV ,

j

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds (34)

or

jVV ,

jm,VV

j

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds. (35)

It was pointed out rst by Whitaker [42, 43] that these forms allow greater

versatility in addressing particular problems. Using the two averaged forms

of the velocity gradient, (34) and (35), one can obtain two averaged versions

of the diffusion term in Eq. (33), namely,

jV(VV ),

jV (Vm,V ) jV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

Vds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds,

(36)

where the production term VV ds is a tensorial variable, and the version

with uctuations in the second integral term

jV(VV ),

jV (m,VV ) jV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds,

(37)

15 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Using these two forms of the momentum viscous diffusion term, one can

write two versions of the averaged Stokes equations. The rst version is

VV ,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds 0, U

'

V (38)

and

0 Vp,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds jV (Vm,V )

jV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds m,j

g , (39)

and the second version is found by using the following relation for the

pressure gradient:

Vp,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds m,Vp`

1

AD ,

c

`

U

p` ds. (40)

Using the averaging rules developed by Primak et al. [14], Shcherban et

al. [15] and Travkin and Catton [16, 18] facilitated the development of the

momentum equation. By combining equations (37) and (40), one is able to

write the momentum transport equations in the second form with velocity

uctuations

VV ,

V }

Vm,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds 0, (41)

obtained using

V V }

V

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds V }

Vm,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds, (42)

and the momentum equation

0 m,Vp`

1

AD ,

c

`

U

p` ds jV (m,VV )

jV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds m,j

g . (43)

The third version of these equations is almost never used but can be found

in [21].

16 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

A. L:xiN: Fiov vi1n CoNs1:N1 CorrricirN1s

The transport equations for a uid phase with linear diffusive terms are

cU

'

cx

'

0 (44)

cU

'

ct

U

'

cU

'

cx

'

1

j

cp

cx

'

v

c

cx

'

cU

'

cx

'

(45)

cu

ct

U

'

cu

cx

'

D

c

cx

'

cu

cx

'

S

"

D

. (46)

Here u represents any scalar eld (for example, concentration C) that might

be transported into either of the porous medium phases, and the last terms

on the right-hand side of (45) and (46) are source terms. In the solid phase,

the diffusion equation is

cu

`

ct

D

`

c

cx

'

cu

`

cx

'

S

"

Q

. (47)

The averaged convective operator term in divergence form becomes, after

phase averaging,

c

cx

'

(U

'

U

'

)

V(U

'

U

'

),

VU

'

U

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

U

'

ds

V[m,U

'

U

'

m,u`

'

u`

'

}

]

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

U

'

ds. (48)

Decomposition of the rst term on the right-hand side of (48) yields

uctuation types of terms that need to be treated in some way.

The nondivergent version of the averaged convective term in the momen-

tum equation is

c

cx

'

(U

'

U

'

)

m,U

'

VU

'

U

'

VU

'

,

Vu`

'

u`

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

U

'

ds

m,U

'

c

cx

'

U

'

U

'

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds

Vu`

'

u`

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

U

'

ds. (49)

The divergent and nondivergent forms of the averaged convective term in

17 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

the diffusion equation are

V(CU

'

),

VCU

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

CU

'

ds

V[m,CU

'

m,c` u`

'

}

]

1

AD ,

c

`

U

CU

'

ds

m,U

'

c

cx

'

CC

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds Vc` u`

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

CU

'

ds.

(50)

Other averaged versions of this term can be obtained using impermeable

interface conditions (see also Whitaker [42] and Plumb and Whitaker [44]).

For constant diffusion coefcient D, the averaged diffusion term becomes

V (DVC),

DV V(m,C ) DV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

Cds

D

AD ,

c

`

U

VC ds,

(51)

or

V (DVC),

DV (m,VC ) DV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

c` ds

D

AD ,

c

`

U

VC ds,

(52)

or

D (DVC),

Dm,V`C DV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

c`ds

D

AD ,

c

`

U

Vc` ds.

(53)

Other forms of Eq. (52), using the averaging operator for constant

diffusion coefcient, constant porosity, and absence of interface surface

permeability and transmittivity, can be found in works by Whitaker [42]

and Plumb and Whitaker [44], as well as by Levec and Carbonell [46].

A similar derivation can be carried out for the momentum equation to

treat cases where Stokes ow is invalid. Two versions of the momentum

equation will result. The equation without the uctuation terms is

j

m,

cV

ct

m,V VV V

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds Vv`v`,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V V ds

V(m,p` )

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds jV V(m,V )

jV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds m,j

g . (54)

18 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

with the uctuation diffusion terms it becomes

j

m,

cV

ct

m,V VV V

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds Vv`v`,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V V ds

m,Vp`

1

AD ,

c

`

U

p` ds jV (m,VV )

jV

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

v`ds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds m,j

g . (55)

The steady-state momentum transport equations for systems with imper-

meable interfaces can readily be derived from Eq. (54) and (55). They are

j

(m,V VV Vv`v`,

) V(m,p` )

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds jV V(m,V )

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds m,j

g , (56)

or

j

(m,V VV Vv`v`,

) m,Vp` )

1

AD ,

c

`

U

p` ds jV V(m,V )

j

AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds m,j

g . (57)

B. NoNiiNr: Fiiin Mrniix Eqi:1ioNs iN L:xiN: Fiov

To properly account for Newtonian uid ow phenomena within a

porous medium in a general way, modeling should begin with the Navier

Stokes equations for variable uid properties,

j

cV

ct

V VV

g (58)

j j(V, C

'

, T ),

rather than the constant viscosity NavierStokes equations. The following

form of the momentum equation will be used in further developments:

j

cV

ct

V VV

Vp V (2jS) j

g (59)

j j(V, C

'

, T ).

19 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

The negative stress tensor o

''

in this equation is

N

''

o

''

2j(VV )` 2jS, (60)

and the symmetric tensor S is the deformation tensor

S(VV )`

1

2

(VV (VV )*), (61)

with (VV )* being the transposed diad VV.

The homogeneous phase diffusion equations are

cu

ct

U

'

cu

cx

'

c

cx

'

(z

(x, u

, V )

cu

cx

'

S

"

D

(62)

and

cu

`

ct

c

cx

'

z

`

cu

`

cx

'

S

"

Q

. (63)

Here u

these elds. The averaging procedures for transport equation convective

terms were established earlier. The averaged nonlinear diffusion term yields

V (DVC),

V (m,DVC ) V

_

D

1

AD ,

c

`

U

c` ds

V (DVc`,

)

1

AD ,

c

`

U

DVC ds. (64)

The other version of the diffusive terms with the full value of concentration

on the interface surface is

V (DVC),

V (DV(m,C )) V

_

D

1

AD ,

c

`

U

Cds

V (DVc` ,

)

1

AD ,

c

`

U

DVC ds. (65)

General forms of the nonlinear transport equations can be derived for

impermeable and permeable interface surfaces. The averaged momentum

diffusion term is

c

cx

'

(2jS )

V (2jS ),

V (2jS ,

)

1

AD ,

c

`

U

2jS ds

V 2(m,j`S m,j` S}

)

2

AD ,

c

`

U

jS ds. (66)

20 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The general nonlinear averaged momentum equation for a porous medium

is

j

m,

cV

ct

m,V VV V

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V ds Vv` v` ,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

V V ds

V(m,p` )

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds V 2(m,j` S m,j` S}

2

AD ,

c

`

U

jS ds m,j

g . (67)

The steady-state momentum transport equations for systems with imper-

meable interfaces follows from Eq. (67),

j

(m,V VV Vv` v` ,

)

V(m,p` )

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds V 2(m,j` S m,j` S}

j

AD ,

c

`

U

jS ds m,j

g . (68)

The averaged nonlinear mass transport equation in porous medium

follows

m,

cC

ct

m,U

'

VC

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds Vc`

u`

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

C

U

'

ds

V (D V(m,C )) V

_

D

1

AD ,

c

`

U

Cds

V (DVc`,

)

1

AD ,

c

`

U

DVC ds m,S

'

D

. (69)

A few simpler transport equations that can be readily used while main-

taining fundamental relationships in heterogeneous medium transport are

given by Travkin and Catton [21].

C. Poois Mrniix TiniirN1 VAT Eqi:1ioNs

Turbulent transport processes in highly structured or porous media are

of great importance because of the large variety of heat- and mass-exchange

equipment used in modern technology. These include heterogeneous media

for heat exchangers and grain layers, packed columns, and reactors. In all

cases there occurs a jet or stalled ow of uids in channels or around the

21 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

obstacles. There are, however, few theoretical developments for ow and

heat exchange in channels of complex conguration or when owing around

nonhomogeneous bodies with randomly varied parameters. The advanced

forms of laminar transport equations in porous media were developed in a

paper by Crapiste et al. [41]. For turbulent transport in heterogeneous

media, there are few modeling approaches and their theoretical basis and

nal modeling equations differ.

The lack of a sound theoretical basis affects the development of math-

ematical models for turbulent transport in the complex geometrical environ-

ments found in nuclear reactors subchannels where rod-bundle geometries

are considered to be formed by subchannels. Processes in each subchannel

are calculated separately (see Teyssedou et al. [51]). The equations used in

this work has often been obtained from two-phase transport modeling

equations [52] with heterogeneity of spacial phase distributions neglected in

the bulk. Three-dimensional two-uid ow equations were obtained by Ishii

[52] using a statistical averaging method. In his development, he essentially

neglected nonlinear phenomena and took the ux forms of the diffusive

terms to avoid averaging of the second power differential operators. Ishii

and Mishima [53] averaged a two-uid momentum equation of the form

c:

'

j

'

v

'

ct

V (:

'

j

'

v

'

v

'

) :

'

Vp

'

V :

'

(t' t'

'

)

:

'

j

'

g v

''

I

'

M

''

V:

'

t

'

, (70)

where :

'

is the local void fraction, t

'

is the mean interfacial shear stress, t'

'

is the turbulent stress for the kth phase, t' is the averaged viscous stress for

the kth phase, I

'

is the mass generation, and M

''

is the generalized

interfacial drag. Using the area average in the second time averaging

procedure, Ishii and Mishima [53] introduced a distribution of parameters

to take into consideration the nonlinearity of convective term averaging.

This approach cannot strictly take into account the stochastic character of

various kinds of spatial phase distributions. The equations used by Lahey

and Lopez de Bertodano [54] and Lopez de Bertodano et al. [55] are very

similar, with the momentum equation being

:

'

j

'

D

'

u

''

Dt

:

'

Vp

'

V :

'

[j

'

Vu

''

j

'

(u'

''

u'

''

)]

:

'

j

'

g M

''

M

"'

t

'

V:

'

( p

'

G

p

'

)V:

'

. (71)

Here the index i denotes interfacial phenomena and M

"'

is the volumetric

wall force on phase k. Additional terms in Eq. (70) and (71) are usually

based on separate micro modeling efforts and experimental data.

22 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

One of the more detailed derivations of the two-phase ow governing

equations by Lahey and Drew [56] is based on a volume averaging

methodology. Among the problems was that the authors developed their

own volume averaging technique without consideration of theoretical ad-

vancements developed by Whitaker and colleagues [10, 42] and Gray et al.

[8] for laminar and half-linear transport equations. The most important

weaknesses are the lack of nonlinear terms (apart from the convection

terms) that naturally arise and the nonexistence of interphase uctuations.

Zhang and Prosperetti [57] derived averaged equations for the motion of

equal-sized rigid spheres suspended in a potential ow using an equation for

the probability distribution. They used the small particle dilute limit

approximation to close the momentum equations. After approximate

resolution of the continuous phase uctuation tensor M

'

, the vector

A

'

(x, t), and the uctuating particle volume ux tensor, M

'

, they recog-

nized that (p. 199) Closure of the system requires an expression for the

uctuating particle volume ux tensor M

'

. . . . This missing information

cannot be supplied internally by the theory without a specication of the

initial conditions imposed on the particle probability distribution. They

also considered the case of nite volume fractions for the linear problem

where the problem equations were formulated for inviscid and unconvec-

tional media. The development by Zhang and Prosperetti [57] is a good

example of the correct application of ensemble averaging. The equations

they derive compare exactly with those derived from rigorous volume

averaging theory (VAT) [24].

Transport phenomena in tube bundles of nuclear reactors and heat

exchangers can be modeled by treating them as porous media [58]. The

two-dimensional momentum equations for a constant porosity distribution

usually have the form [59]

cU

cx

cV

cy

0 (72)

cU`

cx

cUV

cy

1

j

cP

cx

v

V`UA

`

VU (73)

cUV

cx

cV `

cy

1

j

cP

cy

v

V`V A

'

VV, n 0, (74)

where the physical quantities are written as averaged values and the solid

phase effects are included in two coefcients of bulk resistance, A

`

and A

'

,

and an effective eddy viscosity, v

viscosity. These kinds of equations were not designed to deal with non-

23 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

linearities induced by the physics of the problem and the medium variable

porosity or to take into account local inhomogeneities.

Some of the more interesting applications of turbulent transport in

heterogeneous media are to agrometeorology, urban planning, and air

pollution. The rst signicant papers on momentum and pollutant diffusion

in urban environment treated as a two-phase medium were those by Popov

[60, 61]. In these investigations, an urban porosity function was dened

based on statistical averaging of a characteristic function p(x, y, z) for the

surface roughness that is equal to zero inside of buildings and other

structures and equal to unity in an outdoor space. The turbulent diffusion

equation for an urban roughness porous medium after ensemble averaging

is

cm(x

'

)C

,

ct

c

cx

'

(m(x

'

)V

'

,C

,)

c

cx

'

(v

'

)'(c

)',

c

cx

'

v'

'

c'

,

c

cx

'

D

cC

,

cx

'

, n 1, 2, 3, 4 . . . ,

(75)

where , means porous volume ensemble averaging, and m(x

'

) is porosity.

Closure of the two morphological terms, the rst and the second terms on

the right-hand side, was obtained using a Boussinesque analogy,

c

cx

'

(v

'

)'(c

)',

c

cx

'

v'

'

c'

,K

''

cC

,

cx

'

. (76)

A descriptive analysis of the deviation variables (v

'

)', (c

diffusion coefcient K

''

was not given. In many studies of meteorology and

agronomy, the only modeling of the increase in the volume drag resistance

is by addition of a nonlinear term as done by Yamada [62],

cU

ct

f

'

V

1

j

cP

cx

c

cz

(u'w') (1 m

`

)c

S(z)U U (77)

cV

ct

f

'

U

1

j

cP

cy

c

cz

(v'w') (1 m

`

)c

S(z)V V ,

where (1 m

`

) is the fraction of the earth surface occupied by forest, m

`

is

the area porosity due to a tree volume, and f

'

is a Coriolis parameter.

The averaging technique used by Raupach and Shaw [63] to obtain a

turbulent transport equation for a two-phase medium of agro- and forest

24 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

cultures is a plain surface 2D averaging procedure where the averaged

function is dened by

f ,

1

AD

,

`'

ND

f dc, (78)

with AD

et al. [64] and Coppin et al. [65] assumed that the dispersive covariances

were unimportant,

u "

'

u "

'

,

, (79)

where u "

'

is a uctuation value within the canopy and u "

'

u'

'

. The

contribution of these covariances was found by Raupach et al. [64] to be

small in the region just above the canopy from experiments with a regular

rough morphology. This nding has been explained by Scherban et al. [15],

Primak et al. [14], and Travkin and Catton [16, 20] for regular porous

(roughness) morphology. Covariances are, however, the result of irregular

or random two-phase media. When the surface averaging used by Raupach

and Shaw [64] is used instead of volume averaging, especially in the case of

nonisotropic media, the neglect of one of the dimensions in the averaging

process results in an incorrect value. This result should be called a 2D

averaging procedure, particularly when 3D averaging procedures are re-

placed by 2D for nonisotropic urban rough layer (URL) when developing

averaged transport equations.

Raupach et al. [6466] later introduced a true volume averaging pro-

cedure within an air volume AD

momentum conservation

cU

'

ct

U

'

c

cx

'

(U

'

)

1

j

c

cx

'

P

c

cx

'

u'

'

u'

'

}

vAU

'

v

AD

,

c

`

U

c

cx

'

U

'

ds

c

cx

'

u "

'

u "

'

}

1

j

AD

,

c

`

U

Pds, i, j 1 3, (80)

where cS

"

is interfacial area. Development of this equation is based on

intrinsic averaged values of }

or U

'

, whereas averages of vector eld

variables over the entire REV are more correct (Kheifets and Neimark

[11]). Raupach et al. [64] next simplied all the closure requirements by

developing a bulk overall drag coefcient. The second, third, and fth terms

on the right-hand side of Eq. (80) are represented by a common drag

resistance term. For a stationary fully developed boundary layer, they write

25 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

c

cz _

u'w'}

u "w "}

v

cU

cz

1

2

C

`, (81)

where C

is an element area

densityfrontal area per unit volume.

A wide range of ow regimes is reported in papers by Fand et al. [67]

and Dybbs and Edwards [68]. The latter work revealed that there were four

regimes for regular spherical packing, and that only when the Reynolds

number based on pore diameter, Re

'"

, exceeded 350 could the ow regime

be considered to be turbulent ow. The Fand et al. [67] investigation of a

randomnly packed porous medium made up of single size spheres showed

that the fully developed turbulent regime occurs when Re

'

120, where Re

Volume averaging procedures were used by Masuoka and Takatsu [69]

to derive their volume-averaged turbulent transport equations. As in numer-

ous other studies of multiphase transport, the major difculties of averaging

the terms on the right-hand side were overcome by using assumed closure

models for the stress components. As a result, the averaged turbulent

momentum equation, for example, has conventional additional resistance

terms such as the averaged momentum equation developed by Vafai and

Tien [70] for laminar regime transport in porous medium. A major

assumption is the linearity of the uctuation terms obtained, for example,

by neglect of additional terms in the momentum equation.

A meaningful experimental study by Howle et al. [71] conrmed the

importance of the role of randomness in the enhancement of transport

processes. The results show the very distinct patterns of ow and heat

transfer for two cases of regular and nonuniform 2D structured nonorthog-

onal porous media. Their experimental results clearly demonstrate the

inuence of nonuniformity of the porous structure on the enhancement of

heat transfer.

D. DrvrioixrN1 or TiniirN1 T:Nsio1 Monris

iN Hicnix Poois Mrni:

Fluid ow in a porous layer or medium can be characterized by several

modes. Let us single out from among them the three modes found in a

highly porous media. The rst is ow around isolated ostacle elements, or

inside an isolated pore. The second is interaction of traces or a hyperturbu-

lent mode. The third is uid ow between obstacles or inside a blocked

interconnected swarm of channels (ltration mode). The models developed

by Scherban et al. [15], Primak et al. [14], and Travkin and Catton [1621]

are primarily for nonlinear laminar ltration and hyperturbulent modes in

26 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

nonlinear transport.

Specic features of ows in the channels of ltered media include the

following:

1. Increased drag due to microroughness on the channel boundary

surfaces

2. Gravity effects

3. Free convection effects

4. The effects of secondary ows of the second kind and curved stream-

lines

5. Large-scale vortex effects

6. The anisotropic nature of turbulent transfer and resulting anisotropy

of turbulent viscosity

It is well known that in spacial boundary ows, an important role is

played by the gradients of normal Reynolds stresses and that this is the case

for ows in porous medium channels as well. As a rule, ow symmetry is

not observed in these channels. Therefore, in channel turbulence models, the

shear components of the Reynolds stress tensors have a decisive effect on

the ow characteristics. At present, however, turbulence models that are less

than second-order can not be successfully employed for simulating such

ows (Rodi [72], Lumley [73], and Shvab and Bezprozvannykh [74]).

Derivation of the equations of turbulent ow and diffusion in a highly

porous medium during the ltration mode is based on the theory of

averaging of the turbulent transfer equation in the liquid phase and the

transfer equations in the solid phase of a heterogeneous medium (Primak et

al. [14] and Scherban et al. [15]) over a specied REV.

The initial turbulent transport equation set for the rst level of the

hierarchy, microelement, or pore, was taken to be of the form (see, for

example, Rodi [72] and Patel et al. [75])

cU

'

ct

U

'

cU

'

cx

'

1

j

cp

cx

'

c

cx

'

v

cU

'

cx

'

u'

'

u'

'

S

'

G

(82)

cu

ct

U

'

cu

cx

'

c

cx

'

D

cu

cx

'

u'

'

'

S

"

D

(83)

cU

'

cx

'

0. (84)

Here u

transported into either of the porous medium phases, and the last terms on

the right-hand side of (82) and (83) are source terms.

27 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Next we introduce free stream turbulence into the hierarchy Let us

represent the turbulent values as

UU u' U

'

U

'

u'

'

u'

'

(85)

U U

u

`

,

where the index k stands for the turbulent components independent of

inhomogeneities of dimensions and properties of the multitude of porous

medium channels (pores), and r stands for contributions due to the porous

medium inhomogeneity. Being independent of the dimensions and proper-

ties of the inhomogeneities of the porous medium congurations, sections,

and boundary surfaces does not mean that the distribution of values of U

'

and u'

'

are altogether independent of the distance to the wall, pressure

distribution, etc. Thus, the values U

'

or u'

'

stand for the values generally

accepted in the turbulence theory, that is, when a plane surface is referred

to, these values are those of a classical turbulent boundary layer. When a

round-section channel is involved, and even if the cross-section of this

channel is not round, but without disturbing nonhomogeneities in the

section, then the characteristics of this regular sections (and ow) may be

considered to be those that could be marked with index k. Hence, if a

channel in a porous medium can be approximately by superposition of

smooth regular (of regular shape) channels, it is possible to give such a ow

its characteristics and designated them with the index k, which stands for

the basic (canonical) values of the turbulent quantities.

Triple decomposition techniques have been used in papers by Brereton

and Kodal [76] and Bisset et al. [77], among others. The latter utilized

triple decomposition, conditional averaging, and double averaging to ana-

lyze the structure of large-scale organized motion over the rough plate.

It should be noted that there are problems where U

'

and u'

'

can be found

from known theoretical or experimental expressions (correlations) where the

denitions of U

'

and u'

'

are equivalent to the solution of an independent

problem (for example, turbulent ow in a curved channel). The same thing

can be said about ow around a separate obstacle located on a plain surface.

In this case one can write

U U

U

'

U

'

, u' u'

'

. (86)

The term u'

'

u

`

appears if the ow is through a nonuniform array of

obstacles. If all the obstacles are the same and ordered, then u

`

can be taken

equal to 0. Naturally, the term u'

'

in this particular case does not equal the

uctuation vector u'

'`

over a smooth, plain surface.

28 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The following hypothesis about the additive components is developed to

correct the foregoing deciencies:

U U

u

`

U

'

U

'

}

u'

'

, u' u'

'

U

'

U

'

U

'

U

'

, u

`

u'

'

(u'

'

) 0, u

`

}

u'

'

}

0. (87)

It should be noted that solutions to the equations for the turbulent

characteristics may be inuenced by external parameters of the problem,

namely, by the coefcients and boundary conditions, which themselves can

carry information about porous medium morphological features. The adop-

tion of a hypothesis about the additive components of functions represen-

ting turbulent ltration facilitates the problem of averaging the equations

for the Reynolds stresses and covariations of uctuations (ows) in pores

over the REV.

After averaging the basic initial set of turbulent transport equations over

the REV and using the averaging formalism developed in the works by

Primak et al. [14], Shcherban et al. [15], and Primak and Travkin [78], one

obtains equations for mass conservation,

c

cx

'

U

'

,

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds 0, (88)

for turbulent ltration (with molecular viscosity terms neglected for

simplicity),

m,

cU

'

ct

c

cx

'

(m,U

'

U

'

)

1

j

c

cx

'

(m,p

`

)

c

cx

'

u'

'

u'

'

,

c

cx

'

u

`

'

u

`

'

,

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

U

'

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

u'

'

u'

'

ds m,S

'

G

, i, j 13, (89)

and for scalar diffusion (with molecular diffusivity terms neglected),

m,

cu

ct

c

cx

'

(m,U

'

u

c

cx

'

u'

'

'

c

cx

'

u

`

'

1

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

u

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

u'

'

'

ds m,S

"

D

, i 13. (90)

29 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Many details and possible variants of the preceding equations with

tensorial terms are found in Primak et al. [14], Scherban et al. [15], and

Travkin and Catton [16, 21]. Using an approximation to K-theory in an

elementary channel (pore), the equation for turbulent diffusion of nth species

takes the following more complex form after being averaged:

m,

cC

ct

V ,

VC

Vv

`

'

c

`

V (K

'

V(m,C

)) V

_

K

'

1

AD ,

c

`

U

C

ds

V (k

'

Vc

`

)

1

AD ,

c

`

U

K

'

VC

ds

AD ,

c

`

U

U

'

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

C

U

'

ds m,S

,

n 1, 2, 3, 4 . . . . (91)

In the more general case, the momentum ux integrals on the right-hand

sides of Eq. (89) through (91) do not equal zero, since there could be

penetration through the phase transition boundary changing the boundary

conditions in the microelement to allow for heat and mass exchange through

the interface surface as the values of velocity, concentrations, and tempera-

ture at cS

"

do not equal zero (see also Crapiste et al. [41]). The rst term

on the right-hand side of Eq. (91) is the divergence of the REV averaged

product of velocity uctuations and admixture concentration caused by

random morphological properties of the medium being penetrated and is

responsible for morphoconvectional dispersion of admixture in this particu-

lar porous medium. The third term on the right-hand side of Eq. (91) can

be associated with the notion of morphodiffusive dispersion of a substance

or heat in a randomly nonhomogeneous medium. The term with S

may also

reect, specically, the impact of microroughness from the previous level of

the simulation hierarchy. The importance of accounting for this roughness

has been demonstrated by many studies. The remaining step is to account

for the microroughness characteristics of the previous level.

One-dimensional mathematical statements will be used in what follows

for simplicity. Admission of specic types of medium irregularity or random-

ness requires that complicated additional expressions be included in the

generalized governing equations. Treatment of these additional terms be-

comes a crucial step once the governing averaged equations are written. An

attempt to implement some basic departures from a porous medium with

30 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

strictly regular morphology descriptions into a method for evaluation of

some of the less tractable, additional terms is explained next.

The 1D momentum equation with terms representing a detailed descrip-

tion of the medium morphology is depicted as

c

cx

m,(K

"

v)

cU

cx

c

cx

K

"

cu

`

cx

c

cx

(u

`

u

`

,

)

m, U

cU

cx

'

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

"

v)

cU

cx

'

ds

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

1

j

c

cx

(m,p

`

)

m,U

cU

cx

'

u`

*''

S

"

(x)

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

p ds

1

j

c

cx

(m,p

`

), (92)

where K

"

is the turbulent eddy viscosity, and u`

*''

is the square friction

velocity at the upper boundary of surface roughness layer h

'

averaged over

interface surface S

"

.

General statements for energy transport in a porous medium require

two-temperature treatments. Travkin et al. [19, 26] showed that the proper

form for the turbulent heat transfer equation in the uid phase using

one-equation K-theory closure with primarily 1D convective heat transfer is

c

m,U

cT

cx

c

cx _

m,(K

'

k

)

cT

cx

c

cx

K

'

cT

cx

c

cx

(m,T

u

`

}

)

c

cx _

(K

'

k

)

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

'

k

)

cT

cx

'

ds, (93)

whereas in the neighboring solid phase, the corresponding equation is

c

cx

(1 m,)K

`'

}

`

cT

`

}

`

cx

c

cx

K

`'

cT

`

cx

`

c

cx _

K

`'

}

`

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

K

`'

cT

`

cx

'

ds

. (94)

The generalized longitudinal 1D mass transport equation in the uid

phase, including description of potential morphouctuation inuence, for a

31 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

medium morphology with only 1D uctuations is written

c

cx _

m,(K

'

D

)

cC

cx

c

cx

K

'

cC

cx

c

cx

(m,c

`

u

`

}

)

c

cx _

(K

'

D

)

AD ,

c

`

U

c

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

'

D

)

cC

cx

'

ds m,S

'

m,U

cC

cx

, (95)

whereas the corresponding nonlinear equation for the solid phase is

c

cx

(1 m,)D

`

}

`

cC

`

}

`

cx

c

cx

D

`

cc`

`

cx

`

c

cx _

D

`

}

`

AD ,

c

`

U

C

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

D

`

cC

`

cx

'

ds

. (96)

E. Ciosir Tnroirs :Nn Aiio:cnrs ro T:Nsio1

iN Poois Mrni:

Closure theories for transport equations in heterogeneous media have

been the primary measure of advancement and for measuring success in

research on transport in porous media. It is believed that the only way to

achieve substantial gains is to maintain the connection between porous

medium morphology and the rigorous formulation of mathematical equa-

tions for transport. There are only two well-known types of porous media

morphologies for which researchers have had major successes. But even for

these morphologies, namely straight parallel pores and equal-size spherical

inclusions, not enough evidence is available to state that the closure

problems for them are closed.

One of the few existing studies of closure for VAT type equations is by

Hsu and Cheng [79, 80]. They used a one-temperature averaged equation

[Equation (40a) in Hsu and Cheng [80]) without the morphodiffusive term

V [(k

k

`

)T (Vm,)] V [(k

`

k

)T (Vm,)].

The reasoning often applied to the morphoconvective term closure

problem in averaged scalar and momentum transport equations is that the

terms needing closure may be negligible. The basis for this reasoning is (see

Kheifets and Neimark [11])

c` VCd

'"

, and jDVC, so Vc` j,

DVC`,

d

'"

l

,

32 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

where l is the characteristic length associated with averaging volume (see,

for example, the work of Lehner [81] and others) and d

'"

the mean diameter

of pores in a REV. It is not obvious that the length scale, d

'"

, taken for the

approximation of c` follows from use of l as a scale for the second derivative.

Furthermore, assuming that the variable to be averaged over the REV

changes very slowly over the REV does not mean that it changes very slowly

in the neighborhood of the primary REV.

Various closure attempts for heterogeneous medium transport equations

resulted in various nal equations. One needs to know what these equations

are all about. Treatment of the one-dimensional heat conduction equation

with a stochastic function for the thermal diffusivity in a paper by Fox and

Barakat [82] yielded a spatially fourth-order partial differential equation to

be solved. Gelhar et al. [83], after having eliminated the second-order terms

in the species conservation equation for a stochastic media, were able to

develop an interesting procedure for deriving a mean concentration trans-

port equation. The equation form includes an innite series of derivatives

on the right-hand side of the equation. Analysis of this equation allows the

derivation of the nal form of the mass transport equation,

cC *

ct

U

cC *

cx

(A a

'

)U

c`C *

cx`

B

c`C *

ctcx`

BU

c`C *

cx`

,

where the most important term is the second term on the right-hand side.

In the derivation of this equation, the stochastic character of the existing

assigned elds of velocity, concentration, and dispersion coefcients were

assumed.

A simple form of the advective diffusion equation with constant diffusion

coefcients was developed without sorption effects by Tang et al. [84]:

cm,C

ct

m,V

'

VCDV (m,VC).

They transformed the equation with the help of ensemble averaging into a

stochastic transport equation,

cm,C *

ct

m,u` *

'

VC * DV (m,VC *) m,j

''

c`C *

cx

'

cx

'

,

where the tensor of the ensemble dispersion coefcient is a correlation

function denoted by

j

''

1

2

u'

'

u'

'

}*

u }*u}*

x u }*,

with u }* being the ensemble averaged velocity. The additional term,

33 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

reecting the inuence of the stochastic or inhomogeneous nature of the

spatial velocity and concentration uctuations in the ensemble averaged

stochastic equation developed by Tang et al. [84], has the dispersivity

coefcient fully dependent on the velocity uctuations. As can be seen by

this equation, the effect of concentration uctuations was eliminated.

Torquato and coauthors (see, for example, Torquato et al. [85], Miller

and Torquato [86], Kim and Torquato [87]) have been developing means

to characterize the various mathematical dependencies of a composite

medium microstructure in a statistically homogeneous medium. Some of the

quantities considered by Torquato are useful in obtaining resolution to

certain closure problems for VAT developed mathematical models of

globular morphologies. In particular, the different near-neighbor distance

distribution density functions deserve special mention (Lu and Torquato

[88], Torquato et al. [85]).

Carbonell and Whitaker [89] combined the methods of volume averaging

and the morphology approach to specify the dispersion tensor for the

problem of convective diffusion for cases where there is no reaction or

adsorption on the solid phase surface,

D

cC

cn

0, x - cS

"

,

and considered a constant diffusion coefcient and constant porosity m,,

which greatly simplies the closure problems. They expressed the spatial

deviation function as

c` f( r ) VC ,

where f is a vector function of position in the uid phase. Averaged

equations of convective diffusion are the same as the convective heat transfer

equation given by Levec and Carbonell [46] with the exclusion of ux

surface integral term. The closure technique used in their paper is analogous

to a turbulence theory scheme, helping them to derive the closure equation

for the spatial deviation function in the form of a partial differential

equation,

V (V V )V f DV` f , n Vf n , x - cS

"

,

One should note that the spatial deviation functions dened for a periodic

medium are periodic themselves.

Nozad et al. [40] suggested that the same closure scheme be used to

represent the uctuation terms T

and T

`

for a one-temperature model by

using

T

f VT , , T

`

g VT ,

34 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

for a transient heat conduction problem with constant coefcients in a

two-phase system (stationary). Partial differential equations for f , g , , and

are found. They obtained excellent predictions of the effective thermal

conductivity for conductivity ratios k k

`

/k

100.

Carbonell [90] attempted to obtain an averaged convective-diffusion

equation for a straight tube morphological model and obtained an equation

with three different concentration variables. This demonstrates that the

averaging procedures, taken too literally, can result in incorrect expressions

or conclusions.

A common form of the averaged governing equations for closure of

multiphase laminar transport in porous media was obtained by Crapiste et

al. [41]. They developed a closure approach that led to a complex integro-

differential equation for the spatial deviations of a substance in the void or

uid phase volume of the macro REV. This means that solving the

boundary value problem for spatial concentration uctuations, for example,

requires that one obtain a solution to second-order partial differential or

coupled integro differential equations in a real complex geometric volume

within the porous medium.

For a heterogeneous porous medium, this means that the coupled

integrodifferential equation sets for the averaged spatial deviation variables

must be solved for at least two scales. For averaged variables the scales are

the external scale or L domain, and for the spatial deviations it is the volume

of the uid phase considered at the local (pore) scale. This presents a great

challenge and has not yet been resolved by a real mathematical statement.

To close the reaction-diffusion problem Crapiste et al. [41] made a series

of assumptions: (1) the diffusion coefcient D and the rst-order reaction

rate coefcient k

'

are constant; (2) diffusion is linear in the solid part of the

porous medium, (3) the spatial concentration uctuation is linearly depend-

ent on the gradient of the intrinsic averaged concentration and the averaged

concentration itself, (4) the intrinsic averaged concentration and solid

surface averaged concentration are equal, (5) the restriction

k

'

d

D

1

should be satised; and (6) spatial uctuations of the intrinsic concentration

and the surface concentration uctuations are equal. The fourth and sixth

assumptions are equivalent to an equality of surface and intrinsic concen-

trations, which means that the adsorption mechanisms are taken to be

volumetric phenomena.

In our previous efforts we have obtained some results for both morphol-

ogies and demonstrated the strength of morphological closure procedures.

35 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

A model of turbulent ow and two-temperature heat transfer in a highly

porous medium was evaluated numerically for a layer of regular packed

particles (Travkin and Catton [16, 20]; Gratton et al. [26, 27]) with heat

exchange from the side surfaces. Nonlinear two-temperature heat and

momentum turbulent transport equations were developed on the basis of

VAT, requiring the evaluation of transport coefcient models. This ap-

proach required that the coefcients in the equations, as well as the form of

the equations themselves, be consistent to accurately model the processes

and morphology of the porous medium. The integral terms in the equations

were dropped or transformed in a rigorous fashion consistent with physical

arguments regarding the porous medium structure, ow and heat transfer

regimes (Travkin and Catton [20]; Travkin et al. [17]). The form of the

Darcy term as well as the quadratic term was shown to depend directly on

the assumed version of the convective and diffusion terms. More impor-

tantly, both diffusion (Brinkman) and drag resistance terms in the nal

forms of the ow equations were proven to be directly connected. These

relations follow naturally from the closure process. The resulting necessity

for transport coefcient models for forced, single phase uid convection led

to their development for nonuniformly and randomly structured highly

porous media.

A regular morphology structure was used to determine the characteristic

morphology functions, (porosity m,, and specic surface S

"

) that were

used in the equations in the form of analytically calculable functions. A rst

approximation for the coefcients, for example, drag resistance or heat

transfer, was obtained from experimentally determined coefcient correla-

tions. Existing models for variable morphology functions such as porosity

and specic surface were used by Travkin and Catton [20] and Gratton et

al. [27] to obtain comparisons with other work in a relatively high Reynolds

number range.

All the coefcient models they used were strictly connected to assumed

(or admitted) porous medium morphology models, meaning that the coef-

cient values are determined in a manner consistent with the selected

geometry. Comparison of modeling results was sometimes difcult because

other models utilized mathematical treatments or models that do not allow

a complete description of the medium morphology; see Travkin and Catton

[16]. Closures were developed for capillary and globular medium morphol-

ogy models (Travkin and Catton [16, 17, 20]; Gratton et al. [26, 27]). It was

shown that the approach taken to close the integral resistance terms in the

momentum equation for a regular structure allows the second-order terms

for the laminar and turbulent regimes to naturally occur. These terms were

taken to be analogous to the Darcy or Forchheimer terms for different ow

velocities. Numerical evaluations of the models show distinct differences in

36 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

the overall drag coefcent among the straight capillary and globular models

for both the regular and simple cubic morphologies.

IV. Microscale Heat Transport Description Problems and VAT Approach

Study of energy transport at different scales in a heterogeneous media or

system emphasizes the importance of transport phenomena at subcrystalline

and atomic scales. Among many works addressing subcrystalline transport

phenomena (see Fushinobu et al. [91]; Caceres and Wio [92]; Tzou et al.

[93]; Majumdar [94]; Peterson [95], etc.), the governing energy transport

equations, whether they are of differential type or integrodifferential, are for

homogeneous or homogenized matter. This idealization signicantly reduc-

es the value of the physical description that results. VAT shows great

promise as a tool for development of models for this type of phenomena

because it becomes possible to include the inherent nonlinearity and

heterogeneity found at the subcrystalline level and reect the impact at the

upper levels or scales.

A heuristic approach suggested by Tzou [96] lumps all the atomic and

subcrystalline scale phenomena into the delayed response in time in the

macroscopic formulation. This approach was proposed by author to close

the existing gap in knowledge and to help engineers develop applications.

Unfortunately, the coupling between the characteristics of the subscale

phenomena and delayed response time is lost. There is an ongoing search

for the transport equations describing many-body systems that exhibit

highly nonequilibrium behavior, including non-Markovian diffusion. The

more exact the description of a physical phenomenon provided by a

mathematical model, the more possibilities there are for innovative improve-

ments in the function of a particular material or device. Our contribution to

the effort is an extensive analysis of existing approaches to the development

of theories for the subcrystalline and atomic scale levels. We have also made

progress in the development of VAT-based tools applicable at the atomic

and nanoscale level for description of transport of heat, mass, and charge in

SiC and superconductive ceramics.

At the subcrystalline scale, we will consider energy transport using a VAT

description for effects of crystal defects and impurities on phononphonon

scattering, which has a substantial impact on thermal conductivity. At the

crystal scale, the importance of thermal resistance (different models) due to

various mechanisms lattice unharmonic resistance and crystal boundary

defects will be treated. Including these phenomena shows that they have

a major impact on the transport characteristics in critical applications such

as optical ceramics and superconductive ceramics.

37 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

A. T:ni1ioN:i Drscii1ioNs or Micosc:ir Hr:1 T:Nsio1

Kaganov et al. [97] rst developed a theory to describe energy exchange

between electrons and the lattice of a solid for arbitrary temperatures using

earlier advances in this eld by Ginzburg and Shabanskii [98] and by

Akhiezer and Pomeranchuk [99]. In their work, they assumed that the

electron gas was in an equilibrium state. After a brief summary of this early

work, an analysis leading to a method for estimating the relaxation

processes between the electron uid temperature T

perature T

'

will be presented.

The heat balance equation for the electron temperature is

c

(T )

cT

ct

U Q, (97)

where Q is the heat source, c

c

(T )

2

`

k

"

n

k

"

T

c

"

,

and

c

"

(3n

/8)``(2)`/(2m*).

U is the heat exchange term,

U

2`

3

m*c`

`

n

(T

T

'

)

t(T

'

)

(T

T

'

)

T

'

, T

'

T

'

; (T

T

'

) T

'

(98)

U

`

6

m*c`

`

n

t(T

'

)

(T

T

'

)

T

'

, T

'

T

'

; (T

T

'

) T

'

, (99)

where m* is the effective electronic mass, c

`

is the sound velocity, n

is the

number of electrons per unit volume, t(T

'

) is the time to traverse a mean

free path of electrons under the condition that the lattice temperature

coincides with the electron temperature and is equal respectively to T

'

.

When the lattice temperature is assumed to be much less than the

temperature of the electrons (an assumption later found to be weak), then

U

2`

15

m*c`

`

n

t(T

)

, (T

T

'

; T

'

T

);

`

6

m*c`

`

n

t(T

)

, (T

T

'

; T

'

T

).

. (100)

38 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Kaganov et al. [97] used an equation for elastic lattice vibration of the form

c`U

'

cr`

c`

`

AU

'

U

j

Vo(r Vt). (101)

This also allowed them to develop the heat exchange term (here U

'

is the

displacement vector). In this equation, j M/d` is the density of lattice, M

is the mass of the lattice atom, V is the lattice volume, and U is the

interaction constant of the electron with the lattice that appears in the

expression for the time to travel the mean free path.

It was nearly 20 years before needs in different physical elds (namely,

intense short-timespan energy heating in laser applications) brought atten-

tion to this phenomenon and to use it for further technological advances.

Anisimov et al. [100, 101] introduced a simplied two-uid temperature

model for heat transport in solids,

C

(T

)

cT

ct

,AT

(T

T

'

) f (r, t) (102)

C

'

cT

'

ct

:

(T

T

'

), :

`

6

m*c`

`

n

t(T

)

. (103)

Further development of the idea of a two-eld two-temperature model for

energy transport in metals by Qiu and Tien [102104] used this model.

They modied the energy exchange rate coefcent (heat transfer) model in

a way that uses the coefcient of conductivity K

instead of time between collisions t(T

):

U G

"(n

c

`

k

"

)`

K

. (104)

Tzou et al. [93] used the two-uid model with two equations for the

electronphonon transport in metals based on previous works by Anisimov

et al. [101], Fujimoto et al. [105], Elsayed-Ali [106], and others. The

equation for diffusion in an electron gas is a parabolic heat conduction

equation with an exchange term

C

cT

ct

V (K

VT

) G

(T

T

'

), (105)

with phonon transport (phononelectron interactions) for the metal lattice

(just simplied equation) being described by

C

'

cT

'

ct

G

(T

T

'

), (106)

39 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

where K

WiedermannFranz law for the electronphonon interaction, Qiu and Tien

[102, 103] show that the coupling factor G

can be approximated by

G

"(n

c

`

k

"

)`

K

, (107)

where c

`

, the speed of sound in solid, is

c

`

k

"

2

(6`n

)`T

'

, (108)

T

'

is the Debye temperature, is Plancks constant, and n

and n

are the

electronic and atomic volumetric number densities. Assuming constant

thermal properties, the two equations can be combined, yielding a one-

temperature equation

c`T

'

cx`

:

C`

'

c`T

'

cx`ct

1

:

'

cT

'

ct

1

C`

'

c`T

'

ct`

, (109)

where the thermal diffusivity of electron gas :

ity :

'

, and thermal wave speed C

'

are dened by

:

, :

'

C

'

, C`

'

G

C

C

'

. (110)

Tzou [96] later proposed a unied two-uid model to derive the general

hyperbolic equation with two relaxation times t

'

and t

,

V`T t

'

c

ct

(V`T )

1

:

cT

ct

t

:

c`T

ct`

, (111)

which he argues is the same equation derived from two-step models in

metals. A more complex two-temperatures model was obtained by Gladkov

[107] using parabolic equations

cT

ct

V

cT

cx

,

c`T

cx`

:

`

(T

T

`

) (112)

and

cT

`

ct

,

`

c`T

`

cx`

:

`

(T

T

`

), (113)

It can be seen from his work that the coefcients of heat transfer :

`

and

:

`

are not equal. After combining the two equations into one, an equation

40 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

for a mobile (liquid) medium results:

1

:

`

:

`

cT

ct

1

:

`

c`T

ct`

V

:

`

c`T

ctcx

:

`

V

:

`

cT

cx

,

`

V

:

`

c`T

cx`

,

,

`

:

`

c"T

cx"

,

c`T

cx`

. (114)

There are other works (see, for example, Joseph and Preziosi [108]) treating

the two-uid heat transport and obtaining the same kind of hyperbolic

equation.

1. Equation of Phonon Radiative Transfer

Majumdar [94] suggested an equation for phonon radiative transfer

(EPRT). In three dimensions the equation is

cL

ct

(V

"

VI

)

I"

(T (x)) I

t(c, T )

, (115)

where I

"

is the phonon

propagation speed, and I"

to a blackbody intensity at temperatures below the Debye temperature. To

make matters more complex, it should be noted that as stressed by Peterson

[95], However, fundamental differences exist between phonon and photon

behavior in the regime where scattering and collisional processes are

important . . . . Even in perfect crystals, the so-called unklapp processes that

are responsible for nite thermal conductivity do not obey momentum

conservation.

2. Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Equations

The work by Vernotte, Cattaneo, Morse, and Feshbach that led to the

hyperbolic heat conduction equation was primarily heuristic in nature

(without a rst principle physical basis). The nal form is often presented as

a telegraph equation (see Joseph and Preziosi [108]),

c`T

ct`

1

t

cT

ct

k

(t)

V`T, (116)

or

t

c`T

ct`

cT

ct

1

V (KVT ), (117)

for nonconstant thermal conductivity K; here is the heat capacity.

41 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Majumdar et al. [109] produced microphotographs of thermal images

that show the grain structure, visible in the topographical image, and notes

that the grain boundaries appear hotter than within the grain. It is at

present not clear why this occurs . . . . The hot electrons collide with the

lattice and transfer energy by the emission of phonons. The governing

equations for a nonmagnetic medium they use are conservation of electrons,

cn

ct

V (nV

) 0; (118)

conservation of electron momentum,

cV

ct

(V

V)V

e

m*

E

k

"

m*n

V(nT

t

"

; (119)

where the last term is the collision and scattering term analogous to the

Darcy term in porous media ow; conservation of electron energy,

cW

ct

V (W

) e(nV

E) k

"

V (nV

)

V (k

VT

(W

(3/2)k

"

T

)

t

; (120)

conservation of lattice optical phonon energy,

C

cT

ct

(W

(3/2)k

"

T

)

t

(T

)

t

; (121)

and conservation of acoustical energy,

C

cT

ct

V (k

VT

(T

)

t

. (122)

The last four equations have terms, the last term on the right-hand side, that

qualitatively reect the collision and scattering rates in each process. Here

t

"

is the electron momentum relaxation time, t

relaxation time, t

"

is

Boltzmanns constant. In those equations assumed a scalar effective mass for

the electrons m*.

The electric eld is determined using the Gauss law equation written in

terms of electric potential (EVu),

V (cVu) e(N

n p) eN

C

(123)

N

C

(N

n p),

42 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

where c is the dielectric constant of Si, N

B. VAT-B:srn Tvo-Trxir:1ir CoNsrv:1ioN Eqi:1ioNs

Conservation equations derived using VAT enable one to capture all of

the physics associated with transport of heat at the micro scale with more

rigor than any other method. VAT allows one to avoid the ad hoc

assumptions that are often required to close an equation set. The resulting

equations will have sufcient generality for one to begin to optimize material

design from the nanoscale upward. The theoretical development is briey

outlined in what follows.

The nonlinear paraboic VAT-based heat conduction equation in one of

the phases of the superstructure (where superstructure is to be determined

as the micro- or nanoscale materials organized morphology along with its

local characteristics) is

s

,(jc

cT

ct

V [s

,K

VT

] V [s

,K

VT

]

V

_

K

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

K

cT

cx

'

ds

,S

'

`

}

.

(124)

For constant thermal conductivity, the averaged equation for heat transfer

in the rst phase can be written

s

,(jc

cT

ct

k

V`(s

,T

) k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

,S

'

`

}

. (125)

These VAT equations (124) and (125), written for the two phases, will be

seen to yield the same pair of parabolic equations derived by researchers

such as Gladkov [107], but with quite different arguments. Closure to Eq.

(125) is needed for the second and third terms on the right-hand side. The

steps to closure are

1

AD ,

c

`

`

k

cT

cx

'

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

k

cT

cn

`

ds n

`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

q

`

ds

`

:`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

), (126)

43 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

with the heat transfer coefcient, :`

`

(cS

`

), dened in phase 2. This closure

procedure is appropriate for description of uidsolid medium heat ex-

change and might be considered as the analog to solidsolid heat exchange

found in many works. A more precise integration of the heat ux over the

interface surface, cS

`

, yields exact closure for that term in governing

equations for both neighboring phases.

Industry needs to lead one to attempt to estimate, or simulate by

numerical calculation or other methods, the effective transport properties of

heterogenous material. Among the many diverse methods used to do this,

VAT presents itself as an effective tool for evaluating and bringing together

different methods and is useful in providing a basis for comparative

validation of techniques. To demonstrate the value of a VAT-based process,

the effective thermal conductivity will be determined within the VAT

framework. The averagd energy equation in phase 1 of a medium is

k

V`(s

,T

) k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

V [q

].

The right-hand-side (diffusive-like) ux is different from that convention-

ally found,

q

[k

VT

] k

V(s

,T

)

k

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (127)

where

k

_

k

V(s

,T

)

k

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(VT

). (128)

After these transformations, the heat transfer equation for phase 1 becomes

s

,(jc

cT

ct

V [k

VT

] :`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

) s

,S

'

`

}.

(129)

This is the same type of heat transport equation routinely used in two-uid

models. The equation for heat transport in the second phase (if any) would

be the same, and one can easily obtain the hyperbolic type two-uid

temperature model.

A similar VAT-based equation can be obtained for the heat transfer in

phase 1 when the heat conductivity coefcient is a function of the tempera-

ture or other scalar eld (nonlinear) (Eq. (124)), but the effective conductiv-

ity will have an additional term reecting the mean surface temperature over

44 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

the interface surface inside of the REV,

K

_

K

V(s

,T

) s

,K

VT

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(VT

).

(130)

Equation (124) simplies to

s

,(jc

cT

ct

V [K

VT

] :`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

) s

,S

'

`

}

.

(131)

The third term on the right-hand side of (124) plays a different role when

the interface between two phases is only a mathematical surface without

thickness neglecting the transport within the surface means there is no need

to consider this medium separately. When this is the case, this term can be

equal for the both phases, simplifying the closure problem. The problem

becomes signicantly more complicated when transport within the interface

must be accounted for.

C. Sincxs1:iiiNr SiNcir Cxs1:i Dox:iN W:vr Hr:1

T:Nsio1 Eqi:1ioNs

Some features of energy transport, including electrodynamics, that are

above the scale of close capture quantum phenomena are considered next.

Limiting the scope of the problem allows us to concentrate on the descrip-

tion of heat transport phenomena in the medium above the quantum scale

where there are at least the three substantially different physical and spatial

scales to consider. Within this scope, the heat transport equation in a single

grain (crystalline) can be written in the form

t

c`T

ct`

cT

ct

1

V (KVT

)

1

S

'

E

. (132)

Comparing this equation with the equation developed by Tzou [96] with

two relaxation times, t

'

and t

,

t

c`T

ct`

cT

ct

:V`T t

'

:

c

ct

(V`T ) :S

'

E

, (133)

and the parabolic equation obtained by Gladkov [107] for the model with

two temperatures for constant coefcients,

1

:

`

:

`

cT

ct

1

:

`

c`T

ct`

V

:

`

c`T

ctcx

:

`

V

:

`

cT

cx

,

`

V

:

`

c`T

cx`

,

,

`

:

`

c"T

cx"

,

c`T

cx`

, (134)

45 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

one can see that all belong to the family of VAT two-temperature conduc-

tion problems with nonconstant effective coefcients for the charged carriers,

cT

'

ct

a

'

V [K

'

VT

'

] b

'

(T }

'

T }

'

) S

'

A

, (135)

and for phonon temperature transport,

cT

'

ct

a

'

V [K

'

VT

'

] b

'

(T

'

T

'

) S

'

J

. (136)

This pair of equations is the wave transport equations shown in previous

sections.

Our current interest, however, is not to justify past assumptions made to

develop appropriate scale level energy transport equations, but to develop

mathematical models for heat transport and electrodynamics in multiscale

microelectronics superstructures.

D. NoNioc:i Eirc1onxN:xics :Nn Hr:1 T:Nsio1 iN

Siirs1ic1irs

Many microscale heterogeneous heat transport equations and some of the

solutions provided elsewhere (see, for example, [110, 111, 112, 113, 109])

required substantial analysis, and many need improvement. Goodson [113],

for example, directly addresses the need to model nonhomogeneous medium

(diamond CVD layer) thermal transport by accounting for the presence of

grains. The PeierlsBoltzmann equation for phonon transport was used

along with information on grain structure. In the present work, the goal is

to give some insight to situations (and those are substantial in number)

where the medium cannot be considered as homogeneous even at the

microscale level. For these circumstances, the governing eld equations

should be based on conservation equations for a heterogeneous medium, for

example, the VAT governing equations.

The VAT governing equations for heterostructures will be found starting

from a set of governing equations for a solid-state electron plasma uid.

Phase averaging of the electron conservation equation (118) yields

cn

ct

"

V (nV

),

"

0 (137)

where ,

"

means averaging over the major phase of the material. The VAT

nal form for this equation is

cn,

"

ct

V nV

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

nV

ds 0, (138)

46 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

or

cn,

"

ct

V [s

"

,n` V

m,n` V

}

"

]

1

AD ,

c

`

`

nV

ds

"

0, (139)

where cS

"`

is the interface (real or imaginary) of phases and scatterers.

It will be assumed that only immobile scatterers produce phase separ-

ation. This is not an essential restriction and is only taken to simplify the

appearance of the equations and streamline the development. We recognize

that defects and other scattering objects where processes are also occuring,

such as nonmajor phases, occur, but we are not interested in them at this

time because their volumetric fractions are very small and their importance

is decreased by scattering of the elds in a major phase.

The electron uid momentum transport equation can be written in two

forms, and the form inuences the nal appearance of the VAT equations.

The rst is

cV

ct

"

(V

V)V

,

"

e

m*

E,

"

k

"

m*

1

n

V(nT

"

t

"

.

^ ^

(140)

Using the transformation

1

n

V(nT

"

VT

1

n

Vn

"

VT

V(ln n),

"

VT

V(Z

),

"

, Z

lnn, (141)

it can be written as

cV

ct

"

(V

V)V

,

"

e

m*

E,

"

k

"

m*

VT

V(Z

),

"

t

"

,

^ ^

(142)

where the brackets

]

^

]

^

dene the problem uncertainty in the treatment of

this relaxation term. Strictly speaking, this term should not be in this form

and may not exist.

The same equation written in conservative form is

cnV

ct

"

V (nV

),

"

e

m*

nE,

"

k

"

m*

V(nT

),

"

nV

t

"

,

^ ^

(143)

47 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Using

(V

V)V

,

"

V (nV

),

"

V

(V (nV

)),

"

V nV

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(nV

) ds

"

s

"

,V

V (nV

)}

"

V

(V (nV

))

()

,

"

}, (144)

Eq. (142) can be written in the VAT form as

cV

,

"

ct

V nV

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(nV

) ds

"

s

"

,V

V (nV

)}

"

V

(V (nV

))

()

,

"

}

e

m*

E,

"

k

"

m*

VT

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

T

ds

"

k

"

m*

s

"

,T

VZ

}

"

1

AD

"

,

c

`

KQ

Z

ds

"

(V(Z

))

()

,

"

,

(145)

where the last term on the right-hand side of (142), the scattering and

collision reection term, has been replaced by a number of terms, each

reecting interface-specic phenomena, including scattering and collision.

Some manipulation of the convection terms of the conservative form of the

momentum equation has been done to combine the forms of the equations

of mass and momentum.

The second conservative form of the momentum equation is derived in

the form

n,

"

cV

ct

(nV

,

"

V)V

c

ct

n` V

,

"

V nV

,

"

V

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

nV

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(nV

) ds

"

e

m*

nE,

"

k

"

m*

V[s

"

,n`T

s

"

,n` T

}

"

]

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

nT

ds

"

,

(146)

where a number of the integral terms are scattering and collision terms.

There are other possible forms of the left-hand side of the momentum

equation VAT equations that will not be pursued at this time.

48 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The homogeneous volume averaged electron gas energy equation for a

heterogeneous polycrystal becomes

cW

ct

"

V (W

),

"

enV

E,

"

k

"

V (nV

),

"

V (k

VT

),

"

^

(W

(3/2)k

"

T

)

t

^

, (147)

or

cW

,

"

ct

V W

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(W

) ds

"

enV

E,

"

k

"

V (nV

),

"

k

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(nV

) ds

"

V [k

}

"

V(s

"

,T

}

"

)] V [s

,k

VT

}

"

]

V

_

k

}

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

T

ds

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

k

cT

cx

'

ds

"

. (148)

The integral terms again reect scattering and collision that appear as a

result of the heterogeneous medium transport description.

The equation for longitudinal phonon temperature is

cT

ct

"

cW

ct

'

cW

''

ct

'

, (149)

or

cT

ct

"

k

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(nV

) ds

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(W

) ds

"

V

_

k

}

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

T

ds

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

k

cT

cx

'

ds

"

V

_

k

}

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

T

ds

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

k

cT

cx

'

ds

"

. (150)

The equation of acoustical phonon energy is

cT

ct

"

V (k

VT

),

"

^

C

(T

)

t

^

(151)

49 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

or

cT

ct

"

V [k

}

"

V(s

"

,T

}

"

)] V [s

,k

VT

}

"

]

V

_

k

}

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

T

ds

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

k

cT

cx

'

ds

"

.

(152)

Describing phonon scattering and collision is an unsolved problem and as

noted by Peterson [95], The complexity of this aspect of the problem

precludes the relatively simple solution used in simulating rareed gas

ows.

Another kind of single phase equation for momentum transport of

electronic uid results for magnetized materials:

cV

ct

"

(V

V)V

,

"

e

m*

EV

B,

"

k

"

m*

1

n

V(nT

"

^

V

t

"

^

. (153)

The VAT form of this equation is

cV

,

"

ct

V nV

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(nV

) ds

"

s

"

,V

V (nV

)}

"

V

(V (nV

))

()

,

"

}

e

m*

(E,

"

V

B,

"

)

k

"

m*

VT

,

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

T

ds

"

k

"

m*

s

"

,T

Vz

}

"

1

AD

"

,

c

`

KQ

Z

ds

"

(V(Z

))

()

,

"

.

(154)

The Maxwell equations for electromagnetic elds used to develop the

VAT Maxwell equations for electromagnetic elds are

V (c

"

E

"

) j

"

, V (j

"

H

"

) 0 (155)

VE

"

cB

"

ct

(156)

VH

"

j

"

c

ct

(D

"

), (157)

50 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

with constitutive relationships

B

"

j

"

H

"

, D

"

c

"

E

"

, j

"

o

"

E

"

. (158)

A full description of the derivation of the VAT nonlocal electrodynamics

governing equations is given by Travkin et al. [114, 115] with only a limited

number shown here.

For the electric eld, the Maxwell equations, after averaging over phase

(m) using ,

"

, become

V [s

"

,c`

"

E

"

] V [s

"

,c`

"

E

"

}

"

]

1

AD ,

c

`

`

(c

"

E

"

) ds

"

j

"

,

"

(159)

V(s

"

,E

"

)

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

ds

"

E

"

c

ct

j

"

H

"

,

. (160)

The phase averaged magnetic eld equations are

V (s

"

,j`

"

H

"

) V [s

"

,j`

"

H

"

}

"

]

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

(j

"

H

"

) ds

"

0, (161)

and

V(s

"

,H

"

)

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

ds

"

H

"

c

ct

c

"

E

"

,

"

[s

"

,o`

"

E

"

s

"

,o`

"

E

"

}

]. (162)

These equations and some of their variations, such as the electric eld

wave equations

V`E

"

j

"

o

"

cE

"

ct

j

"

c

"

c`E

"

ct`

V

j

"

c

"

, (163)

which becomes

V`(s

"

,E

"

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

E

"

ds

"

1

AD ,

c

`

KQ

VE

"

ds

"

j

"

o

"

cE,

"

ct

j

"

c

"

c`E,

"

ct`

1

c

"

V(s

"

,j`

"

)

1

c

"

AD ,

c

`

KQ

j

"

ds

"

,

(164)

are the basis for modeling of electric and magnetic elds at the microscale

level in heterostructures.

51 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

The primary advantage of the VAT-based heterogenous media elec-

trodynamics equations is the inclusion of terms reecting phenomena on the

interface surface cS

"`

that can be used to precisely incorporate multiple

morphological effects occuring at interfaces.

E. Pno1oNic Cxs1:is B:Nn-G:i Ponirx:

CoNvrN1ioN:i DMM-DNM :Nn VAT Tr:1xrN1

One of the possible applications of VAT electrodynamics is the formula-

tion of models describing electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium of

materials considered to be photonic crystals [118, 116, 117, 119, 126, 120].

The problem of photonic band-gap in composite materials has received

great attention since 1987 [118, 116] because of its exciting promises. The

most interesting applications appear in the purposeful design of materials

exhibiting selective, at least in some wave bands, propagation of electromag-

netic energy [120].

Figotin and Kuchment [122] were the rst who theoretically demon-

strated the existence of band-gaps in certain morphologies. Unfortunately,

this problem as presently formulated is based on the homogeneous Maxwell

equations. The most common way to treat such problems has been to seek

a solution by doing numerical experiments over more or less the exact

morphology of interest, a method called detailed micromodeling (DMM),

which is often done using direct numerical modeling (DNM) (for example,

see [124]). As a result, questions arise about differences between DMM-

DNM and heterogeneous media modeling (HMM), which is the modeling

of an averaged medium to determine its properties. How the averaging for

HMM is accomplished is often not clear or not done at all.

So, why cannot DMM be self-sufcient in the description of heterogen-

eous medium transport phenomena? The answers can be primarily under-

stood by analyzing, among others [23], the following issues:

1. A basic principal mismatch occurs at the boundaries, causing bound-

ary condition problems. This means that for DMM and for the bulk

(averaged characteristics) material elds, the boundary conditions are prin-

cipally different.

2. The DMM solution must be matched to a corresponding HMM to

make it meaningful at the upper scales. This can only be done for regular

morphologies. Discrete continuum gap closure or mismatching will occur

with DMM-DNM, precluding generalization to the next or higher levels in

the hierarchy.

3. The spatial scaling of heterogeneous problems with the chosen REV

(for DMM) is needed to address large or small deviations in elements

52 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

considered that are governed by different underlying physics. When spatial

heterogeneities of the characteristics or morphology are evolving along the

coordinates, DMM cannot be used.

4. Numerical experiments provided by DMM-DNM need to be trans-

lated to a form that implies that the overall spatially averaged bulk

characteristics model random morphologies. It is not clear what kind of

equations are to be used as the governing equations, nor what variables

should be compared. In the case of the local porosity theory [128, 129], for

example, the results of using real porous medium digitized images for

morphological analysis to calculate the effective dielectric constant assumes

that the HMM equations are applicable.

5. Interpretation of the results of DMM-DNM is always a problem. If

results are presented for a heterogeneous continuum, then the previous

point applies. If the results are being used as a solution for some discrete

problem, then the question is how to relate that solution to the continuum

problem of interest or even to a slightly different problem. If the results

obtained are t into a statistical model, then the phenomena are being

subjected to a statistical averaging procedure that is in most cases only

correct for independent events.

6. The most sought-after characteristics in heterogeneous media trans-

port studies are the effective transport coefcients that can only be correctly

evaluated from

j ,o*Vu,o

`

Vu,(o

o

`

)

1

AD ,

`'

`

Vudc,

using the DMM-DNM exact solutions for a small fraction of the problems

of interest. The issue is that problems of interest having inhomogeneous,

nonlinear coefcients and, in many transient problems, two-eld DMM-

DNM exact solutions are not enough to nd the effective coefcients.

Fractal methods are sometimes used to describe multiscale phenomena.

The use of fractals is not relevant to most of the morphologies of interest

and the fractal phenomenon description is generally too morphological,

lacking many of the needed physical features. For example, descriptions of

both phases, of the phase interchange, etc., are need to represent the physical

phenomenon.

For the simplest case of a superlattice or multilayer medium there can be

many difculties. When the boundaries are not evenly located, crossing the

regular boundary cells of the medium, then the problem must be solved

again and again. If the coefcients are space dependent, because of the layers

or grain boundaries, they will inuence scattering. Grain boundaries are not

perfect and are not just mathematical surfaces without thickness or physical

53 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

properties. They cannot be treated as mathematical surfaces without any

properties. Imperfections in the internal spacial structures must be treated

as domain morphologies are not perfect at any spacial level.

The insufciency of a homogeneous wave propagation description of a

heterogeneous medium was addressed in [125] from a pure mathematical

point of view by searching for another type of governing operator that could

better explain the behavior of the frequency spectrum eigenmodes via

heuristic arguments. The general band-gap formulation should be treated

using the HMM statements developed from the analysis of the VAT

equations. A straightforward description of one of the band-gap problems

is given next.

Representing electromagnetic eld components with time-harmonic com-

ponents,

E(x, y, z)e

ict

, H(x, y, z)e

ict

, i (1) , (165)

The equations describing a dielectric medium becomes

V (cE) 0, V H0, j 1 (166)

VEicH, VHiccE, (167)

where c is the complex dielectric constant dened by c c i(o/c), and

o0(x), c c(x), c c(x, c).

Taking the curl of the both sides of the vector equations,

V

1

c

VH

yields

V

1

c

VH

V(VE) ic(iccE) cc`E. (170)

This is the set of equations usually used when problems of photonic

band-gap materials are under investigation; see the study by Figotin and

Kuchment [123], p. 1564. These equations can be transformed to

AE

`

(x) c`c(x)E

`

(x) (171)

for E-polarized elds and

V

1

c(x)

VH

`

(x)

c`H

`

(x) (172)

for H-polarized elds.

54 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The further treatment by Figotin and Kuchment [123] reduces the

mathematics to two equations,

V

1

c(x)

Vf

(x)

z f

(x) (173)

1

c(x)

Af

(x) z f

(x), (174)

where f

is the H

`

or E

`

polarization determined components of electric or

magnetic elds.

These equations state the eigenvalue problem characterizing the spectrum

of electromagnetic wave propagation in a dielectric two-phase medium,

which is supposed to describe the photonic materials band-gap problem of

EM propagation (see equations on p. 1568 in Figotin and Kuchment [123])

There are no spatial morphological terms or functions involved in the

description, just the permittivity, which is supposed to be a space-dependent

function with changes at the interface boundary.

When these equations are phase averaged to represent the macroscale

characteristics of wave propagation in a two-phase dielectric medium, the

equations become

V (`

V(m

, f

)) V

_

`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

f

ds

V (` V f

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

Vf

ds

zm

, f

(175)

(x)

1

c

V`(m

, f

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

f

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

V f

ds

z[m

,c`

,c`

]. (176)

The three additional terms appear along with the porosity (or volume

fraction) function m

equations. When the dielectric permittivity function is homogeneous in each

of the two phases, then the VAT photonic band-gap equations can be

reduced to one equation in each phase and written in a simpler form,

V`(m

, f

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

f

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

Vf

ds

zc

, f

(177)

55 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

and

V`(m

`

, f

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

f

ds

`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

V f

ds

`

zc

`

m

`

,f

.

(178)

The equations are almost the same as equations for heat or charge

conductance in a heterogeneous medium. The similarity of the equations

means that the analysis of the simplest band-gap problem should also be

very similar.

Using DMM-DNM, Pereverzev and Umtsev [121] found that exact

micromodel solutions among others features can have medium. . . internal

generation that might be well characterized by the impact of the additional

terms in the VAT Maxwell equations in both phases and in the combined

electric eld and effective coefcient equations; see Sections V and VIII. The

exact closure and direct numerical modeling derived by Travkin and

Kushch [33, 34] demonstrated how important and inuential the additional

VAT morphoterms can be (Section I). These terms do not explicitly appear

in either the microscale basic mathematical statements or in microscale eld

solutions. The terms appear and become very important when averaged

bulk characteristics are being modeled and calculated.

V. Radiative Heat Transport in Porous and Heterogeneous Media

Radiation transport problems in porous (and heterogeneous) media,

including work by Tien [130], Siegel and Howell [131], Hendricks and

Howell [132], Kumar et al. [133], Singh and Kaviany [134], Tien and

Drolen [135], and Lee et al. [139], are primarily based on governing

equations resulting from the assumption of a homogeneous medium. This

implicitly implies that specic problem features due to heterogeneities can

be decribed using different methods for evaluation of the interim transport

coefcients, as, for example, done by Al-Nimr and Arpaci [136], Kumar and

Tien [137], Lee [138], Lee et al. [139], and Dombrovsky [140]. Although

this kind of approach is legitimate, it presents no fundamental understand-

ing of the processes because the governing equations suffer from the initial

assumption that strictly describes only homogeneous media. Further, it is

difcult to represent hierarchical physical systems behavior with such

models as will be touched on later.

Review papers like that of Reiss [141] describe the progress in the eld

of dispersed media radiative transfer. The few works on heterogeneous

radiative or electromagnetic transport (see Dombrovsky [140], Adzerikho

56 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

et al. [142], van de Hulst [143], Bohren and Huffman [144], Lorrain and

Corson [145], Lindell et al. [146], and Lakhtakia et al. [147]) approach the

study of transport in disperse media with the emphasis on known scattering

techniques and their improvements.

The area of neutron transport and radiative transport in heterogeneous

medium being developed by Pomraning [148151] and Malvagi and

Pomraning [152] treats linear transport in a two-phase (two materials)

medium with stochastic coefcients. This approach is the same as that which

has been used to treat thermal and electrical conductivity in heterogeneous

media, and to this point it has not been brought to a high enough level to

include variable properties, their nonlinearities, and cross-eld (electrical

and thermal or magnetic) phenomena.

Research by Lee et al. [139] on attenuation of electromagnetic and

radiation elds in brous media has shown a high extinction rate for

infrared radiation. The problem is treated as a scattering problem for a

single two-layer cylinder by Farone and Querfeld [153], Samaddar [154],

and Bohren and Huffman [144]. The process of radiative heat transport in

porous media is very similar to propagation of electromagnetic waves in

porous media and will also be evaluated. These two very close elds seem

not to have been considered as a coherent area. Complicated problems of

propagation of electromagnetic waves through the ber gratings have been

primarily the subject of electrodynamics. The most notable work in this area

is that of Pereverzev and Umtsev [121], Figotin and Kuchment [122, 125],

Figotin and Godin [124], Botten et al. [155], and McPhedran et al. [156,

157]. No effort seems to have been made to translate results obtained for

polarized electromagnetic radiation to the area of heat radiative transfer.

Detailed micromodeling (DMM) of electromagnetic wave scattering has

been based on single particles or specic arrangements of particulate media.

Direct numerical modeling (DNM) of the problem seems enables one to do

a full analysis of the elds involved. As already discussed, the analysis of the

results of a DNM is limited in the performance of a scaling analysis, which

is the goal in most situations. Performing DNM without a proper scaling

theory is like performing experiments, often very challenging and expensive;

without proper data analysis, it yields a certain amount of detailed eld

results, but not the needed bulk or mean media physical characteristics.

Most recent work on radiative transport is based on linearized radiative

transfer equations for porous media. We rst review this work to set the

stage for the development that follows. This radiative transport related work

extends our results in the theoretical advancement of uid mechanics, heat

transport, and electrodynamics in heterogeneous media (Travkin et al. [19];

Catton and Travkin [28, 158]; Travkin and Catton [20, 159163]; Travkin

et al. [114, 115]) and provides a means for formulation of radiative

57 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

transport problem in porous media using the heterogeneous VAT approach

and electrodynamics language. Based on our previous work, a theoretical

description of radiative transport in porous media is developed along with

the Maxwell equations for a heterogeneous medium.

1. L inear Radiative Transfer Equations in Porous Media

The equation for radiative transport in a homogeneous medium can be

written in the general form

1

c

cI

`

ct

V (DI

`

) [

(r)

`

(r)]I

`

(r)I

`'

(T )

1

4

`

(r)

,

""

p(D' D)I

`

(r, D')dD' (179)

I

`

I

`

(r, D, t),

with

`

(r) scattering coefcients, and for steady

state, using the identity

V (DI

`

) D VI

`

,

in the form

D VI

`

[

(r)

`

(r)]I

`

(r)I

`'

(T )

1

4

`

(r)

,

""

p(D' D)I

`

(r, D') dD'.

(180)

In terms of a spectral source function S

`

(s), the equation can be written in

a particularly simple form,

1

[

`

D VI

`

I

`

S

`

(s), (181)

where the extinction coefcient (total cross sectionPomraning [150, 151]

is

[

`

(r)

`

(r).

Linear particle (neutron, for example) transport in heterogeneous medium

is assumed by Malvagi and Pomraning [152] and Pomraning [151] to be

decribed by

D V[(r) S(r, D)

1

4 ,

""

`

(r, D' D)(r, D') dD', (182)

where the quantities [(r),

`

(r), and S(r, D) are taken to be two-states

discrete random variables. By assuming this, one needs to treat the porous

58 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

(heterogeneous) medium as a binary medium that has two magnitudes for

each of the random variables, and a particle encounters alternating segments

of medium with those magnitudes while traversing the medium. When [,

`

,

and S are assumed to be random variables, Eq. (182) is treated as an

ensemble-averaged equation (see Malvagi and Pomraning [152] and Pom-

raning and Su [164])

D V( p

'

'

})p

'

[

'

}

'

}p

'

S

'

}

`'

}

4

p

'

'

p

'

`

'

z

'

p

'

`

'

z

'

, i1, 2, ji

(183)

,

""

(r, D')dD',

where

'

} is the conditional ensemble averaged function at some point r

that is in phase i, and `

'

and `

'

are the interface ensemble-averaged uxes.

The solution to this equation is also supposed to be ensemble-averaged. The

overall averaging over the both phases is given by

(r, D), p

} p

`

`

}, (184)

where p

and p

`

are the probabilities of point r being in medium i 1 or 2,

and

'

} is the conditional ensemble averaged value of , when r is in

medium i.

Ensemble averaging in this representation is obtained by averaging of

medium features, including coefcients, along a straight line the D direc-

tionor by nonlocal 1D line averaging in terms of the physical elds

considered. Most of this kind of work is related to the Markovian statistics

by alternating along the line of two phases of the medium (Pomraning [148,

151]).

The ensemble averaging procedure suggested in (183) signies that the

two last terms in the averaged equation reect the nite correlation length

(interconnection) in a single nonlinear term [(r). This kind of averaging

results in very simple closure statements derived using hierarchical volume

averaging theory procedures, as shown later. A major problem in using

ensemble averaging techniques is that the processes and phenomena going

at each separate site within separate elements of the heterogeneous medium

cannot be resolved completely with the purely statistical approach of

ensemble averaging.

To make an ensemble averaging method workable, researchers always

need to formulate the nal problem or solution in terms of spacially specic

statements or in terms of the original spatial volume averaging theory

(VAT). Examples of this are numerous; see the review by Buyevich and

Theofanous [165].

59 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

2. Nonlocal Volume Averaged Radiative Transfer Equations

The basis for the development in this eld will be the volume averaging

theory. We will present some aspects of VAT that are now becoming well

understood and have seen substantial progress in thermal physics and in

uid mechanics. The need for a method that enables one to develop general,

physically based models of a group of physical objects (for example,

molecules, atoms, crystals, phases) that can be substantiated by data

(statistical or analytical) is clear. In modern physics it is usually accom-

plished using statistical data and theoretical methods. One of the major

drawbacks of this widely used approach is that it does not give a researcher

the capability to relate the spatial and morphological parameters of a group

of objects to the phenomena of interest when it is described at the upper

level of the hierarchy. Often the equations obtained by these methods differ

from one another even when describing the same physical phenomena.

The drawbacks of existing methods do not arise when the VAT math-

ematical approach is used. At the present time, there is an extensive

literature and many books on linear, homogeneous, and layered system

electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation (Adzerikho et al. [142];

Bohren and Huffman [144]; Dombrovsky [140]; Lindell et al. [146];

Lakhtakia et al. [147]; Lorrain and Corson [145]; Siegel and Howell [131];

van de Hulst [143]). It is surprising that these phenomena are often

described by almost identical mathematical statements and governing equa-

tions for both heterogeneous and homogeneous media.

Major developments in the use of VAT, showing the potential for

application to eletrophysical and acoustics phenomena in heterogeneous

media, are found in Travkin and Catton [21], Travkin et al. [159, 114, 115],

and with experimental applications to ferromagnetism in Ryvkina et al.

[160, 162] and Ponomarenko et al. [161].

It has been demonstrated during the past 20 years of VAT-based

modeling in the thermal physics and uid mechanics area (see Slattery [6];

Whitaker [10]; Kaviany [7]; Gray et al. [8]) that the potential of the

approach is enormous. Substantial success has also been achieved in

analyzing the more narrow phenomena of electromagnetic wave propaga-

tion in porous media.

We consider here radiative transfer in porous media using a hierarchical

approach to describe physical phenomena in a heterogeneous medium. The

physical features of lowest scale of the medium are considered and their

averaged characteristics are obtained using special mathematical instru-

ments for describing hierarchical processes, namely VAT. At the next higher

level of the hierarchy, physical phenomena have the physical medium

pointwise characteristics resulting from averaged lower scale characteristics.

60 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The same kind of operators and averaging theorems used in preceding

sections are applied to the following development, involving the rot oper-

ator, in which averaging will result because of the following averaging

theorems:

Vf,

Vf ,

1

AD ,

c

`

`

ds

f (185)

Vf }

Vf }

1

AD ,

c

`

`

ds

f. (186)

Rigorous application to linear and nonlinear electrodynamics and electro-

static problems is described in Travkin et al. [114, 115].

The phase averaging the equation for linear local thermal equilibrium

radiative transfer,

D VI

`

[

`

(r)I

`

(r)I

`'

(T )

1

4

`

(r)

,

""

p(D' D)I

`

(r, D') dD', (187)

in phase 1 yields the VAT radiative equation (VARE)

D

_

V(I

`

,

1

AD ,

c

`

`

I

`

ds

[

`

I

`

,

(r)I

`'

(T ),

`

4

[

`

I

`

,

, i 1 (188)

,

""

p(D' D)I

`

(r, D') dD',

when it is assumed that

`'

is a constant, as done by Malvagi and

Pomraning [152], Pomraning and Su [164], and others.

The additional terms appearing in the VARE in some instances are

similar, but in others they have a different interpretation in the ensemble

averaged equation (183). For example, the term

[

`

I

`

,

(189)

in (188) is the result of uctuations correlation inside of medium 1 in the

REV, but it is described by

p

'

`

'

z

'

p

'

`

'

z

'

(190)

in Malvagi and Pomraning [152], as it is an exchange of energy term

between the two phases across the interface surface area cS

`

. Because

ensemble averaging methodologies in Malvagi and Pomraning [152] do not

61 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

treat nonlinear terms very well and incorrectly average differential operators

such as V, terms do not appear in equation (183) that reect the interface

ux exchange. In VARE, Eq. (188), the interface exchange term naturally

appears as a result of averaging the V operator,

D

1

AD ,

c

`

`

I

`

ds

. (191)

When the coefcients in the radiative transfer equation are dependent

functions, more linearized terms are observed in the corresponding VARE,

D VI

`

,

[

`

I

`

,

I

`'

(T ),

I

`'

,

1

4

(`

`

`

`

`

`

)

D

1

AD ,

c

`

`

I

`

ds

[

`

I

`

,

, i 1, (192)

while continuing to treat the emissivity as via the Plancks function. This

equation should be accompanied by the VAT heat transfer equations in

both porous medium phases (see, for example, Travkin and Catton [21]).

The heat transport within solid phase 2, combining conductive and

possible radiative transfer, is described by

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

`

ct

k

`

V`(s

`

,T

`

) k

`

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

`

ds

`

V q',

`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

q' ds

`

. (193)

The third and fth terms on the r.h.s. model the heat exchange rate between

the phases. In an optically thick medium, for example, the radiation ux

term written in terms of the total blackbody radiation intensity is

V q',

`

V

4

3[

V(I

'

)

`

V

4

3[

V

n`oT "

`

, (194)

where [ is the total extinction coefcient. An energy equation similar to Eq.

(193) needs to be written for the uid-lled volume, phase 1 of the porous

medium. The radiation ux term would be much more complex because of

the spectral characteristics of radiation in a uid.

Closure is needed for the second, third, and fth terms in Eq. (193) on the

r.h.s. For convective heat exchange, the last term can be written

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

cT

cx

'

ds

`

:`

`

S

`

(T }

T }

`

) (195)

62 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

by noting that

1

AD ,

c

`

`

k

`

cT

cx

'

ds

`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

k

`

cT

cn

ds n

1

AD ,

c

`

`

q

ds

:`

`

S

`

(T }

T }

`

). (196)

This type of closure procedure is appropriate for description of uidsolid

media heat exchange and has been considered by many as an analog for

solidsolid heat exchange. A more strict and precise integration of the heat

ux over the interfce surface, using the IVth kind of boundary conditions,

gives the exact closure for the term in the governing equations for the

neighboring phase. This would be an adequate solution for the portion of

heat exchange by conduction to and from the uid phase, a conjugate

problem.

The radiative energy exchange across the interface surface is difcult to

formulate because of its spectral characteristics and the boundary conditions

that must be satised. When the uid phase is assumed to be optically thin,

an approximate closure expression results,

1

AD ,

c

`

`

q' ds

`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

o(T "

`

T "

`

)

1

c

`

1

c

`

1

ds

`

5

o((T `

`

)" (T `

`

)")S

`

1

c

`

1

c

`

1

, (197)

using an interpretation of the averaged surface temperatures on opposite

sides of the interface developed by Malvagi and Pomraning [152]. Another

approximation is justiable for an optically thick uid phase. It uses the

specic blackbody surface radiation intensity I

'`

n`oT "

`

to close the

integral energy exchange term as follows:

1

AD ,

c

`

`

q' ds

`

5

1

AD ,

c

`

`

(n`oT "

`

)ds

`

5c'

`

o(T `

`

)"S

`

. (198)

Here, c'

`

is the total radiative hemispherical emissivity from phase 2 to

phase 1 in the REV.

The closure of Eqs. (183) is accomplished by assuming equality (Malvagi

and Pomraning [152]; Pomraning and Su [164]) between the interface

surface and ensemble (1D in this case) averaged functions,

`

'

'

}, (199)

63 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

as was done in heat and mass transfer porous medium problems; see, for

example, Crapiste et al. [41].

3. Radiation Transport in Heterogeneous Media Using Harmonic

Field Equations

Representing the electromagnetic eld components with time-harmonic

components results in

V (c

E) j, V (j

"

H) 0 (200)

VEicj

"

H, VHicc

E. (201)

Here, as outlined earlier, c

i(o

/c), and c

(x), o

(x), j

"

j

"

(x, c), c

contemporary applications the spatial dependency of these functions is

neglected. Electrophysical coefcients often need to be treated as nonlinear.

For example, the dielectric function can depend on E and c

wave formulation of the Maxwell equations with constant phase coefcients

for the magnetic eld is

V`Hj

"

o

cH

ct

j

"

c

c`H

ct`

0, (202)

whereas the electric eld wave equation is almost the same,

V`Ej

"

o

cE

ct

j

"

c

c`E

ct`

V

j

c

. (203)

Another form of the equation for E appears in Cartesian coordinates

when electromagnetic elds are time-harmonic functions:

V`Ek`E0, (204)

Here, the inhomogeneous function k` c`j

"

c

squared. This equation is often applicable to linear acoustics phenomena.

This category of equations can be transformed to a form legitimate for

application to heterogeneous media problems.

The time-harmonic forms of equations for rot of electromagnetic elds are

V(m

,E

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

ds

ic[m

,j`

"

H

,j`

"

H

]

(205)

V(m

,H

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

ds

ic[m

,c

`

,c

`

].

(206)

64 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The magnetic eld wave form equation with constant coefcients, when

averaged over phase 1, transforms to

V`(m

,H

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

H

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VH

ds

j

"

o

cH,

ct

j

"

c

c`H,

ct`

, (207)

and the electric eld wave equation (203) becomes

V`(m

,E

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

E

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VE ds

j

"

o

cE,

ct

j

"

c

c`E,

ct`

1

c

V(m

,j`

)

1

c

AD ,

c

`

`

j

ds

.

(208)

An analogous form of the averaged equation is obtained for the time-

harmonic electrical eld:

V`(m

,E

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

E

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VE

ds

,k`E

0.

(209)

It is the naturally appearing feature of the heterogeneous medium elec-

trodynamics equations as the terms reecting phenomena on the interface

surface cS

`

, and that fact is to be used to incorporate morphologically

precise polarization phenomena as well as tunneling into heterogeneous

electrodynamics, as is being done in uid mechanics and heat transport

(Travkin and Catton [21]; Catton and Travkin [28]).

Using the orthogonal locally calculated directional elds E

'

and E

'

of

averaged electrical eld E

and V,

I E

'

E *

'

,

'

E

'

E *

'

,

'

(210)

QE

'

E *

'

,

'

E

'

E *

'

,

'

(211)

URe[2E

'

E *

'

,

'

] (212)

V Im[2E

'

E *

'

,

'

], (213)

which characterize the intensity of polarized radiation in a porous medium.

We will not here construct the general forms of equations for effective

coefcients, as this will be done in a succeeding section for the case of

65 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

temperature elds; still, the same questions of multiple versions, applicability

of current methods, and variance in interpretation are the present agenda.

VAT-based models were developed recently while addressing the prob-

lems of modeling of electrodynamic properties of a liquid-impregnated

porous ferrite medium (Ponomarenko et al. [161]), coupled electrostatic-

diffusion processes in composites (Travkin et al. [159]), and to analyze heat

conductivity experimental data in high-T

Catton [166]). Powders of ferrites with NFMR frequency in the microwave

range were used as the porous magnetic medium in Ponomarenko et al.

[161]. The search for tunable levels of reection and absorption of elec-

tromagnetic waves was conducted using a few morphologies that were

arbitrarily chosen. Thus, the need for closer consideration of experiment and

models presenting the data using VAT heterogeneous description tools for

both became obvious.

VI. Flow Resistance Experiments and VAT-Based

Data Reduction in Porous Media

It is well known that existing measurements of transport coefcients in

porous (and heterogeneous) media must be used with care. As long as a

complete description of an experiment is provided and the data analysis is

carried out using correct mathematical formulations (models), the relation-

ship between the experiment and its analysis is maintained in a comsistent,

general, and useful way. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, because

heuristic equations and models are often the basis for coefcient matching

and model tuning when heterogeneous medium experimental data is re-

duced to correlations.

The various approaches, and even disarray, in the eld can be contributed

to a lack of understanding of the general theoretical basis for transport

phenomena in porous and heterogeneous media. As long as the correlations

used for momentum transport comparison are generated from empirical

Darcy and ReynoldsForchheimer expressions, or effective heat and electri-

cal conductivity and permittivity derived from homogeneous models, prob-

lems in heterogeneous media experimental validation and comparison will

persist.

Modeling based on volume averaging theory will be shown to provide a

basis for consistency to experimental procedures and to data reduction

processes by a series of analyses and examples. Many of the common

correlations, and their weaknesses, are examined using a unied scaling

procedure that allows them to be compared to one another. For example,

momentum resistance and internal heat transfer dependencies are analyzed

66 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

and compared. VAT-based analysis is shown to reveal the inuence of

morphological characteristics of the medium; to suggest scaling parameters

that allow a wide variety of different porous medium morphologies to be

normalized, often eliminating the need for further experimental efforts; and

to clarify the relationships between differing experimental congurations.

The origin, and insufciency, of electrical conductivity and momentum

transport cross-correlation approaches based on analogies using math-

ematical models without examining the physical foundation of the phenom-

ena will be described and explained.

1. Experimental Assessment of Flow Resistance in Porous Medium

A one-term ow resistance model for porous medium experimental data

analysis often used is

dp

`

dx

f

S

"

m,

j

u

`

`

2

, (214)

where f is some coefcient of hydraulic resistance. On the other hand, most

two-term models used for ow resistance experimental data reduction have

rst-order and second-order velocity terms, the DarcyForchheimer ow

resistance models. These models were obtained primarily for direct compari-

son with established empirical and semiempirical Darcy and DarcyFor-

chheimer type ow resistance data. Thus, the momentum equation for

laminar as well as the high (turbulent) ow regime often used is the model

by Ergun [167],

dp

`

dx

j

k

'

m, u

`

j

Am,`u

`

`. (215)

Similarly, the model given by Vafai and Kim [168] for the middle part of

a porous layer is

dp

`

dx

j

k

'

m,u

`

j

m,`

F

k`

'

u

`

`, (216)

and the Poulikakos and Renken [169] equation for the turbulent regime is

dp

`

dx

j

k

'

u

`

j

Au

`

`. (217)

Analysis of a simple idealized morphology where solutions are known will

show that the Darcy and DarcyForchheimer or Ergun type model corre-

lations are not matched consistently for any regime. Further, they are also

without theoretical foundation. Thus, problems arise when studies to

67 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

improve the description of transport use combined models for ow resis-

tance and momentum transport in a porous medium because the analysis

does not start with the correct theoretical basis. Further, which of the three

equations just listed should one use?

A model of ideal parallel tube morphology yields the following Darcy

friction coefcient (see, for example, Schlichting [170]):

f

'

8t

"

(j

`)

, t

"

d

"

Ap

4L

, u`

*

t

"

j

f

'

U

`

8

(218)

Ap

L

dp

`

dx

4

d

"

j

u`

*

f

'

d

"

j

`

2

. (219)

The morphology function S

"

/m, for a straight equal-diameter tube mor-

phology is

S

"

cS

"

AD

2R

pAy

, m,

R`

pAy

,

S

"

m,

4

d

"

(220)

and an exact expression for the Darcy friction factor is

Ap

L

f

'

j

d

"

U

`

2

, f

'

2d

"

j

`

Ap

L

. (221)

The Fanning friction factor for this specic morphology is (using (220))

Ap

L

f

'

4

4

d

"

`

2

f

'

4

S

"

m,

j

`

2

(222)

f

d

"

2j

`

Ap

L

, (223)

and a relationship to the Darcy friction coefcient is (Travkin and Catton

[16, 20])

f

f

'

4

. (224)

The friction coefcient c

Nikuradze and Blasius formulas [170] is the same as the Fanning friction

factor.

A model representing a porous medium with slit morphology was treated

in conformity with the denition

t

"

Ap

L

h c'

`

2

, c'

2t

"

j

2u`

*

U

2h

j

`

Ap

L

, u`

*

h

j

Ap

L

.

(225)

68 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The morphology ratio S

"

/m, for a porous medium morphology model of

straight equal slits is found as follows:

S

"

(2L Ay)

( pL Ay)

2

p

, m,

(HL Ay)

( pL Ay)

H

p

(226)

S

"

m,

2

H

1

h

, d

"

4h, (227)

yielding the Fanning friction factor,

dp

`

dx

Ap

L

f

1

h

j

`

2

f

S

"

m,

j

`

2

(228)

f

H

j

`

Ap

L

(229)

As one can easily see, these ow resistance models are written with the

second power of bulk velocity variable. The convergency of the VAT-based

ow resistance transport models to these classical constructions was dem-

onstrated on several occasions by Travkin and Catton [16, 20, 21, 23] and

Travkin et al. [25].

Exact ow resistance results obtained on the basis of VAT governing

equations by Travkin and Catton [16, 26, 23] for the random pore diameter

distribution for almost the same morphology as was used by Achdou and

Avellaneda [171] demonstrated the wide departure from the Darcy-law-

based treatments. That was shown even for the morphology where a single

pore exists with diameter different from the all others. Meanwhile, by

consistently using the VAT-based procedures (Travkin and Catton [23]),

one can easily develop the needed variable, nonlinear permeability coef-

cient for Darcy dependency,

k

'

_

c

S

"

m,`

U

2v

, (230)

where c

cal (in the laminar regime) or well-established correlations for the Fanning

friction factor in tubes.

2. Momentum Resistance in 1D Membrane and Porous Layer Transport

The steady-state VAT-based governing equations for laminar transport in

69 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

porous media (Travkin and Catton [21]) are

m,U

cU

cx

c

cx

u` u` ,

1

j

c

cx

(m, p}

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds (231)

and

c

m,U

cT

cx

k

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

c

c

cx

(m,T

u` }

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

k

cT

cx

'

ds (232)

c

cx

cs,T

`

}

`

cx

c

cx _

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

`

cx

'

ds

0. (233)

The momentum equation for turbulent ow of an incompressible uid in

porous media based on K-theory can be written in the form (Gratton et al.

[26], Travkin and Catton [20])

m,

cU

ct

U

cU

cx

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

"

v)

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx _

m,(K

"

v)

cU

cx

c

cx _

m,

K

"

cu

`

cx

c

cx

(m,u

`

u

`

}

_

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

1

j

c

cx

(m,p

`

). (234)

By comparing these equations with conventional mathematical models and

experimental correlations, one can easily see the differences.

The one-dimensional momentum equation for a homogeneous, regular

porous medium is

c

cx

p}

1

m,AD ,

c

`

U

p`ds

j

m,AD ,

c

`

U

VV ds. (235)

Closure of the ow resistance terms in the simplied VAT equation can be

obtained following procedures developed by Travkin and Catton [16, 17].

The skin friction term is

j

AD ,

c

`

U

'

cU

cx

'

ds

j

AD ,

c

`

U

t

"'

ds

1

2

c

'

(x)S

"'

(x)[j

U `(x)],

(236)

70 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

with

t

"'

j

cU

cx

'

, u

''

`

c

'

U `(x),

and closure of the form drag resistance integral term using a form drag

coefcient, c

, is

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

1

2

c

S

"

(x)[j

U `(x)]. (237)

For these equations, the specic surface has two parts. The rst part, S

"'

, is

S

"'

(x)

1

AD ,

c

`

U

'

ds,

1

m

, (238)

where cS

"'

is the laminar subregion of the interface surface element cS

"

,

and

S

"

(x)

1

AD ,

c

`

UN

ds

S

AD

,

1

m

, (239)

where cS

"

is the cross ow projected area of the surface of the solid phase

inside the REV. Substitution into the one-dimensional momentum equation

yields

c

cx

p}

(c

'

(x)S

"'

(x) c

S

"

(x))

j

U `(x)

2m,

p`

m,

(Vm,). (240)

When the porosity is constant, the ow is laminar and S

"'

S

"

, the

equation becomes

dp`

dx

S

"

S

"

S

"

m,

j

U `

2

c

(U

, M

'

)

S

"

m,

j

U `

2

, (241)

where c

"

is the cross ow

form drag specic surface, and M

'

is a set of porous medium morphological

parameters or descriptive functions (see Travkin and Catton [16, 20]). The

drag terms can be combined for simplicity into a single total drag coefcient

to model the ow resistance terms in the general simplied momentum VAT

equation

c

(U

, M

'

)

S

"

S

"

. (242)

Correlations for drag resistance can be evaluated for a homogeneous

porous medium from experimental relationships for pressure drop. For

71 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

example, the equation often used for packed beds is

dp

`

dx

f

S

"

m,

j

`

2

. (243)

The complete VAT version of this equation is

c

cx

(m,p` )

1

AD ,

c

`

U

pds j

u`

''

S

"

(x)

m,j

U

cU

cx

j

c

cx _

cm,U

cx

c

cx

[j

m,u` u` }

]. (244)

If the porosity function is constant (a frequent assumption), the left-hand

side of Eq. (244) reduces to

dp`

dx

f

S

"

m,

j

U `

2

. (245)

Setting Eq. (245) equal to zero recovers equation (243). As a result, data

correlation using Eq. (243) incorporates the right-hand side of Eq. (244)

implicitly into the correlation. Friction factor data presented in this way

detracts from objectivity. The correlation can be written to reect all the

right-hand terms from Eq. (244),

d(m,p` )

dx

S

"

S

"

F

F

`

F

`

(S

"

(x))

j

U `

2

, (246)

where F

, . . . , F

`

are deduced from the following relationship:

(F

F

`

F

`

)

S

"

(x)

j

U `

2

m,j

U

cU

cx

j

c

cx

[m,u` u` }

]

j

c

cx _

cm,U

cx

. (247)

In the middle part of a porous medium sample, one can assume that the

porosity and ow regime are constant and steady state and then neglect all

terms on the right-hand side of (244). In reality, a large number of

experiments are being carried out under conditions where inputoutput

zones are present and can add signicantly to the value of the friction

coefcient because of the inputoutput pressure losses. If one wants to

separate the effects of inputoutput pressure loss from the viscous friction

and drag resistance components inside the porous medium, then taking into

account the terms shown in Eq. (247) is essential. There are correlations that

reect a dependence on sample thickness as a result of this oversight. An

72 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

even more complex situation arises when the ow and temperature inside

the medium are transient, such as one might nd in a regenerator, and very

inhomogeneous in space because of sharp gradients. The inhomogeneity in

space and time precludes neglecting the four right-hand terms in Eq. (244).

The inhomogeneous terms on the right-hand side of (247) may be

analyzed by scaling. Some of these terms are easily interpreted. For example,

the rst term on the right-hand side is the convective term

S

"

(x)

j

`

2

F

m,j

cU

cx

, (248)

and its importance can be strongly dependent on the thickness of the porous

specimen. This is why many studies report an obvious correlation with

specimen thickness. The remaining terms are the morphoconvective term

S

"

(x)

j

`

2

F

`

c

cx

(j

m,u

`

u

`

}

) (249)

and the momentum diffusion term

S

"

(x)

j

`

2

F

`

j

c

cx _

cm,U

cx

. (250)

The complete momentum equation written in a proper form for experi-

mental data reduction is

d(m,p` )

dx

S

"

S

"

F

F

`

F

`

(S

"

(x))

j

U `

2

(c

R

`

)(S

"

(x))

j

U `

2

, (251)

where

c

S

"

S

"

(252)

and

R

`

F

F

`

F

`

. (253)

The features of an experiment needed to treat terms such as F

, F

`

, F

`

are

discussed later.

The momentum resistance coefcient for a heterogeneous porous medium

can be written in the form

f

'

c

R

`

. (254)

73 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

This is the variable usually determined in most of porous medium ow

resistance experiments. Nevertheless, if this correlation value taken from an

experiment is later substituted into a modeling equation (with variable

porosity) of the form

m,U

cU

cx

1

j

c

cx

(m, p}

) v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

c

'

(x)

S

"

(x)

m,

j

U `

2

(255)

or

m,U

cU

cx

1

j

c

cx

(m, p}

) v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

j

k

'

m,U j

m,`

F

k`

'

U `, (256)

as is done by many, then the uctuation term c[m,u` u` }

]/cx is

neglected and the equation

2m,U

cU

cx

1

j

c

cx

(m, p}

) 2v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

1

j

AD ,

c

`

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx

[m,u` u` }

] (257)

is being used as the problems model instead of

m,U

cU

cx

1

j

c

cx

(m, p}

) v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx

[m,u` u` }

] (258)

because the model used the coefcient c

'

(x) determined from

c

'

(x)

S

"

(x)

m(x),

j

U `

2

(c

(x) R

`

(x))

S

"

(x)

m(x),

j

U `

2

S

"

S

"

F

F

`

F

`

S

"

(x)

m(x),

j

U `

2

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx

[m,u` u` }

]

v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

m,U

cU

cx

, (259)

74 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

instead of using the coefcient c

c

(x)

S

"

(x)

m(x),

j

U `

2

S

"

S

"

F

`

S

"

(x)

m(x),

j

U `

2

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx

[m,u` u` }

].

(260)

The terms needed for experimental data reduction model should include

all ve active terms,

d(m,p` )

dx

S

"

S

"

F

F

`

F

`

(S

"

(x))

j

U `

2

(c

R

`

)(S

"

(x))

j

U `

2

, (261)

with

f

'

c

R

`

. (262)

The general 1D VAT laminar regime constant viscosity momentum equa-

tion has six terms,

m,U

cU

cx

c

cx

u` u` ,

1

j

c

cx

(m, p}

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds. (263)

For simplicity, Eq. (263) is written in the following shorthand notation:

UC

UMC

UP

UMP

UD

UMF

. (264)

The two right-hand integral terms reect the morphology-induced ow

resistance of the medium. Three ow resistance models are needed to

properly tie everything together.

a. Flow Resistance Model 1 The rst ow resistance model is for the

internal frictional and form drag resistance:

c

(U

, M

'

, x)

S

"

(x)U `(x)

2

(c

S

"

(x) c

'

(x)S

"'

(x))

U `(x)

2

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds.

(265)

75 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

b. Flow Resistance Model 2 The second ow resistance model reects the

addition of the uid uctuation term UMC

:

c

`

(U

, M

'

, x)

S

"

(x)U `(x)

2

S

"

S

"

F

`

S

"

U `

2

(c

S

"

(x) c

'

(x)S

"'

(x))

U `(x)

2

S

"'

(x)

U `

2

F

`

1

j

AD ,

c

`

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx

u` u` ,

.

(266)

c. Flow Resistance Model 3 The third ow resistance model reects all of

the terms responsible for momentum resistance in a porous medium:

c

`

(U

, M

'

, x)

S

"

(x)U `(x)

2

S

"

(x)

U `

2

R

`

c

(U

, M

'

)

S

"

U `

2

m,U

cU

cx

v

c

cx

cm,U

cx

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U

pds

v

AD ,

c

`

U

cU

cx

'

ds

c

cx

u` u` ,

, (267)

where

s

"

(x)

U `

2

R

`

(F

F

`

F

`

)

S

"

(x)

U `

2

m,U

cU

cx

c

cx

[m,u` u` }

] v

c

cx _

cm,U

cx

. (268)

Using the notation developed earlier for the terms in the momentum

equation (264) leads to a form for each of the ow resistance models that

properly reects their completeness,

c

`

(U

, M

'

, x) (UMP

UMF

S

"

(x)U `(x)

2

(269)

76 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

c

`

(U

, M

'

, x) (UMP

UMF

UMC

S

"

(x)U `(x)

2

(270)

c

(U

, M

'

, x)

(UC

UD

UMP

UMF

UMC

S

"

(x)U `(x)

2

. (271)

Each of the different forms will yield a correlation of a given set of data.

The problem is that the effects of the different characteristics that are

manifested in the terms in the equations are lost from consideration. If

predictive tools are to be developed, consideration must be given to the

impact of the details that the terms reect.

3. Scaling in Pressure L oss Experiments and Data Analysis

Direct use of any Ergun type friction factor in a Fanning or Darcy friction

factor correlation is incorrect. Ergun [167] suggested two types of friction

factors, one of which is the so-called kinetic energy friction factor f

''

, which

differs from the Fanning friction factor by a factor of three for the same

medium:

f

d

"

2j

u

`

`

AP

L

f

''

3

. (272)

For the same reason, direct implementation of the correlations given by

Kays and London [172] should be treated with care. For example, the

correlations for friction factor (Fanning) given by Kays and London for

ow through an innite randomly stacked, woven-screen matrix uses surface

porosity p, and specic surface :[1/m] to dene a hydraulic radius r

"

,

r

"

p

:

m,

`

S

"

.

Here the specic surface S

"

is dened as the interface surface divided by the

volume of the REV. Unfortunately, the surface porosity m,

`

and volume

porosity m, are not of the same value and even if they were, the expression

differs from that found earlier by a factor of 2.

Bird et al. [173] used the ratio of the volume available for ow to the

cross section available for ow in their derivation of hydraulic radius r

"'

.

This assumption led them to the formula

r

"'

m,d

6(1 m,)

. (273)

77 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

It would be double this value if a consistent denition were used for all

systems,

d

"

4m,

S

"

4m,

a

'

(1 m,)

2m,

3(1 m,)

d

4r

"'

, (274)

where a

'

is the particle specic surface (the total particle surface area

divided by the volume of the particle), and

S

"

a

'

(1 m,). (275)

The expression given by (274) is justied when an equal or mean particle

diameter is

d

6

a

'

,

which is the exact equation for spherical particles and is often used as

substitution for granular media particles. The value of hydraulic radius

given by Bird et al. [173], (273), was chosen by Chhabra [174] and was used

in determining the specic friction factor in capillary media.

Media of globular morphologies can be described in terms of S

"

, m,,

and d

S

"

6(1 m,)

d

, d

"

2

3

m,

(1 m,)

d

. (276)

This expression has the same dependency on equivalent pore diameter as

found for a one-diameter capillary morphology, leading naturally to

S

"

6(1 m,)

d

6(1 m,)

3

2

(1 m,)

m,

d

"

4m,

d

"

. (277)

This observation leads to dening a simple universal porous medium

scale,

d

"

d

'

4m,

S

"

, (278)

that meets the needs of both major morphologies, capillary and globular. A

large amount of data exists that demonstrates the insufciencies of the

Ergun drag resistance correlation (287). Because it was developed for a

specic morphology, a globular granular medium, application of the

Ergun correlation to a medium with arbitrary relationships between poros-

ity m,, specic surface S

"

, and pore (particle) diameter d

"

can lead to large

errors.

78 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

The particle diameter d

experimental data. Chhabra [174], for example, writes the friction factor

f

''

m,`j

u

`

`

Ap

L

, (279)

This friction factor can be related to the friction factor f

'

, given by Eq.

(6.4-1) of Bird et al. [173], to the Fanning friction fator f

kinetic energy friction factor f

''

as follows:

f

''

2 f

'

f

''

1 m,

m,`

f

1 m,

m,`

. (280)

These models all use different length scales, leading to large uncertainties

and confusion when a correlation must be selected for a particular applica-

tion. Little attention is paid to these differences, often requiring new

experimental data for a new medium conguration.

Only a few of the many issues important to modeling of pressure loss in

porous media are addressed here. As it is known, the two-term quadratic

ReynoldsForchheimer pressure loss equation is

AP

L

:jU

m,[j

`m,`; :

1

k

'

. (281)

By comparison with the simplied VAT (SVAT) momentum equation for

constant morphological characteristics and ow eld properties and only

the resistance coefcient c

,

AP

L

c

S

"

m,

j

`

2

, (282)

a set of transfer relationships can be found to transform Ergun-type

correlations and the SVAT expression. The transfer formula (Travkin and

Catton [21]) is

c

_

:j

j

[m,

2m,`

S

"

, (283)

where

: 150

1 m,)`

d`

m,`

, [1.75

(1 m,)

d

m,`

, (284)

or

c

A

Re

'

B, A

8:m,`

S`

"

, B2[

m,`

S

"

, (285)

79 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

where

Re

'

4U

m,

vS

"

.

The Ergun energy friction factor relation can be written in terms of the

VAT-based formulae (Travkin and Catton [21]) as

Ap

L

f

'

S

"

m,

j

`

2

. (286)

If the Ergun correlation is written using common notation, it becomes

Ap

L

150

(1 m,)`

d`

m,`

jm,U

1.75

(1 m,)

d

m,`

j

m,`U

`, (287)

and if it can be further transformed to the (SVAT) Fanning friction factor,

then

f

'

A*

Re

B*

, A*

50(1 m,)

m,

, B*

3.5

6

0.583, (288)

where the particle Reynolds number is

Re

(U

)/v, (289)

and

f

'

A*

'"

Re

'

B*

'"

, with A*

'"

100

3

33.33, and B*

'"

B*

0.583,

(290)

where

Re

'

d

"

v

2

3

m,

(1 m,)

U

v

, and Re

'

3(1 m,)

2m,

Re

v

.

(291)

The common scaling length just derived will allow a great deal of data to

be brought to a common basis and allow greater condence in predictions.

4. Simulation Procedures

A large amount of data exists that demonstrates the inadequacies of the

Ergun drag resistance correlation (287). This is because the Ergun correla-

tion is used with arbitrary relationships between porosity m,, specic

surface S

"

, and pore (particle) diameter d

"

when it was originally developed

for granular media. How unsatisfactory it can be is shown in Fig. 5.

80 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 5. Fanning friction factor f

morphologies, materials, and scales used), reduced based on VAT scale transformations in

experiments by 1, Gortyshov et al. [175]; 2, Kays and London [172]; 3, Laminar, intermediate,

and turbulent laws in tube; 4, Gortyshov et al. [176]; 5, Beavers and Sparrow [177]; 6, SiC

foam (UCLA, 1997); 7, Ergun [167]; 8, Souto and Moyne [181]; 9, Macdonald et al. [180]; 10,

Travkin and Catton [23].

With specically assigned morphology characteristics (primarily S

"

), the

Ergun drag resistance correlation will be much closer to correlations by

Beavers and Sparrow [177] and Gortyshov et al. [176], as shown in Fig. 5.

A similar behavior was seen between the Ergun drag resistance correlation

and the drag resistance correlation by Gortyshov et al. [175].

Several other correlations are compared in Fig. 5. Gortyshov et al. [175]

experimentally derived correlations for the ReynoldsForchheimer momen-

tum equation in the form

: 6.61 10`(d

"

)"`m,'"``', (292)

[5.16 10`(d

"

)"`m,''', (293)

81 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

where hydraulic diameter d

"

(mm) is

d

"

d

"

[m]

0.001[m]

. (294)

These correlations have to be used in (285) and are for highly porous

(m,0.870.97) foamy metallic media. A Darcy type of friction factor

obtained by Gortyshov et al. [176] for very low conductivity porous

porcelain with high porosity is

f

'

(Re

"

)

40

Re

"

(1 2.5 10`m,``Re

"

), m,0.83 0.92, (295)

where

Re

"

d

"

m,

v

.

To transform this correlation, the Reynolds number must be transformed

and the result divided by 4 to yield the Fanning friction factor,

f

(Re

'

)

1

4

40

Re

'

m,

(1 2.5 10`m,``Re

'

m,)

, (296)

with

Re

'

5Re

"

/m, (297)

The correlation derived by Beavers and Sparrow [177] seems to be of

little value in the original form,

F

'`

(R

"

)

1

R

"

0.074, (298)

because the Reynolds number,

R

"

m,k

'

v

, (299)

contains the permeability of the medium and is usually not known. Noting

that, as pointed out by Beavers and Sparrow [177] the viscous resistance

coefcient : 1/k

'

, where k

'

is the Darcy permeability, and using the

transformation

F

'`

1

R

"

[k

'

, (300)

where

82 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

k

'

1

:

, R

"

m,

v:

(301)

Re

'

R

"

4

S

"

k

'

R

"

:

4

S

"

, R

"

Re

'

S

"

4:

, (302)

yields

F

'`

m,k

'

v

[k

'

or

F

'`

(R

"

)

1

:j

`m,`

AP

Ax

, (303)

and when compared to

f

(Re

'

)

2m,

j

`S

"

AP

Ax

, (304)

one obtains

f

(R

"

)

1

:m,`

1

j

`

AP

Ax

:m,`(2m,)

S

"

F

'`

(R

"

)

2:m,`

S

"

. (305)

This means that the Fanning friction factor, f

friction factor suggested by Ward [178] and Beavers and Sparrow [177],

f

'`

, from

f

(R

"

) F

'`

(R

"

)

2:m,`

S

"

. (306)

To accomplish the transformation of F

'`

to f

, the permeability k

'

or the

viscous coefcient of resistance : porosity m, and specic surface S

"

must

be known. Estimates of f

'`

for

FOAMETAL (Beavers and Sparrow sample Type C) using

k

'

19.01 10" [cm`] 19.01 10` [m`]

:

1

k

'

0.0526 10`

_

1

m`

(307)

83 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

and Eqs (299), (298) or (300), and (306) to transform the Beavers and

Sparrow [177] experimental data correlation to the Fanning friction factor

correlation. With

F

'`

(R

"

)

1

R

"

0.074 and R

"

Re

'

S

"

4:

F

'`

(Re

'

)

1

Re

'

4:

S

"

0.074, (308)

then

f

(Re

'

)

1

Re

'

4:

S

"

0.074

2:m,`

S

"

. (309)

Kurshin [179] has analyzed a vast amount of data using a consistent

procedure he developed to embrace all three ow regimes in porous media.

To carry out the procedure, the following parameters must be known:

(a) The viscous resistant coefcient :

pipe from the following:

AP

L

:

jm,U

, :

1

k

'

, U

d`

32j

AP

Ax

. (310)

(b) A characteristic length d

pressions:

d

32

:

m,

`

32k

'

m,

`

. (311)

(This is only justied for straight parallel capillary morphology where

d

"

d

.)

(c) Critical numbers Re

'

and Re

'`

to distinguish the viscous, transi-

tional, and turbulent ltration regimes.

(d) Dimensionless viscous :

`

and inertial resistance [

`

coefcients in the

turbulent regime. Unfortunately, Kurshin [179] did not present any data for

foam materials and the porous metals he evaluated have low porosity in the

range m,0.5.

Now one can say that by reformulating existing experimental correlations

to the SVAT 1D form,

AP

L

f

(Re

'

)

S

"

m,

j

`

2

, (312)

84 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

the Fanning friction factor correlations can be easily compared with one

another as they have a common consistent basis. A number of correlations

were transformed and are in Fig. 5. The reason for the spread in the results

is thought to be inadequate accounting for details of the medium.

Analysis of Macdonald et al. [180] reformulated with the help of the

foregoing developed procedures gives the corrected Ergun-like type of

correlation

f

`

40

Re

'

0.6. (313)

Meanwhile, Souto and Moyne [181], using the DMM-DNM solutions,

came to the number of resistance curves that are separate for each morphol-

ogy. One of them for rectangular rods in VAT terms appears as

f

``

1

3

f

''

54.3

Re

'

, Re

'

0. (314)

VII. Experimental Measurements and Analysis of Internal

Heat Transfer Coefcients in Porous Media

A VAT-based approach applied to heat transfer in a porous medium

allows one to analyze and measure effective internal heat transfer coefcients

in a porous medium. As noted by Viskanta [182], Convective heat and

mass transfer in consolidated porous materials has received practically no

theoretical research attention. This is partially due to the complexity which

arises as a result of physical and chemical heterogeneity that is difcult to

characterize with the limited amount of data that can be obtained through

experiments. Viskanta [182, 183] generalized the data he analyzed for

internal heat transfer coefcient porous ceramic media using a correlation

of the form

Nu

'

2.0 a Re'Pr`, (315)

by assuming that the limiting Nusselt number should be 2.0 when the Re

decreases to zero. This assumption is only justied for unconsolidated sparse

spherical particle morphologies and is suspect for other porous medium

morphologies, especially consolidated media. For this reason, some re-

searches neglect this articial low Re limit and correlate their ndings

without it. The VAT approach is applied to heat transfer in porous media

to develop a more consistent correlation.

85 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

1. Experimental Assessment and Modeling of Heat Exchange

in Porous Media

The correct form of the steady-state heat transfer equation in the uid

phase of a porous media with primarily convective 1D averaged heat

transfer is

c

m,U

cT

cx

k

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds k

c`m,T

cx`

c

c

cx

(m,u` T

)

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

. (316)

Equation (316) can be rewritten as

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

c

c

cx

(m,u` T }

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T ds

m,U

cT

cx

, (317)

where

k

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds :`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

).

The right-hand side of Eq. (316) can also be written in the form

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

)

c

cx _

K

cT

cx

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

)

c

cx

[q

`

],

(318)

where the right-hand side (diffusive-like) ux contains more terms than

are conventionally considered:

q

`

_

K

cT

cx

m,k

cT

cx

c

m,u` T

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

. (319)

The corresponding equation for the solid phase is

c

cx

cs,T

`

}

`

cx

c

cx _

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

`

cx

'

ds

0. (320)

The three terms are written in the following shorthand form:

T

`

D

T

`

MD

T

`

ME

0. (321)

86 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Equation (320) can also be written

0

1

k

`

:`

'

S

"

(T }

T }

`

)

c

cx

k

`

cT }

`

cx

:`

'

S

"

(T }

T }

`

)

c

cx

[q

``

]. (322)

Using the closure term for interface heat ux found earlier (they are

equal),

:`

'

S

"

(T }

T }

`

)

k

`

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

`

cx

'

ds

.

Equation (322) has a term that is usually overlooked (the second term on

the right):

q

``

K

`

cT }

`

cx

cs,T

`

cx

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

. (323)

Three heat transfer coefcient models are needed to properly tie every-

thing together. The rst model incorporates only the heat transfer coefcient

between the phases.

a. Model 1 of Heat Transfer Coefcient in Porous Media: Conventional

Modeling If it is assumed that the porous medium heat transfer coefcient

is dened by

:`

'

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds

[S

"

(T }

`

T }

)], (324)

then the heat transfer equation becomes

c

m,U

cT

cx

k

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

), (325)

and when the porosity is constant, the equation becomes

c

U

cT

cx

k

c

cx _

cT

cx

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

)/m,. (326)

Most work uses an equation of this type. The experiments carried out will

reect the use of Eq. (326), and the data reduction will lead to a correlation

for :`

'

S

"

that is only valid for the particular medium used in the experi-

ment. There will be no generality in the results. By redening :`

'

, further

medium characteristics can be incorporated into the correlation. The second

model incorporates velocity and temperature uctuations.

87 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

b. Model 2 of Heat Transfer Coefcient in Porous Media: With Nonlinear

Fluctuations If we dene the heat transfer coefcient in a way that includes

the uctuations,

:`

'`

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds c

c

cx

(m,u` T

))/[S

"

(T

`

}

`

T

)],

(327)

the second heat transfer model in porous media is almost the same as the

rst,

c

m,U

cT

cx

k

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

:`

'`

S

"

(T

`

}

`

T

). (328)

The third model is obtained by using the complete energy equation for the

uid phase. This is again done by redenition of the heat transfer coefcient.

c. Model 3 of Heat Transfer Coefcient in Porous Media: Full Equation

Energy Equation

:`

'`

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds c

c

cx

(m,u` T

)

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

S

"

(T }

`

T }

(329)

The energy equation is again very similar:

c

m,U

cT

cx

k

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

:`

'`

S

"

(T

`

}

`

T

). (330)

Each of the models reects the data obtained for a given medium. Only the

coefcient :`

'`

, however, allows for a complete representation of the par-

ameters that reect the characteristics of the medium. In attempts by some

researchers to improve the modeling, a more complete equation is used

along with the more conventional denitions of the heat transfer coefcient.

The relative inaccuracy of substitution of coefcient into the correct mathe-

matical model,

c

m,U

cT

cx

c

c

cx

(m,u` T }

)

k

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

), (331)

88 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

can easily be seen by comparison with the denition of :`

'`

. The additional

terms are already a part of the coefcient, and double accounting has

occurred. The seriousness of such a mistake depends on the problem.

To summarize, the heat transfer coefcients and their respectively uid

heat transport equations can be written in terms of the notation given by

Eq. (321),

:`

'

(T

ME

)/[S

"

(T

`

}

`

T

)], (332)

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds

[S

"

(T }

`

T }

)],

:`

'`

(T

ME

MC

)/[S

"

(T

`

}

`

T

)], (333)

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds c

c

cx

(m,u` T

[S

"

(T

`

}

`

T

)],

:`

'`

(T

ME

MC

MD

)/[S

"

(T }

`

T }

)], (334)

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds c

c

cx

(m,u` T

)

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

S

"

(T }

`

T }

)

.

Substitution of either of the preceding effective coefcients into the

equation

c

m,U

cT

cx

k

c

cx _

cm,T

cx

c

c

cx

(m,T

u`

'

}

c

cx _

k

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

k

cT

cx

'

ds, (335)

T

MC

MC

ME

,

would result having different models for experimental data reduction and

even for experimental setup.

2. Simulation Procedures

Kar and Dybbs [184] developed several correlations for the internal heat

transfer in different porous media. Their model for assessment of internal

surface heat transfer coefcient is based on the formula (constructed slightly

differently than done by Kar and Dybbs [184] but with all the features)

:`

'^'

S

''

(c

`

T

`

c

)

S

"

AD

(T }

`

T

)

, (336)

89 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

which accounts for the heat exchange when T

`

and T

tures of uid exiting and entering the control volume, which is taken to be

equal to AD

''

[m`] with mass ow rate

Mj

S

''

[kg/s]. This denition of heat transfer coefcient corresponds

to the continuum mathematical model of heat exchange in the porous

medium formulated as

m,( jc

U

'

VT

:`

'^'

S

"

(T }

`

T

), (337)

instead of the correct equation,

m,( jc

U

'

VT

(jc

V T

u`

'

,

VV(m,T

)

k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

U

VT

ds. (338)

The last term can be modeled using the heat transfer coefcient given by

k

AD ,

c

`

U

cT

cx

'

ds

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

), (339)

which results from the closure relationship

1

AD ,

c

`

U

k

cT

cx

'

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

k

cT

cn

`

ds n

`

1

AD ,

c

`

U

q

`

ds

`

:`

'

S

"

(T }

`

T }

). (340)

Kar and Dybbs measured the temperatures T

`

and T

if they were the mean (averaged) temperatures. As a result, they measured

yet another heat transfer coefcient, :`

'"

, that is dened by

:`

'"

S

"

(T }

`

T

) :`

'^'

S

"

(T }

`

T

)

(jc

V T

u`

'

,

VV(m,T

)

k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

U

VT

ds. (341)

The second and third terms in Eq. (341) are usually negligible. When they

are, the measured heat transfer coefcient reduces to the second heat transfer

coefcient in porous medium :`

'`

,

:`

'`

S

"

(T }

`

T

) :`

'^'

S

"

(T }

`

T

)

(jc

VT

u`

'

,

AD ,

c

`

U

VT

ds. (342)

90 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 6. Internal effective heat transfer coefcient in porous media, reduced based on VAT

scale transformations in experiments by 1, Kar and Dybbs [184] for laminar regime; 2,

Rajkumar [185]; 3, Achenbach [186]; 4, Younis and Viskanta [187]; 5, Galitseysky and

Moshaev [189]; 6, Kokorev et al. [190]; 7, Gortyshov et al. [175]; 8, Kays and London [172];

9, Heat Exchangers Design Handbook [191].

This is probably why the correlation developed by Kar and Dybbs [184] is

located low among the second group of correlations in Fig. 6, where a

number of correlations are presented after being rescaled using VAT. If the

measured coefcient is :`

'

, the result will be even lower than :`

'`

.

As the number of terms that can be estimated increases, the value of the

coefcient decreases. This is probably the case with the rst group of

correlations shown in Fig. 6. A large amount of the data analyzed by

Viskanta [182, 183] was used to deduce consistent correlations for compari-

son of internal porous media heat transfer characteristics. The same scaling

VAT approach used for ow resistance in porous media is used for heat

transfer.

91 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

One of the correlations developed by Kar and Dybbs [184], correlation

(11) on p. 86, is for laminar ow in sintered powder metal specimens. It is

Nu

"

h

`

d

"

z

0.004 Re``

"

Pr`, (343)

where both Nu and Re are based on the mean pore diameter. If a single

hydraulic diameter d

"

is

d

"

5d

'

4m,

S

"

, (344)

then

Re

"

Re

'

4U

m,

vS

"

(345)

Nu

'

(Re

'

)

h

`

d

'

z

5Nu

"

(Re

"

, m,, S

"

) 0.004 Re``

'

Pr`. (346)

This correlation is shown in Fig. 6. The correlation developed by Rajkumar

[185] for hollow ceramic spheres is

Nu

h

`

d

1.1

Re

Pr

d

L

"`"

, (347)

with d

2.53.5 [10`m], 18 Re

and

Re

v

.

The particle Reynolds number Re

Re

Re

'

3(1 m,)

2m,

. (348)

Nu

needs to be transformed to Nu

'

by relating the particle diameter d

to

the hydraulic diameter. The result is

Nu

'

5

h

`

d

"

z

Nu

"

2m,

3(1 m,)

Nu

(Re

)

2m,

3(1 m,)

Nu

(x),

(349)

where

x

3(1 m,)

2m,

Re

'

.

92 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Then

Nu

'

2m,

3(1 m,)

Nu

(x, Pr, d

, L )

2m,

3(1 m,)

Nu

3(1 m,)

2m,

Re

'

, Pr, d

, L

. (350)

Achenbach [186] developed the correlation

Nu

"

(1.18 Re"``

"

)"

_

0.23

Re

"

m,

"``

"

"

, (351)

for Pr 0.71, m,0.387, and 1 (Re

"

/m,) 7.710`. The Reynolds

number used by Achenbach is based on hydraulics and

Re

"

5Re

'

m,,

and his denition of Nu

"

is

Nu

'

(Re

'

) 5Nu

"

(Re

'

m,). (352)

A correlation developed for cellular consolidated ceramics by Younis and

Viskanta [187, 188] is

Nu

'"

h

'

d`

"

z

0.0098 0.11

d

"

L

Re`

"

Pr`, (353)

where m,0.830.87. The correlation yields an increasing Nu

'"

when the

test specimen thickness is decreased. This is a clear inuence of inow and

outow boundaries on heat transfer. Transforming from a volumetric

Nusselt number Nu

'

to a conventional surcial value Nu yields

Nu

'

Nu

'"

(Re

'

m,)

4m,

. (354)

Viskanta [183] presents a correlation from a study of low porosity media,

0.167m,0.354, by Galitseysky and Moshaev [189]:

Nu

'"

Am,`(1 m,)`` Re

"

Pr. (355)

The coefcient, A given by Viscanta [183] is

A

37.2

d

"

L

0.59

for 0.15 d

"

/L 0.23, 10 Re

"

530, Pr 0.71. The volumetric Nusselt

number is transformed to the surcial Nusselt number with Eq. (354).

93 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

A semiempirical theory was used by Kokorev et al. [190] to develop a

correlation between resistance coefcient and heat transfer coefcient for

extensive ow regimes in porous media that only contains one empirical

(apparently universal for the turbulent regime) constant. On the basis of this

relationship, the concept of uctuation speed scale of movement is used to

obtain an expression for the heat transfer coefcient from the Darcy friction

factor, f

'

4 f

4c

:

Nu

h

`

d

[0.14(4c

Re`

"

)" Pr`]. (357)

Transforming their expression to the general form of the media Nusselt

number yields

Nu

'

2m,

3(1 m,)

Nu

(Re

'

m,). (358)

The heat transfer coefcient given in the Heat Exchanger Design Hand-

book [191] is based on a single sphere heat transfer coefcient for the porous

medium,

h

`

( f

'

Nu

`

), Nu

`

2 (Nu`

'

Nu`

'

)`, (359)

where

Nu

'

0.664Re`

Pr`

Nu

'

(0.037Re"`

Pr)

(1 2.443Re"

(Pr`` 1))

,

for 1 Re

m,1.0 is

f

'

1 1.5(1 m,).

Transformation of the Nusselt number yields

Nu

'

2m,

3(1 m,)

Nu

(Re

). (360)

Nu

'

values at low Reynolds number are unrealistic, leading to the

conclusion that the transition type expression used to treat both laminar

and turbulent ows is probably not adequate for heat transfer in porous

media.

Gortyshov et al. [175] developed a correlation for the internal heat

transfer coefcient for a highly porous metallic cellular (foamy) medium

94 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

with porosity in the range 0.87 m,0.97,

Nu

'"

h

'

d`

"

z

0.606Pe"`'

"

m,``, (361)

where

Pe

"

Re

"

Pr

U

m,d

"

a

, (362)

d

"

is in millimeters (see (294)), and Nu

'"

is the volumetric internal heat

transfer coefcient assessed using

h

'

q

'

h

`

q

`

cS

"

D

`

S`

"

. (363)

Also,

Nu

'

(Re

'

)

Nu

'"

(m, Re

'

)

4m,

. (364)

The correlation given by Kays and London [172] is

StPr'``' 1.4Re""`

'

, (365)

which is transformed by

NuPr'``'

Re

'

Pr

1.4Re""`

'

, =Nu

'

1.4Re"``

'

Pr`. (366)

Some useful observations can be made by comparing the heat transfer

relationships shown in Fig. 6. One of the most signicant observations is

that the large differences between the correlations by Kar and Dybbs [184],

Younis and Viskanta [187, 188], Rajkumar [185], and others cannot be

explained if one does not take into account the specic details of the

medium and the experimental data treatment. Given this, the remarkable

agreement, almost coincidence, of the correlations by Kays and London

[172], Achenbach [186], and Kokorev et al. [190] should be noted. These

correlations were developed using different techniques and basic ap-

proaches. The correlation given in the Heat Exchangers Design Handbook

[191] reects careful adjustment in the low Reynolds number range. The

correlation is not based on a specic type of medium (for example, a

globular morphology with a specic globular diameter). Rather, it was

developed to summarize heat transfer coefcient data in packed beds for a

wide range of Reynolds numbers using an assigned globular diameter. As a

result, it is not solidly based on physics, and a simple transformation from,

particle to pore scale does not work properly.

95 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

VIII. Thermal Conductivity Measurement in a Two-Phase Medium

A majority of thermal conduction experiments are based on a constant

heat ux through the experimental specimen and measurement of interface

temperatures. Data reduction (see, for example, Uher [192]) is accomplished

using

K

QL

AAT

, (367)

where Q is the electrical power from heater dissipated through the specimen,

L is the distance used to measure the temperature difference, and A is the

uniform cross-sectional area of the sample.

1. Traditional L ocal and Piecewise Distributed Coefcient Heat

Conductivity Problem Formulations

In DMM-DNM as, for example, for a dielectric medium, the equation

usually used is

V (k(r)VT (r)) 0, r - D, (368)

where the conductivity coefcient function k is

k(r) k

,''(r) k

`

,'`'(r), (369)

and ,''' is the characteristic function of phase i 1 ^2 (see, for example,

Cheng and Torquato [193]). Interface boundary conditions assumed for

these equalities are

T

(r) T

`

(r), r - cS

`

(370)

k

(n VT

(r)) k

`

(n VT

`

(r)), r - cS

`

. (371)

2. Effective Coefcients Modeling

To begin, we choose the conductivity problem and rst will be treating

the example of constant phase conductivity coefcient conventional equa-

tions (368) for the heterogenous medium.

As shown elsewhere (see, for example, Travkin and Catton [21]), this

mathematical statement is incorrect when the equation is applied to the

volume containing both phases, even when coefcient k(r) is taken as a

random scalar or tensorial function. The reason for this is incorrect

averaging over the medium, which has discontinuities.

96 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Conventional theories of treatment of this problem do not specify the

meaning of the eld T, assuming that it is the local variable, or T T (r),

where at the point r the point value of potential T exists.

Next, the analysis shows that the coefcient k k(r), as long as in each

separate lower scale level point r there exists the local k with the value of

either phase 1 or phase 2, and in each of the phases the value of k

'

is

constant.

In the DMM-DNM approaches the mathematical statement usually deals

with the local elds, and as soon as the boundary conditions are taken in

some way, the problem became formulated correctly and can be solved

exactly, as in work by Cheng and Torquato [193].

Difculties arise when the result of this solution needs to be interpreted

and this is in the majority of problem statements in heterogeneous media,

in terms of nonlocal elds, but averaged in some way. The averaging

procedure usually is stated as being done either by stochastic or by spatial,

volumetric integration. Almost all of these averaging developments are done

incorrectly because of a disregard of averaging theorems for differential

operators in a heterogeneous medium. More analysis of this matter is given

in work by Travkin et al. [115].

Further, a more complicated situation arises when the intention is to

formulate and nd effective transport coefcients in a heterogeneous me-

dium. Let us consider the conductivity problem in a two-phase medium.

According to most accepted mathematical statements this problem is given

as (368)(371).

3. Conventional Formulation of the Effective Conductivity Problem in a

Two-Phase Medium

One of the methods of closure of mathematical models of diffusion

processes in a heterogeneous medium is the quasihomogeneous method

(Travkin and Catton [21]). In this case, the transfer process is modeled as

an ideal continuum with homogeneous effective transport characteristics

instead of the real heterogeneous characteristics of a porous medium. This

method of closure of the diffusive terms in the heat and mass diffusion

equations results in certain limitations: (a) the two-phase medium compo-

nents are without uctuations of the type T, c` in each of the phases; and (b)

the transfer coefcients being constant in each of the phases (Khoroshun

[194, 195]) results in reducing them to additional algebraic equations. These

equations relate the unknown averaged diffusion ows in each of the phases

in the form

j,

j,

`

k*

VT ,, (372)

97 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

when for constant (effective) coefcients it is

k

VT ,

k`

VT ,

`

k*

VT ,, (373)

and also

VT , VT ,

VT ,

`

, (374)

so it might be written as

(k

) j ,

(k`

) j ,

`

VT ,. (375)

Here k

, k`

k*

problem of closure has been reduced to nding k*

.

Applying the closure relation, for example,

k

VT ,

k`

VT ,

`

, (376)

yields the effective stagnant coefcient

k*

2k

k`

(k

k`

)

, (377)

which represents the lower bound of the effective stagnant conductivity for

a two-phase material from the known boundaries of HashinShtrikman

(see, for example, [196], Kudinov and Moizhes [197]) for equal volume

fraction of phases. Other closure equations for calculating the stagnant

effective conductivity are found in work by Hadley [198] and by Kudinov

and Moizhes [197]. The quasi homogeneous approach has several defects:

(a) The basis for the quasi-homogeneous equations is in question, (b) the

local uctuation values, as well as inhomogeneity and dispersivity of the

medium, are neglected, and (c) the interdependence of the correlated

coefcients and arbitrary adjustment to t data signicantly reduce the

generality of the results.

4. VAT-Based Considerations for Heterogeneous Media Heat Conductivity

Experimental Data Reduction

Let us consider the data reduction procedure of the heterogeneous

material thermal conductivity experiment.

a. Constant Heat Conductivity Coefcient We treat the example of the

constant coefcient heat transfer equation for a heterogeneous medium and

show the problem in terms of conventional experimental bulk data reduc-

tion procedures and pertinent modeling equations.

98 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Consider an experiment on determining the thermal coefcient of phase 1

(for example) in composite (or in material that is considered as being a pure

substance, but really is composite) material.

The heat transport for material phase 1 is described by

s

,(jc

cT

ct

k

V`(s

,T

) k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

,

which needs the closure of the second and the third r.h.s. terms. The latter is

k

AD ,

c

`

`

cT

cx

'

ds

:`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

), (378)

where the closure procedure is quite applicable to description of the

uidsolid medium heat exchange and might be considered as the analogs

for the case of solidsolid heat exchange, as done in many papers. The more

strict and precise integration of the heat ux over the interface surface gives

the exact closure for that term in governing equations for both neighboring

phases.

Also considering the two terms on the r.h.s., having them as diffusion bulk

terms means that

k

V`(s

,T

) k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

V [q

],

where the diffusive-like ux q

conventionally considered,

q

V(s

,T

) k

V(s

,T

)

k

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (379)

where the heat ux in phase 1 is determined through the averaged tempera-

ture T

.

So, the effective (not homogeneous) conductivity coefcient in phase 1 is

k

_

V(s

,T

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(V(s

,T

))

k

_

1

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(V(s

,T

))

. (380)

There is a difference between this introduced coefcient k

and that

traditionally determined through the ux in phase 1, which is

q

[k

VT

] k

V(s

,T

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

. (381)

99 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Arising in this situation is the effective conductivity coefcient determina-

tion

k

_

V(s

,T

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

VT

, (382)

which is a different variable indeed and which is still the one that is not the

traditional effective heterogeneous medium heat conductivity coefcient

(determined in all phases),

q [k

VT ,] k

[VT ,

VT ,

`

]

k

V(s

,T

s

`

,T

`

) k

VT ,. (383)

After those transformations the heat transfer equation in phase 1 becomes

s

,( jc

cT

ct

V [k

V(s

,T

)] :`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

). (384)

Repeating all of this for the steady-state heat conductivity equation

V`(s

,T

) V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

0, (385)

one obtains

k

_

V(s

,T

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(V(s

,T

)) (386)

for the equation

V [k

V(s

,T

)]

:`

`

k

S

`

(T }

`

T }

) 0, (387)

where k

coefcient k

it depends on k

conditions at the interface surface cS

`

.

Of course, the situation changes if the heat exchange term (last term in

(385)) is taken into account as the input correlation factor for conventional

bulk effective heat conductivity coefcient k

in the equation

V [k

V(s

,T

)] 0. (388)

The main reason why in the present problem treatment the interphase

heat exchange term is separated from the other two terms in the r.h.s. of Eq.

(385) is that this logistics gives clarity in analysis and modeling of interface

100 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

transport processes, which is not present in conventional composite medium

modeling.

Also, in the more complete and challenging physics of interface transport

modeling as in the third phase, this third interphase exchange term, along

with the second term, is an issue tightly connected to the closure problem

and to the models of interface surface transport.

b. Nonlinear Heat Conductivity of a Pure Phase Material Meanwhile, for

materials such as high-temperature superconductors (HTSC), a constant

heat conductivity coefcient is not a justiable choice, as the usual analysis

of approaches has shown above. That means complications in treating the

equation with a nonlinear heat conductivity coefcient in phase 1,

s

,(jc

cT

ct

V [K

V(s

,T

)] V [s

,K

VT

]

V

_

K

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

`

K

cT

cx

'

ds

,S

'

`

}

,

(389)

where the effective conductivity model has two additional terms, one of

which reects the mean surface temperature over the interface surface inside

of the REV, and the other of which results from nonlinearity of the elds

inside subvolume AD

,

K

_

K

V(s

,T

) s

,K

VT

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(V(s

,T

)), (390)

which when inserted in the heat transport equation gives

s

,(jc

cT

ct

V [K

V(s

,T

)] :`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

) s

,S

'

`

}

. (391)

Meanwhile, when an experimentalist evaluates his or her experimental

data using the equation

(jc

cT

ct

V [k

VT

] (393)

with the calculation shown earlier of the thermal conductivity coefcient

using experimental data, he or she makes two mistakes:

101 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

1. He is confusing the materials clear homogeneous conductivity coef-

cient k

k

2. Doing data reduction as for the modeling equation

(jc

cT

ct

V [k

`

VT

] (392)

meaning that

k

5k

, (394)

and seriously believing that he measures the real homogeneous k

he seeks,

he drops out (but in reality he takes implicitly into account) the term

reecting the exchange rate,

:`

`

S

`

(T }

`

T }

), (395)

in the composite material, which is experiencing at least two temperatures

and usually a great inuence of the internal exchange rate (see work by

Travkin and Kushch [33, 34] and Travkin et al. [21]). In this way, an

experimentalist makes a second mistake due to miscalculation of the

inuence of this additional termyet the conductivity coefcient

k

`

evaluated from experiment is not the value it is considered to be

k

`

5/ k

.

When the experimentalists goal is the measurement, not of a bulk

effective coefcient of a material, but of the pure materials conductivity

coefcient, considerations regarding the issues of homogeneity and experi-

mental data modeling are of primary interest.

The standard denition of the effective (macroscopic) conductivity tensor

is determined from

j ,k*

''

VT ,, (396)

in which it is assumed that

j ,j ,

j ,

`

k

VT ,

k

`

VT ,

`

k*

''

VT ,k*

''

VT ,

k*

''

[VT ,

VT ,

`

] k*

''

VT ,

k*

''

VT ,

`

, (397)

so, for the usually assumed interface cS

`

physics, the effective coefcient is

determined to be

k*

''

VT , [k

VT ,

k

`

VT ,

`

]

k

V(m

,T

) k

`

V(m

`

,T

`

) (k

k

`

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

(398)

102 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

or

k*

''

_

k

V(m

,T

) k

`

V(m

`

,T

`

) (k

k

`

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

VT ,,

(399)

or

k*

''

_

k

V(m

,T

) k

`

V(m

`

,T

`

) (k

`

k

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

[VT ,

VT ,

`

]

,

(400)

which involves knowledge of three different functions, T

, T

`

, T

cS

`

, in the

volume D. This formula for the steady-state effective conductivity can be

shown to be equal to the known expression

k*

''

VT ,k

`

VT ,(k

k

`

)

1

AD ,

`'

`

VT dc

k

`

VT ,(k

k

`

)VT ,

. (401)

It is worth noting here that the known formulae for the effective heat

conductivity (or dielectric permittivity) of the layered medium

k*

_

'

m

'

,k

'

, i 1, 2, (402)

for a eld applied parallel to the interface of layers, and

k*

_

_

'

m

'

,

k

'

(403)

when the heat ux is perpendicular to the interface, are easily derived from

the general expression (399) using assumptions that intraphase elds are

equal, T

T

`

, that interface boundary conditions are valid for averaged

elds, and that adjoining surface interface temperatures are close in magni-

tude. The same assumptions are effectual when conventional volume aver-

aging techniques are applied toward the derivation of formulae (402) and

(403).

5. Bulk Heat Conductivity Coefcients of a Composite Material

The problem becomes no easier in the case when the effective conductivity

coefcient is meant to serve for the whole composite material. Combining

103 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

both temperature equations (if only two phases are present) for the simplest

case of constant coefcients,

s

,(jc

cT

ct

k

V`(s

,T

) k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

`

ct

k

`

V`(s

`

,T

`

)k

`

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

`

ds

`

,

into one equation by adding one to another, we obtain

s

,(jc

cT

ct

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

`

ct

V (k

V(s

,T

) k

`

V(s

`

,T

`

))

V

_

k

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

`

ds

`

,

(404)

keeping in mind that the two-phase averaged temperature is

T ,s

,T

s

`

,T

`

. (405)

One can write down the mixture temperature equation when summation

of the equations gives (when taking into account the boundary condition of

temperature uxes equality at the interface surface, (k

VT

) (k

`

VT

`

))

s

,(jc

cT

ct

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

`

ct

V (k

V(s

,T

) k

`

V(s

`

,T

`

)) (k

k

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

,

(406)

or, written in terms of thermal diffusivities a

and a

`

,

cT ,

ct

V [a

V(s

,T

) a

`

V(s

`

,T

`

)] (a

a

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

1

a

`

a

k

`

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

, a

'

k

'

(jc

)

'

, i 1, 2, (407)

which has the three different temperatures T

, T

`

, and T

(cS

`

) (here

T ,s

,T

s

`

,T

`

).

104 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

And, assuming only a local thermal equilibrium,

T ,s

,T

s

`

,T

`

T * T

T

`

, (408)

the mixed temperature equation becomes two-temperature T *, T

(cS

`

)

dependable with simplied left hand part of the equation

(s

,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

)

cT *

ct

V [(k

V(s

,T *) k

`

V(s

`

,T *))]

(k

k

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

. (409)

With the two different temperatures, the effective coefcient of conductiv-

ity is equal to

k*

[(k

V(s

,T *) k

`

V(s

`

,T *))]

(k

k

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

This formula coincides with the effective coefcient of conductivity for the

steady-state effective conductivity in the medium and can be shown to be

equal to the known expression

k*

VT ,k

`

VT ,(k

k

`

)

1

AD ,

`'

`

VT dc. (411)

From this formula an important conclusion can be drawn: that the most

sought-after characteristics in heterogeneous media transport, which are the

effective transport coefcients, can be correctly determined using the con-

ventional denition for the effective conductivity for example, for the

steady-state problem

j ,k*

VT , k

`

VT ,(k

k

`

)

1

AD ,

`'

`

VT dc, (412)

but only in a fraction of problems, while employing the DMM-DNM exact

solution. The issue is that in a majority of problems, such as for in-

homogeneous, nonlinear coefcients and in many transient problems, hav-

ing the two-eld DMM-DNM exact solution is not enough to nd effective

coefcients. As shown earlier, only the requirement of thermal equilibrium

warrants the equality of steady-state and transient effective conductivities in

a two-phase medium.

105 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

The second form of the same equation with the surface integral of the

uctuation temperature in phase 1 is

(s

,( jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

)

cT *

ct

V [(k

,k

`

s

`

,)V(T *)]

(k

k

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (413)

still having the phase 1 temperature uctuation variable in one of the terms.

The following equality arises while comparing the two last equations (409)

and (413):

[(k

V(s

,T *) k

`

V(s

`

,T *))] (k

k

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

[(k

, k

`

s

`

,)V(T *)] (k

k

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

. (414)

As can be seen, the transient effective diffusivity coefcent a

in the VAT

nonequilibrium two-temperature equation (407) can be derived through the

equality

a

VT , a

V(s

,T

) a

`

V(s

`

,T

`

) (a

a

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

V''

1

a

`

a

k

`

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

(415)

or

a

VT , a

V(s

,T

) a

`

V(s

`

,T

`

) (a

a

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

A,

(416)

where V'' is the inverse operator V (V''( f )) f such that if

V Aa

1

a

`

a

k

`

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

, (417)

then

AV''

1

a

`

a

k

`

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

. (418)

106 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

From the preceding expression, the transient effective nonequilibrium

coefcient in a two-phase medium can be determined as

k

(s

,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

), (419)

which looks rather inconvenient for analytical or experimental assessment

or numerical calculation. The solution of this problem, which includes as an

imperative part the nding of the effective bulk composite material heat

conductivity (diffusivity), coefcient, is equal to the solution of the exact

two-phase problem. We see that the two-temperature DMM-DNM is not

enough for the convenient construction of the effective coefcient of conduc-

tivity. As we can compare the expressions for transient coefcient (419) and

thermal equilibrium coefcient (410) they are of great difference in denition

and in calculation. And it does not matter which kind of mathematical

statement is used for the problemthe two separate heat transfer equations

or the VAT statement the problem complexity is the same. Only by using

the VAT equations is the correct estimation of the transient effective

coefcients on the upper scale available.

If we adopt the idea that phase temperature variables in each of the

subvolumes AD

and AD

`

can be presented as sums of the overall tempera-

ture and local uctuations (Nozad et al. [40]),

T

T ,T

V

, T

`

T ,T

V

`

, (420)

which means an introduction of the two new variables T

V

and T

V

`

, then the

equation for the composite averaged temperature follows (Nozad et al. [40])

in the form

(s

,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

)

cT ,

ct

V

,k

_

VT ,

1

AD

,

c

`

`

T

ds

s

`

,k

`

_

VT ,

1

AD

`

,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

,(jc

cT

V

ct

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

V

`

ct

V (s

,k

VT

V

s

`

,k

`

VT

V

`

)

(421)

which has ve variable temperatures. If the assumptions and constraints

given in Nozad et al. [40] are all satised, then the nal equation with only

107 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

three different temperatures resumes:

(s

,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

)

cT ,

ct

V

,k

_

VT ,

1

AD

,

c

`

`

T

ds

s

`

,k

`

_

VT ,

1

AD

`

,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

.

(422)

This means that the neglect of the global deviation T

V

, T

V

`

terms still does

not remove the requirement of a two-temperature solution.

a. Effective Conductivity Coefcients in a Porous Medium When Phase One

Is a Fluid In phase 1 the VAT equation is written for the laminar regime.

In the work by Kuwahara and Nakayama [199] is given the DMM-DNM

solution of the 2D problem of uniformly located quadratic rods with equal

spacing in both directions. Studies were undertaken of both the For-

chheimer and post-Forchheimer ow regimes.

This work is a good example of how DMM-DNM goals cannot be

accomplished, even if the solution on the microlevel is obtained completely,

if the proper VAT scaling procedures basics are not applied.

The one structural unit periodic cell in the mediumwas taken for

DMM-DNM.

Equations were taken with constant coefcients, and in phase 1 the VAT

equation was written for the laminar regime as

m,(jc

cT

ct

m,(jc

U

'

VT

(jc

V T

u`

'

,

VV (m,T

)

k

V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

AD ,

c

`

U

VT

ds. (423)

Adding this equation to the VAT solid-phase (second phase) two-

temperature equation gives

m,(jc

cT

ct

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

`

ct

m,(jc

U

'

VT

(jc

V T

u`

'

,

V (k

V(m,T

) k

`

V(s

`

,T

`

))

V

_

k

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

ds

k

`

AD ,

c

`

`

VT

`

ds

`

, (424)

108 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

which reduces because of interface ux equality to

m,(jc

cT

ct

s

`

,(jc

)

`

cT

`

ct

m,(jc

U

'

VT

V (k

V(m,T

) k

`

V(s

`

,T

`

)) (jc

V T

u`

'

,

(k

k

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (425)

which has two averaged temperatures T

and T

`

, interface surface integrated

temperature T

(cS

`

), and two elds of uctuations T

(x) and u`

'

(x),

assuming that the velocity eld is also computed and known.

We now write the effective conductivity coefcients for (425) and for the

one-temperature equation when temperature equilibrium is assumed.

In the rst case, for the weighted temperature,

T ", (m,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

T

`

)/w

'

(426)

w

'

m,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

const, (427)

the equation can be written as

w

'

cT ",

ct

m,(jc

U

'

VT

V (k

V(m,T

) k

`

V(s

`

,T

`

)) (jc

V T

u`

'

,

(k

k

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (428)

where three temperatures are unknown, T ",, T

, and T

`

, plus the interface

surface temperature integral T

(cS

`

) and uctuation elds T

(x) and u`

'

(x).

The effective coefcient of conductivity can be looked for is

k

VT ",(k

V(m,T

) k

`

V(s

`

,T

`

)) (jc

u`

'

,

(k

k

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

. (429)

In order to avoid the complicated problems with effective conductivity

coefcient denition in a multitemperature environment, Kuwahara and

Kakayama [199], while performing DMM-DNM for the problem of

laminar regime transport in a porous medium, decided to justify the local

thermal equilibrium condition

T ,m,T

s

`

,T

`

T * T

T

`

,

which greatly changes the one effective temperature equation. This equation

109 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

becomes simpler with only one unknown temperature T * and variable eld

T

and is written as

(m,(jc

s

`

,(jc

)

`

)

cT *

ct

m,(jc

U

'

VT *

V (k

V(m,T *) k

`

V(s

`

,T *)) (jc

VT

u`

'

,

(k

k

`

)V

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (430)

as the variable temperature and velocity uctuation elds T

and u`

'

should

be known, although this is a problem. As long as the denition of the

effective conductivity coefcient is

k*

VT *, k

V(m,T *) k

`

V(s

`

,T *) (jc

u`

'

,

(k

k

`

)

_

1

AD ,

c

`

`

T

ds

, (431)

then the effective conductivity can be calculated subject to known T *, T

,

T

, and u`

'

. At the same time, the important issue is that in DMM-DNM the

assumption of thermal equilibrium has no sense at all as long as the

problem have been already calculated as the two-temperature problem.

To further perform the correct estimation or calculation of effective

characteristics, one needs to know what are those characteristics in terms of

denition and mathematical description or model?

This is the one more place where the DMM-DNM as it is performed now

is in trouble if it does not comply with the same hierarchical theory

derivations and conclusions as the VAT (see also the studies by Travkin et

al. [115] and Travkin and Catton [114, 21]).

As shown earlier, only the requirement of thermal equilibrium warrants

the equality of steady-state and transient effective conductivities in a

two-phase medium.

Consequently, if taken correctly, the two-temperature model will intro-

duce more trouble in treatment and even interpretation of the needed bulk,

averaged temperature (as long as this problem is already known to exist and

is treated in nonlinear and temperature-dependent situations) and the

corresponding effective conductivity coefcient (or coefcients).

1. Thus, comparing the two effective conductivity coefcients (429) and

(431), one can assess the difference in the second term form and

consequently, the value of computed coefcients.

Comparing the expressions for one equilibrium temperature and one

effective weighted temperature, as well as for their effective conductiv-

ity coefcients, one can also observe the great imbalance and inequal-

ity in their denitions and computations.

110 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

2. Summarizing application of DMM-DNM approach by Kuwahara and

Nakayama [199], it can be said that it is questionable procedure to

make an assumption of equilibrium temperatures when the problem

was stated and computed as via DNM for two temperatures.

3. In the calculation of the effective coefcients of conductivity stag-

nant thermal conductivity k

''

; and

thermal dispersion k

'`

Kuwahara and Nakayama [199] used a

questionable procedure for calculation of the two last coefcients.

They used one-cell (REV) computation for surface and uctuation tem-

peratures for periodical morphology of the medium, and at the same time

they used the innite REV denition for the effective temperature gradient

for their calculation (assigned in the problem); see the expressions for

calculation of these coefcients, (21)(24) on p. 413. That action means the

mixture of two different scale variables in one expression for effective

characteristics which is incorrect by denition. If this is used consciously,

the fact should be stated on that matter explicitly, because it alters the

results.

IX. VAT-Based Compact Heat Exchanger Design and Optimization

At the present time, compact heat exchanger (CHE) design is based

primarily on utilization of known standard heat exchanger calculation

procedures (see, for example, Kays and London [172]). Typical analysis of

a heat exchanger design depends on the simple heat balance equations that

are widely used in the process equipment industry. Analytically based

models are composed for a properly constructed set of formulas for a given

spatial design of heat transfer elements that allow, most of the existing heat

transfer mechanisms to be accounted for.

Analogies between heat transfer and friction have been shown by Church-

ill [200] and by Churchill and Chan [201] to be inadequate for describing

many of the HE congurations of interest. This has been suspected for some

time and will seriously affect the use of the j-factor in HE modeling and

design.

Modeling of a specic heat exchanger geometry by Tsay and Weinbaum

[202] provides a useful preliminary step and a potential benchmark test

case. Though the study only considered hydrodynamic effects and restricted

itself to consideration of regular media and the creeping ow regime, the

effects of morphology-characteristic variation upon momentum transport

phenomena were explored. The authors show that the overall bed drag

coefcient in the creep ow regime increases dramatically as the inner-

cylinder spacing approaches the order of the channel half-height.

111 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Analysis of processes in regular and randomly organized heterogeneous

media and CHE can be performed in different ways. Some CHE structures

have the characteristics of a porous medium and can be studied by

application of the developments of porous media modeling. In this work, a

theoretical basis for employing heat and momentum transport equations

obtained from volume averaging theory (VAT) is developed for modeling

and design of heat exchangers. Using different ow regime transport models,

equation sets are obtained for momentum transport and two- and three-

temperature transfer in nonisotropic heterogeneous CHE media with ac-

counting for interphase exchange and microroughness.

The development of new optimization problems based on the VAT-

formulated CHE models using a dual optimization approach is suggested.

Dual optimization is the optimization of the morphological parameters

(size, morphology of working spaces) and the thermophysical properties

(characteristics) of the working solid and liquid materials to maximize heat

transfer while minimizing pressure loss. This allows heat exchanger

modeling and possible optimization to be based on theoretically correct eld

equations rather than the usual balance equations. The problems of shape

optimization traditionally have been addressed in HE design on the basis of

general statements that include heat and momentum equations along with

their boundary conditions stated on the assigned known volumes and

surfaces; see, for example, Bejan and Morega [203].

A. A Sno1 Rrvirv or CirN1 P:c1icr

iN Hr:1 Excn:Ncr MonriiNc

Analysis of heat exchanger designs, as described by Butterworth [204],

depends on the heat balance equations that are widely used in the heat

design industry. The general form of the thermal design equation for heat

exchangers (see, for example, Figs. 79) can be written (Butterworth [204])

dQ: dAAT,

where Q is the heat rate, and A is the transfer surface area. As outlined by

Martin [205], the coupled differential equations for a cross ow tube heat

exchanger (Fig. 7) modeling are (for simplicity only one row is considered)

dG

G'

`

dG

`

d

`

G

G

`

,

where G

, G

`

, and G'

`

are dimensionless rst and second uid temperatures

112 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 7. Three-phase tube heat exchanger unconsolidated morphology.

Fic. 8. CHE morphology with separated subchannels for each of the uids.

and the second temperature being averaged over the tubes row width. As

follows from these equations, all information about a given heat exchangers

peculiarities and design specics is included in the dimensionless coordinates

:A

(Mc

)

'

z

'

L

'

, i 1, 2,

where : is the overall heat transfer coefcient and M is the mass ow rate.

Second-order ordinary differential equations are developed for HE as well

(see, for example, Paffenbarger [206]).

113 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Fic. 9. Compact heat exchanger (CHE) with contracted-tube layer morphology for one of

the uids.

Webb in a book [207], and in his invited talk at the 10th International

Heat Transfer Conference [208], distinguishes four basic approaches to

predicting the heat transfer j-factor and the Fanning friction factor f for

heat exchanger design. They are (1) power-law correlations; (2) asymptotic

correlations; (3) analytically based models; and (4) numerical solutions.

Analytically based models are properly constructed set of formulas for a

given spatial construction of heat transfer elements that allows most of the

existing heat transfer mechanisms to be accounted for. Many examples are

given in publications by Webb [207, 208], Bergles [209], and other

researchers.

The major differences between the measured characteristics of air-cooled

heat exchangers with aluminum or copper nned tubes with large height,

small thickness, and narrow-pitch ns, and high-temperature waste heat

recovery exchangers with steel nned tubes with rather low height and

thickness and wide-pitched ns, are given in a paper by Fukagawa et al.

[210] Despite the fact that morphology of the heat exchange medium is

essentially the same, the correlations predicting heat transfer and pressure

drop values do not work for both HE types altogether. For this particular

heat exchange morphology, a wide-ranging experiment program is needed

for different ratios of the morphology parameters. There is, at present, no

general approach for describing the dependencies of heat transfer effective-

ness or frictional losses for a reasonably wide range of morphological

properties and their ratios.

The eld of compact heat exchangers has received special attention during

the past several years. A wide variety of plate n heat exchangers (PFHE)

has been developed for applications in heat recovery systems, seawater

evaporators, condensers for heat pumps, etc. It is proposed that a theoretical

114 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Fic. 10. Initial optimization scheme for benchmark tube heat exchanger morphology.

basis for employing heat and momentum transport equations obtained with

volume averaging theory be developed for the design of heat exchangers.

An assumption of the equilibrium streams is common in HE design (see,

for example, Butterworth [204]). Almost all commercial design software

assume plug ow with occasional simple corrections to reect deviations

from the plug ow. CFD has applications in simplied situations, when the

geometry of the channels or heat transfer surfaces can be described fairly.

Butterworth [204] further noted that the space outside tubes in heat

exchangers presents an enormously complicated geometry and modeling

these exchangers fully, even with simplied turbulence models just men-

tioned is still impracticable. We do not agree with this view and propose

to use techniques developed as part of our work to show that practical

modeling methods exist.

During the past few years considerable attention has been given to the

problem of active control of uid ows. This interest is motivated by a

number of potential applications in areas such as control of ow separation,

combustion, uidstructure interaction, and supermaneuverable aircraft. In

this direction, Burns et al. [211, 212] developed several computational

algorithms for active control design for the Burgers equation, a simple model

for convectiondiffusion phenomena such as shock waves and trafc ows.

Generally, the optimal control problems with partial differential equa-

tions (PDE), to which VAT-based HE models convert, can have detailed

115 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

solutions of the linear quadratic regulator problem, including conditions for

the convergence of modal approximation schemes. However, for more

general optimal control problems involving PDEs, the main approach has

been to use some method for constructing a particular nite-dimensional

approximating optimal control problem and then to solve this problem by

some method or other (Teo and Wu [213]).

It seems that no attention has been given to the optimal control systems

governed by the partial integrodifferential equations like volume averaging

theory equations for HE design.

B. Nrv KiNns or Hr:1 Excn:Ncr M:1nrx:1ic:i Monris

Our earlier work has shown that ow resistance and heat transfer in HEs

and CHEs can be treated as highly porous structures and that their behavior

can be properly predicted by averaging the transport equations over a

representative elementary volume (REV) in the region neighboring the surface.

The averaging of processes in regular and randomly organized heterogeneous

media and in HE can be performed in different ways. Travkin and Catton [21,

28] discussed alternate forms for the mass, momentum, and heat transport

equations recently presented by various researchers. The alternate forms of the

transport equations are often quite different. The differences among the

transport equation forms advocated by the numerous authors demonstrate the

fact that research on the basic form of the governing equations of transport

processes in heterogeneous media is still an evolving eld of study. Derivation

of the equations of ow and heat transport for a highly porous medium during

the ltration mode is based on the theory of averaging by certain REV of the

transfer equation in the liquid phase and transfer equations in the solid phase

of the heterogeneous medium (see, for example, Whitaker [42, 10] for laminar

regime developments, and Shcherban et al. [15], Primak et al. [14], and

Travkin and Catton [16, 21, 23] for turbulent ltration).

These models account for the medium morphology characteristics. Using

second-order turbulent models, equation sets are obtained for turbulent

ltration and two-temperature diffusion in nonisotropic porous media with

interphase exchange and micro-roughness. The equations differ from those

found in the literature. They were developed using an advanced averaging

technique, a hierarchical modeling methodology, and fully turbulent models

with Reynolds stresses and uxes in every pore space.

Independent treatment of turbulent energy transport in the uid phase

and energy transport in the solid phase, connected through the specic

surface (the soliduid interface in the REV), allows for more accurate

modeling of the heat transfer mechanisms between rough surfaces or porous

insert of HE and the uid phases.

116 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

C. VAT-B:srn Coxi:c1 Hr:1 Excn:Ncr MonriiNc

For a pin n (PFHE), with cross-ow morphology, the governing

equations can be written in the following form:

Momentum equation for the rst uid:

c

cx

m

,(K

"

v

)

cU

cx

c

cx

K

"

cu

`

cx

c

cx

(u

`

u

`

)

m

, U

cx

1

AD ,

c

`

U`

(K

"

v

)

cU

cx

'

ds

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U`

p

ds

1

j

c

cx

(m

,p

`

). (432)

momentum equation for the second uid:

c

cz

m

`

,(K

"

v

`

)

cW

`

cz

c

cz

K

"`

cw

`

`

cz

c

cz

(w

`

`

w

`

`

,

)

m

`

, W

`

cW

`

cz

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

"`

v

`

)

cW

`

cx

'

ds

1

j

`

AD ,

c

`

U

p

`

ds

1

j

`

c

cz

(m

`

,p

`

`

). (433)

Energy equation for the rst uid:

c

,U

cT

cx

c

cx _

m

,(K

'

k

)

cT

cx

c

cz _

m

,(K

'

k

)

cT

cz

c

cx

K

'

cT

cx

c

cz

K

'

cT

cz

c

cx

(m

,T

u

`

c

cx _

(K

'

k

)

AD ,

c

`

U`

T

ds

c

cz _

(K

'

k

)

AD ,

c

`

U`

T

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U`

(K

'

k

)

cT

cx

'

ds. (434)

117 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

Energy equation for the solid phase:

c

cx

s,K

`'

}

`

cT

`

}

`

cx

c

cx

K

`'

cT

`

cx

`

c

cz

s,K

`'

}

`

cT

`

}

`

cx

c

cz

K

`'

cT

`

cx

`

c

cx _

K

`'

}

`

AD ,

c

`

U`

T

`

ds

c

cz _

K

`'

}

`

AD ,

c

`

U`

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U`

K

`'

cT

`

cx

'

ds

0. (435)

Energy equation for the second uid:

c

`

j

`

m

`

,W

`

cT

`

cz

c

cx _

m

`

,(K

'`

k

`

)

cT

`

cx

c

cz _

m

`

,(K

'`

k

`

)

cT

`

cz

c

cx

K

'`

cT

`

cx

c

cz

K

'`

cT

`

cz

c

`

j

`

c

cz

(m

`

,T

`

w

`

`

}

c

cx _

(K

'`

k

`

)

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

c

cz _

(K

'`

k

`

)

AD ,

c

`

U

T

`

ds

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

'`

k

`

)

cT

`

cx

'

ds. (436)

The volumes for averaging in equations are AD, AD

, AD

`

, AD

`

.

A majority of the additional terms in these equations can be treated using

closure procedures developed in previous work (see, for example, Travkin

and Catton [16, 19]), for selected n geometries and solid matrices of a HE.

Our generic interest, however, is in the theoretical applications of the VAT

governing equations and possible advantages gained by introduction of

irregular or random morphology into heat exchange volumes and surfaces.

Cocurrent parallel ow matrix type CHE morphology can be described

using the next VAT-based set of governing equation.

118 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Momentum equation for the rst uid:

m

,U

cU

cx

1

AD ,

c

`

U`

(K

"

v

)

cU

cx

'

ds

1

j

AD ,

c

`

U`

p

ds

1

j

c

cx

(m

,p

`

)

c

cx

(m

,(K

"

v

)

cU

cz

c

cx

K

"

cu

`

cx

c

cx

( u

`

u

`

). (438)

Momentum equation for the second uid:

m

`

,U

`

cU

`

cx

1

AD ,

c

`

U

(K

"`

v

`

)

cU

`

cx

'

ds

1

j

`

AD ,

c

`

U

p

`

ds

1

j

`

c

cx

(m

`

,p

`

`

)

c

cx

(m

`

,(K

"`

v

`

)

cU

`

cx

c

cx

K

"`

cu

`

`

cx

c

cx

( u

`

`

u

`

`

,

). (437)

The corresponding energy equations are like those given earlier. A simple

example typies the general morphology of cocurrent and countercurrent

CHEs when widths of the channels are different and the heat transfer

enhancing devices are to be determined by shape optimization. For this

purpose, consider two conjugate at channels of different heights that are

both lled with unknown (or assigned) heat transfer elements or porous

media. A set of governing equations for each of the channels were developed

by Travkin and Catton ([16, 20]).

A model of the momentum equation for a horizontally homogeneous

stream under steady conditions has the form

c

cz

m,(K

"'

v

'

)

cU

'

cz

c

cz

K

"'

cu

`

'

cz

c

cz

(u

`

'

w

`

'

,

1

AD ,

cS

"''

K

"'

cU

'

cx

'

dS

1

AD ,

cS

"''

v

'

cU

'

cx

'

dS

1

j

'

AD ,

c

`

UH

p

'

dS

1

j

'

cp ,

'

cx

. (439)

This equation can be further simplied for turbulent ow in a layer with a

119 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

porous lling or insert that has regular morphology,

c

cz

m(z),(K

"'

v

'

)

cU

'

(z)

cz

U

'`'

(U

'

, cS

"

, K

"'

) U

'`'

(U

'

, cS

"

, v

'

)

U

'`'"

( p

'

, cS

"

)

1

j

'

c(m(z),p

`

'

)

cx

, (440)

where the three morphology-based terms are dened by

U

'`'

(U

'

, cS

"

, K

"'

)

1

AD ,

cS

"''

K

"'

cU

'

cx

'

dS (441)

U

'`'

(U

'

, cS

"

, v

'

)

1

AD ,

cS

"''

v

'

cU

'

cx

'

dS (442)

U

'`'"

(p

'

, cS

"

)

1

j

'

AD ,

c

`

UH

p

'

dS. (443)

It is obvious that the result is controlled by three morphology terms.

The equation for the mean turbulent uctuation energy b(z) is written in

the following simple form, which includes the effect of obstacles in the ow

and temperature stratication across the layer, the z direction:

K

"'

(z)

cU

'

cz

`

d

dz

K

"'

o

'

v

'

db

'

(z)

dz

f

'

(c

)S

"'

(z)

m,

U

`

'

g

T

o

'

_

K

"'

cT

'

cz

2v

db`

'

(z)

dz

`

C

b`

'

(z)

K

"'

. (444)

Here, f

(c

constant morphology functions, and the mean eddy viscosity is given by

K

"'

(z) C"

l(z)b`

'

(z), (445)

where l(z) is the turbulent scale function dened by the assumed porous

medium structure.

Similarly, the equation of turbulent heat transfer in the homogeneous

porous medium uid phase is

c

'

j

'

m

'

,U

'

(z)

cT

'

(x, z)

cx

c

cz

m

'

,(K

''

k

'

)

cT

'

(x, z)

cz

T

'`''

(T

'

, cS

"

, K

''

) T

'`''

(T

'

, cS

"

, k

'

)

1

AD ,

cS

"''

k

cT

'

cx

'

dS, (446)

120 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

with two morphology terms that control the solution being

T

'`''

(T

'

, cS

"

, K

''

)

1

AD ,

cS

"''

K

''

cT

'

cx

'

dS (447)

T

'`''

(T

'

, cS

"

, k

'

)

1

AD ,

cS

"''

k

'

cT

'

cx

'

dS. (448)

In the solid phase of CHE, the energy equation is

c

cz

(1 m,)K

`'

(z)

cT

`

(x, z)

cz

T

``'

(T

`

, cS

"

, K

`'

) 0, (449)

with the one control term

T

``'

(T

`

, cS

"

, K

`'

)

1

AD ,

c

`

U`

K

`'

cT

`

cx

'

dS,

where

dS

dS.

If we apply the closure procedures described earlier, the equation of

motion becomes

c

cz

m(z),K

"'

(U

, b, l )

cU

'

(z)

cz

1

2

[c

'

(z, U

'

)S

"'

(z) c`

(z, U

'

)S

"'

(z) c

(z, U

'

)S

"'

(z)]U

`

'

1

j

dp

'

,

dx

c

S

"

U

`

'

2

1

j

dp

'

,

dx

, (450)

where

K

"'

K

"'

v

'

,

and the lumped ow resistance coefcient c

dependent function. The energy equation in the j th uid phase is

c

'

j

'

m,U

'

(z)

cT

'

(x, z)

cx

c

cz

(m(z),K

''

(z)

cT

'

(x, z)

cz

:`

'

(z)S

"

(z)(T

`

(x, z) T

'

(x, z)), (451)

121 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

with (x, z) - AD

c

cz

(1 m(z),K

`'

(z)

cT

`

(x, z)

cz

:`

'

(z)S

"

(z)(T

`

(x, z) T

'

(x, z))(x, z) - AD, (452)

with

P

''

1 : K

''

K

"'

c

'

j

'

k

'

, (453)

where index j determines the uid phase number j 1, 2 in conjugate

channels 1 and 2.

In Eqs. (444), (445), (450), and (452), the coefcient functions and specic

surface functions must be determined by assuming real or invented mor-

phological models of the porous structure. The pressure gradient term in Eq.

(450) is modeled as a constant value in the layer, or simulated by the local

value of the right-hand side of the experimental correlations. The boundary

conditions for these equations are

z 0 : U

'

0,

cb

'

cz

0

K

"

v, Q

"

K

''

cT

'

cz

Q

"

K

`'

cT

`

cz

(454)

z

h

'

:

cU

'

cz

0,

cb

'

cz

0

cT

'

cz

0,

cT

`

cz

0, (455)

where h

'

is the half channel width. The control terms in the preceding

equations depend on temperature and velocity distributions as well as on

morphological characteristics of the media.

Comparing the three latest equation (450)(452) with the equations

derived by Paffenbarger [206] for practically the same structural design of

HE, one will nd numerous discrepancies. For example, the energy balance

equations in Paffenbargers [206] work have energy conservation terms that

do not match each other.

The VAT-based general transport equations for a single phase uid in an

HE medium have more integral and differential terms than the homogenized

or classical continuum mechanics equations. Various descriptions of the

122 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

porous medium structural morphology determines the importance of these

terms and the range of application of the closure schemes. Prescribing

regular, assigned, or statistical structure to the capillary or globular HE

medium morphology gives the basis for transforming the integrodifferential

transport equations into differential equations with probability density

functions governing their stochastic coefcients and source terms. Several

different closure models for these terms for some uniform, nonuniform,

nonisotropic, and specically random nonisotropic highly porous layers

were developed in work by Travkin and Catton [16, 17, 23], etc. The natural

way to close the integral terms in the transfer equations is to attempt to nd

the integrals over the interphase surface, or over outlined areas of this

surface. Closure models allow one to nd connections between experimental

correlations for bulk processes and the simulation representation and then

incorporate them into numerical procedures.

D. Oi1ix:i CoN1oi Ponirxs iN Hr:1 Excn:Ncr DrsicN

A variety of the optimization problems that can be formulated in the area

of heterogeneous medium transport involve differential equations modeling

the physics of the process. Many of them have a fairly complicated form.

The contemporary literature on optimal control deals with problems that

are mathematically similar but consider much simpler formulations of the

optimization problem with constraints in the form of differential equations.

Linear optimal control systems governed by parabolic partial differential

equations (PPDEs) are relatively well studied. The CHE modeling equa-

tions resulting from the VAT-based analysis are also PPDEs, but they are

nonlinear and have additional integral and integrodifferential terms. The

models presented and the resulting differential equations contain additional

integral and integrodifferential terms not studied in the literature.

The performance of a heat exchanger depends on the design criteria for

optimizing the liquid ow velocity, dimensions of the heat exchanger, the

heat transfer area between hot side and cold side, etc. Thermal optimization

of an HE requires selection of many features for example, both the

optimum n spacing and optimum n thickness, each determined to

maximize total heat dissipation for a given added mass or prole area. These

criteria set the optimal conditions for HE operation. Theoretically, the

optimal dimensions of an HE require a large number of tiny tubelets with

diameters tending to zero with increasing number of tubes. This leads to a

very ne dispersion problem with porous mediumlike behavior. Extremely

compact micro heat exchangers with platen cross ow have already been

built. However, the optimization problems involving such designs are more

complex than traditional designs and require new simulation techniques.

123 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

E. A VAT-B:srn Oi1ixiz:1ioN TrcnNiqir ro Hr:1 Excn:Ncrs

A variety of optimal control problems that can be formulated in the area

of heterogeneous medium transport involve differential equations modeling

the physics of the process. Some of them have a fairly complicated form.

Meanwhile, the contemporary literature on optimal control considers too

simple formulations of the optimization problems with constraints in form

of differential equations.

Optimal control systems governed by parabolic partial differential equa-

tions have been studied intensively. For example, Ahmed and Teo [214] give

a survey on main results in this eld. Questions concerning necessary

conditions for optimality and existence of optimal controls for these

problems have been investigated in work by Ahmed and Teo (215217] and

Fleming [218]. Moreover, a few results by Teo et al. (1980) on the

computational methods of nding optimal controls are also available in the

literature (Teo and Wu [213]). However, turbulent transport equations in

highly porous media were proposed by Travkin et al. [19] for optimization

problems and developed in more detail in Section IV with additional

morphlogical as well as integral and integrodifferential terms. Recent

literature studies show optimal control problems involving PPDE either in

general form or in divergence form and propose computational methods

such as variational technique and gradient method (see, for example, Ahmed

and Teo [214]). These studies seems to be helpful for solving various

optimization problems involving integrodifferential transport equations

considered by Travkin et al. [19]. However, complete research has to be

done for this class of equations, including analysis of necessary conditions

and existence of optimal control, as well as developing computational

methods for solving various optimal control problems.

Optimal control for some classes of integrodifferential equations has also

been considered in recent years. Da Prato and Ichikawa [219] studied the

quadratic control problems for integrodifferential equations of parabolic

type. A state-space representation of the system is obtained by choosing an

appropriate product space. By using the standard method based on the

Riccati equation, a unique optimal control over a nite horizon and under

a stabilizability condition is obtained and the quadratic problem over an

innite horizon is solved. Butkovski [220] was the rst to discuss the

optimal control problems for distributed parameter systems. The maximum

principle as a set of necessary conditions for optimal control of distributed

parameter systems has been studied by many authors.

Since it is well known that the maximum principle may be false for

distributed parameter systems (see Balakrishnan [221]), there are many

papers that give some conditions ensuring that the maximum principle

124 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

remains true (see, for example, Ahmed and Teo [214]; Balakrishnan [221];

Curtain and Pritchard [222]). We note that the references just mentioned

discuss the cases for distributed parameter systems or functional differential

systems with no end constraints and/or with the control domain being

convex; thus, they do not include Pontryagins original result on maximum

principle as a special case.

Fattorini [223] also proposed an existence theory and formulated maxi-

mum principle for relaxed innite-dimensional optimal control problems.

He considered relaxed optimal control problems described by semilinear

systems ODE and used relaxed controls whose values are nitely additive

probability measures. Under suitable conditions, relaxed trajectories co-

incide with those obtained from differential inclusions. The existence the-

orems for relaxed controls were obtained; they are applied to distributed

parameter systems described by semilinear parabolic and wave equations, as

well as a version of Pontryagins maximum principle for relaxed optimal

control problems.

Optimal control problems involving equations such as (432)(438) have

control terms with the structures

V(m, f

(x)V f

`

(x)}

)

V(m, f

`

(x) f

`

(x)}

)

V

(x)

,

c

`

U

f

`

(x) ds

,

c

`

U

[

`

(x)V( f

"

(x, f

`

(x)))] ds, (456)

with controls f

, f

`

, f

`

, f

"

. Such statements of the control problem are hardly

seen in the contemporary literature on optimal control distributed-par-

ameter systems (see, for example, Ahmed and Teo [214]). The existence of

optimal controls for equations much simpler than those here were developed

only very recently; see Fattorini [223]. Thus, for linear heat- and mass-

diffusion problems with impulse control that is a function of magnitude or

spatial locations of the impulses, Anita [224] obtained a formulation of

maximum principles for both optimal problems. Ahmed and Xiang [225]

proved the existence of optimal controls for clear nonlinear evolution

equations on Banach spaces with the control term in the equations being

represented as an additivemultiplicative term B(t)u(t).

Reduction of hererogeneous terms in the corresponding momentum

equation by an overall representation of diffusive and diffusionlike terms

125 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

yields

k

"

cA

cx

_

m,(K

"

v)

cA

cx

K

"

ca

`

cx

a

`

a

`

,

. (457)

Here, the velocity and uctuating viscosity coefcient variables are taken in

a form suitable for both laminar and turbulent ow regimes. For problems

with a constant bulk viscosity coefcient (K

"

constant), the second term

in this relation vanishes and the whole problem essentially becomes one of

evaluating the inuence of dispersion by irregularities of the soil medium on

the momentum. Thermal dispersion effects realized through the second

derivative terms and relaxation terms and, for example, in the uid phase

with constant thermal characteristics heat transport dispersion can be

expressed as

K

'

cT

cx

_

m,(K

'

k

)

cT

cx

K

'

cT

cx

m,T

u

`

}

(K

'

k

)

AD ,

c

`

U

T

ds

, (458)

where the rst and last terms resemble the effective thermal conductivity

coefcient for each phase, using constant coefcients, found in the work by

Nozad et al. [40]. By allowing the control terms to be added to the bulk

transport coefcients, another variation of a mathematical statement for

optimal control can be found.

As far as optimal control problems with PDE dynamics are concerned,

one can nd a detailed solution of the linear quadratic regulator problem,

including conditions for the convergence of modal approximation schemes.

However, for more general optimal control problems involving PDE, the

main approach has been to use some method for constructing a particular

nite-dimensional approximating optimal control problem and then to

solve this problem. The relationship between the solutions and stationary

points of the approximating optimal control problem and those of the

original optimal control problem is not established in these papers.

For the models and differential equations describing HEs to be useful, the

additional integral and integrodifferential terms need to be addressed in a

systematic way. VAT has the unique ability to enable the combination of

direct general physical and mathematical problem statement analysis with

the convenience of the segmented analysis usually employed in HE design.

A segmented approach is a method where overall physical processes or

groups of phenomena are divided into selected subprocesses or phenomena

that are interconnected to others by an adopted chain or set of depend-

126 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

encies. A few of the obvious steps that need to be taken are the following:

1. Model what increases the heat transfer rate

2. Model what decreases of ow resistance (pressure drop)

3. Combine the transport (thermal/mass transfer) analysis and structural

analysis (spatial) and design

4. Find the minimum volume (the combination of parameters yielding a

minimum weight HE)

5. Include nonlinear conditions and nonlinear physical characteristics

into analysis and design procedures

The power and convenience of this method is clear, but its credibility is

greatly undermined by variability and freedom of choice in selection of

subportions of the whole system or process. The greatest weakness is that

the whole process of phenomena described by a voluntarily assigned set of

rules for the description of each segment is sometimes done without serious

consideration of the implications of such segmentation. Strict physical

analysis and consideration of the consequences of segmentation is not

possible without a strict formulation of the problem that the VAT-based

modeling supplies. Structural optimization of a plate HE, for example, using

the VAT approach might consist of the following steps: (1) optimization of

the number of plates, plate spacing and n spacing; (2) optimization of the

n shape; (3) simultaneous optimization of multiple mathematical state-

ments. This approach also allows consideration and description of hydraul-

ically and thermally developing processes by representing them through the

distributed partial differential systems.

X. New Optimization Technique for Material Design Based on VAT

A variety of optimal control problems that can be formulated in the area

of heterogeneous medium transport involve differential equations modeling

the physics of the process. Many of them have a fairly complicated form,

and the contemporary literature on optimal control considers much simpler

formulations of the optimization problems with constraints in form of

differential equations.

When the diffusion equations are written in nonlocal VAT form, there are

additional terms appearing in the mathematical statements. These terms can

be considered to be morphology controls involving differential and integral

operators. The nonlinear diffusion equation written without source terms

127 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

has three control terms,

s

,

cC

ct

V (D

Vs

,C

) V

_

D

1

AD ,

cS

"

C

ds

V (D

Vc`

)

1

AD ,

cS

"

D

VC

ds

V (D

Vs

,C

) F

'

(C

, D

, M

) F

'`

(c`

, D

, M

)

F

'`

(C

, D

, M

), (459)

where the morphology characteristics set M

,

such as phase fraction s

`

,

M

(s

,, cS

"

, c

`

, c

`

, . . . ).

The equation for an electrostatic electrical eld in a particulate medium

(polycrystalline medium) is

V [s

,c`

] V c`

1

AD ,

c

`

`

(c

) ds

j,

,

which becomes

V [s

,c`

] F

'

(c`

, E

, M

) F

'`

(c

, E

, M

) j,

. (460)

Additional equations are

V(s

,E

)

1

AD ,

c

`

`

ds

0

V(s

,E

) F

'`

(E

, M

) 0. (461)

A temperature control equation for the solid phase with the two morphol-

ogy control terms can be written

cT

"

ct

a

"

c`T

"

cz`

T

"`'

(T

"

, cS

`

, t, z) T

"`'

(T

"

, cS

"

, t, z), (462)

where

T

"`'

a

"

c

cz _

1

AD

"

,

c

`

`

T

"

ds

, T

"`'

a

"

AD

"

,

c

`

`

cT

"

cx

'

ds

, (463)

and in the void phase

cT

`

}

`

ct

a

`

c`T

`

}

`

cz`

T

``'

(T

`

, t, z) T

``'

(T

`

, t, z)

128 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

T

``'

(T

`

, cS

`

, t, z) a

`

c

cz _

1

AD

`

,

c

`

`

T

`

ds

`

(464)

T

``'

(T

`

, cS

`

, t, z)

a

`

AD

`

,

c

`

`

VT

`

ds

`

. (465)

These terms are not equal and their calculation or estimation presents a

challenge. However, these are the real driving forces that will differentiate

the behavior of one composite from another. Their application will lead to

a direct connection between design goals and morphological solutions.

XI. Concluding Remarks

Determination of the effective parameters in model equations are usually

based on a medium morphology model and there are dozens of associated

quasi-homogeneous and quasi-stochastic methods that claim to accomplish

this. In most cases, quasi-homogeneous and quasi-stochastic methods have

no well treated solutions and, most important, they are not sufcient for

description of the physical process features in heterogeneous media, especial-

ly when treating a multiscale processes.

The hierarchical approach applied to radiative transfer in a porous

medium and to the electrodynamics governing equations (Maxwells equa-

tions) in a heterogeneous medium yielded new volume averaged radiative

transfer equations VAREs. These equations have additional terms reect-

ing the inuence of interfaces and inhomogeneities on radiation intensity in

a porous medium and, when solved, will allow one to relate the lower scale

parameters to the upper scale material behavior. The general nature of this

result makes it applicable to any subatomic particle transport, including

neutron transport, as well as radiative transport in the heterogeneous media

eld. Direct closure based on theoretical and numerical developments that

have been developed for thermal, momentum, and mass transport processes

in a specic random porous and composite medium established a basis for

closure modeling in problems in radiative and electromagnetic phenomena.

In this work, transport models and equation sets were obtained for a

number of different circumstances with a well substantiated mathematical

theory called volume averaging theory (VAT) that included linear, non-

linear, laminar, and turbulent hierarchical transport in nonisotropic hetero-

geneous media, accounting for modeling level, interphase exchange, and

microroughness. Models were developed, for example, for porous media

using an advanced averaging technique, a hierarchical modeling methodol-

ogy, and fully turbulent models with Reynolds stresses and uxes. It is worth

129 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

noting that nonlocal mathematical modeling is very different from hom-

ogenization modeling. The new integrodifferential transport statements in

heterogeneous media and application of these nonclassical types of equa-

tions is the current issue. The theory allows one to take into consideration

characteristics of multicomponent multiphase composites with perfect as

well as imperfect morphologies and interphases. The transport equations

obtained using VAT involved additional terms that quantify the inuence of

the medium morphology. Various descriptions of the porous medium

structural morphology determine the importance of these terms and the

range of application of closure schemes.

Many mathematical models currently in use have not received a critical

review because there was nothing to review them against. The more

common models were compared with the more rigorous VAT-based models

and found decient in many respects. This does not mean they do not serve

a useful purpose. Rather, they are incomplete and suffer from lack of

generality.

VAT-based modeling is very powerful, allowing random morphology

uctuations to be incorporated into the VAT-based transport equations by

means of randomly varying morphoconvective and morphodiffusive terms.

Closure of some of the resulting morphouctuation in the governing

transport equations has been outlined, resulting in some well-developed

closure expressions for the VAT-based transport equations in porous media.

Some of them exploit the properties of available solutions to transport

problems for individual morphological elements, and others are based on

the natural morphological data of porous media.

Statistical and numerical techniques were applied to classical irregular

morphologies to treat the morphodiffusive and morphoconvective terms

along with integral terms. The challenging problem in irregular and random

morphologies is to produce an analytical or numerical evaluation of the

deviations in scalar or vector elds. In previous work, the authors have

presented a few exact closures for predetermined regular and random

porous medium morphologies. The questions related to effective coefcient

dependencies, boundary conditions, and porous medium experiment analy-

sis are discussed.

Analysis of heat exchanger designs depends on the heat balance equations

that are widely used in the heat design industry. A theoretical basis for

employing heat and momentum transport equations obtained with volume

averaging theory was developed for modeling and design of heat exchangers.

This application of VAT results in a correct set of mathematical equations

for heat exchanger modeling and optimization through implementation of

general eld equations rather than the usual balance equations. The

130 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

performance of a heat exchanger depends on the design criteria for optimiz-

ing the liquid ow velocity, dimensions of the heat exchanger, the heat

transfer area between the hot side and cold side, etc. However, the optimiz-

ation problems involving such designs are more complex than for tradi-

tional designs and require new optimal control simulation techniques.

A variety of optimal control problems that can be formulated in the area

of heterogeneous medium transport involve differential equations modeling

the physics of the process. Many of them have a fairly complicated form,

and the contemporary literature on optimal control considers much simpler

formulations of the optimization problems with constraints in the form of

differential equations. Linear optimal control systems governed by parabolic

partial differential equations (PDEs) are relatively well studied in the

literature. The modeling CHE equations resulting from VAT-based analysis

are also PDEs, but they are nonlinear and have additional integral and

integrodifferential terms.

It is well known that some matrix composites (often porous) represent the

promise for design of a series of materials with highly desirable characteris-

tics such as high temperature accommodation and enhanced toughness.

Their performance is very dependent on the volume fraction of the consti-

tuent materials, reinforcement interface and matrix morphologies, and

consolidation. Scale characteristics (nanostructural composites) give the

abnormal physical properties, such as magnetic, and mechanical transport

and state a great challenge in formulating the hierarchical models contain-

ing the design objectives.

The importance of the physical processes taking place in a heterogeneous

multiscalemultiphasecomposite medium creates the need for the develop-

ment of new tools to characterize such media. It leads to the development

of new approaches to describing these processes. One of them (VAT) has

great advantages and is the subject of this review.

Acknowledgments

This work was partly sponsored by the Department of Energy, Ofce of Basic Energy

Sciences, through the grant DE-FG03-89ER14033 A002.

Nomenclature

a thermal diffusivity [m`/s] c`

c

in the REV [-] cS

"

[-]

131 voiixr :vr:ciNc 1nrox

c

in the REV [-]

c

`"

drag resistance coefcient upon

single sphere [-]

c

'

mean skin friction coefcient

over the laminar region inside

of the REV [-]

c

C

constant coefcient in

Kolmogorov turbulent

exchange coefcient correlation

[-]

d

'"

character pore size in the cross

section [m]

d

'

diameter of ith pore [m]

d

ds interphase differential area in

porous medium [m`]

D

[m`/s]; also tube or pore

diameter [m]

D

"

at channel hydraulic diameter

[m]

D

`

diffusion coefcient in solid

[m`/s]

cS

"

internal surface in the REV

[m`]

f f }

averaged over AD

value f

intrinsic averaged variable

f ,

din

an REVphase averaged

variable

f morphouctuation value of f

in a D

H width of the channel [m]

h averaged heat transfer

coefcient over cS

"

[W/(m`/K)]; half-width of the

channel [m]

h

'

pore scale microroughness

layer thickness [m]

cS

"

internal surface in the REV

[m`]

k

(mK)]

k

`

solid phase thermal

conductivity [W/(mK)]

K permeability [m`]

K

'

turbulent kinetic energy

exchange coefcient [m`/s]

K

'

turbulent diffusion coefcient

[m`/s]

K

"

turbulent eddy viscosity [m`/s]

K

`'

effective thermal conductivity

of solid phase [W/(mK)]

K

'

turbulent eddy thermal

conductivity [W/(mK)]

l turbulence mixing length [m]

L scale [m]

m, averaged porosity [-]

m

`

surface porosity [-]

n number of pores [-]

n

'

number of pores with diameter

of type i [-]

Nu

'

h

`

d

"

z

, interface surface

Nusselt number [-]

p pressure [Pa]; or pitch in

regular porous 2D and 3D

medium [m]; or phase function

[-]

Pe

"

Re

"

Pr, Darcy velocity pore

scale Peclet number [-]

Pe

Re

'

Pr, particle radius Peclet

number [-]

Pr

v

a

Q

"

outward heat ux [W/m`]

Re

'"

Reynolds number of pore

hydraulic diameter [-]

Re

"

m,u

`

d

"

v

, Darcy velocity

Reynolds number of pore

hydraulic diameter [-]

Re

u

`

d

v

, particle Reynolds

number [-]

Re

'

u

`

d

'

v

, Reynolds number of

general scale pore hydraulic

diameter [-]

S

''

total cross-sectional area

available to ow [m`]

S

"

specic surface of a porous

medium cS

"

/AD [1/m]

S

"

S

/AD [1/m]

132 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

S

S

'

cross ow projected area

of obstacles [m`]

T temperature [K]

T

given temperature range [K]

T

`

solid phase temperature [K]

T

"

wall temperature [K]

T

"

reference temperature [K]

U, u velocity in x direction [m/s]

u`

''

square friction velocity at the

upper boundary of HR

averaged over surface cS

"

[m`/s`]

V velocity [m/s]

V

'

u

`

m, Darcy velocity [m/s]

W velocity in z direction [m/s]

Sinscii1s

e effective

f uid phase

i component of turbulent vector

variable; or species or pore type

k component of turbulent

variable that designates

turbulent microeffects on a

pore level

L laminar

m scale value or medium

r roughness

s solid phase

T turbulent

w wall

Siirscii1s

value in uid phase averaged

over the REV

value in solid phase averaged

over the REV

mean turbulent quantity

' turbulent uctuation value

* equilibrium values at the

assigned surface or complex

conjugate variable

Grrx Lr11rs

:`

'

averaged heat transfer

coefcient over cS

"

[W/(m`K)]

AD representative elementary

volume (REV) [m`]

AD

AD

`

solid phase volume in a REV

[m`]

c

, c

"

electric permittivity [Fr/m]

j dynamic viscosity [kg/(ms)] or

[Pas]

j

"

magnetic permeability [H/m]

v kinematic viscosity [m`/s]; also

v, frequency [Hz]

j density [kg/m`]; also j, electric

charge density [C/m`]

o

conductivity [A/V/m]

u electric scalar potential [V]

particle intensity per unit

energy (frequency)

} ensemble-averaged value of

`

'

interface ensemble-averaged

value of , with phase j being to

the left

c angular frequency [rad/s]

, magnetic susceptibility [-]

``

`

scattering coefcient [1/m]

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144 v. s. 1:vxiN :Nn i. c:11oN

Two-Phase Flow in Microchannels

S. M. GHIAASIAAN and S. I. ABDEL-KHALIK

G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

Atlanta, Georgia 30332

I. Introduction

The application of miniature thermal and mechanical systems is rapidly

increasing in various branches of industry. Recent technological advances

have led to extremely ne spatial and temporal thermal load resolutions,

requiring the analysis of microscale heat transfer phenomena where the

system characteristic dimension can be smaller than the mean free path of

the heat carrying particles [1].

In this article the recently published research dealing with gasliquid

two-phase ow in microchannels is reviewed. Only microchannels with

hydraulic diameters of the order of 0.1 to 1 mm and with long length-to-

hydraulic diameter ratios are considered. In these systems the channel

characteristic dimension is of the same order of magnitude, or smaller than,

the neutral interfacial wavelengths predicted by the Taylor stability analysis.

The review is also restricted to situations where the uid inertia is signicant

in comparison with surface tension. Such microchannels and ow conditions

are encountered in miniature heat exchangers, research nuclear reactors,

biotechnology systems, the cooling of high-power electronic systems, the

cooling of the plasma-facing components in fusion reactors, and the heat

rejection systems of spacecraft, to name a few. The ow through cracks and

slits when such cracks develop in vessels and piping systems containing

high-pressure liquids is another application of two-phase ow in microchan-

nels of interest here. Two-phase ow in capillaries with complex geometry

(porous media) has been reviewed in the recent past [24] and will not be

addressed.

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOLUME 34

145

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOL. 34

ISBN: 0-12-020034-1 Copyright 2001 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

0065-2717/01 $35.00

II. Characteristics of Microchannel Flow

For steady-state and developed two-phase ow in a smooth pipe, and

assuming incompressible phases, the variables that can affect the hy-

drodynamics of gasliquid two-phase ow are j

'

, j

'

, j

'

, j

'

, o, D, g, 0

, ,

U

'`

, and U

'`

. Since the minimum number of reference dimensions in

hydrodynamics is three (time, mass, and length), according to the Buckin-

ham theorem eight independent dimensionless parameters can be dened

that in general affect the hydrodynamics of gasliquid two-phase ow. The

following three dimensionless parameters are particularly important for the

characterization of microchannels:

Eo

AjgD`

o

(1)

We

'`

U`

'`

Dj

'

o

(2)

We

'`

U`

'`

Dj

'

o

. (3)

The remainder of the dimensionless parameters can be represented as Aj/j

'

,

j

'

/j

'

, 0

Re

'`

U

'`

D/v

'

(4)

Re

'`

U

'`

D/v

'

. (5)

Note that the phasic Froude numbers Fr

'`

U`

'`

/gD and Fr

'`

U`

'`

/gD,

and the capillary number Ca j

'

U

'`

/o, can all be derived by combining

two or more of these dimensionless parameters. When Eo, We

'`

, and We

'`

are all less than 1, gravitation and inertia are both insignicant in compari-

son with surface tension. Re

'`

1, furthermore, implies small inertia com-

pared with viscous forces. Flow elds in capillaries where surface tension

and viscosity dominate buoyancy and inertia have important applications

and have been extensively studied in the past [58]. In microchannels of

interest here, however, Eo 1, at least one of the Weber numbers is

typically of the order of 1 to 10`, and Re

'`

1. Thus, although surface

tension mostly dominates buoyancy, inertia can be signicant. Similar

conditions apply to two-phase ow in microgravity, resulting in important

and useful similarities between the two categories of systems with respect to

hydrodynamics of two-phase ow. In both types of systems the predomin-

ance of the surface tension force on buoyancy leads to the insensitivity of

two-phase hydrodynamics to channel orientation, and in nonseparated

two-phase ow patterns it leads to the suppression of velocity difference

146 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

between the two phases in the absence of signicant acceleration.

Suo and Grifth [9] derived the following criterion for negligible buoy-

ancy effect in two-phase pipe ow:

j

'

gD`

o

0.88/3. (6)

Based on an analysis of stratied to nonstratied ow regime transition,

Brauner and Moalem-Maron [10] derived the following criterion for the

predominance of surface tension on buoyancy:

Eo (2)`. (7)

Experiments with water and air owing in pipes indicate that the transition

to the surface tensiondominated regime (where ow patterns are not

affected by channel orientation) occurs in the 1 D2 mm range [11, 12].

Equation (6) agrees well with the latter observations. The channel hydraulic

diameters considered here thus cover the aforementioned critical range.

Another important characteristic of microchannels of interest here is that

for them,

D

O(z), (8)

where

z

,

o

gAj

. (9)

The Laplace length scale, z, represents the order of magnitude of the

wavelength of the interfacial waves in Taylor instability, and the latter

instability type is known to govern important hydrodynamic processes such

as bubble and droplet breakup. Equation (8) evidently implies that some

Taylor instability-driven processes may be entirely irrelevant to microchan-

nels. The criterion of Suo and Grifth, Eq. (6), can approximately be recast

as

D0.3z. (10)

III. Two-Phase Flow Regimes and Void Fraction in Microchannels

The gas and liquid phases in a two-phase ow system can exist in various

distinct morphological congurations. Flow regimes represent the major

morphological congurations of the phases and are among the most

important characteristics of two-phase ow systems, since they strongly

inuence all the hydrodynamic and transport processes, such as pressure

147 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

drop, heat and mass transfer, and ow stability. A methodology for

predicting the two-phase ow regimes is thus required for the design of

two-phase ow systems and for the specication of appropriate closure

relations for two-phase conservation equations.

Flow regimes and conditions leading to their establishment have been

extensively investigated in the past several decades. Methods for predicting

the ow regimes are often based on the ow regime map concept, according

to which the empirically determined ranges of occurrence of all major ow

patterns are specied on a two-dimensional map, with the two coordinates

representing some appropriate hydrodynamic parameters [13, 14]. How-

ever, since the gasliquid hydrodynamics are affected by a large number of

independent dimensionless parameters, the two-dimensional ow regime

maps are often in disagreement with respect to the parameters they use as

coordinates and their ranges of applicability are limited to the ranges of

their databases. More recently, semianalytical methods, where the ow

regime transition processes are mechanistically or semianalytically modeled,

have been proposed [1517] and have undergone extension and improve-

ment [1820]. The existing ow regime maps, as well as the aforementioned

semianalytical models, however, generally do poorly when compared with

experimental two-phase ow regime data representing microchannels.

A. DrriNi1ioN or M:o Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov Rrcixrs

Experiments indicate that ow regimes, which are morphologically simi-

lar to the major two-phase ow regimes common in large channels, occur

in microchannels as well. Therefore, a brief review of the major ow regimes

observed in large channels is provided in this section. Detailed explanations

of these ow regimes and their characteristics can be found in various

textbooks and monographs [13, 14] and in more recent review articles [18].

Figure 1 schematically depicts the major ow regimes in common

gasNewtonian liquid two-phase ow systems in large vertical channels.

Bubbly ow occurs at low gas and liquid ow rates and is characterized by

bubbles distorted-spherical in shape and moving upward in zigzag fashion.

The slug ow regime is characterized by bullet-shaped Taylor bubbles that

have diameters close to the diameter of the channel and are separated from

the channel wall by a thin liquid lm, with lengths that can widely vary and

may reach more than 15 times the channel diameter. The Taylor bubbles

are separated by liquid slugs that often contain small entrained bubbles. The

churn ow is established following the disruption of the Taylor bubbles due

to high gas ow rates and is characterized by chaotic oscillations and

churning. In the annular ow pattern a thin liquid lm, which can be

smooth or wavy depending on the gas velocity, ows on the wall, while the

148 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 1. Major ow patterns in a large vertical pipe.

gas ows through the channel core. The gas often contains dispersed

droplets. In the dispersed-bubbly ow regime, which is established at very

high liquid ow rates, small spherical bubbles with little or no interaction

with each other are mixed with the liquid. Unlike the common bubbly ow

regime, in which the bubble size is controlled by Taylor instability and

aerodynamic forces, the size of the bubbles in the dispersed bubbly ow

regime is dictated by turbulence in the liquid.

The commonly observed two-phase ow patterns associated with the ow

of a gas and a Newtonian liquid in a horizontal large channel are depicted

in Fig. 2. Bubbly ow occurs at high liquid and low gas ow rates and is

followed by plug (elongated bubble), slug, and annular/dispersed ow

patterns as the gas ow rate is increased. The stratied-smooth ow regime

occurs at low liquid and low gas ow rates and is followed by stratied wavy

and annular/dispersed ow regimes as the gas ow rate is increased. The

dispersed-bubbly regime occurs at very high liquid ow rates, and its

characteristics are similar to those of the dispersed-bubbly ow regime in

vertical channels. The plug and slug ow patterns are often referred to

collectively as the intermittent ow pattern, since the distinction between

them is not always clear or important.

The ow patterns in Figs. 1 and 2 only display the major ow regimes

that are easily discernible visually and with simple photographic techniques

and are commonly addressed in ow regime maps and transition models.

149 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 2. Major ow patterns in a large horizontal pipe.

Numerous subtle variations within some of the ow patterns can be

recognized using more sophisticated techniques, however [21].

B. Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov Rrcixrs iN Micocn:NNris

Early studies dealing with two-phase ow in microchannels were mostly

concerned with surface tension-driven ows [58]. Two-phase ow regimes

in microchannels under conditions where inertia is signicant have been

experimentally investigated by Suo and Grifth [9], Oya [22], Barnea et al.

[23], Damianides and Westwater [11], Barajas and Panton [24], Fukano

and Kariyasaki [25], Mishima and Hibiki [26], and Triplett et al. [12].

Two-phase ow patterns in narrow, rectangular channels, some simulating

slits and cracks, have also been reported in [2733]. Narrow et al. [34] and

Ekberg et al. [35] studied the two phase ow regimes in a micro-rod bundle

150 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 3. Cross-sectional geometry of the test sections of Triplett et al. [12].

and in narrow annuli, respectively. Two-phase ow and transport phenom-

ena in the slug (bubble train) regime in microchannels have also been

investigated [36, 37].

The commonly observed ow patterns in microchannels are depicted here

using the photographs provided by Triplett et al. [12]. The major ow

regimes shown in these pictures are in agreement with the observation of

most of the other investigators, although, as will be shown later, some ow

patterns have been given different names by different authors. Triplett et al.

[12] conducted experiments using air and water at room temperature, in

horizontal, transparent circular test sections with 1.09 and 1.45 mm diam-

eter, and in microchannels with semitriangular (triangular with one corner

smoothed) cross sections with 1.09 and 1.49mm hydraulic diameters (see

Fig. 3). They identied the ow regimes using high-speed videocameras

recording ow details near the centers of the test sections. Figure 4 displays

typical photographs of the ow patterns identied in their 1.09-mm-

diameter circular test section. The overall ow pattern morphologies ob-

served with the other test sections used by Triplett et al. [12] were similar

to the pictures in Fig. 4.

151 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 4. Representative photographs of ow patterns in the 1.1-mm-diameter test section of

Triplett et al. [12]. (With permission from [12].)

152 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Bubbly ow (Fig. 4a) was characterized by distinct and distorted (non-

spherical) bubbles, typically considerably smaller in diameter than the

channel. The slug ow (Fig. 4b) is characterized by elongated cylindrical

bubbles. This ow pattern has been referred to as slug by some investigators

[9, 26] and plug by others [11, 24]. Unlike plug ow in larger channels

where the elongated gas bubbles typically occupy only part of the channel

cross section (Fig. 2), the bubbles in slug ow in microchannels appear to

occupy most of the channel cross section [12, 26].

Figures 4c and 4d display the churn ow pattern in the experiments of

Triplett et al. [12], who assumed two processes to characterize churn ow.

In one process, the elongated bubbles associated with the slug ow pattern

become unstable as the gas ow rate is increased and their trailing ends are

disrupted into dispersed bubbles (Fig. 4c). This ow pattern has been

referred to as pseudo-slug [9], churn [26], and frothy-slug by Zhao and

Rezkallah [38] in their microgravity experiments. The second process that

characterizes churn ow is the occurrence of churning waves that period-

ically disrupt an otherwise apparently wavy-annular ow pattern (Fig. 4d).

This ow pattern is referred to as frothy slug-annular by Zhao and

Rezkallah [38]. At relatively low liquid supercial velocities, increasing the

mixture volumetric ux leads to the merging of long bubbles that charac-

terize slug ow, and to the development of the slugannular ow regime

represented by Fig. 4e. In this ow pattern long segments of the channel

support an essentially wavy-annular ow and are interrupted by large-

amplitude solitary waves that do not grow sufciently to block the ow

path. With further increase in the gas supercial velocity, these large

amplitude solitary waves disappear and the annular ow pattern represen-

ted by Fig. 4f is established.

C. Rrvirv or Prviois ExirixrN1:i S1inirs :Nn Tnri TrNns

The important studies of microchannel two-phase ow that have ad-

dressed parameter ranges of interest here are reviewed, and their experimen-

tal results are compared, in this section. Table I is a summary of the

experimental investigations reviewed here.

1. General Trends

The study by Suo and Grifth [9] is among the earliest experimental

investigations. They could observe slugbubbly, slug, and annular ow

patterns. They observed no stratication, attributed its absence to the

predominane of surface tension over buoyancy, and proposed the criterion

in Eq. (6). Oya [22, 39] was concerned with ow patterns and pressure drop

153 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

TABLE I

Sixx:x or ExirixrN1:i D:1: ro Micocn:NNri :Nn N:ov P:ss:cr Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov Rrcixrs

U

'`

U

'`

Author Orientation Channel characteristics Fluids (m/s) (m/s)

WaterN

`

,

heptaneN

`

,

Suo and Grifth [9] Horizontal Circular, D1.0 and 1.4 mm

heptaneHe

Not given Not given

Barnea et al. [23] Horizontal and Glass, circular, D412.3 mm Waterair 0.0460 0.00210

vertical

Triplett et al. [12] Horizontal Pyrex, circular, D1.1 and 1.45mm; Waterair 0.0280 0.028.0

semitriangular (Fig. 3), D

1.1 and

1.49 mm

Damianides and Westwater [11] Horizontal Pyrex, circular, D15 mm; stack of ns Waterair 0.03100 0.0810

Fukano and Kariyasaki [25] Horizontal Circular, D1, 2.4, 4.9, 9 and 26 mm Waterair 0.130 0.022

and vertical

Mishima and Hibiki [26] Vertical Pyrex and aluminum, D1.054.08 mm Waterair 0.150 0.022

Barajas and Panton [24] Horizontal Pyrex, polyethylene, polyurethane, Waterair 0.1100 0.0032

uoropolymer resin

1

5

4

Narrow et al. [34] Horizontal Glass, seven-rod bundle, D

Lowry and Kawaji [27] Vertical Rectangular, W8 cm, L 8 cm, S 0.5, Waterair 0.118 0.18

1, 2 mm

Wambsganss et al. [28] Horizontal Rectangular, W19.05 mm, L 1.14 m, Waterair 0.0530 0.22

S 3.18 mm

Ali and Kawaji [29] Horizontal/ Rectangular, W80 mm, L 240 mm, Waterair 0.1516 0.27.0

Vertical S 1.465 mm

Ali et al. [30] Horizontal/ Rectangular, W80 mm, L 240 mm, Waterair 0.1516 0.156.0

Vertical S 0.778 and 1.465mm

Mishima et al. [31] Vertical Rectangular, W40 mm, L 1.5 m, S 1.07, Waterair 0.0210 0.110

2.45, 5.0 mm

Wilmarth and Ishii [32] Horizontal/ Rectangular, L 630 mm; W15 mm and Waterair 0.028 0.074.0

Vertical S 1 mm; W20mm and S 2mm

Fourar and Bories [33] Horizontal Rectangular glass slit, W0.5 m, L 2 m, Waterair 0.010 0.0051

S 1 mm; brick slit, W14 cm, L 28 cm,

S 0.18, 0.4, 0.54 mm

Ekberg et al. [35] Horizontal Glass annuli; D

'

6.6 mm, D

D

'

33.2 mm and D

35.2 mm; L 35 cm

for both annuli

1

5

5

Fic. 5. Experimental ow regime maps for airwater ow in microchannels (Triplett et al.

[12]) and a micro-rod bundle (Narrow et al. [34]).

resulting from the conuence of airfossil liquid fuel in short vertical tubes

with 2, 3, and 6 mm diameters, and L /D ratios of 20 to 25, and could identify

nine distinct ow patterns. Because of the predominance of entrance effects,

however, Oyas data may not be representative of fully developed ow

patterns.

In the study by Barnea et al. [23], airwater ow regimes were compared

with the ow regime transition models of Taitel and Dukler [15] for

horizontal ow and Taitel et al. [12] for vertical ow, with some minor

modications. The latter models predicted their data well. Since the tube

diameters were relatively large, however, their data clearly show the effects

of gravity and test section orientation.

The two-phase ow regime data of Triplett et al. [12] are shown in Fig.

5. Regime transition lines representing a micro-rod bundle (Narrow et al.

[34]) are also depicted and are discussed in Subsection E of this part. The

ow patterns representing the four test sections of Triplett et al. are similar,

and none of the test sections supported stratied ow. The depicted ow

patterns indicate the predominance of intermittent (slug, churn, and slug

annular) ow patterns that together occupy most of the maps.

The two-phase ow regimes representing the ow of airwater mixture in

glass tubes with D1 mm to 2.4 mm reported by several authors are

156 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 6. Comparison among airwater ow regime maps obtained in glass tubes with

D51 mm. (Symbols represent the test section (a) in Fig. 3 [12]).

depicted in Fig. 6. For the airwaterPyrex system 0

34 [40], implying

a partially wetting liquid. In Fig. 6, the ow pattern names in capital and

bold letters represent those reported by Damianides and Westwater [11]

and Fukano and Kariyasaki [25], respectively; the lowercase letters are

from Mishima and Hibiki [26]; and the symbols represent the data of

Triplett et al. [12].

Damianides and Westwater [11] were concerned with two-phase ow

patterns in compact heat exchangers. The ow patterns in their 1 and 2 mm

diameter tubes, which are of interest here, included dispersed bubbly,

bubbly, plug, slug, pseudoslug, dispersed-droplet, and annular. As noted, the

ow pattern identied as churn by Triplett et al. (Figs. 4c and 4d) appears

to coincide with the ow pattern identied as dispersed by Damianides and

Westwater. Furthermore, the slug and slugannular regimes in Tripletts

experiments (Figs. 4e and 4f ) coincide with the plug and slug ow regimes

in Damianides and Westwater, respectively. These differences are evidently

associated with subjective identication and naming of ow patterns, and

the two experimental sets are otherwise in good overall agreement.

157 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fukano and Kariyasaki [25] reported no signicant effect of channel

orientation on the ow patterns for channel diameters 4.9 mm and smaller.

Fukano and Kariyasaki identied only three ow patterns: bubbly, inter-

mittent, and annular. They compared the ranges of occurrence of the ow

regimes with the ow regime map of Mandhane et al. [41], with poor

agreement. However, their ow transition lines agreed with the transition

lines of Barnea et al. [23] for the latter authors 4 mm diameter tube tests.

The ow regime transition lines of Fukano and Kariyasaki representing the

data obtained with their 1 mm and 2.4 mm-diameter test sections are

depicted in Fig. 6. Their data are evidently in disagreement with the data of

Triplett et al. [12], and Damianides and Westwater [11], except for the

intermittent-to-bubbly ow transition line, where all three data sets are in

good agreement.

In the investigation by Mishima and Hibiki [26], except for void fraction

measurements, which were carried out in aluminum test sections, all

experiments were performed in Pyrex test sections, and ow regimes were

identied using a high-speed camera. The identied ow regimes were

bubbly, slug, churn, annular, and annular-mist. Mishima and Hibiki com-

pared their data representing 2.05 and 4.08 mm diameter test sections with

the ow regime transition models of Mishima and Ishii [42] with very good

agreement and argued that the latter ow regime transition models should

be applicable to capillary tubes as well. The ow transition lines of Mishima

and Hibiki [26] are displayed in Fig. 6 for the data obtained with their

2.05mm diameter test section, and are noted to disagree with the data of

other investigators. Mishima and Hibiki have indicated that the ow

patterns in their 1.05 mm diameter test section were similar to the patterns

for their 2.05 mm diameter test section.

2. Effect of Surface Wettability

The experimetal studies just discussed all utilized materials that represen-

ted partially wetting (90) conditions. In view of the signicance of

surface tension, however, the surface wettability can evidently affect the

two-phase ow hydrodynamics in microchannels. Barajas and Panton [24]

conducted experiments with air and water, using four different channel

materials. These included Pyrex (34), polyethylene (61), and

polyurethane (74) as partially wetting; and the FEP uoropolymer

resin (106) as a partially nonwetting combination. Figure 7 displays a

summary of their ow regime maps, where the data of Triplett et al. [12]

representing their 1.09mm diameter circular test section are also included

for comparison. The data of Barajas and Panton [24] representing their

Pyrex test section agreed well with the experimental ow regime of Damian-

158 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 7. The effect of surface wettability on the airwater ow regimes. (Symbols represent

test section (a) in Fig. 3 [12]; ow regime names are from Barajas and Panton [24]).

ides and Westwater [11] representing the latter authors 1 mm and 2 mm

diameter test sections (which were also made of Pyrex), with the excep-

tion of the wavy stratied ow pattern, which did not occur in the 1 mm

test section of Damianides and Westwater. With the other partially wetting

test sections, polyethylene and polyurethane, the ow regimes and their

ranges of occurrence were similar to those obtained with Pyrex, with the

difference that with polyethylene and polyurethane the wavy ow pattern

was now replaced with a ow regime characterized by a single rivulet. A

small multirivulet region also occurred on the ow regime map representing

the polyurethane test section. The ow regimes observed with the partially

nonwetting channel FEP uoropolymer were signicantly different,

however, and compared with the partially wetting tubes, the ranges of

occurrence of the rivulet and multirivulet ow patterns were signicantly

wider.

3. Flow Regimes in Microgravity

As mentioned earlier in Part II, dimensional analysis indicates that

two-phase ow in common large channels in microgravity has important

similarities with two-phase ow in terrestrial microchannels, since in both

159 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 8. Comparison of microchannel ow regime data of Triplett et al. for their 1-mm

diameter circular test section (Fig. 3a) with the microgravity data of Zhao and Rezkallah [43]

and Bousman et al. [45].

systems the surface tension predominates buoyancy, while inertia can be

signicant.

Experiments conducted aboard aircraft ying parabolic trajectories that

can maintain microgravity (_0.02g) for periods up to 22 seconds have been

reported by several research groups. Based on the published data, empirical

correlations for ow regime transitions applicable over wide ranges of uid

properties have been proposed by Rezkallah [43] and Jayawardena et al.

[44]. Zhao and Rezkallah [38] performed experiments in 9.52mm and

12.7mm diameter tubes, where the regimes associated with waterair

two-phase ow were identied using video cameras. Four major ow

patterns were identied: bubbly, slug, frothy slugannular, and annular. The

bubbly, slug, and annular ow regimes were morphologically similar to

those described before (see Figs. 4a, 4b, and 4f ). The frothy slugannular

regime as described by Zhao and Rezkallah, however, is similar to the ow

pattern depicted in Fig. 4d and has been called the pseudo-slug by Suo and

Grifth [9], and churn by others [12, 26]. Figure 8 compares the ow

regimes of Triplett et al. [12] representing their test section (a) (see Fig. 3),

with the experimental ow regime transition lines of Zhao and Rezkallah

[38].

Bousman et al. [45] utilized test sections with 12.7 mm and 25.4 mm

diameters, and studied the two-phase ow regime, void fraction, and liquid

lm thickness in the annular regime, using airwater, airwater glycerin

160 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

(j

'

6 cP, o63 dyn/cm), and airwater Zonyl FPS (a surfactant; re-

sulting in j

'

1 cP, o21 dyn/cm) mixtures. Bousman et al. identied four

major ow regimes similar to those reported by Zhao and Rezkallah [38].

Their experimental ow regime transition lines are also depicted in Fig. 8

and are noted to be in relatively poor agreement with the data of Triplett

et al. [12] with respect to the bubblyslug ow regime transition, and in

good agreement with respect to the transition to annular ow.

D. Fiov Rrcixr T:Nsi1ioN Monris :Nn Cori:1ioNs

As noted earlier, theoretical arguments and experimental evidence indi-

cate that ow patterns in microchannels should be insensitive to gravi-

tational eld, and therefore to channel orientation. Criteria for calculating

the maximum channel size for which gravity is inconsequential have been

proposed in [9, 10] (see Eqs. (68)). Equation (6) [9], which provides a

criterion for the dominance of surface tension over buoyancy to the extent

that for channel diameters smaller than the provided limit the two-phase

ow patterns are not affected by the channel orientation, agrees with the

experimental data of [11, 12].

The ow regime map of Mandhane et al. [41], a widely used empirical

ow regime map for common horizontal channels, was compared with

microchannel data by some authors with poor agreement [12, 25].

Barnea et al. [23] invetigated the two-phase ow regimes in small

channels (4 mmD12.3 mm) and extended the methodology of Taitel

and Dukler [15] for horizontal ow. In the original model of Taitel and

Dukler [15], transition from stratied to intermittent ow regimes is

assumed to take place when small but nite amplitude disturbances that

occur on the liquid surface grow. The position of the liquid surface (i.e., the

liquid depth in the channel) is predicted from the solution of one-dimen-

sional (1D) gas and liquid momentum conservation equations assuming

steady-state and fully developed stratied ow [15]. Barnea et al. [23]

argued that in very small channels the predominance of surface tension on

gravitational force, and not the interfacial wave instability, is responsible for

regime transition from stratied to intermittent. Based on a simple model,

Barnea et al. proposed that the latter ow regime transition occurs in very

small channels when the liquid depth in the channel, found from the solution

of 1D momentum equations for steady-state and fully developed stratied

ow, satises the following equation:

Dh

'

_

o

j

'

(1 /4)

`

. (11)

Barnea et al. [23] also argued that when D is smaller than the right-hand

161 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

side of the preceding equation, the aforementioned ow regime transition

occurs when

h

'

4

D. (12)

The modied Taitel and Dukler [15] models for horizontal ow and the

ow regime transition models of Taitel et al. well predicted the aforemen-

tioned data of Barnea et al. [23]. When applied to smaller channels,

however, the aforementioned semianalytical ow regime transition models

appear to do poorly [11, 12], with the exception of the model of Taitel and

Dukler [15] for the establishment of dispersed bubbly ow.

For the transition to dispersed bubbly ow, Taitel and Dukler [15]

derived the following relation based on a mechanistic model according to

which in the latter regime spherical bubbles have diameters within the size

range of inertial eddies predicted by Kolmogorovs theory of locally iso-

tropic turbulence, and their diameters are controlled by interation with the

latter eddies:

U

'`

U

'`

4.0

D""`"(o/j

'

)""`"

v""``

'

_

g(j

'

j

'

)

j

'

"""'

. (13)

This relation is valid as long as : 0.52, the latter approximately

representing the upper limit of void fraction for the existence of spherical

bubbles. In large horizontal channels, in addition to Eq. (13), another

criterion should be met according to which turbulence dominates over

buoyancy so that bubbles do not gather near the channel top [15, 20]. The

latter criterion is evidently redundant in microchannels where buoyancy

effect is insignicant. Although the basic assumptions for the development

of Eq. (13) are usually not met in microchannels [12], it appears to predict

well the transition line representing the development of bubbly ow [12, 25].

Based on the drift ow model, and arguing that the void fraction is a

suitable parameter for correlating ow regime transitions, Mishima and

Ishii [42] derived expressions for ow regime transition in vertical, upward

ow. The major ow regimes considered were bubbly, slug, churn, and

annular. The transition from bubbly to slug ow was assumed to occur

when a void fraction of 0.3 is reached, and led to

U

'`

3.33

:

1

U

'`

0.76

C

ogAj

j

'

2

"

. (14)

The slug-to-churn transition was assumed to occur when the liquid slugs

become unstable because of the wake effect caused by the Taylor bubbles.

162 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

For this transition, Mishima and Ishii derived

: 1 0.813

(C

1)(U

'`

U

'`

) 0.35gDAj/j

'

U

'`

U

'`

0.75

,

gDAj

j

'

gD`j

'

Aj

j`

'

`

(15)

where : is predicted using the following expression provided by the drift ux

model [46, 47]:

:

U

'`

C

(U

'`

U

'`

) V

'

. (16)

Mishima and Ishii [42] assumed that the transition from churn to annular

ow occurred either because of ow reversal in the liquid lms separating

large bubbles from the wall, or because of the disruption of liquid slugs. The

rst mechanism is applicable when

D

,

o

gAj

N""

'

[(1 0.11C

)/C

]`

, (17)

where

N

'

j

'

_

oj

' ,

o

gAj

`

. (18)

When the rst mechanism applies, the churn-to-annular transition occurs

when

U

'`

(: 0.11)

,

gDAj

j

'

. (19)

(Note than : used in the preceding equation must be larger than the

right-hand side of Eq. (15)). The second mechanism causes the regime

transition when

U

'`

ogAj

j

'

"

N"`

'

. (20)

The drift ux parameters C

"

in the preceding expressions should be found

from [48]

C

"

1.20.2j

'

/j

'

for round tubes (21)

C

"

1.350.35j

'

/j

'

for rectangular ducts. (22)

Mishima and Hibiki [26] compared their experimental data representing

163 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

two-phase ow in tubes with 1.05mm to 4.08mm diameters with the

aforementioned ow regime transition models of Mishima and Ishii [42],

apparently with good agreement, despite the fact that the empirical drift ux

model parameters (namely C

"

and V

'

) of the latter authors may be

inappropriate for microchannels. The representation of V

'

in the derivation

of the foregoing transition models based on expressions valid for larger

channels is evidently in disagreement with experimental data associated

with microchannels, where velocity slip and the buoyancy effect are both

negligible.

Zhao and Rezkallah [38] and Rezkallah [43], in correlating their micro-

gravity ow regime data, argued that when the buoyancy force is negligible

compared with surface tension while inertia is signicant, the phasic Weber

numbers are the most appropriate dimensionless parameters for the corre-

lation of ow regime transitions. Based on their experimental data, Zhao

and Rezkallah [38] correlated the bubbly-to-slug transition assuming equal

phasic velocities, and that this transition occurs at a void fraction of

: 0.18, and derived U

'`

4.56U

'`

accordingly.

Zhao and Rezkallah empirically correlated the ow regime transitions

from slug to frothy slugannular (equivalent to the slugannular ow

pattern in Triplett et al. [12]; see Fig. 4e) according to We

'`

1 and from

frothy slugannular to annular ow according to We

'`

20.

The preceding correlations well predicted the experimental data of Zhao

and Rezkallah [38]. When data from several other sources were also

considered, the aforementioned We

'`

constant correlations were found

inadequate [43]. However, correlations in the form We

'

constant could

well predict the entire data [43], where

We

'

j

'

U`

'

D/o, (23)

with U

'

representing the gas phase velocity. The latter We

'

constant

correlations are inconvenient for application, however, since the void

fraction is needed for the calculation of U

'

. Rezkallah [43], however,

showed that the data from several microgravity sources, which covered a

relatively wide range of uid properties, could be well correlated in a

two-dimensional map using We

'`

and We

'`

as coordinates, provided that

the entire ow regime map is divided into three regions: the surface tension

region including bubbly and slug ow regimes; the intermediate (transi-

tional) region including the frothy slugannular regime; and the inertial

region representing annular ow.

The experimental data of Triplett et al. [12] representing all four of their

test sections, and the experimental ow regime transition lines of Damian-

ides and Westwater [11] representing their 1 mm diameter test section, are

depicted in a ow regime map with We

'`

and We

'`

as coordinates in Fig. 9.

164 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 9. Comparisn of microchannel data representing D1 mm with the microgravity ow

regime transition lines of Rezkallah [43]. Capitals: data from (11); Lowercase: data from [43].

As noted, the depicted data agree with the empirical transition lines of

Rezkallah [43] relatively well with respect to the ow regime transitions

among surface tension (bubbly or slug), transitional, and inertia (annular)

regions. The transitional region in Fig. 9 includes the churn (Figs. 4c and

4d) and slugannular (Fig. 4e), also referred to as pseudoslug [9] and frothy

slugannular [38] ow patterns. The data of Fukano and Kariyasaki [25]

are not shown, since the latter authors dened only three ow patterns

(bubbly, intermittent, and annular).

Bousman, McQuillen, and Witte [45], in correlating their microgravity

ow regime data, argued for the use of the void fraction as the criterion for

ow regime transition. The transition from bubbly to slug ow was assumed

to occur when : 0.4, and transition to annular ow was assumed to take

place when : 0.700.75, with the exact value depending on the liquid type.

They thus divided the entire ow regime map into three regions: bubbly,

transitional (slug and slug/annular), and annular. They calculated the void

fractions used for the derivation of the aforementioned criteria using the

drift ux model [46, 47], Eq. (16), assuming V

'

0 because of the absence

of velocity drift in nonseparated ow patterns in microgravity. Based on

their measurement of void fractions in their smaller (12.7 mm diameter) test

section, they derived C

"

1.21 and assumed that the same value was

165 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

applicable to their larger (25.4 mm diameter) test section. The : 0.4

criterion for transition from bubbly to slug ow patterns is in disagreement

with the aforementioned : 0.18 criterion suggested by Zhao and Rezkal-

lah [38]. It is also in disagreement with the 0.25 to 0.3 value in large

terrestrial channel ow data [17, 42].

Jayawarden et al. [44] considered the aforementioned data of Zhao and

Rezkallah [38] and Bousman et al. [45], as well as data from several other

sources covering uids with a wide range of properties. Similar to Bousman

et al. [45], they divided the entire ow regime map into three zones: bubbly,

slug/slugannular, and annular. They argued that the phasic supercial

Weber and Reynolds numbers were the primary dimensionless parameters

that should be used for correlating regime transitions in microgravity. They

demonstrated that the transition from bubbly to slug/slugannular for the

entire data considered could be correlated as

Re

'`

Re

'`

K

Su`` (24)

where

Re

'`

U

'`

D/v

'

(25)

Re

'`

U

'`

D/v

'

(26)

Su

Re`

'`

We

'`

oDj

'

j`

'

. (27)

Equation (24) was recommended for the range 10" Su 10`. For transi-

tion to the annular ow regime, Jayawarden et al. [44] derived

Re

'`

Re

'`

K

`

Su`` (28)

for Su 10', and

Re

'`

K

`

Su` (29)

for Su 10', where K

`

4,641.6, and K

`

2 10". Unfortunately, the

available microchannel two-phase ow data represent very narrow ranges

of the Su parameter, and meaningful comparison between the available data

and the aforementioned ow regime transition correlations of Jayawarden

et al. [44] is not feasible at this time.

E. Fiov P:11rNs iN : Mico-Ron BiNnir

Micro-tube bundles have potential applications in miniature heat ex-

changers. Experimental data dealing with two-phase ow in micro-rod and

-tube bundles are scarce, however.

166 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 10. Cross-section of the micro-rod bundle test section of Narrow et al. [34]. (With

permission from [34].)

Narrow et al. [34] experimentally investigated the airwater two-phase

ow patterns and pressure drop in a horizontal, 23 cm long glass micro-rod

bundle that included seven rods congured as in Fig 10. Their test section was

entirely transparent, had an average hydraulic diameter of 1.29 mm, and

included several short components specically designed to reduce the

entrance and exit effects. They used a high-speed digital video camera near the

test section center to directly view subchannels 11 and 12 in Fig. 10, and

subchannels 5 and 6, which were visible through the transparent rod in front

of them. The owregime map of Narrow et al. is depicted in Fig. 5. Froth ow

was characterized by the absence of a discernible interfacial geometry. In the

stratiedintermittent ow pattern the upper subchannels in the test section

were in plug or slug ow patterns, while some of the bottom subchannels

carried single-phase liquid. In the annularintermittent ow pattern (a ow

pattern not reported in the past) the inner subchannels supported an

intermittent (slug or plug) or froth ow pattern, while the ow regime in the

peripheral subchannels was predominantly annular. In the annularwavy

ow pattern, liquid lms owed on all rods and on the test section wall.

The ow regime maps representing single channels and the micro-rod

bundle depicted in Fig. 5 are in fair agreement with respect to annular and

churn or froth ow patterns. The range of occurrence of the slugannular

167 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 11. Empiricial ow rgime transition lines for the micro-rod bundle data of Narrow et

al. [34]. (With permission from [34].)

ow pattern in single channels coincides with the annularintermittent ow

pattern in the bundle. Furthermore, the plug/slug and the stratied-inter-

mittent ow patterns in the micro-rod bundle are replaced everywhere with

the slug ow pattern in single channels. The occurrence of the stratied

intermittent regime in the micro-rod bundle, which implies sensitivity to

buoyancy and rod bundle orientation, however, is a crucial difference in

comparison with single microchannels.

Horizontal rod bundles are used in CANDU nuclear reactors. The con-

ditions leading to bundle-wide or partial straticationinthe latter rod bundles

may lead to dryout and critical heat ux and have been experimentally studied

in the past [4951]. The micro-rod bundle ow regime map of Narrow et al.

did not agree with the available ow regime maps for large horizontal rod

bundles. Bundle-wide stratication, which can readily occur in large horizon-

tal rod bundles [4951], was not observed by Narrow et al. [34].

Narrow et al. [34] developed an empirical ow regime map, using void

fraction and mass ux as the coordinates (Fig. 11), where the void fraction

was predicted everywhere using the homogeneous ow assumption whereby

the forthcoming Eq. (32) with S1 was applied. For : 0.25, transition

occurred at a mass ux of G1000 kg/m`s. At higher void fractions, the

transition could be represented by the following equation:

ln(G) 4.7: 8.1. (30)

168 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

F. Voin F:c1ioN

Void fractions in microchannels have been measured by Kariyasaki et al.

[52], Mishima and Hibiki [26], Bao et al. [53], and Triplett et al. [54].

Fukano and Kariyasaki [25] and Mishima and Hibiki [26] also attempted

to measure and correlate the velocity of large bubbles.

Equation (16), which is a result of the drift ux model [46, 47], has long

been utilized for the correlation of void fraction in two-phase channel ow.

In the latter equation the two-phase distribution coefcient, C

"

, is the

cross-sectional average of the product of total volumetric ux and void

fraction, divided by the product of the averages of the two, while the gas

drift velocity, V

'

, is a weighted mean drift velocity of the gas phase with

respect to the mixture. The parameters C

"

and V

'

represent the global and

local interfacial slip effects, respectively, and are often determined empiri-

cally. Widely used correlations for C

"

and V

'

, developed based on experi-

mental data for common large channels, have also been used for correlating

microchannel data (Mishima et al. [31]). Correlations applied in this way

include Eq. (22). An empirical correlation based on the drift ux model

formulation has been developed by Chexal and co-workers [55], which is

based on an extensive database, includes a large number of empirically

adjusted parameters, and can address channels with various congurations.

The data base for this correlation does not include microchannels of interest

here, however.

Mishima and Hibiki [26] correlated their void fraction data for upward

ow in vertical channels, as well as the data of Kariyasaki et al. [52], using

the drift ux model [46], Eq (16), with V

'

0 for bubbly and slug ow

regimes. The distribution coefcient C

"

, however, was found to be a function

of channel diameter and was correlated according to [52]

C

"

1.2 0.510e"'"`'. (31)

where D

is in millimeters.

When the slip ratio, dened as SU

'

/U

'

, is known, the void fraction

can be calculated using the fundamental void-quality relation in one-

dimensional two-phase ow:

:

x

x S(j

'

/j

'

)(1 x)

. (32)

In homogeneous two-phase ow, S 1. A correlation for the slip ratio,

proposed by the CISE group (Premoli et al. [56]) and recommended by

Hewitt [57], can be represented as

S 1 B

_

y

1 yB

`

yB

`

`

(33)

169 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

where

y U

'`

/U

'`

(34)

B

1.578Re""

'"

(j

'

/j

'

)"`` (35)

B

`

0.0273We

'"

Re"`

'"

(j

'

/j

'

)""` (36)

Re

'"

GD/j

'

(37)

We

'"

G`D/(oj

'

). (38)

Bao et al. [53] measured pressure drop and void fraction in tubes with

0.74mm to 3.07 mm diameters, using air and water mixed with various

concentrations of glycerin. The void fractions were measured using two

solenoid valves located near the two ends of the test sections, which could

be closed simultaneously. Bao et al [53] compared their void fraction data

with predictions of several correlations, all taken from literature dealing

with commonly used large channels, and based on the results they recom-

mended the aforementioned empirical correlations for the slip ratio S

proposed by the CISE group (Premoli et al. [56]).

Butterworth [58] has shown that the void fraction correlations of

Lockhart and Martinelli [59] and several other investigators can be

represented in the generic form

1 :

:

A

_

1 x

x

(j

'

/j

'

)(j

'

/j

'

)' (39)

where A0.28, p 0.64, q 0.36, r 0.07 for Lockhart and Martinelli

[59]. Bao et al. [53] found good agreement between their measured void

fractions and the predictions of the Lockhart and Martinelli [59] correla-

tion. Triplett et al. [54] compared their void fraction data, estimated from

photographs taken from their circular test sections, with predictions of the

preceding correlations of Lockhart and Martinelli as presented by Butter-

worth [58], the aforementioned correlation due to the CISE group [56, 57],

and the correlation of Chexal et al. [55]. Figure 12 depicts a typical

comparison between the data of Triplett et al. and the preceding correla-

tions. These comparisons indicated that with the exception of the annular

ow regime where all the tested correlations overpredicted the data, the

homogeneous model provided the best agreement with experiment.

G. Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov iN N:ov Rrc1:Ncii: :Nn ANNii: Cn:NNris

Two-phase ow in rectangular channels with o O(1) mm occurs in the

coolant channels of research reactors, and during critical ow through

cracks that may occur in vessels containing pressurized uids. Investigations

170 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

have been reported by [2733]. The recent experimental investigations are

sumarized in Table I.

Experiments in vertical narrow channels, using air and water, with

consistent overall results with respect to the two-phase ow regime maps,

have been reported by Kawaji and co-workers [27, 29, 30], Mishima et al.

[31], and Wilmarth and Ishii [32]. Minor differences with respect to the

description and identication of the ow patterns exist among these inves-

tigators, however.

Lowry and Kawaji [27] used strobe ash photography and could identify

bubbly, slug, churn, and annular ow regimes. In the bubbly ow the

bubbles were small and near-spherical. The slug ow was characterized by

large irregular and attened bubbles, while the curn ow pattern contained

large irregularly shaped, as well as small, bubbles. Their ow transition lines

for the establishment of dispersed bubbly and annular ow patterns for the

test sections with o 1 and 2 mm disagreed with the models of Taitel et al.

[17]. Ali and Kawaji [29] and Ali et al. [30] performed an extensive

experimental study using room-temperature and near-atmospheric air and

water in rectangular narrow channels with six different congurations:

vertical, cocurrent up and down ow; 45 inclined, cocurrent up and

downow; horizontal ow between horizontal plates; and horizontal ow

between vertical plates. Their observed ow regimes and ow regime maps,

except for the last conguration, were similar and are displayed in Fig. 13.

The rivulet ow pattern occurred at very low liquid supercial velocities and

was relatively sensitive to the orientation of their test section. The ow

regimes for horizontal ow between vertical plates included bubbly, inter-

mittent, and stratiedwavy, and the ow regime maps for both gap sizes

(o 0.778 mm and 1.465 mm) were similar to the ow regime maps ob-

served in large pipes.

Mishima et al. [31] identied four major ow regimes in their experi-

ments: bubbly ow, characterized by crushed or pancake-shaped bubbles;

slug ow, represented by crushed slug (elongated) bubbles; churn ow, in

which the noses of the elongated bubbles were unstable and noticeably

disturbed; and annular ow. Figure 14 depicts the ow regimes in their

1.07mm gap test section. The ow regime map for their 2.4 mm-gap test

section was similar except for the presence of a small churn region in the

latter. With a gap of o 5.0 mm, however, the ow regime transition

boundaries were displaced in comparison with Fig. 14. The predictions of

the following correlation for the slugannular ow regime transition, due to

Jones and Zuber [60], are also shown in Fig. 14:

U

'`

1 :

'

:

'

U

'`

V

'

. (40)

171 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 12. Comparison of some void fraction correlations with the measured data of Triplett

et al. [54] for the test section (a) depicted in Fig. 3: (a) homogeneous ow model; (b) Chexal

et al. [55]; (c) LockhartMartinelliButterworth, Eq. (39) [58]; (d) CISE [56]. (With

permission from [54].)

where :

'

0.8 represents the void fraction for the slugannular transition.

The correlation of Jones and Zuger [60] was based on airwater experi-

ments in a vertical retangular channel with o 5 mm.

The drift ux model, Eq. (16), with C

"

found from the aforementioned

correlation of Ishii [48], Eq. (22), and V

'

obtained from the forthcoming

Eq. (41) [60], could well predict all the void fraction data of Mishima et al.

[31] for o 1.07 and 2.45 mm, except for the annular ow regime, for which

the data and correlation deviated signicantly:

V

'

(0.23 0.13o/W)(AjgW /o). (41)

Wilmarth and Ishii [32] studied the two-phase ow regimes in vertical up

172 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 12. (continued).

ow and horizontal ow between vertical plates. Their ow regimes for

vertical up ow are compared with the aforementioned data of Mishima et

al. in Fig. 14, where bubbly and cap-bubbly ow patterns have been

combined in the depicted bubbly ow regime zone. In comparing their

vertical ow data with models, Wilmarth and Ishii noted relatively good

agreement for the ow regime transition from bubbly to slug, with the ow

regime transition models of Mishima and Ishii [42], Eq. (14), and Taitel et

al. [17].

173 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 14. Flow patterns in the experiments of Mishima et al. [31] and Wilmarth and Ishii

[32] in test sections with 1 mm gap. (With permission from [32].)

Fic. 13. Flow patterns in the experiments of Ali et al. [30]. (With permission from [30].)

For horizontal channels (i.e., ow between two horizontal parallel plates),

several experimental studies have been published. Differences with respect

to the ow regime description and identication among various authors can

be noted, however. The experimental ow regimes of Ali et al. [30] were

shown in Fig. 13. For the horizontal ow conguration, Wilmarth and Ishii

[32] could identify stratied, plug, slug, dispersed bubbly, and wavy

174 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 15. Flow regimes in airwater experiments in horizontal rectangular channels. (With

permission from [32].)

annular ow patterns. In their experiments in similarly congured narrow

channels, as mentioned before, Ali et al. [30] identied bubbly, intermittent,

and stratiedwavy ow regimes only. The two ow regime maps are

compared in Fig. 15. The wavyannular ow pattern occurred at the low

U

'`

and high U

'`

range, which appears to be outside the range of the

experiments of Ali et al. [30]. The two sets of data are qualitatively in

agreement with respect to the bubblyplug/slug transition.

In the study by Wambsganss et al. [28], airwater tests were conducted

in transparent, horizontal rectangular test sections with two congurations,

one with the 3.18 mm side oriented vertically (i.e., ow between two

horizontal plates), and the other with the 19.05 mm side oriented vertically

(ow between two vertical plates). Their ow regime transition lines,

furthermore, disagreed with several ow regime maps that are based on

large channel data, including the ow regime map of Mandhane et al. [41].

Using an image processing technique, Wilmarth and Ishii [61] measured

the void fraction and interfacial concentrations in their airwater experi-

ments using vertical rectangular channels with o 1 and 2 mm, and

calculated the drift ux parameters C

"

and V

'

. The V

'

values have large

uncertainties. For the smaller gap, they found C

"

0.811 for bubbly ow,

indicating that bubbles moved with a smaller velocity than liquid; and

C

"

1 for the slug and churn ow patterns. For the larger channel they

obtained C

"

0.41 for bubbly ow and C

"

1 and 1.2 for slug and

churn-turbulent ow regimes, respectively.

175 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 16. Flow regimes of Fourar and Bories [33] for airwater ow between horizontal at

plates with o 1 mm. (With permission from [33].)

Fourar and Bories [33] conducted experiments in glass and brick slits,

addressing low-liquid supercial velocities. Figure 16 depicts their experi-

mental ow regime map. Bubbly ow was characterized by small, isolated

bubbles, whereas in the ngering bubbly ow large, at, and unstable

bubbles were visible. The complex ow pattern was chaotic, without an

apparent structure (i.e., similar to froth ow). In the annular regime the

liquid was reported to have owed in the form of unstable lms on the walls

and may refer to the rivulet ow pattern identied by Ali et al. [30]. The

lms were replaced by entrained droplets at very low liquid ow rates.

Fourar and Bories [33] also measured the average void fraction in their

test section by careful measurement of its water contents. In all ow regimes

excluding annular, their test section void fraction closely agreed with the

correlation

: 1

_

X

1 X

`

, (42)

with the Martinelli factor, X, to be estimated from

X

_

j

'

U

'`

j

'

U

'`

`

. (43)*

Recently, Ekberg et al. [35] conducted experiments using two horizontal

176 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 17. Flow regimes in narrow horizontal annuli. Regime names in capital and small

letters are for the small and large test sections of Ekberg et al. [34], respectively. Regime names

in bold letters are from Osamusali and Chang [63]. (With permission from [35].)

glass annuli with 1.02 mm spacing and studied the two-phase ow regimes,

void fraction, and pressure drop. The two-phase ow patterns in vertical

and horizontal large annular channels had earlier been studied by Kelessidis

and Dukler [62] and Osamusali and Chang [63], respectively. Osamusali

and Chang carried out experiments in three annuli, all with D

"

4.08 cm,

and with D

'

/D

"

0.375, 0.5, and 0.625 (o 4.75, 6.35 and 11.75 mm,

respectively), and noted that the ow patterns and their transition lines were

relatively insensitive to D

'

/D

"

. The experimental ow regime transition lines

of Ekberg et al. [35] are displayed in Fig. 17, where they are compared with

the experimental results of Osamusali and Chung [63]. These transition

lines disagree with the ow regime map of Mandhane et al. [41]. Stratied

ow occurred in the experiments of Ekberg et al. [35].

Ekberg et al. [35] compared their measured void fractions with the

predictions of the homogeneous mixture model, the correlation of Lockhart

and Martinelli [59] as presented by Butterworth [58], Eq. (39), the

correlations of Premoli et al. [56, 57], Eqs. (33)(38), and the drift ux

model, Eq. (16), with C

"

1.25 and V

'

0, following the results of Ali et

al. [30] for narrow channels. The LockhartMartinelliButterworth cor-

relation best agreed with their data.

177 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

H. Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov C:isrn nx 1nr Rrir:sr

or Dissoivrn NONCONDENSABLES

Liquid forced convection in microchannels is an effective cooling mech-

anism for systems with very high volumetric heating such as accelerator

targets, high-power resistive magnets, and high-power microchips and

electronic devices. The widely used correlations for turbulent friction factor

and convection heat transfer in large channels have been shown to be

inadequate for microchannels by some investigators, indicating that the

turbulence characteristics of microchannels may be different from those of

large channels [6466].

An interesting issue related to the forced ow of liquids in microchannels

is the potential effect of noncondensables dissolved in the liquid. Dissolved

noncondensables typically have a negligible effect in experiments with large

channels where they undergo little desorption. In microchannels, however,

because of the typically large axial pressure drops, signicant desorption of

noncondensables is possible. Such desorption will lead to the development

of a two-phase mixture, will increase the convection heat transfer coefcient,

and may be at least partially responsible for the experimental data of some

investigators, which suggest that the widely used correlations representing

heat and mass transfer in large channels underpredict the heat and mass

transfer in microchannels rather signicantly [65, 66].

Adams et al. [67, 68] recently studied the effect of dissolved noncondens-

ables on the hydrodynamic and heat transfer processes in a microchannel.

A theoretical model [67] indicated that the release of the dissolved noncon-

densables can have a relatively signicant effect on the channel hy-

drodynamics. In [68], experiments were performed in a channel 0.76 mm in

diameter with a 16 cm heated length, subject to water forced convection. The

range of experimental parameters were as follows: wall heat ux, 0.5 to

2.5MW/m`; liquid mean velocity at inlet, 2.07 to 8.53 m/s; channel exit

pressure, 5.9 bar. The water remained subcooled in all the experiments.

Typical results, depicting the Nusselt numbers at their test section exit

obtained with pure (degassed) water, and with water initially saturated with

air at a pressure equal to the test section exit pressure, are displayed in Fig.

18. The Nusselt numbers, dened as Nu hD/k

'

, were calculated assuming

single-phase liquid ow properties. The apparent dependence of the en-

hancement in Nu due to the noncondensables (air) on Re and heat ux in

fact represents the dependence of the results on the pressure drop and the

liquid temperature rise in the test section. Higher pressure drop and higher

liquid temperature rise in the test section both lead to increased desorption

of dissolved noncondensables from the liquid, and therefore to the enhance-

178 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 18. The enhancement in the local convective heat transfer due to the presence of

dissolved air [68]. (With permission from [68]).

ment of the local heat transfer coefcient. The presence of dissolved air in

water could increase the measured Nu by as much as 17%.

An upper limit of voidage development resulting from the release of

dissolved air from water can be obtained by assuming (a) homogeneous-

equilibrium two-phase ow; (b) the release of dissolved air is accompanied

by evaporation such that the gasvapor mixture is everywhere saturated

with vapor; and (c) the liquid and the gasvapor mixture are everywhere at

equilibrium with respect to the concentration of the noncondensable, and

the latter equilibrium can be represented by Henrys law. Using these

assumptions, Adams et al. [68] showed that void fractions up to several

percent were possible, implying the occurrence of the bubbly ow regime in

their test section. For forced convection heat transfer in developed bubbly

ow, the Nu augmentation factor resulting from the presence of the gas

phase, which increases the ow velocity, can be shown to be of the order of

(1 :), with n representing the power of Re in the appropriate single-

phase forced convection heat transfer correlation [69]. The augmentation in

Nu in the data of Adams et al. [68] was signicantly higher, however,

indicating that the observed heat transfer enhancement should be primarily

due to the ow eld disturbance caused by the formation and release of

microbubbles on the channel walls.

179 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

IV. Pressure Drop

A. GrNr:i Rrx:xs

Pressure drop is among the most essential design parameters for piping

systems. However, frictional pressure drop in microchannels, for both single

and two-phase ow, is not well understood. Turbulence characteristics in

microchannels are known to be different from those in large channels. Thus,

although the predictions of theoretial solutions for laminar ow closely

agree with measured friction factors in microchannels [70, 71], most of the

recent experimental investigations indicate that the well-proven correlations

for turbulent ow in large channels fail to correctly predict frictional

pressure drop in circular and rectangular microchannels [7174]. Some

investigators, on the other hand, have reported good agreement between

their data and turbulent friction factor correlations for smooth pipes [26],

and for pipes with carefully measured roughness characteristics [70].

Measurement uncertainties and uncertainties associated with roughness

evidently contribute to the disagreement among published experimental

data, while the lack of adequate understanding of turbulence in microchan-

nels is believed to be the main reason for disagreement between existing data

and the commonly used correlations for large channels.

B. Fic1ioN:i Prssir Doi iN Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov

The existing methods and correlations applied in microchannel pressure

drop are mostly similar to those applied to large channels. A brief review of

the principles of two-phase frictional pressure drop modeling, and the

predictive methods that have been applied to microchannels, is provided in

this section.

The simplest method for calculating the two-phase frictional pressure

drop is to assume homogeneous ow and apply an appropriate single-phase

turbulent friction factor correlation using the homogeneous two-phase

mixture properties everywhere. Thus,

cP

cz

''

f

''

G`

2j

"

D

, (44)

where

j

"

x

j

'

1 x

j

'

. (45)

180 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Now, applying the Blasius correlation for turbulent friction factor, for

example, one can write

f

''

0.316Re"``

''

(46)

where

Re

''

GD/j

''

. (47)

One of the most popular correlations for homogeneous mixture viscosity is

that of McAdams [75]:

j

''

x

j

'

1 x

j

'

. (48)

In the preceding equations x represents the ow quality. In dealing with

a single-component two-phase ow (i.e., the ow of a liquid and its own

vapor), and further assuming thermal equilibrium between the two phases

(the homogeneous equilibrium mixture model, HEM), xx

, where

x

(h h

)/h

. (49)

The homogeneous ow assumption has limited applicability, however,

and the foregoing method for calculating two-phase frictional pressure drop

is inaccurate in most applications.

The two-phase multiplier method is the most common technique for

correlating two-phase frictional pressure drop in channels [59], according

to which

cP

cz

''

u`

''

cP

cz

''

u`

''

cP

cz

''

(50)

or

cP

cz

''

u`

'

cP

cz

'

u`

'

cP

cz

'

, (51)

where

cP

cz

''

and

cP

cz

'

represent single-phase frictional pressure gradients in the channel when pure

liquid at mass uxes G and G(1 x), respectively, ows in the channel. The

terms

cP

cz

'"

and

cP

cz

'

181 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

are dened similarly when pure gas at mass uxes G and Gx, respectively,

ows in the channel. Equations (50) and (51) evidently provide four ways

for representing two-phase pressure drop, by correlating any of u

'"

, u

'"

,

u

'

, or u

'

. Based on the two-phase multiplier concept, many correlations

have been proposed in the past. These correlations are usually applicable

without restriction to all ow regimes.

Martinelli and co-workers were the rst to correlate u`

'

and u`

'

, graphi-

cally in terms of the Martinelli factor X, dened as

X`

(cP/cz)

'

(cP/cz)

'

. (52)

Lockhart and Martinellis graphical representation of u

'

have been utilized

for the development of algebraic correlations by some investigators [76, 77].

A widely used correlation, suggested by Chisholm and Laird [78], is

u`

'

1 C/X1/X`, (53)

where C may have values between 10 and 20. An alternative expression for

this correlation is [79]

u`

'

1 CXX`. (54)

In the foregoing equations the constant C depends on whether the gas and

liquid phases, when owing alone, are laminar (viscous) or turbulent, and

its recommended values are as follows: C20 for turbulentturbulent ow;

C12 for viscous liquid and turbulent gas; C10 for turbulent liquid and

viscous gas; and C5 for viscousviscous ow [78]. A correlation repre-

senting u`

''

as a function of ow quality, x, AP

''

/AP

''

, and n with n

representing the power of Re in the single-phase friction factor correlation,

has also been proposed by Chisholm [80, 14]. Other correlations that

account for the effect of phasic properties and the two-phase mixture mass

ux have been described in [14].

A widely used correlation, proposed by Friedel [81], is based on a vast

database covering an extensive parameter range. For horizontal channels,

the Friedel correlation is

u`

''

A3.21x"``(1x)"``"

j

'

j

'

""

j

'

j

'

""

1

j

'

j

'

"`

Fr"""`"

''

We""``

''

,

(55)

182 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

where

A(1 x)` x`j

'

f

''

(j

'

f

''

) (56)

Fr

''

G`

gDj`

''

(57)

We

''

G`D

oj

''

. (58)

According to Friedel, the single-phase friction factors should be calculated

from

f '

''

0.25[0.86859lnRe

'

/(1.964 lnRe

'

3.8215)}]` (59)

when Re

'

1055, where

Re

'

DG/j

'

. (60)

When Re

'

1055, the appropriate laminar Fanning friction factor relation

is used.

The following correlation, derived by Beattie and Whalley [82], is

convenient to use because of its simplicity. In this method, homogeneous

mixture ow is assumed and Eqs. (44)(47) are applied. The mixture

viscosity, however, is dened as

j

''

:

"

j

'

j

'

(1 :

"

)(1 2.5:

"

) (61)

where :

"

, the homogeneous void fraction, is found from Eq. (32) with S 1.

Beattie and Whalley recommend that the single-phase friction factor be

calculated, for all values of Re

''

, from the Colebrook [83] correlation,

1

f '

''

3.48 4 log

"

_

2

c

D

9.35

Re

''

f '

''

(62)

where f ' f /4 represents the Fanning friction factor.

The preceding correlations, as mentioned earlier, do not explicitly account

for ow patterns and have been developed to cover various ow patterns

covered by their databases. The fractional pressure drop, like many other

important hydrodynamic phenomena, depends on ow pattern, however.

Flow regimedependent models have been derived for the stratied [84]

and annular [85, 86] ow regimes in the past, because of the relatively

simple morphology of the latter ow patterns. These models, in addition to

correlating the wall friction, also account for the gasliquid interfacial

friction.

183 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

C. Rrvirv or Prviois ExirixrN1:i S1inirs

The occurrence of ashing two-phase ow in refrigerant restrictors was

the impetus for early studies of single- and two-phase pressure drop in long

microchannels [8790]. Two-phase pressure drop in these studies was

generally modeled using the homogeneous ow model. Table II is a

summary of the more recent experimental investigations that are reviewed

here.

Koizumi and Yokohama [91] modeled their experimental data using Eqs.

(44)(48), where the liquid and vapor phases were assumed to be at

equilibrium everywhere, and the two-phase viscosity was calculated from

j

''

j

"

v

'

based on the argument that the ashing two-phase ow in their

simulated refrigerant restrictor was predominantly bubbly. Although their

calculations were in good agreement with their total measured pressure

drops, they noted that the preceding model was in fact signicantly in error

since it did not account for the evaporation delay in their experiments.

Further investigation into the ashing and two-phase ow processes as

associated with refrigerant restrictors was conducted more recently by Lin

et al. [92]. They measured pressure drop with single-phase liquid ow, and

noted that their data could be well predicted using the Churchill [93]

correlation,

f 8

_

8

Re

`

1

(A B)``

`

, (63)

where

A

2.457 ln

_

1

7

Re

""

0.27

c

D

'

(64)

B

37530

Re

'

(65)

Based on an argument similar to that of Koizumi and Yokohama [91], Lin

et al. [92] applied the homogeneous-equilibrium mixture model (Eqs. (44),

(45), and (47)) for two-phase pressure drop calculations. For calculating the

two-phase friction factor, f

''

, they used the aforementioned Churchill

correlation (Eq. (63)) by replacing Re with Re

''

, and over a quality range

of 0 x0.25 they empirically correlated the two-phase mixture viscosity

according to

j

''

j

'

j

'

j

'

x(j

'

j

'

)

, (66)

with n 1.4 providing the best agreement between model and data.

184 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

TABLE II

Sixx:x or ExirixrN1:i D:1: ro Micocn:NNri :Nn N:ov P:ss:cr Tvo-Pn:sr Fiov Prssir Doi

Author Channel characteristics Fluid(s) Flow Range

Koizumi and Yokohama [91] Adiabatic circular channels, D1, 1.5 mm R-12 Re

'

4.310"6.410"

Lin et al. [92] Adiabatic copper tubes, R-12 G1.4410`5.0910` kg/m`s

D0.66 mm (c 2 jm), 1.17 mm (c 3.5 jm) P

'

6.313.2 bar; AT

'""'"

017K

Ungar and Crowley [94] Adiabatic circular tubes, D1.463.15 mm Ammonia Re

'

700; 450 Re

'

1.110", 0.09x0.98

Bao et al. [53] Glass and copper tubes, D0.741.9 mm Waterair, 15Re

'

210`; 0.05Re

'

410"

wateraqueous,

glycerin solutions

Bowers and Mudawar Heated copper channels (subcooled boiling) R-113 U

'`

*7.7 m/s

[95] D0.51, 2.54 mm

Fukano and Kariyasaki [25] Circular channels, D126mm Waterair 0.02*U

'`

*2 m/s; 0.1*U

'`

*30 m/s

Mishima and Hibiki [26] Pyrex and aluminum circular channels, Waterair 0.02*U

'`

*2 m/s; 0.1*U

'`

*50 m/s

D1.054.08 mm

Triplett et al. [12] Pyrex circular channels, D1.1, 1.45 mm; Waterair 0.02*U

'`

*8 m/s; 0.02*U

'`

*80 m/s

semitriangular channels, D

1.1, 1.49 mm

Narrow et al. [34] Glass seven-rod bundle, D

'`

*5 m/s; 0.02*U

'`

*40 m/s

Lowry and Kawaji [27] Rectangular, W8 cm, L 8 cm, S 0.5, 1, 2 mm Waterair 0.1*U

'`

*8 m/s; 0.1*U

'`

*18 m/s

Ali and Kawaji [29] Rectangular, W80 mm, L 240mm, S 1.465 mm Waterair 0.15*U

'`

*16 m/s; 0.2*U

'`

*7.0 m/s

Ali et al. [30] Rectangular, W80 mm, L 240 mm, S 0.778 Waterair 0.15*U

'`

*16 m/s; 0.15*U

'`

*6.0 m/s

and 1.465mm

Mishima et al. [31] Rectangular, W40 mm, L 1.5 m, Waterair 0.1*U

'`

*10 m/s; 0.02*U

'`

*10 m/s;

S 1.07, 2.45, 5.0 mm 0.5*x*100

Fourar and Bories [33] Rectangular glass slit, W0.5 m, L 1 m, Waterair 0.005*U

'`

*1 m/s; 0.0*U

'`

*10 m/s

S 1 mm; brick slit, W14 cm, L 28 cm 0.1*x*40

S 0.18, 0.4, 0.54 mm

Yan and Lin [96, 97] Circular, D2 mm; 28 parallel pipes with R-134a Re

'

20012,000; mean quality 0.10.95

condensation and evaporation

Ekberg et al. [35] Glass annuli; D

6.6mm, D

'`

*6.1 m/s; 0.02*U

'`

*57 m/s

D

'

33.15 mm, D

35.2 mm; L 35 cm

1

8

5

Ungar and Cornwell [94] conducted experiments at high quality

(0.09 x 0.98); their data were therefore predominantly in the annular-

dispersed two-phase ow regime. They calculated their experimental two-

phase friction factors using channel-average properties, neglecting the effect

of axial variations in vapor properties and quality, and compared them with

predictions of several correlations. The homogeneous-equilibrium mixture

model (Eqs. (44)(47)), when applied with McAdams correlation for

mixture viscosity, Eq. (48), provided the best agreement with data. An

empirical correlation for vertical annular ow, due to Asali et al. [85], also

predicted their data well.

Bao et al. [53] performed an extensive experimental study using air and

aqueous glycerin solutions with various concentrations and calculated the

experimental friction factors using channel-average properties. They com-

pared their data with the correlations of Lockhart and Martinelli [59],

Chisholm [80], Friedel [81], and Beattie and Whalley [82], apparently

without consideration for the effect of channel roughness. With the excep-

tion of the correlation of Lockhart and Martinelli [59], which did relatively

well for Re

'

1000, all the tested correlations failed to predict the data well.

By implementing the forthcoming simple modication into the correlation

of Beattie and Whalley [82], Eq. (61), the latter correlation predicted all

their data well. The correlation of Beattie and Whalley is based on the

application of the homogeneous ow model, Eqs. (44), (45), and (47), and

the ColebrookWhite correlation (Eq. (62)) for the friction factor over the

entire two-phase Reynolds number range. Bao et al. [53] modied the

correlation of Beattie and Whalley [82] simply by using f '

''

16/Re

''

in

the Re

''

1000 range.

Bowers and Mudawar [95] studied high heat ux boiling in mini

(D2.54 mm) and micro (D0.5 mm) channels. They applied the homo-

geneous-equilibrum model, Eqs. (44), (45), and (49), assuming f

''

0.02

The homogeneous-equlibrium model could well predict the total experimen-

tal pressure drops. Because of the signicance of the acceleration pressure

drop in most of their tests, the accuracy of the homogeneous-equilibrium

model for the calculation of the frictional pressure drop in their experiments

cannot be directly assessed. The good agreement between model-predicted

and measured total pressure drops, nevertheless, may indicate that the

homogeneous-equilibrium model in its entirety is adequate for similar

applications.

The experiments of Fukano and Kariyasaki [25] were described in

Subsection B of Section III (see Table I). They compared their two-phase

pressure drop data with the correlation of Chisholm [78, 79] (Eq. (53) or

(54)), indicating a large discrepancy. The discrepancy was particularly

signicant in the intermittent (plug and slug) ow patterns. Fukano and

186 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Kariyasaki [25] indicated that the pressure loss associated with the expan-

sion of the liquid as it ows from the lm region surrounding elongated

bubbles into the liquid slugs is a signicant component of the total frictional

pressure loss.

Mishima and Hibiki [26] reported that with single-phase liquids, the

Blasius correlation well predicted their turbulent friction factor data, where-

as in the laminar range their data agreed with the HagenPoussuille

relation within 2%. For calculating the two-phase frictional pressure drop,

they neglected the acceleration along their test sections, and chose to modify

the Chisholm correlation [78, 79], Eqs. (53) or (54), by empirically correlat-

ing the constant C according to

C21(1 e"`"') (67)

where the channel diameter, D, is in millimeters.

Triplet et al. [12] measured the frictional pressure drop for airwater ow

in circular and semitriangular microchannels with D

Fig. 3). They compared their measured frictional pressure drops with the

predictions of the homogeneous mixture method, Eqs. (44)(48), and the

correlation of Friedel [81], Eqs. (55)(60). They noted that because of the

signicant axial variation of pressure in microchannels, the gas density

cannot be assumed constant. They applied a one-dimensional model, based

on the numerical solution of one-dimensional mass and momentum conser-

vation equations for the calculation of pressure drops, using the aforemen-

tioned correlations for two-phase wall friction. Overall, the homogeneous

mixture model better predicted the data. Both correlations did poorly when

applied to the annular ow regime data, however.

Yan and Lin recently measured the two-phase pressure drop and heat

transfer associated with evaporation [96] and condensation [97] of Refrig-

erant 134a in a horizontal, 28-tube bundle consisting of tubes with 2 mm

inner diameter. In calculating the frictional pressure drops for the tubes they

needed to estimate the pressure losses at inlet and exit to their tube bundle,

and the deceleration pressure change associated with the condensing two-

phase ow. Following Yang and Webb [98], who investigated the two-

phase pressure drop associated with the adiabatic two-phase ow in

extruded aluminum tubes, Yan and Lin based the aforementioned estimates

on the test section average quality and an average void fraction. The average

void fraction was calculated using the following slip ratio correlation

originally derived by Zivi [99] based on the assumption of minimum

entropy generation in steady-state, annular two-phase ow:

S(j

'

/j

'

)`. (68)

Yan and Lin calculated the entrance and exit pressure losses using common-

187 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

ly applied contraction and expansion models They correlated the experi-

mental frictional pressure drops obtained in this way using a method

originally suggested by Akers et al. [100], and recently applied by Yang and

Webb [98], according to which

AP

4 f

''

L

D

G`

'

2j

'

, (69)

where (Akers et al. [100]):

G

'

G[(1 x

"

) x

"

(j

'

/j

'

)"`], (70)

where x

"

is the average channel quality. For condensation, Yan and Lin

[97] obtained

f

''

498.3Re"`"

'

, (71)

where

Re

'

G

'

D/j

'

. (72)

Using their experimentally measured frictional pressure drops, Yan and

Lin calculated the experimental friction factors in their evaporating two-

phase ow tests based on the homogeneous mixture assumption, with the

homogeneous density j

"

dened based on channel average quality and void

friction:

AP

4 f

''

L

D

G`

2j

"

(73)

They, however, correlated the friction factors in terms of the aforementioned

equivalent Reynolds number, dened in Eq. (72), according to

f

''

0.11Re"

. (74)

Recently Narrow et al. [34] investigated the hydrodynamic processes

associated with airwater two-phase ow in a seven-rod micro-rod bundle.

Their experiments were described in Section III, E. They measured the

pressure drop in their experiments and compared their data with the

predictions of the homogeneous mixture model (Eqs. (44)(48)) and the

correlation of Friedel [81], Eqs. (55)(58) for two-phase frictional pressure

drop. Neither correlation could satisfactorily predict the data over the entire

ow regime map. The correlation of Friedel could predict most of the data

typically within a factor of 2, except for the data representing very low

supercial velocities. The homogeneous mixture model, on the other hand,

consistently underpredicted the frictional pressure drop for all ow patterns,

ecept for the annular/intermittent and plug/slug ow patterns.

188 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

D. Fic1ioN:i Prssir Doi iN N:ov Rrc1:Ncii:

:Nn ANNii: Cn:NNris

For laminar, single-phase ow, the measured friction factors in rectangu-

lar channels agree well with theory [101], For turbulent ow, the friction

factor in rectangular channels is known to depend on the Reynolds number

based on hydraulic diameter, as well as on the channel aspect ratio. Jones

[102] derived a simple method that allows for the application of smooth

pipe laminar and turbulent friction factor correlations to rectangular chan-

nels. Accordingly, a laminar equivalent diameter, D

''

, is dened as

D

''

u*D

, (75)

where the shape factor u* is a function of the aspect ratio, W/o, and is

formulated using the theoretical solution for friction factor in rectangular

channels, such that for laminar ow

f 64/Re

, (76)

where the modied Reynolds number Re* is dened according to

Re

GD

''

j

. (77)

The function u* can be found from the analytical solution of Cornish [103].

The following simple correlation, however, agrees with the aforementioned

analytical solution within 2% [102]:

u*

2

3

11

24

o

W

2

o

W

. (78)

Using Eqs. (75)(78), the turbulent smooth pipe ow correlations can be

applied to rectangular channels.

Kawaji et al. [27, 29, 30], Mishima et al. [31], and Fourar and Bories [33]

have reported two-phase pressure drop data dealing with narrow rectangu-

lar channels (see Table II).

Lowry and Kawaji [27] indicated that the wall roughness was only 1.5 jm

in their test section and that the Blasius correlation for fully turbulent

single-phase liquid ow did extremely well for their data. This result is

evidently in disagreement with the aforementioned well-known effects of the

aspect ratio on the turbulent friction factor in narrow channels. Lowry and

Kawaji compared their two-phase pressure drop data with the predictions

of the correlation of Lockhart and Martinelli [59] and indicated that the

correlation did not account for the clear dependence of the data on mass

ux. Their experimental two-phase multiplier, furthermore, was a weak

function of U

'`

and o, and a strong function of U

'`

. The experiments of Ali

189 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

et al. [30], described earlier in Section III, G, were performed in narrow

rectangular channels with o 0.778 mm and 1.465 mm, with the following

six orientations: vertical upward and downward ow; 45-inclined upward

and downward ow; horizontal ow between horizontal plates; and hori-

zontal ow between rectangular plates. With the exception of the last ow

conguration, the effect of orientation on pressure drop was quite small, and

the correlation of Chisholm and Laird [78], Eq. (53), agreed well with their

data using C values between 10 and 20, depending on mass ux. In these

comparisons, for the calculation of the single-phase frictional pressure

gradients, Ali et al. [30] used the following expressions for the DArcy

friction factors, which they derived by curve tting their own experimental

data. For laminar ow (Re 2300), f 95/Re for o 0.778mm, and

f 94/Re for o1.465 mm. For turbulent ow (Re3500),

f 0.339Re"`` for o 0.778 mm, and f 0.338Re"`` for o 1.465 mm.

For the transition 2300 Re 3500 range, they applied a linear interpola-

tion on a logarithmic scale. For horizontal ow between vertical plates, the

effect of mass ux on the two-phase multiplier was strong, and xed values

of C could not correlate the data. For the stratied ow regime in the latter

conguration, Ali et al. [30] derived the following expression, based on a

simple separated ow model that can be applied when the two phases are

both either laminar or turbulent:

`

'

[1 X`'"`']`" (79)

Here, m is the power of Re in the appropriate single-phase friction factor.

This expression well predicted the turbulentturbulent data of Ali et al.

The experiments of Mishima et al. [31] were described in Section III, G.

For single-phase ow pressure drop, their results were in agreement with the

recommendations of Jones [102]. They also noted good agreement between

their data and a correlation proposed by Sadatomi et al. [104]. For

two-phase frictional pressure drop, Mishima et al. chose the correlation of

Chisholm and Laird, Eq. (53), for modication and correlated their data

according to

C21 tanh (0.199D

)], (80)

where D

is in millimeters.

Fourar and Bories [33] noted that, except for the annular ow regime,

the frictional pressure drops could be well correlated using

f

96

Re

"

, (81)

190 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

where the mixture Reynolds number, Re

"

, is obtained from

Re

"

2Sj

"

(U

'`

U

'`

)

j

"

(82)

j

"

:j

'

(1 :)j

'

(83)

j

"

j

'

U

'`

U

'`

U

'`

. (84)

Annular ow appeared to occur at Re

"

4000 apparently corresponding to

the establishment of turbulent mixture ow.

John et al. [105] performed an extensive series of experiments dealing

with critical ow in cracks and slits. The work of John et al. [105] is

discussed in Section VII. In view of the important effect of friction on critical

mass ux, John et al. measured and correlated the single-phase friction

factors in their test sections. They could correlate their data according to

f

3.39 log

"

D

2c

0.866

`

(85)

where c represents the surface roughness.

Ekberg et al. [35] measured pressure drops associated with airwater

two-phase ow in two horizontal annuli with o 2 and 3 mm (see Table II).

When compared with predictions of a one-dimensional model based on the

homogeneous ow assumption, Friedels correlation [81] for two-phase

frictional pressure drop, Eqs. (55)(60), predicted the experimental data

better than the homogeneous ow wall friction model.

V. Forced Flow Subcooled Boiling

A. GrNr:i Rrx:xs

Cooling by the ow of a highly subcooled liquid, and subcooled boiling,

are the heat transfer regimes of choice in numerous applications, because of

the extremely high heat uxes they can sustain at relatively low heated

surface temperatures. The extensive past studies have been reviewed in a

number of textbooks and monographs, including [14, 106108]. The work

by Tuckerman and Peasa [109], and that pursued by many other investiga-

tors, has shown that the inclusion of networks of microchannels cooled by

subcooled liquids in circuit boards, in particular, can provide effective

cooling for extremely high thermal loads. A good review of the past research

dealing with single-phase ow heat transfer in microchannels can be found

in [110]. An extensive summary is provided by Duncan and Peterson [111].

191 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

These experimental studies have also shown that the hydrodynamic and

heat transfer characteristics of microchannels are different from those of the

commonly applied large channels. These differences, the causes of which are

not fully understood, include the Reynolds number range for laminar-to-

turbulent ow pattern transition, and the wall friction factor and forced

convection heat transfer in the transition and fully turbulent regimes.

Despite its evident signicance, forced-ow boiling in microchannels with

De 0.1 to 1 mm has attracted little investigation in the past, although heat

transfer in small channels representative of modern compact heat ex-

changers (with D

investigated by several investigators recently [112115]. The limited avail-

able data for microchannels, nevertheless, indicate major differences between

small and commonly used large channels, with respect to the basic bubble

ebullition phenomenology. The experimental data of Wambsganss et al.

[114] and Tran et al. [115], for example, indicate that, unlike in large

channels, in small channels used in compact heat exchangers the nucleation

process, and not the forced convection process, is the dominant boiling heat

transfer mechanism at high ow qualities.

In the forthcoming sections, the subcooled boiling phenomena, for which

recent investigations have led to reasonably consistent results, are discussed.

Table III is a summary of the recently published experimental studies

dealing with subcooled boiling phenomena in microchannels.

B. Voin F:c1ioN Rrcixrs iN Hr:1rn Cn:NNris

The voidage development in heated channels with subcooled inlet condi-

tions has been studied extensively in the past, and is described in textbooks

[107, 116]. Figure 19 is a schematic of the axial void fraction distribution

along a uniformly-heated channels with subcooled liquid inlet conditions.

This schematic is consistent with experimental observations with water at

high pressures in commonly used large channels [117]. The ow eld

upstream of point A is single-phase liquid, and bubbles attached to the wall

can be seen at and beyond point A, referred to as the onset of nucleate

boiling (ONB) point. Bubbles remain predominantly attached to the wall

upstream of point B. Beyond the latter point bubbles can be seen detached

from the wall. Beyond point C, referred to as the onset of signicant void

(OSV), or the point of net vapor generation (NVG), the detached bubbles

can survive condensation and a rapid increase in the gradient of the void

fraction curve is observed.

Recent low-pressure experiments with water by Bibeau and Salcudean

[118120], also carried out in test sections representative of common large

channels, have shown that the phenomenology implied in the schematic of

192 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

TABLE III

Sixx:x or RrcrN1 ExirixrN1:i D:1: Dr:iiNc vi1n Sincooirn BoiiiNc iN Sx:ii :Nn Micocn:NNris

Author Channel characteristics Fluid Parameter range Phenomena studied

Inasaka et al. [130] D1, 3 mm; L 1, 3, 5, 10 cm; vertical Water G7000, 13,000, 20,000kg/m`s; ONB, OSV, OFI

T

'

20,60C; P

`''

1 bar

Vandervort et al. D0.32.6mm; L 2.566 mm; vertical Water G840042,700 kg/m`s; ONB

[131] P

`''

122 bar

Kennedy et al. D1.17, 1.45 mm, L 22 cm; Water G8004500 kg/m`s; ONB, OFI

[132] L

"

16 cm; horizontal P

`''

3.4410.34 bar

Roach et al. D1.17, 1.45 mm, circular; Water G220790 kg/m`s; OFI

[135] D

"

1.13 mm, semitriangular; P

`''

2.49.33 bar

L 22 cm; L

"

16 cm; horizontal

Blasick et al. Annuli with r

'

6.4 mm and Water G851,428 kg/m`s; OFI

[139] o 0.7241.0 mm; L

"

17.419.7 cm; P

`''

3.4410.34 bar

horizontal

Peng and Wang Rectangular, width0.20.8 mm, Water, U

''

0.22.1 m/s, AT

`''

6590C Liquid single-phase and

[153] depth0.7 mm; L 4.5 cm; methanol for water; U

''

0.21.5 m/s, subcooled boiling heat

horizontal AT

`''

4550C for methanol; transfer

P

`''

1 bar

Peng and Wang Rectangular, width0.6 mm; Water U

''"

1.54.0 m/s; T

''

3060C; Liquid single-phase and

[110] depth0.7 mm; L 6.0 cm P

`''

1 bar subcooled boiling heat

transfer

Hosaka et al. D0.5, 1, 3 mm; L /D50, vertical R-113 G930032,000 kg/m`s; Subcooled boiling heat

[155] AT

`''

5080C; P1124 bar transfer and CHF

1

9

3

Fic. 19. Void fraction variation along a uniformly heated channel.

Fig. 19 is not accurate, at least for low-pressure subcooled boiling of water,

where the region of attached voidage (the region beween points A and B in

Fig. 19, where bubbles are presumed to grow and collapse while attached to

the wall) is essentially nonexistent, and bubbles that are detached always

slide on the wall before being injected into the liquid core. The phenomenol-

ogy depicted in Fig. 19, nevertheless, has been the basis of successful

correlations [121, 122] and analytical models [123125] in the past.

Figure 20 schematically depicts the pressure drop-ow rate characteristics

(the demand curve) of a heated channel subject to a constant heat load

(constant heat ux for a uniformly heated channel). The demand curve can

be used for the analysis of static instabilities [126, 127]. When the channel

is part of a forced or natural circulatory loop, the segment of the heated

channel demand curve with negative slope (between points OFI and S in

Fig. 20) can be unstable, and the onset of ow instability (OFI) point is

dened as the relative minimum point on the demand curve. The occurrence

of OFI is due to the increase in the channel pressure drop which results from

194 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 20. Pressure drop-mass ow rate characteristic curve of a uniformly heated channel.

subcooled boiling voidage, and in experiments with steady heat ux (or

steady mass ow rate), OFI is known to occur at a ow rate slightly lower

(or a heat ux slightly higher) than the ow rate (or the heat ux) that leads

to OSV. The OSV point can thus be considered as a conservative estimate

of OFI.

C. ONsr1 or Nicir:1r BoiiiNc

The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), or boiling incipience, has been

modeled by several authors. A good compilation of the existing correlations

can be found in Marsh and Mudawar [128]. Most of the models are based

on the assumption that at boiling incipience stationary and stable bubbles,

attached to wall crevices, exist, and that the steady-state liquid temperature

prole is tangent to the temperature prole predicted by the Clapeyron

bubble superheat prole. According to the model of Bergles and Rohsenow

[129], one of the most widely used models of this kind, bubbles attached to

the wall at the ONB point are hemispherical, and the heat ux and wall

195 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

temperature at ONB are related to each other according to

q"

"

k

'

T

"

T

'

(r

"

)

r

"

(86)

q" h

''

(T

"

T

'

), (87)

where T

'

(r

"

) is the local liquid temperature at a distance r

"

away from the

heated surface. The aforementioned tangency criterion, furthermore, re-

quires that

T

'

(r

"

) T

"

(88)

cT

'

cy

''"

cT

"

cr

"

, (89)

where T

"

, the bubble temperature, accounts for the superheat required for

mechanical equilibrium between the bubble and its surroundings based on

Clapeyrons relation:

T

"

T

`'

T

"

T

`'

R

Mh

ln

1

2o

r

"

P

(90)

An empirical curve t to the predictions of the above equations for water in

the 1 bar P136 bar, was derived by Bergles and Rohsenow [129] as

q"

"'`"

5.30P`'[1.8(T

"

T

`'

)

'`"

], n 2.41/P""``" (91)

where q"

"'`"

is in W/m`, P is in kPa, and temperatures are in K.

The preceding correlation of Bergles and Rohsenow has been compared

with microchannel data with water as the working uid by Inasaka et al.

[130], Vandervort et al. [131], and Kennedy et al. [132].

Inasaka et al. [130] performed experiments in heated tubes with D1

and 3 mm, with G7000 to 20,000 kg/m`s. The correlation of Bergles and

Rohsenow, Eq. (91), predicted the data of Inasaka et al. relatively well.

Signicant scatter can be noted in their comparison results, however, with

maximum dicrepancies of about _50% in the prediction of q"

"'`"

.

Vandervort et al. [131] carried out an experimental investigation of

subcooled boiling phenomena in microchannels with diameters in the

D0.3 to 2.6 mm range, subject to high heat uxes, with water as the

working uid. They reported that the correlation of Bergles and Rohsenow

predicted their ONB data well. They also applied the model of Bergles and

Rohsenow (Eqs. (87)(91)), for the estimation of the released bubble

diameters, and showed that the released bubbles were typically only a few

micrometers in diameter. Using the estimated bubble sizes, they calculated

the order of magnitude of various forces that act on the bubbles, and

196 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 21. Comparison between the ONB data of Kennedy [132] and the correlation of

Bergles and Rohsenow [129]. (D1.17 mm). (With permission from [132].)

showed that the thermocapillary (Marangoni) force and the lift force

resulting from the ambient liquid velocity radient are signicant forces that

must be considered in modeling of bubble ebullition phenomena in micro-

bubbles. A more detailed discussion of these forces is presented in the

forthcoming Subsection E of this section.

Kennedy et al. [132] studied the ONB and OFI phenomena in heated

microchannels with D1.17 and 1.45 mm, using water as the working uid.

Figure 21 displays the comparison between the ONB data for their 1.17 mm

test section and the correlation of Bergles and Rohsenow. The correlation

of Bergles and Rohsenow systematically overpredicted the experimental

data, typically by a factor of 2. The correlation, however, agreed reasonably

well (with a slight systematic overprediction) with the data of Kennedy et

al. representing their 1.45 mm diameter test section.

Inasaka et al. [130] and Kennedy et al. [132] utilized the pressure drop

characteristic curves of their test sections (similar to Fig. 20) for specifying

the ONB conditions. Inasaka et al. identied the heat ux that led to the

occurrence of ONB at the exit of their test sections, for given (constant) inlet

temperature and mass ux, as the minimum point on the AP/AP

''

versus

q"

"

curve, with AP representing the measured pressure drop in the experi-

ment with heated wall, and AP

''

representing the channel pressure drop

with adiabatic single-phase liquid ow only.

197 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Kennedy et al. [132] also identied the ONB point on each pressure drop

versus mass ow rate (demand) curve (Fig. 20) by comparing the experimen-

tal demand curves with pressure dropow rate characteristics representing

single-phase liquid ow. The ONB occurs at the point where the slopes of

the two curves deviate. They could also recognize an easily audible whistle-

like sound from their test section, before the onset of ow instability (OFI)

occurred, which was evidently due to the appearance of vapor bubbles at

the test section exit and could be attributed to the occurrence of ONB.

Kennedy et al. [132] compared the conditions leading to ONB predicted by

the aforementioned method, with the conditions where the whistlelike sound

was heard, and noted good agreement between the two methods.

Several other correlations for ONB have been proposed in the past. A

good review of these correlations can be found in Marsh and Mudawar

[128]. Most of the correlations, however, are based on data with water only.

Yin and Abdelmessih [133] and Hino and Ueda [134] have proposed

correlations that are based on data with Freon 11 and Freon 113, respec-

tively. With the exception of the correlation of Bergles and Rohsenow [129],

however, these correlations have not been systematically compared with

microchannel experimental data.

D. ONsr1 or SicNiric:N1 Voin :Nn ONsr1 or Fiov INs1:niii1x

The onset of signicant void (OSV) point is usually identied in experi-

ments with commonly applied large channels by measuring the void fraction

prole along the channel, and dening the OSV as the point downstream of

which the slope of the void fraction prole is signicantly high (see Fig. 19).

Since OSV occurs only slightly before the onset of ow instability (OFI),

however, the conditions leading to OFI can be used for estimating the OSV

conditions. The latter approach has been used by Inasaka et al. [130],

Kennedy et al. [132], and Roach et al. [135] in their experiments with

microchannels.

The OSV phenomenon has been studied extensively in the past, and

several empirical correlations and mechanistic models have been proposed

for its prediction [121125]. Saha and Zuber [121] have proposed the

following widely used correlation, which has been successful in predicting a

wide range of experimental data dealing with commonly applied channels:

St 455/Pe for Pe 70,000 (92)

St 0.0065 for Pe 70,000, (93)

198 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 22. Comparison between the OFI data of Kennedy et al. [132] on the correlation of

Saha and Zuber [121] for OSV. (With permission from [132].)

where

St

q"

"

j

'

U

'

C

''

(T

`'

T

'

)

(94)

Pe

GDC

''

k

'

(95)

Equation (92) represents OSV in the thermally controlled regime, where,

based on the experimental observations [117], bubbles generated on the wall

roll next to the wall, and are ejected into the bulk ow at the point where Eq.

(92) is satised. Equation (93), on the other hand, represents OSV in the

hydrodynamically controlled regime, where bubbles attached to the wall act

as surface roughness, and when the roughness height reaches a characteristic

height the bubbles are detached because of the hydrodynamic effects.

Inasaka et al. [130] compared their OFI data (dened similar to Fig. 20)

with the foregoing correlation of Saha and Zuber. For their 3 mm diameter

test section the correlation well predicted the data. For their 1 mm diameter

test section the correlation of Saha and Zuber agreed with the data

reasonably well for G7000 kg/m`s (corresponding to the thermally con-

trolled Pe 4.810").

A similar comparison, between the OFI data and the correlation of Saha

and Zuber for OSV [121], was carried out by Kennedy et al. [132]. Figure

22 depicts the results of Kennedy et al. As noted, consistent with the results

199 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

of Inasaka et al. [130], within the experimental parameter range, the

correlation of Saha and Zuber agrees with the data reasonably well in the

20,000Pe range. The apparent large uncertainty bands in the experiments

represent only _2% uncertainty in heat ux, and are a result of the integral

nature of the experiments of Kennedy et al. [132].

Successful analytical models for OSV, based on the bubble detachment

mechanism, have been proposed by Levy [123], Staub [124], and Rogers et

al. [125, 136]. These models, which are very similar in their basic approach,

assume that OSV occurs when the largest bubbles that can be thermally

sustained in the steady-state thermal boundary layer that forms on the

heated surface are detached from the heated surface by the hydrodynamic

and buoyancy forces parallel to the heated surface. The models of Levy

[123] and Staub [124] assume a high liquid mass ux and neglect the effect

of buoyancy force on bubble departure, and are known to do well when

applied to high-pressure data for water. The model of Rogers et al. [125]

considers relatively low mass ux and pressure conditions, takes account of

the buoyancy effect, explicitly accounts for the effect of advancing and

receding contact angles (surface wettability), and is based on a model for

bubble detachment due to Al-Hayes and Winterton [137]. Rogers and Li

[136] recently modied the aforementioned model of Rogers et al. [125],

thereby extending its parameter range of applicability.

Recent experimental studies by Bibeau and Salcudean [118120] have

cast doubt on the bubble detachment phenomenon as the process respons-

ible for OSV. Careful visual observations in the latter studies have shown

that bubble ejection normal to the wall, and not bubble detachment and

motion parallel to the wall, is responsible for OSV. The aforementioned

detachment models [123125, 136] do not address bubble ejection at all.

Notwithstanding, these analytical models have been relatively successful in

predicting experimental data. The model of Levy, briey described next, has

been applied to microchannel data by Inasaka et al. [130].

According to Levys model [123], in a fully turbulent subcooled ow eld

in a heated channel bubble departure occurs when the drag force on the

bubble (itself obtained from wall frictional stress) becomes equal to the

resistive surface tension force, leading to

y

"

y

"

U*

v

'

C

oD

j

'

j

'

, (96)

where y

"

is the distance from the heated wall to the tip of the bubble, and

U* t

"

/j

'

. (97)

200 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

The coefcient C0.015 is an empirically adjusted parameter, and t

"

is

obtained from

t

"

f

''

4

G`

2j

'

. (98)

The friction factor, f

''

, is found from

f

''

0.022

1

_

2x10"

c

D

10'

Re

''

, (99)

where c/D

the presence of bubbles at the departure.

Levy [123] assumed that bubbles are at saturation temperature with

respect to the local ambient pressure, and can be sustained if the local liquid

temperature, T

'

( y

"

), is at least at saturation. The liquid temperature

distribution furthermore, was assumed to follow the fully developed, steady-

state turbulent boundary layer temperature prole [138], according to

which

T

"

T

'

( y) Qf ( y, Pr

'

), (100)

where yyU*/v

'

is the dimensionless distance from the wall, and

Q

q"

"

j

'

C

''

U*

(101)

f ( y, Pr

'

)

Pr

'

y, Oy5

5

Pr

'

ln

_

1 Pr

'

y

5

1

, 5 y30.

5Pr

'

ln[1 5Pr

'

] 0.5 ln(y/30)} 30 y

(102)

In fully developed and steady-state,

T

"

T

'

q"

"

/h

''

. (103)

Utilizing Eqs. (100) and (102) and requiring that T

'

( y*

"

) T

`'

at OSV, one

gets [123]

(T

`'

T

'

)

'`'

q"

"'`'

h

''

Qf ( y

"

, Pr

'

). (104)

Accordingly, based on the model of Levy [123], Eqs. (97) and (104) provide

the relationship between q"

"'`'

and the bulk liquid subcooling at OSV.

Inasaka et al. [130] compared the predictions of the model of Levy [123]

for OSV with their OFI data. (See Table III for the characteristics of their

experiments.) The comparison results are depicted in Fig. 23. As noted, the

201 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 23. Comparison between the OFI experimental data of Inasaka et al. [130] and the

predictions of the OSV model of Levy [123].

model agrees with the data associated with the larger test section of Inasaka

et al. (D 3 mm) reasonably well, and systematically underpredicts q"

"'`'

for their smaller (D 1 mm) test section.

The model of Levy [123], as well as the aforementioned models of Staub

[124] and Rogers et al. [125, 136], all assume that at OSV the bubble

temperature, and liquid temperature at the bubble tip, must be equal to T

`'

,

the saturation temperature corresponding to the local ambient pressure.

This assumption evidently neglects the bubble superheat resulting from

surface tension and is appropriate for commonly used large channels where

the predicted size of the bubbles is typically large enough to render the effect

of surface tension on bubble temperature negligibly small. In microchannels,

however, the bubbles are small (see the discussion in the forthcoming

Subsection E).

202 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 24. Cross-sectional geometries of the test sections of Roach et al. [135]. (With

permission from [135].)

The model of Levy [123] can be corrected for the effect of surface tension

on bubble temperature by requiring that

T

"

T

'

( y

"

) T

`'

AT

(105)

where, assuming that the bubble diameter is approximately equal to Y

"

, and

using Clapeyrons relation,

AT

2oT

`'

Y

"

2

hfg

1

j

`

1

j

'

. (106)

Results of the modied Levy model are also depicted in Fig. 23 and are

noted to agree better with the entire data of Inasaka et al. [130].

An extensive experimental study of the OFI phenomenon in microchan-

nels cooled with water was recently carried out at the Georgia Institute of

Technology, for the purpose of generating the data bases needed for the

design of the proposed Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) system

[132, 135, 139]. A summary of the parameter ranges of these experiments is

included in Table III. The OFI data of Kennedy et al. are compared with

the correlation of Saha and Zuber [121] for OSV in Fig. 22.

The experimental data of Roach et al. [135] deal with OFI at very low

ow rates, in channels with the cross-sectional geometries displayed in Fig.

24. Test sections (a) and (b) were uniformly heated circular channels, and

203 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 25. OFI equilibrium qualities in the experiments of Roach et al. [135]. (With per-

mission from [135].)

test sections (d) and (e) were meant to represent the ow channels in a

micro-rod bundle with triangular array. Test section (d) was uniformly

heated over its entire surface, while the test section (e) was heated over the

surfaces of the surrounding rods. Roach et al. also examined the effect of

dissolved noncondensables on OFI by performing similar experiments with

fully degassed water and with water saturated with air with respect to the

test section inlet temperature and exit pressure. The bulk of the data

indicated that OFI occurred when the coolant at channel exit had a positive

equilibrium quality, indicating that, unlike in large channels and microchan-

nels subject to high heat uxes and high coolant ow rates, subcooled

voidage was insignicant in these experiments. Figure 25 displays typical

data. These results show that the commonly used models for OFI, which

emphasize subcooled voidage, or use the onset of signicant void (OSV) as

an indicator for the eminence of OFI, may be inapplicable for microchannels

under low ow conditions. In comparison with tests with degassed water,

the total channel pressure drops in tests with air-saturated water were

consistently and rather signicantly larger, indicating strong desorption of

the noncondensables, which contributed to channel voidage and therefore

204 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

increased the total channel pressure drop. The impact of the noncondens-

ables on the conditions leading to OFI was small, however. With all

parameters including heat ux unchanged, the mass uxes leading to OFI

in air-saturated water experiments were different than in degassed water

experiments, typically by a few percent.

Blasick et al. [139] investigated the OFI phenomenon in uniformly heated

horizontal annuli, using six different test sections, all with an inner radius of

6.4mm, and gap widths in the 0.721.00 mm range. Among the parametric

effects they examined was the impact of the inner-to-outer surface heat ux

ratio (varied in the 0 range), which was found to be negligible. Kennedy

et al. [132], Roach et al. [135], and Blasick et al. [139] developed simple

and purely empirical correlations for their OFI data by comparing the ow

and boundary conditions that lead to OFI with those leading to saturation

at the exit of their test sections.

E. Onsrv:1ioNs oN Binnir Nicir:1ioN :Nn BoiiiNc

Heterogeneous bubble nucleation and ebullition phenomena in common-

ly applied large channels, as the basis of nucleate boiling heat transfer

mechanism, have been qualitatively well understood for decades [106108].

The bubble formation and release period from wall crevices is generally

divided into waiting and growth periods. The departure of a bubble from a

wall crevice disrupts the local thermal boundary layer, and the waiting

period represents the time during which a fresh thermal boundary layer

capable of initiating bubble growth on the crevice forms. The bubble growth

during the growth period is primarily due to the evaporation of a liquid

microlayer that separates the bubble from the heated surface, and the bubble

is detached from the solid surface when the buoyancy and hydrodynamic

forces that attempt to displace the bubble overcome the resistive forces,

mainly the surface tension force. Models based on the aforementioned

phenomenology have been published, among others, by [140, 141]. The

bubble ebullition process in reality is highly stochastic, however, and

accordingly semiempirical correlations have been proposed for the nucle-

ation site size number and distribution [142, 143], and bubble maximum

size and frequency [144146]. The applicability of the aforementioned

models and correlations to microchannels is questionable, however.

In extremely small channels very high wall temperatures are required for

the generation of bubbles. Lin et al. [147], for example, could produce

bubbles in water, methanol, and FC 43 liquids in 75 jm deep microchannels

by raising the channel wall temperature to the proximity of the liquid critical

temperature. In microchannels of interest to this article, furthermore, the

velocity and temperature gradients near the wall can be extremely large,

205 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

leading to the formation and release of extremely small microbubbles.

Because of the occurrence of very large temperature and velocity gradients

and the small bubble size, furthermore, forces such as the thermocapillary

(Marangoni) force and the lift force arising from the velocity gradient

become important [131]. These forces are generally neglected in the

modeling of bubble ablution phenomena in large channels.

Vandervort et al. [131] investigated the heat transfer associated with the

ow of highly subcooled water at high velocity in microchannels with

0.32.5 mm diameter. At the relatively low mass ux of G5000 kg/m`s,

with a wall heat ux that was about 70% of the heat ux that would lead

to CHF at the test section exit, the ow eld at the test section exit was

foggy, indicating the presence of large numbers of micro bubbles too small

to be discernible individually. The occurrence of fogging required higher

heat uxes as the mass ux was increased, and no fogging was visible at

G25,000 kg/m`s. Vandervort et al. [131] analytically estimated the size of

the bubbles released from the wall crevices, and the magnitude of forces

acting on them, for the following typical test conditions: D1.07 mm,

L /D25, P1.2 MPa, G25,000 kg/m`s, and AT

`'

100C.

The diameter of the released bubble, as predicted by the model of Levy

[123] in the latter authors analysis of the onset of signicant void (OSV),

was only 2.7 jm. The estimated magnitudes of other forces acting on such a

bubble, while it is still attached to the heated surface, are depicted in Fig.

26, where F

`

, F

, and F

'

represent the forces due to surface tension, drag,

and buoyancy, respectively. The forces F

''

and F

'"

are due to the generated

vapor thrust and the inertia of the liquid set in motion by the growing

bubble, respectively. All the latter forces are generally accounted for (and

some are neglected because of their relatively small magnitudes) in bubble

ebullition analysis for common large channels. The Marangoini force F

"

,

which is small for large bubbles and is therefore usually not considered in

bubble ebullition models for large channels, can be estimated from [148]

F

"

D`

"

2

co

cT

cT

cy

. (107)

Vandervort et al. [131] also estimated the magnitudes of forces that act on

the aforementioned bubble, once it is detached from the solid surface, as

depicted in Fig. 27, where F

'

is the lift force that results from the local liquid

velocity gradient and can be obtained from [149, 150]

F

'

C

D`

"

6

j

'

(U

'

U

'

)

cU

'

cr

. (108)

206 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 26. Magnitudes of various forces acting on microbubble formed at ONB conditions in

a microchannel with D1.07 mm [131]. (With permission from [131].)

Based on airwater experimental data in a 57.1 mm diameter test section,

Wang et al. [150] correlated the coefcient C in the preceding expression as

C0.01

0.490

cot

_

log 9.3168

0.1963

, (109)

where

e

D

"

U

'

U

'

dU

'

dr

D

"

D

1

Re

"

U

'

U

`

`

, (110)

where D

"

and D are the bubble and channel diameters, respectively, and

Re

"

D

"

U

'

U

'

/v

'

(111)

U

`

1.18(og/j

'

)"``. (112)

The force F

"

is a near-wall force that opposes the contact between the

bubble and the wall and arises because of the hydrodynamic resistance

associated with the drainage of the liquid lm between the bubble and the

surface when the bubble approaches the surface. A similar force opposes the

coalescence of bubbles, and bubbleparticle coalescence, in otation [151].

207 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 27. Magnitudes of various forces acting on a microbubble detached from the wall in a

microchannel with D1.07 mm [131]. (With permission from [131].)

Based on a two-dimensional analysis, Antal et al. [152] derived

F

"

D`

"

6

2j

'

(U

'

U

`

)`

D

"

C

"

C

"`

D

"

2y

, (113)

where:

C

"

0.1040.06(U

'

U

'

) (114)

C

"`

0.147, (115)

where y is the distance from the wall.

Observations consistent with those reported by Vandervort et al., have

also been reported by Peng and Wang [110, 153]. The latter authors have

studied the forced convective boiling and bubble nucleation associated with

the ow of subcooled deionized water and methanol in microchannels with

208 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

rectangular cross sections, 0.20.8 mm wide, and 0.7 mm deep, with near-

atmospheric test section exit pressure. The microchannels were heated on

one side through a metallic cover and were covered by a transparent cover

on the other side. The experimental boiling curves of Peng and Wang [110]

indicated essentially no partial boiling in their microchannels, and in the

portions of the boiling curves that indicated fully developed boiling the

effects of liquid velocity and subcooling were small. No visible bubbles

occurred in the heated channel, however, even under conditions clearly

representing fully developed boiling, and instead a string of bubbles could

be seen immediately beyond the exit of each test section. Peng et al. [154]

have hypothesized that true boiling and bubble formation are possible if the

microchannel is large enough to provide an evaporating space; otherwise

a ctitious boiling heat transfer regime is encountered where the well-

known fully developed boiling heat transfer characteristics (e.g., lack of

sensitivity of the heat transfer coefcient to the bulk liquid velocity and

subcooling) occur without visible bubbles. Hosaka et al. [155] have argued

that careful experiments are needed to determine whether passage dimen-

sions and length sales peculiar for each uid affect the boiling phenomena

in microchannels.

Evidently, experiments aimed at careful elucidation of the bubble ebul-

lition and other phenomena associated with boiling in microchannels are

needed.

VI. Critical Heat Flux in Microchannels

A. IN1onic1ioN

Forced convection subcooled boiling in small channels is among the most

efcient known engineering methods for heat removal and is the cooling

mechanism of choice for ultrahigh heat ux (HHF) applications, such as the

cooling of fusion reactor rst walls and plasma limiters where heat uxes as

high as 60 MW/m` may need to be handled. Critical heat ux represents the

upper limit for the safe operation of cooling systems that depend on boiling

heat transfer, and adequate knowledge of its magnitude is thus indispensable

for the design and operation of such systems.

Critical heat ux has been investigated extensively for several decades.

The majority of the investigations in the past three decades have dealt with

the safety of the cooling systems of nuclear reactors, however. Some recent

reviews include [106, 156159.] The complexity of the CHF process, the

lack of adequate understanding of the phenomenology leading to CHF, and

the urgent need for predictive methods have led to more than 500 empirical

209 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

correlations in the past [157]. The available experimental data are extensive

and cover a wide parameter range. Most of the data, nevertheless, deal with

water only, and until recently data have been scarce for certain parameter

ranges, such as low-ow, low-pressure CHF in small channels.

Some CHF experimental investigations in the past have included channels

with D

"

*0 (1 mm) [95, 131, 155, 160175], and microchannel CHF data

have been included in the databases of some of the widely used CHF

correlations [176178], apparently without consideration of the important

differences between micro- and large channels. Systematic investigation of

CHF and other boiling/two-phase ow processes in microchannels, how-

ever, have been performed only recently. Most of the reent studies were

concerned with the aforementioned cooling systems of fusion reactors,

where channels with D13 mm and with large L /D ratios carry highly

subcooled water with high mass uxes and are subjected to large heat uxes

[155, 160173]. A few experimental investigations have also addressed CHF

in microchannels under low mass ux and low wall heat ux conditions [95,

174].

In the forthcoming sections, the recently published data, models, and

correlations relevant to CHF in microchannels are reviewed. In Subsections

B and C the existing CHF data obtained with channels with D

"

*0 (1 mm)

and their important trends are discussed. The empirical correlations that

have been recently applied to CHF in microchannels are discussed in

Section D. In Section E the relevant theoretical models are discussed.

B. ExirixrN1:i D:1: :Nn Tnri TrNns

Table IV provides a summary of recent experimental investigations and

includes some older microchannel data previously reviewed by Boyd [156]

and utilized for model validation by Celata et al. [175]. Among the

investigations listed, only the data of Bowers and Mudawar [95] and Roach

et al. [174] were obtained in horizontal heated channels, and all other

experiments dealt with ow in vertical channels The depicted list does not

include experiments where enhancement techniques such as internal ns and

swirl ows were utilized.

Boyd [157] carried out a detailed assessment of the important parametric

trends based on the data associated with subcooled ow CHF available in

1983, and identied parameter ranges in need of further experimental

research. With respect to the fusion reactor applications, Boyd [156, 157]

recommended experiments with large L /D. The scarcity of data at low

pressure is also evident in Table IV. Experiments with large L /D and at low

pressure were subsequently performed by Boyd in channels with D3 and

10.2mm diameters [167, 168]. The CHF experimental investigations in

210 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

TABLE IV

Sixx:x or ExirixrN1:i D:1: Dr:iiNc vi1n CHF iN Sx:ii Cn:NNris

Critical heat

Pressure Mass ux ux

Source Channel characteristics Fluid (MPa) (Mg/m`s) Inlet conditions (MW/m`)

Ornatskiy [160] D0.5 mm, L 14 cm, vertical Water 1.03.2 2090 T

'

1.5154C 41.9224.5

Ornatskiy and Kichigan D2 mm, L 56 mm, vertical Water 1.02.5 5.030.0 T

'

2.7 204.5C 6.464.6

[161]

Ornatsky and Vinyarskiy D0.42.0 mm, L 11.256 mm, vertical Water 1.13.2 10.090.0 T

'

6.7155.6C 27.9227.9

[162]

Loomsmore and Skinner D0.62.4 mm, L 6.3150 mm, vertical Water 0.10.7 3.025.0 T

'

3.2130.9C 6.744.8

[163]

Daleas and Bergles D1.22.4 mm, L /D14.926, vertical Water 0.2 1.523.0 0.313.1

[164]'

Subbotin et al. D1.63 mm, L 180 mm, vertical Helium 0.10.2 0.080.32 x

'

0.25

[165]

Katto and Yokoya D1 mm, L /D25200, vertical Liquid He 0.199 1110` h

h

'

3.5 to

[166] 7.0 kJ/kg

Boyd [167] D3 mm, L /D96.9, horizontal Water 0.77 at exit 4.640.6 T

'

20C 6.2541.58

Nariai et al. [169, 170] D1, 2, 3 mm; L 1.0100 mm, Water 0.1 6.720.9 T

'

15.464C 4.670

vertical

Inasaka and Nariai [171] D3 mm, L 100 mm, vertical Water 0.31.1 4.330 T

'

2578C 7.344.5

Hosaka et al. [155] D0.5, 1, 3 mm; L /D50, vertical R-113 1.12.4 9.332.0 AT

`''

5080C

Celata et al. [172] D2.5 mm, L 100 mm, vertical Water 0.62.6 10.140.0 T

'

29.870.5C 12.160.6

Vandervort et al. D0.32.6 mm, L 2.566 mm, vertical Water 0.12.3 8.442.7 T

'

6.484.9C 18.7123.8

[131, 173]

Bowers and Mudawar D0.51, 2.54 mm, L 10 mm, horizontal R-113 0.138 at inlet 0.0310.15 for AT

`''

1032C

[95] D2.54 mm;

0.120.48 for

D0.5 mm

Roach et al [174] D1.17, 1.45 mm, circular; D

"

1.13 mm, Water 0.3441.043 0.251.0 T4972.5C 0.863.7

semitriangular; L 160 mm; horizontal at exit

From Celata, Cumo, and Mariani [175].

'From Boyd [156].

2

1

1

[169, 170], as noted, are primarily focused on low pressure and high mass

ux. The experiments of Boyd [167] all represented CHF under high heat

ux and subcooled bulk liquid conditions; the local subcooling at their test

section exit varied in the 3074C range. The CHF varied linearly with G

in Boyds experiments and was correlated accordingly [167]. Boyd [168]

examined the effect of L /D on CHF in a 1.0 cm-diameter channel.

The experimental data of Nariai et al. [169, 170] include subcooled as

well as saturated (two-phase) CHF data. The dependence of CHF on

channel diameter was found to vary with the local quality. When CHF

occurred in subcooled bulk liquid, CHF monotonically increased as D

decreased. With CHF occurring under x 0 conditions, however, the trend

was reversed and CHF decreased with decreasing D. The aforementioned

trend, i.e., increasing CHF in subcooled forced ow as D is decreased, had

been noted earlier by Bergles [179], who suggested that three mechanisms,

all of which deal with the vapor bubbles as they grow and are released from

wall crevices, lead to increasing CHF as D becomes smaller. As D is

decreased, (a) the vapor bubble terminal diameter (the diameter of bubbles

detaching from the wall) decreases as a result of larger liquid velocity

gradient; (b) the bubble velocity relative to the liquid is increased; and (c)

condensation at the tip of bubbles is stronger due to the large temperature

gradient in the liquid. Nariai et al. [169, 170] thus explained the aforemen-

tioned trend of increasing CHF with decreasing D in subcooled liquids by

arguing that smaller bubbles imply a thinner bubble layer and a smaller

void fraction, and lead to a higher CHF. A recent systematic assessment of

the effect of channel diameter on CHF in subcooled ow by Celata et al.

[180], based on experimental data from several sources, has conrmed the

aforementioned mechanism. Hosaka et al. [155], in their experiments with

R-113, observed a similar trend and attributed the increase in CHF

associated with decreasing D to the decreasing bubble terminal size.

The trends of the available data, however, indicate that a threshold

diameter exists beyond which the effect of channel diameter on subcooled

ow CHF is negligible. Figure 28 depicts the results of Vandervort et al.

[173]. Below a threshold diameter (about 2 mm for the depicted data), CHF

in subcooled ow increases with decreasing D, whereas for larger diameters

the inuence of variations in D on CHF is small. CHF is more sensitive to

D at higher values of G. Similar trends have been noted by some other

investigators [180]. The magnitude of the aforementioned threshold diam-

eter, which is likely to depend on geometric as well as thermalhydraulic

parameters, may not be specied with precision at the present time because

of the limited available data.

It should be mentioned that the foregoing trend (i.e., increasing CHF with

decreasing D) applies when CHF occurs in subcooled bulk ow. An

212 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 28. Parametric dependencies in the CHF data of Vandervort et al. [131]. (With

permission from [131].)

opposite trend was reported by Nariai et al. [169, 170] for CHF occurring

when x

0.

The experiments of Celata et al. [172] covered the intermediate and low

pressure range of 0.62.6 MPa, and were all carried out in the relatively

large 2.5 mm diameter test section. They are, however, part of a database

utilized by Celata et al. [175, 181] for the validation of various models and

correlations, as well as the identication of some important trends in the

CHF data.

Vandevort et al. [173] systematically examined the effects of inlet subcool-

ing, channel diameter, pressure, and length-to-diameter ratio, dissolved

noncondensable gas, and heated wall material on CHF of subcooled water

ow. Their data, along with data from several other sources, were used for

parametric trend identication by Celata [181]. Vandervort et al. [173]

noted the frequent occurrence of premature burnout in their tests, which

they dened as any thermal failure not directly attributable to CHF or other

obvious failure mechanisms. Premature failure occurred following boiling

213 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 29. Equilibrium quality at CHF in the experiments of Bowers and Mudawar [95].

incipience, which was typically accompanied by a boiling song in the test

section. Each test section that failed had some region experiencing incipient

boiling. The majority of the premature failures occurred in two types of

tubing (1.9 and 2.4 mm diameter stainless steel capillary tubing) and

otherwise showed no discernible dependence on the primary variables, P, G,

and subcooling. Although the cause of, and the conditions leading to, these

premature failures could not be identied with certainty, the evidence

indicated that they resulted from some thermalhydraulic phenomenon

subsequent to incipient boiling. The development of a metastable super-

heated liquid because of the scarcity of wall crevices, which can lead to

sudden and explosive boiling, was mentioned as a possible cause, and it was

argued that channel wall roughness may thus be a stabilizing factor that

reduces the possibility of premature burnup.

The experiments of Bowers and Mudawar [95] and Roach et al. [174]

addressed CHF under very low mass ux conditions. Bowers and Mudawar

[95] compared the characteristics of a mini (D2.54 mm) and a micro

(D0.51 mm) channel. CHF occurred when the channel exit equilibrum

quality was quite high, typically at x

x

superheated vapor exited from the test section and the CHF results were

insensitive to the inlet subcooling. Figure 29 displays the test section exit

qualities measured by Bowers and Mudawar, where the Weber number is

dened as We G`L

"

/(oj

), and L

"

is the heated length. For the smaller

214 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

(micro) test section (D 0.51 mm) the equilibrium quality at CHF was

evidently quite high and could approach 1.5. These high equilibrium

qualities imply that a metastable superheated liquid ow occurred upstream

of the CHF point in the channel. The potential occurrence of metastable

superheated liquid also seems to be consistent with the observations of Peng

and Wang [110, 153] in their experiments dealing with boiling in micro-

channels. The latter authors studied boiling heat transfer in a channel with a

0.6mm0.7 mm rectangular channel, and did not observe visible bubbles in

their test section even under conditions that implied fully developed boiling.

Instead, strings of bubbles could be seen at the exit of their test section.

The experiments of Roach et al. [174] dealt with CHF in subcooled water

at low mass uxes in heated microchannels. The results were consistent with

the aforementioned observations of Bowers and Mudawar [95]. CHF

occurred when x

occurrence of dryout; and x

suggesting the potential occurrence of metastable superheated liquid ow.

C. Errrc1s or Prssir, M:ss Fiix, :Nn NoNcoNnrNs:nirs

CHF is affected by more than 20 parameters, which include subcooling,

pressure, channel diameter, length, surface conditions and orientation, heat

ux distribution, dissolved noncondensables, and various thermophysical

properties [157]. Although the available microchannel data are limited and

do not allow for a systematic assessment of all dependencies, the existing

database associated with CHF in subcooled water ow is sufcient for the

identication of some important trends applicable to high mass ux CHF,

where CHF occurs under high local subcooling conditions. A useful system-

atic study of various parametric effects associated with CHF in microchan-

nels was performed by Vandervort et al. [173]. Utilitizing the experimental

data of several authors, Celata [181] assessed several important parametric

dependencies.

The dependence of CHF on pressure is in general monotonic. At pressures

well below the critical pressure, P*

''

, CHF is expected to increase with

increasing pressure [156]. The available data relevant to subcooled CHF in

microchannels (which virtually all represent PP*

''

) indicate that CHF is

insensitive to pressure [173, 181]. A slight decreasing trend in CHF with

respect to increasing pressure has been noted by Vandervort et al. [173] and

Hosaka et al. [155], however.

CHF monotonically inceases with increasing mass ux; it increases

monotonically, and approximately linearly, with increasing local subcooling.

Figure 30 depicts the effect of subcooling on CHF in the experiments of

Vandervort et al. [131, 173].

215 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 30. The effect of exit subcooling on CHF in the experiments of Vandervort et al. [173].

(With permission from [173].)

Vandervort et al. [173] and Roach et al. [174] attempted to measure the

effect of dissolved air in subcooled water on CHF. The impact of the release

of the dissolved noncondensables on liquid forced-convection in microchan-

nels were discussed in Section III, H, and the impact of dissolved air on

critical (choked) ow in cracks and slits is discussed in Section VII, D. The

experimental results of both Vandervort et al. [173] and Roach et al. [174]

indicated a negligibly small effect of dissolved air on CHF. Since the

solubility of air in water is very low, and in view of the fact that considerable

evaporation due to boiling occurs in CHF, the insignicant contribution of

dissolved air to CHF is expected. It should be noted, however, that for other

uidnoncondensable pairs for which the solubility of the noncondensable

in the liquid is high, the impact of the dissolved noncondensable may not

be negligible.

D. Exiiic:i Cori:1ioNs

Most of the more than 500 models and correlations proposed in the past

for CHF are applicable over limited parameter ranges and are often in

disagreement with one another. Good reviews can be found in [157159].

In this section, only empirical correlations that have recently been applied

to, and have been successful in predicting, some microchannel CHF data are

discussed.

216 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

The following simple empirical correlation for subcooled ow CHF was

proposed by Tong [182]:

q"

'"'

h

C

G""j"'

D"'

. (116)

Tong [182] correlated the coefcient C in terms of the local equilibrium

quality, x

, according to

C1.76 7.433x

12.222x`

. (117)

Nairai et al. [169, 170] applied the correlation of Tong [182] to their

experimental data and noted that in order to achieve agreement they needed

to correlate the parameter C separately for low and high heat ux condi-

tions. More recently, Celata et al. [175] noted that the data used by Nariai

et al. [169, 170] were limited to relatively low heat ux and low pressure,

and their modication of the correlation of Tong was inadequate. Celata et

al. [175] correlated the parameter C according to

C(0.216 4.7410`P)+ (118)

+0.825 0.987x

, for 0.1 x

0 (119)

+1 for x

0.1 (120)

+1/(2 30x

) for x

0, (121)

where P must be in MPa in Eq. (118). This modied Tong correlation

evidently should apply to saturated exit conditions as well. Celata et al.

[175] indicated that the preceding correlation could predict 98.1% of their

compiled data points (which covered 0.1 P9.4 MPa, 0.3 D

25.4 mm, 0.1 L 0.61 m, 2 G90 Mg/m`s, and 90 AT

`'

230 K)

within _50%. The agreement of the correlation with the microchannel data

included in the database of Celata et al., furthermore, appeared to be

satisfactory. Celata et al. [172, 175] also compared their compiled database

with the predictions of several other empirical correlations, generally with

poor agreement in comparison with the aforementioned modied-Tong

correlation.

Hall and Mudawar [183] have recently assessed the validity of previously

published CHF experimental data and have compiled a qualied CHF

database (referred to as the PU-BTPFL CHF Database). This database

includes experiments representing 0.3 D45 mm, 10 G2484 kg/m`s,

and 2.25 x

representing the

local equilibrium quality at the CHF (i.e., the end of the heated segment of

test sections) point. They compared 25 widely referenced correlations

dealing with CHF in vertical, upow channels with their database and

217 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

showed that the empirical correlations of Caira et al. [184] provided the

most accurate predictions. The correlation of Bowring [178] also showed

relatively good agreement with data. Although the PU-BTPFL Database

and the aforementioned correlations generally address vertical channels with

upow, the data included in the database that represent small channels

(D*1 mm) may represent horizontal microchannels as well because of the

small inuence of channel orientation with respect to gravity on two-phase

ow in such microchannels.

The correlation of Bowring [178] can be expressed as

q"

'"'

ADGh

/4

C

(122)

where q"

'"'

is in W/m`, and

A

2.317(h

DG/4)F

1 0.0143F

`

D`G

(123)

C

0.077F

`

DG

1 0.347F

"

G

1356

(124)

n 2.0 0.5P

^

(125)

P

"

0.145P. (126)

P in Eq. (126) is in MPa, and

F

P`""`

^

exp[20.891(1P

^

)] 0.917}/1.917 (127)

F

`

1.309F

/P`'

^

exp[2.444(1P

^

)] 0.309} (128)

F

`

P`"``

^

exp[16.658(1P

^

)] 0.667}/1.667 (129)

F

"

F

`

P'""

^

. (130)

The preceding correlation could predict the low and high mass velocity data

of the PU-BTPFL database with mean absolute errors of 21.9 and 53.5%,

respectively. The correlation of Bowring systematically underpredicted the

data of Roach et al. [174], on the average by 36%.

The correlation of Caira et al. [184] can be represented as

q"

'"'

[0.25(h

h)

'''

]'

1 DL'

`

(131)

218 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

where

y

D'

`

G'

(132)

0

y

"

D'

G'

(133)

Dy

`

D'

`

G'

. (134)

All parameters are in SI units, and

y

"

10,829.55

y

0.0547

y

`

0.713

y` 0.978

y

"

0.188

y

`

0.486

y

'

0.462

y

`

0.188

y

`

1.2

y

"

0.36

y

"

0.911.

The preceding correlation agreed with the low and high mass velocity data

in the PU-BTPFL Database with mean absolute errors of 16.5 and 22.6%,

respectively. Cairas correlation agreed with the data of Roach et al. [174],

with an average overprediction of the data by only 18%.

Vandervort et al. [173] developed a statistical correlation based on their

subcooled ow water CHF data. Their correlation, however, includes more

than 20 constants.

The experimental data of Bowers and Mudawar [95], as noted in the

previous section, represented low-ow CHF, where CHF at high equilib-

rium qualities occurred. Noting the insensitivity of their data to inlet

subcooling, Bowers and Mudawar developed the following empirical correl-

ation:

q

'"'

G

"

0.16

G`L

oj

""

(L /D)"`". (135)

This correlation is remarkable for the implied recognition of the importance

of surface tension. The correlation, however, has not been validated

219 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

against data from other sources and is unphysical in its monotonic depend-

ence on D.

Shah [185] has developed an empirical CHF correlation based on a vast

pool of data representing upow in vertical channels with parameter ranges

0.315D37.5 mm, 1.3 L /D940, 4 G29041 kg/m`s, 0.0014

Pr 0.96, and inlet qualities covering 2.6 to 1.0. Shahs database includes

a wide variety of uids, and his empirical correlation is dimensionless and

utilizes all important thermophysical properties. Shahs correlation has two

versions: the upstream condition correlation (UCC), and the local condition

correlation (LCC). The UCC vesion can be expressed as

q"

'"'

/G

"

0.124(D/L

'

)"`"(10"/Y )(1 x

''

) (136)

where x

''

and L

'

are the effective inlet equilibrium quality and effective tube

length, respectively, and n is an empirical exponent. When x

'

0, L

'

is the

axial distance from the channel inlet and x

''

x

'

; when x

'

0 L

'

is equal

to the boiling length (i.e., the axial distance from the point where equilib-

rium quality is equal to zero) and x

''

0. Distinction is made between

helium and other uids. For helium n (D/L

'

)"``, and for other uids

n (D/L

'

)"`", for Y 10' (137)

n

0.12

(1 x

''

)"`

, for Y 10'. (138)

The parameter Y (Shahs correlating parameter) is dened as

Y

GDC

'

k

'

(j`

'

gD/G`)""(j

'

/j

'

)"'. (139)

The LCC correlation of Shah can be expressed as

q"

'"'

/Gh

F

'

F

`

Bo

, (140)

where F

'

, the entrance effect factor, is the smaller of 1 and [1.54 0.032(L

'

/

D)], with L

'

representing the axial distance from entrance. Parameters Bo

and F

`

are functions of the local quality, reduced pressure, P*

'

, and the

parameter Y. Shah recommends that the UCC correlation be used when

Y10' or L

'

160/P"

'

; otherwise, the correlation version predicting a

lower q"

'"'

should be chosen. Hosaka et al. [155] compared the predictions

of Shahs correlation with their data. On the average, the correlation

overpredicted the data only slightly. The correlation, however, has not been

adequately compared with other recent microchannel CHF data. Katto

[159] has indicated that the strong dependence of the parameter Y in Shahs

CHF correlation on g for high mass ux forced ow may be physically

questionable.

220 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

E. Tnror1ic:i Monris

Theoretical modeling of CHF has undergone great advances in the recent

past. Most of the developed models, however, may be inapplicable to

microchannels.

Weisman [186] has summarized the status of theoretical models for CHF

and indicated that the phenomenology of CHF depends on the two-phase

ow regime. In annular (high quality) ow, lm dryout leads to CHF. In

the slug/plug ow regime, CHF appears to occur if the time period

associated with the passage of a gas plug is long enough to allow for the

complete evaporation of the liquid lm that is left behind on the wall

following passage of a liquid slug. In highly subcooled ow, CHF is

triggered by the thermal and hydrodynamic processes adjacent to the heated

wall. Two modeling approaches have been pursued for CHF in highly

subcooled ow. Weisman and co-workers [187, 188] suggested that the

coalescence of microbubbles that form on the wall and the occurrence of a

critical void fraction in the bubble layer lead to CHF.

For subcooled or low-quality CHF, based on careful ow visualization,

Lee and Mudawar [189] proposed that CHF in the aforementioned regime

occurs when the liquid sublayer that separated vapor blankets or slugs from

the wall is disrupted. They developed a mechanistic model accordingly.

More recent ow visualization studies further support the latter liquid

sublayer dryout model [190], and models based on this mechanism, and

following the essential elements of the model by Lee and Mudawar [189],

have recently been compared with data including small channel data by

Katto [191, 192] and Celata et al. [193]. The outline of the model, as

elaborated by Katto [191], is now presented.

Figure 31 is a schematic of the ow eld [191], where vapor slugs, formed

as a result of the coalescence of smaller bubbles, are separated from the

heated surface by a liquid sublayer. The vapor blankets are assumed to

remain thin because of condensation, and their velocity is assumed to be

closely related to the local ambient uid velocity. CHF is assumed to occur

when the residence time of a vapor slug over the liquid sublayer is

sufciently long to allow for its complete evaporation and breakdown.

Katto assumed that the local ow quality can be obtained from the quality

prole t of Ahmad [194], according to which

x

x

x

`'

exp

x

`'

1

1 x

`'

exp

x

`'

1

for x

`

x

, (141)

where the equilibrium quality at the point of onset of signicant void, x

`'

,

221 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 31. Schematic of ow eld near the CHF conditions with high subcooling and high

mass ux. (With permission from [191].)

is obtained from the empirical correlation of Saha and Zuber [121]. The

sublayer initial lm thickness at the front end of the vapor slug is found

based on an empirical correlation due to Haramura and Katto [195];

o

''"

1.70510`

j

`

j

'

""

1

j

`

j

'

o

j

`

j

`

h

q"

'

`

, (142)

where the boiling heat ux, q"

'

, is obtained by assuming that the wall heat

ux is the summation of convective and boiling terms, thereby

q"

'

q"

"

h

''

(T

"

T

'

), (143)

where h

''

is obtained from the well-known correlation of Dittus and

Boelter, assuming purely liquid ow, and T

"

T

'

is obtained from

T

"

T

'

1)(T

`'

T

'

) q"

"

/h

''

(144)

230(q"

"

/Gh

)"`. (145)

CHF is assumed to occur when

222 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

q"

"

j

'

o

''"

h

/t

'`

, (146)

where t

'`

, the residence time of the vapor slug over the lm underneath it,

can be found from

t

'`

L

"

U

"

2o(j

'

j

`

)

j

'

j

`

U`

"

. (147)

Here, the length of the vapor slug has been assumed to be equal to the

neutral wave length according to the Helmholtz stability theory. The

velocity of the vapor slug relative to the lm is assumed to follow

U

"

U

'

, (148)

where U

'

is the velocity at the distance o

''"

from the wall, as predicted by

the Karmans universal turbulent boundary layer velocity prole, based on

a wall frictional shear stress found from

t

"

( f /4)G`/2j

"

. (149)

The homogeneous density, j

"

, is found using the ow quality obtained from

Eq. (45), and the DArcy friction factor f is found from the Prandtl

Karman correlation:

1/f 2.0 log

"

(Re f ) 0.8 (150)

Re GD/[j

`

: j

'

(1 :)(1 2.5:)]. (151)

Katto empirically correlated the parameter in Eq. (148) in terms of

Re(j

`

/j

'

) and : [191, 192].

The model of Katto [191, 192] just described has been shown to predict

experimental data well for channels with D1 mm, for a variety of uids

and a pressure range of 0.1 to 2.0 MPa. More recently, Celata et al. [193]

pointed out that Kattos model is unable to calculate the CHF when the

void fraction is larger than 70%. Celata et al. further modied the aforemen-

tioned phenomenological model of Lee and Mudawar [189] and Katto

[191, 192]. They assumed that the thickness of the vapor blanket (slug) is

equal to the bubble departure diameter, and the vapor blanket is always

surrounded with saturated liquid. Celata et al. [193] obtained the vapor

blanket velocity, U

"

, from the balance between drag and buoyancy forces,

assuming a vertical, upow conguration. Other essential model elements

were similar to [189, 191]. Celata et al. [193] compared their model with

experimental data covering the following range of parameters, with good

agreement between model and data: 0.2 D25.4 mm, 25 AT

'`'

255 K, 10` G910" kg/m`s, and 0.1 P8.4 MPa. The applica-

tion of the aforementioned force balance on vapor blankets in the model of

223 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Celata, however, implies dependence on channel orientation, which may not

apply to microchannels.

CHF under high-quality conditions is primarily due to the lm dryout

phenomenon in the annular ow regime. The lm dryout models are based

on the solution of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy conservation

equations, whereby the ow rate of the liquid lm on the heated wall and

the lm thickness are calculated. CHF is assumed to occur when the liquid

lm is depleted [159]. Annular-dispersed ow is the ow regime that occurs

during lm dryout CHF in commonly used large channels, where entrained

liquid droplets are mixed with the vapor phase and the two-phase ow is

accompanied by continuous entrainment of new droplets from the liquid

lm and deposition of droplets on the lm. The variation of the lm

thickness is evidently affected by evaporation as well as droplet entrainment

and deposition. Dryout CHF models utilize empirical correlations for

droplet entrainment and deposition [196, 197]. A model by Sugawara et al.

[198] also accounts for the inhibition of droplet deposition due to the

counter ow of vapor resulting from lm evaporation.

Film dryout models have not been systematically applied to microchan-

nels, and the current models [196, 198] employ constitutive relations

associated with interfacial transfer processes and droplet entrainment and

deposition that may not be applicable to microchannels. The recent low-

ow and high-quality CHF data [95, 174] indeed suggest that the dryout

phenomenology in microchannels may be signicantly different than in

larger channels.

VII. Critical Flow in Cracks and Slits

A. IN1onic1ioN

Critical or choked ow represents the maximum discharge rate of a uid

through an opening connecting a pressurized vessel to a low-pressure

environment. When choking happens, the ow conditions downstream of a

location where critical conditions occur do not affect the ow rate, implying

that the hydrodynamic signals originating downstream are unable to pass

through the critical location.

Critical ow of a compressible uid can be well predicted by assuming

that the one-dimensional uid velocity at the critical location is equal to the

local isentropic speed of sound, and knowledge of uid stagnation proper-

ties is sufcient for calculating the conditions at the critical cross-section.

Critical two-phase ow is considerably more complicated, however, because

of the development of thermal and mechanical nonequilibria between the

224 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

phases. The uid stagnation properties are thus insufcient for uniquely

determining the conditions at the critical cross-section in two-phase ow.

Critical ow can be used for ow control and plays an important role in a

number of hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents. Critical two-phase ow

has been extensively studied in the past. Good reviews can be found in [106,

199, 200].

The critical ow of initially highly subcooled liquids through narrow

cracks and slits is of great interest in relation to the safety of nuclear and

chemical reactors. When cracks occur in high-pressure piping systems, they

often support critical ow and, in accordance with the leak-before-break

concept, their detection and correct characterization are necessary for

prediction and prevention of major leaks. Extensive research effort has been

devoted to the critical ow in cracks and slits in the past 15 years. Most of

the studies have focused on critical ow in slits or simulated cracks with

simple and regular cross-sections. Photomicrographs of typical intergranu-

lar stress corrosion-induced cracks in type 304 stainless steel [201], however,

show that such cracks often have highly tortuous and irregular ow

passages.

Cracks often have hydraulic diameters in the D

large length-to-diameter ratios; their nucleation, boiling heat transfer, and

two-phase ow characteristics are different from those of large channels.

Consequently, the correlations and models that have been developed in the

past for critical ow in commonly applied large channels do not apply to

cracks without modication.

In the forthcoming discussion, previous experimental studies dealing with

critical ow of initially subcooled liquids in cracks are reviewed in Section

B. The theoretical models are discussed in Sections CE.

B. ExirixrN1:i Ci1ic:i Fiov D:1:

Table V is a summary of the recent experimental data. Collier et al. [202,

203] performed two sets of experiments. In Phase I of their experiments,

they measured critical ow in articial slits. The geometric and test

parameters associated with their Phase I experiments are summarized in

Table V.

The test sections were produced by splitting anges and machining crack

faces in the center of each half, then reassembling the two ange halves. The

simulated crack surfaces were roughened by shot blasting them, and the

crack width, o, was adjusted with spacer blocks placed between the two

ange halves. They measured the temperatures and pressures at three

locations along their simulated cracks. In phase II of their experiments,

Collier et al. [202, 203] used a stainless steel pipe with 32.4 cm outside

225 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

TABLE V

Sixx:x or ExirixrN1:i D:1: ro Ci1ic:i Fiov iN C:cxs :Nn Micocn:NNris

Maximum

inlet Inlet

pressure subcooling Length Roughness

Author Fluid (MPa) (K) Cross-section (mm) (jm)

Collier et al. [202, 203] Water 11.5 33118 Rectangular, W57.2 mm; S 0.21.12 mm 63.5 0.310.2;

simulated crack

Collier et al. [202, 203] Water 11.5 072 Rectangular, W 0.7427.9 mm; 20 Real crack

S0.01830.247 mm

Amos and Schrock [204] Water 16.2 065 Rectangular, W20.4 mm; S 0.1270.381 mm 6075 Smooth

Kefer et al. [205] Water 16.0 060 Rectangular, W19108 mm; 1033 2040;

S0.0970.325 mm simulated and real

cracks

John et al. [105] Water 14 260 Rectangular, W 80 mm; S 0.20.6 mm 46 2150; real cracks

with 240

Nabarayashi et al. Water 7 30 Real cracks in pipe wall, Dp 114.3, 216.3 mm, 8.6, 12.7 mm 5.412.1

[206, 207] W60160 mm, S0.5 mm;

rectangular cracks, W 30, 60 mm, 10, 20, 36 mm 3.612

S 0.071 mm

Ghiaasiaan et al. [208] Water 7.24 34258 Circular, D0.78 mm 0.78 mm Not measured

Cited in John et al. [105].

2

2

6

diameter that contained a girth butt weld at midlength with a full circum-

ferential stress-corrosion crack near the welds. The initial circumferential

cracks were deep about 90% of the wall thickness, and through cracks of

varying lengths were obtained by machining away the pipe surface in the

vicinity of the crack.

Amos and Schrock [204] used two stainless steel blocks, with their

surfaces ground at, to provide ow channels with smooth walls. Various

slit widths were created by adjusting the distance between the stainless steel

blocks. They measured axial pressure variations using several pressure taps.

The experimental data of Kefer et al. [205] are referred to by John et al.

[105]. John et al. [105] used two blocks of stainless steel to produce slits

with adjustable distances between the steel blocks in steps of 0.1 mm. Using

several pressure taps they measured pressure distribution along their

simulated cracks. To examine the effect of slit surface roughness, they varied

the surface roughness of the steel blocks by shot blasting them with sand

and steel grit. For tests with a real crack, they used blocks of real reactor

pipe steel (20 Mn Mo In 55), with a crack that was produced by cyclic

bending. They measured the width of the cracks at inlet and exit of their test

section after mounting them. In some cases the slit width at exit was slightly

larger than at its inlet.

Nabarayashi et al. [206] and Matsumoto et al. [207] were interested in

fatigue cracks in carbon steel and stainles steel pipes and performed two sets

of experiments. In the fundamental tests [206], critical ow of saturated

water and steam in articial slits with W 30 and 60 mm, L 10, 20, and

36 mm, S0.071 mm was studied. They also conducted experiments in

through-wall cracks [207], initiated by electric discharge machining and

popagated by bending. They performed a careful measurement of surface

roughnesses in the articial and fatigue-induced cracks. The ranges of

average roughnesses are given in Table V. The maximum surface rough-

nesses varied in the 2055 jm range for their articial cracks and in the

1660 jm range in the fatigue-induced cracks. The surface roughnesses,

furthermore, did not vary noticeably after tests. They empirically correlated

their data for the effect of bending undulation on the crack pressure loss.

The experimental investigation of Ghiaasiaan et al [208] was concerned

with critical ow of highly subcooled water through a very short capillary.

Some important trends in critical ow data are now described. The

experimental data indicate the occurrence of metastable liquid ow near the

entrance of cracks, due to delayed nucleation (pressure undershoot). Figure

32 is an example pressure prole [204] that shows the effect of delayed

ashing. The solid line represents the liquid single-phase pressure drop, the

dashed line represents the measured pressure prole, and the horizontal line

is the saturation pressure corresponding to the inlet temperature. Flashing

227 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 32. Pressure prole in a critical ow experiment [204]. (With permission from [204].)

occurs when the slope of the dashed line abruptly deviates from the slope

of the solid line. This type of delay in ashing is also common in large

channels and is typically 12 K for water [209]. Amos and Schrock [204]

noted that the degree of subcooling before the inception of ashing in-

creased with increasing the stagnation subcooling. An empirical correlation

228 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 33. Some parametric trends in the experiments of Amos and Schrock [204]. (With

permission from [204].)

for pressure undershoot has been developed by Alamgir and Lienhard [210]

and has been applied by some investigators in mechanistic modeling of

critical ow in large channels. Amos and Schrock [204] noted that the

majority of depressurization rates in their experiments were outside the

range of the latter correlation.

With respect to the important trends, the available critical ow experi-

mental data indicate that G

''

(a) increases with increasing inlet subcooling;

(b) increases with increasing stagnation pressure; (c) decreases with increas-

ing L /D; and (d) is very sensitive to frictional pressure drop and consequent-

ly decreases with increasing the channel surface roughness. Figures 33 and

34 depict typical parametric trends in the experiments of Amos and Schrock

[204] and John et al. [105], respectively. The depicted model predictions are

discussed later.

In Fig. 35 typical data of Ghiaasiaan et al. [208] are depicted and are

compared with some relevant data points from Collier and Norris [202].

The gure demonstrates that critical ow in short capillaries may be

229 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Fic. 34. Some parametric trends in the experiments of John et al. [105]. (With permission

from [105].)

signicantly different from that in cracks and slits with large L /D. The

measured G

''

in the experiments of [208] are evidently much larger than

those measured by Collier and Norris [202] under similar conditions and

demonstrate the signicance of channel length. The data of [208], further-

more, are relatively insensitive to the inlet subcooling. The latter data,

however, represent extremely high inlet subcooling, and their apparent

insensitivity to small variations in inlet temperature may not be representa-

tive of crack critical ow in their typical applications.

C. GrNr:i Rrx:xs oN Monris ro Tvo-Pn:sr Critical Fiov

iN Micocn:NNris

Many semianalytical and mechanistic models have been developed for

two-phase critical ow in common large passages. These models can be

230 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 35. Comparison of the data of Ghiaasiaan et al. [208] with the data of Collier and

Norris [202], the predictions of the correlations of the RETRAN-03 code [219], and the

correlation of Leung and Grolmes [220]. (With permission from [208].)

divided into two broad groups: integral models and models based on

numerical solution of differential conservation equations. The two groups of

models follow similar principles: They all search for conditions that lead to

the maximum possible mass ux without violating the rst and second laws

of thermodynamics. In the integral models, the conservation equations are

analytically integrated along the ow passage in order to derive a closed-

form solution for the mass ux. The resulting closed-form solutions, of

course, may need iterative numerical solution. Major simplifying assump-

tions are evidently needed to make closed-form solutions possible. Reviews

of the most widely used integral models can be found in [106, 200].

231 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Mechanistic critical ow models based on the numerical solution of the

one-dimensional differential conservation equation can rigorously account

for the thermal and mechanical nonequilibria and the system integral effects

on local ow properties. In these models, the 1D conservation equations are

numerically solved and, by iteratively varying the passage discharge rate, the

ow rate leading to critical conditions (an innitely large pressure gradient,

a vanishing determinant of the coefcient matrix for the system of one-

dimensional quasi-linear conservation equations, etc.) is specied. Early

contributions to this method include [211, 212], and a discussion of

mathematical bases can be found in [213]. This technique is particularly

appropriate for cracks and slits with large L /D where the 1D ow assump-

tion is adequate. Models based on direct numerical solution of differential

conservation equations for cracks and slits have been developed by Amos

and Schrock [204], Schrock and co-workers [201, 214, 215], and Feburie et

al. [216]. More recent contributions include [217, 218], where the effect of

noncondensables was modeled.

D. IN1rc:i Monris

Integral models dealing with two-phase critical ow in large passages are

many and are reviewed among others in [106, 200]. These models are

mostly based on assumptions and/or simple models that allow for the

calculation of the velocity slip and the magnitude of thermodynamic

nonequilibrium at the critical cross-section. Most of the widely used

methods for the prediction of two-phase critical ow neglect the frictional

pressure losses, which are often small in commonly applied large passages.

These models overpredict the critical ow rates in small passages and cracks

where such pressure losses are signicant.

The isentropic homogeneous-equilibrium model is the simplest among the

models that neglect irreversible losses and leads to

G

''

[2j`

''

(h

h

''

)]` (152)

where

x

''

''

(153)

h

''

(h

xh

)

''

(154)

v

''

j

''

(v

xv

)

''

. (155)

The critical mass ux is obtained by applying (dG/dP)

''

0, which leads to

232 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

2[h

h(s

, P

''

)]

cv

cP

''

v`(s

, P

''

) 0. (156)

Note that (cv/cP) also corresponds to the thermodynamic state specied

with (s

, P

''

). Equation (156) along with Eqs. (153)(155) are thus iterative-

ly solved for P

''

, as well as other thermodynamic properties at the critical

cross-section, whereupon G

''

is obtained from Eq. (152).

Since the aforementioned iterative solution is cumbersome, simpler corre-

lations for water have been developed [219, 220]. The correlation in [219]

is a simple polynomial-type curve t to the predictions of Eqs. (152)(156)

for water, and the correlation can be found in [200]. Utilizing an approxi-

mate equation of state for water, Leung and Grolmes [220] derived the

following correlation, based on the isentropic homogeneous-equilibrium

ow assumption for water:

G

''

2w

w1

1

_

1

1

p

`

2w1

2w

`

p

`

c

`

. (157)

Here,

p

`

P

`'

(T

)/P

'

(158)

c

C

P

`'

(T

)

v

`

, (159)

where T

'

is the

stagnation pressure at channel inlet when the effect of channel entrance

irreversible pressure loss is accounted for:

P

'

P

K

'

A

''

A

'

` G`

''

2j

. (160)

Predictions of the aforementioned approximate correlations are com-

pared with typical experimental data of Ghiaasiaan et al. [208] in Fig. 35.

The ow passage in the latter data is very short (L /D1) and their

frictional losses are negligible. Model predictions are of course relatively

sensitive to the entrance pressure loss coefcient, K

'

. For sharp-edged

sudden contractions with very large contraction ratio, K

'

0.5 [221], and

with smooth or conical entrances K

'

will be lower. The isentropic homo-

geneous-equilibrium model well predicted the latter data, with standard

deviations of about 10% with K

'

0.5 and about 13% for K

'

0.3.

The isentropic homogeneous-equilibrium model is not appropriate for

application to cracks and slits with larger L /D, however, and overpredicts

the data because of the signicance of frictional pressure losses in cracks and

slits.

233 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

The critical ow of initially saturated liquid of a liquidvapor mixture in

a channel, with frictional pressure loss, has been modeled by Moody [222].

This model assumes thermal equilibrium between the vapor and liquid

phases and accounts for velocity slip by assuming a slip ratio everywhere

equal to the expression derived by Zivi [99], Eq. (68), for minimum entropy

production in a steady-state liquidvapor ow. In an earlier, and widely

used, model for critical, isentropic ow, Moody derived the same expression

for the slip ratio at the channel throat. The model of Moody [222] is based

on the integration of the one-dimensional two-phase momentum conserva-

tion equation along a constant-area channel,

dP/dz f

''

L /Du`

''

G`

2j

'

d

dz

[xU

'

(1 x)U

'

]G}, (161)

where f

''

is an average DArcy channel friction factor for liquid ow. The

one-dimensional energy conservation also gives

h

h

'

h

1

2

G`

_

(1 x)`

j`

'

(1 :)`

x`

j`

'

:`

. (162)

Note that : and x are related by the slip ratio, according to Eq. (32). Since

the uid mixture is saturated everywhere, the right-hand side of Eq. (161)

can be expanded by replacing d/dz with d/dP(dP/dz), obtaining d/dP of all

properties using appropriate thermodynamics data, and factoring out (dP/

dz) in all the terms that include it. Equation (162) is also utilized in the

manipulation of Equation (161), noting that dh

be represented as

,

'

`

'

I(P, h

, G)dP f

''

L

D

, (163)

where P

is the pressure at inlet to the channel (i.e., the point beyond which

irreversible pressure losses occur), P

`

is the pressure at the location of the

throat, and I is a function that involves the pressure, slip ratio, and

thermodynamic properties and their partial derivatives. The critical mass

ux is obtained by iteratively changing P

`

and solving Eq. (163) for G, until

dG/dP

`

0, at which point P

''

P

`

and G

''

G, Moody [222] suggested

the following expression for the two-phase multiplier:

u`

''

1 x

1 :

`

. (164)

Nabarayashi et al. [206, 207] compared their measured ow rates with

predictions of the aforementioned model of Moody [222], and noted that

Moodys model well predicted their data when pressure losses due to the

234 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

entrance effect and wall friction, and ow area reduction due to the wall

roughness, were correctly accounted for. The aforementioned model of

Moody [222] well predicted the measured ow rates in their fatigue-induced

cracks as well, once the entrance and frictional pressure losses, ow area

blockage by wall roughness, and pressure losses due to bending undulation

were all included in the calculations.

Based on the experimental data of Collier et al. [202, 203], a homogeneous-

nonequilibrium model was developed at Battelle-Columbus Laboratory,

which is briey described by Abdollahian et al. [223]. The model was based

on the widely used homogeneous, nonequilibrium model of Henry [224]. In

the model, which was coded into the computer program LEAK, the ow

was assumed to remain single-phase liquid between the entrance and a point

located at a distance of z 12D downstream from the entrance; the

acceleration and frictional pressure drops between the channel inlet and the

critical cross-section were obtained using channel averaged properties and

assuming homogeneous ow everywhere; the expansion of the vapor phase

was assumed to be isentropic; and quality was assumed to vary linearly

between z 12D and the throat.

Abdollahian et al. [223] and Chexal et al. [225] modied and improved

the LEAK model and developed the LEAK 01 model by using an isenthal-

pic ow assumption for pressure drop calculations, assuming a linear ow

area variation along the channel, and improving the two-phase frictional

pressure drop calculation. Noting that for subcooled liquid inlet conditions

the models based on the homogeneous-equilibrium ow in cracks appear to

generally predict saturated liquid conditions at the critical cross-section.

Abdollahian et al. [223] also proposed the following simple expression for

the critical mass ux in long racks and slits:

G

''

2[P

P

`'

(T

)]

v

"

(1 f L /D

"

) K

'

v

`

. (165)

Here, v

"

is the average homogeneous two-phase mixture specic volume:

v

"

v

x v

. (166)

The average properties, including v

and v

, are calculated at

P [P

P

`'

(T

)]/2. (167)

The average quality is dened as

x [h

(P )]/h

. (168)

Abdollahian et al. used the unrealistically high K

'

2.7, however, and

obtained f from Karmans correlation for rough-walled channels. The two

235 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

models of Abdollahian et al. (i.e., LEAK-01 and the aforementioned simpli-

ed model) well predicted the data of Collier et al. [201, 203], but were

shown by John et al. [105] to do relatively poorly when applied to the latter

authors data, as well as the data of Amos and Schrock [204].

E. Monris B:srn oN Nixric:i Soii1ioN or DirrrrN1i:i

CoNsrv:1ioN Eqi:1ioNs

Most of the models dealing with two-phase critical ow in large channels

include constitutive relations that may not apply to cracks and slits. The

models of [209, 217, 226, 227] all apply the two-uid technique and include

interfacial transfer models of doubtful applicability to microchannels and

cracks where interfacial slip is likely to be suppressed by surface tension.

Equal phasic velocities are assumed in [228, 229]. The latter references,

however, use models for bubble nucleation and relaxation-type delayed

evaporation that may not apply to microchannels.

Several models that specically address cracks and slits have been

developed and published. These models are now briey reviewed. Amos and

Schrock [204] and Lee and Schrock [214] modeled critical two-phase ow

in cracks assuming a homogeneous (equal phasic velocities) nonequilibrium

ow, by solving numerically the one-dimensional mixture mass, momentum,

and energy conservation equations. They used empirically adjusted closure

relations, however, to obtain agreement with experimental data. Flashing

was assumed to occur when a pressure undershoot (ie., local pressure lower

than the saturated pressure corresponding to the local pressure) is obtained,

given by

AP

SAP

'

, (169)

where AP

'

is the pressure undershoot associated with bubble nucleation,

as correlated empirically by Alamgir and Lienhard [210]:

AP

'

C

_

0.252o`(T /T *

''

)``'(1 14l"`)"`

(k

`

T *

''

)"`(1 j

'

/j

'

)

(170)

In this equation, k

`

is Boltzmanns constant, and T *

''

is the thermodynamic

critical temperature. Except for l, the depressurization rate, which must be

in Matm/s, the remaining dimensions are consistent. The correction par-

ameter, C, was empirically correlated by Amos and Schrock in terms of local

velocity [204], and as a function of Reynolds and Jacobs numbers by Lee

and Schrock [214], to obtain agreement between model predictions and

236 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

data. The evaporation of the metastable liquid phase (the relaxation of the

liquid phase superheat) was assumed to follow an exponential form, with a

time constant that was also empirically adjusted to t their data. Critical

ow was assumed to occur when the mixture velocity at the critical

cross-section was equal to the local velocity of sound, and the latter was

represented by an expression by Kroeger [230] representing zero interfacial

slip. Lee and Schrock [214] compared the predictions of their model with

data from several sources. Most of the data represented critical ow in large

channels, however.

The real intergranular cracks have complicated and tortuous congur-

ations. Schrock and Revankar [215] argued that for critical ow in real

intergranular corrosion cracks, the homogeneous-equilibrium model is ap-

propriate, since signicant ow separation and thermal nonequilibrium are

unlikely. They developed the fast-running homogeneous-equilibrium code

SOURCE, in which the mixture mass, momentum, and energy conservation

equations were numerically solved using the nite-difference technique, and

the discharge rate was iteratively varied until the mixture velocity at the

critical cross-section was equal to the velocity of sound in homogeneous-

equilibrium two-phase ow. They assumed an equivalent friction factor that,

in addition to wall friction, accounts for the irreversible pressure losses

associated with ow disturbances and tortuosity. Shrock et al. [215]

compared the predictions of SOURCE with 61 out of the 82 BCL data that

were found to be acceptable. An optimum friction factor was found that best

tted the data associated with each test section, and thereby they developed

a methodology for the prediction of the equivalent friction factor for real

cracks. Since SOURCE predictions showed a systematic dependence on

inlet subcooling, furthermore, to obtain agreement between model and data,

Schrock and Revankar also developed an inlet subcooling correction factor

that must be multiplied by the mass ux predicted by the code in order to

calculate the correct mass ux.

Feburie et al. [216] developed a nonequilibrium model assuming the

existence of three phases: saturated vapor, saturated liquid, and metastable

superheated liquid. The pressure undershoot leading to the initiation of

evaporation was modeled according to [231]

P

P

`'

(T

'`

)

k

, (171)

where T

'`

is the temperature of the superheated liquid and k

0.95 to

0.97. Following the initiation of evaporation, the three phases are assumed

to move at the same velocity (homogeneous ow). Their one-dimensional

steady-state conservation equations for the mixture mass, momentum, and

237 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

energy are

d

dz

(Au/v

"

) 0 (172)

dP

dz

j

"

U

dU

dz

p

"

t

"

A

(173)

GA

ds

"

dz

GAC

''

_

ln

T

`'

T

'`

T

'`

T

`'

1

dy

dz

_

p

"'`

q"

"'`

T

'`

p

"'`

q"

"'`

p

"'

q"

"'

T

`'

U

_

p

"'`

t

"'`

T

'`

p

"'`

t

"'`

p

"'

t

"'

T

`'

, (174)

where subscripts L M, L S, and G represent the metastable superheated

liquid, saturated liquid, and saturated vapor, respectively, and (1 y)

represents the metastable liquid mass fraction in the mixture. The last two

terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (174) are the entropy sources due to wall

heat transfer and friction. The parameter p

"'`

represents the wall-super-

heated liquid perimeter through which the heat ux q"

"'`

is transferred, and

p

"'`

and t

"'`

represent the wall-superheated liquid perimeter and its

associated shear stress, respectively. For simplicity, T

'`

constant is as-

sumed once bubble nucleation starts. Other parameters are dened similar-

ly. The mixture entropy is dened as

s

"

(1 y)s

'`

xys

(1 x)ys

'`

, (175)

where xy and (1 x)y are the mass fractions of saturated vapor and

saturated liquid in the mixture, respectively. Other mixture properties,

including v

"

, are dened similarly. Two additional equations are provided

by the equation of state,

v

"

v

"

(P, s

"

, y), (176)

and a closure relation in the form [232]

dy

dz

k(1 y)

_

P

`'

(T

'`

) P

P

`''

P

`'

(T

'`

)

"

, (177)

where k is a constant assumed to depend on geometry according to

k k

`

p

"

A

. (178)

238 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Using the Moby-Dick experimental data, k

`

0.02 m. Equations (172)

(174), (176) (upon differentiation), and (177) constitute ve coupled equa-

tions, which can be represented in the form of a quasi-linear set of coupled

ordinary differential equations:

A

dY

dz

B (179)

Y(P, U, v

"

, s

"

, y)'. (180)

Note that if v

"

and s

"

are known, x and T

'`

can be calculated. These

equations can be numerically integrated, and by iteration the critical mass

ow rate, which leads to the vanishing of the determinant of the coefcient

matrix A, can be specied. For wall friction and heat transfer, Feburie et al.

used various correlations.

Feburie et al. compared preditions of their model for G

''

with 70 data

points from John et al. [105], with agreement within _12%, and with 14

data points from Amos and Schrock [204], with agreement within about

_5%. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were rela-

tively sensitive to the magnitude of the constant k

friction, and entrance pressure loss, and were insensitive to the magnitude

of the constant k

`

.

Geng and Ghiaasiaan [218] recently developed a homogeneous-equilib-

rium model for the critical ow of an initially subcooled liquid through

cracks and slits, where the effect of a dissolved noncondensable in the inlet

subcooled liquid was accounted for. They assumed that: (a) the solubility of

the noncondensable in the liquid is low; (b) the liquid and vapor gas phases

are everywhere at thermodynamic equilibrium and at equilibrium with

respect to the concentration of the noncondensable; and (c) the vapor

noncondensable gas mixture is everywhere saturated with respect to vapor.

For a channel with uniform cross-sectional area that is inclined with respect

to the horizontal plane by the angle 0

energy conservations are

d

dz

(j

"

U) 0 (181)

j

"

U

dU

dz

dP

dz

j

"

g sin 0

p

"

t

"

A

(182)

d

dz

U

_

j

'

(1 :)h

:j

1

2

j

"

U`

j

"

Ug sin 0

p

"

q"

"

/A,

(183)

239 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

where, assuming that the noncondensable is an ideal gas,

j

"

j

'

(1 :)

_

j

PP

`'

(T )

(R/M

)T

:, (184)

where T is the local mixture temperature.

Utilizing Henrys law [233] for the equilibrium between the gas and liquid

phases with respect to the concentration of the noncondensable, Geng and

Ghiaasiaan derived

d

dz

U

_

j

(1 :)M

'

j

'

:

M

'

(P/C

"

) [1 (Mg/M

)]M

'

0 (185)

d

dz

M

'

PP

`'

(T )

C

"

0. (186)

Geng and Ghiaasiaan expanded Eqs. (181)(183), (185), and (186) using

thermodynamic relation, and cast the aforementioned equations in the form

represented by Eq. (179), with

Y (U, P, :, h

, M

'

)'. (187)

Geng and Ghiaasiaan applied the correlation of John et al. [105], Eq.

(85), for single-phase wall friction and applied the homogeneous mixture

model, along with McAdams correlation (Eqs. (44)(48) for two-phase

pressure drop. They numerically integrated the foregoing differential con-

servation equations and, by iteratively varying the channel mass ow rate,

specied G

''

as the mass ux leading to det A0 at the critical cross-

section. Geng and Ghiaasiaan compared the predictions of their model with

the experimental data of Amos and Schrock [204] and John et al. [105]

with satisfactory agreement. To examine the effect of noncondensables, they

chose the data of Amos and Schrock as the basis for parametric calculations.

Figure 36 represents typical results, where model predictions with pure

water and water saturated with nitrogen at inlet are both presented. The

results indicate that desorption of nitrogen (or air) initially dissolved in

subcooled water can reduce the critical mass ux by several percent.

VIII. Concluding Remarks

The recent developments related to gasliquid two-phase ow, forced-

ow subcooled boiling, and the critical (choked) ow of initially subcooled

liquids, in channels with hydraulic diameters of the order of 0.1 to 1 mm,

were reviewed in this article. The hydrodynamic phenomena reviewed

240 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Fic. 36. Comparison between the predictions of the model of Geng and Ghiaasiaan [218]

and the experimental data of Amos and Schrock [204] and the effect of noncondensable gas

on model predictions. (With permission from [218].)

included the two-phase ow regimes, void fraction, and frictional pressure

drop in narrow rectangular and annular passages, a micro-rod bundle, and

microchannels under conditions where surface tension and inertial forces are

both signicant. The boiling phenomena reviewed included the onset of

nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of signicant void (OSV), onset of ow

instability (OFI), and critical heat ux. The critical (choked) ow of initially

subcooled liquids in capillaries, cracks, and slits was also addressed.

The observed major two-phase ow regimes in microchannels are mor-

phologically similar to the ow regimes in large channels. However, they can

be insensitive to channel orientation and are inuenced by surface wettabil-

ity. The commonly applied predictive methods for the ow regime transi-

tions in large channels overall fail to predict the microchannel data well.

Some empirical correlations that have been developed based on the micro-

gravity experiments, however, appear to agree with microchannel data

satisfactorily. The bulk of the existing microchannel data have been ob-

tained with air and water, and more experimental data examining the effects

of uid properties, in particular the surface tension, surface wettability, and

liquid viscosity, are needed. The existing predictive methods for void

fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop are also generally inad-

equate for microchannels, in particular for the annular ow regime.

241 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

With respect to boiling, the fundamental bubble ebullition phenomena in

microchannels are likely to be different from the qualitatively well-under-

stood bubble phenomena associated with boiling in large channels, because

of the occurrence of very large velocity and temperature gradients in the

former. Bubble ebullition in microchannels needs to be investigated.

The critical heat ux data associated with moderate and high mass uxes

in microchannels are predicted satisfactorily by some of the recent and

widely used empirical correlations, because of the presence of relevant data

in the data bases of these correlations. The available data associated with

low-ow critical heat ux in microchannels, however, are unlike similar data

in large channels and suggest the occurrence of metastable superheated

liquid prior to dryout. Investigations aimed at the elucidation of the

hydrodyamic and evaporation phenomena associated with annular ow

regime in microchannels are thus needed.

The critical (choked) ow of an initially subcooled liquid in a capillary,

crack, or slit is strongly inuenced by pressure drop and can be predicted

using models based on the homogeneous ow assumption.

Nomenclature

A coefcient matrix

A ow area; dimensionless

coefcient

B column vector

C constant

Ca capillary number

C

"

two-phase distribution

coefcient

Cp specic heat

D diameter

D

hydraulic diameter

D

'

, D

Eo Eotvos number

F force term

F

'

, F

26 and 27)

F

'"

, F

"

, F

`

,

F

''

, F

"

f DArcy friction factor

f ' Fanning friction factor

Fr Froude number

G mass ux

g gravitational constant

h convection heat transfer

coefcient

h

'

liquid depth

h specic enthalpy

h

k thermal conductivity

k

`

Boltzmanns constant

K

'

entrance loss coefcient

L length

M molar mass

M mass fraction

N

viscosity number

P pressure

AP

pressure undershoot

p

"

, p

"

heated and wetted perimeters

Pe Peclet number

Pr Prandtl number

P*

''

thermodynamic critical

pressure

P*

'

reduced pressure

Q dimensionless heat ux

q"

"

wall heat ux

R universal gas constant

r radius

Re Reynolds number

S slip ratio; gap distance

s specic enthalpy

242 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

s

specic enthalpy of

vaporization

St Stanton number

T temperature

t time

T *

''

thermodynamic critical

temperature

U velocity

U* friction velocity

U

`

rise velocity

v specic volume

V

'

gas drift velocity

W width

We Weber number

X Martinelli parameter

x quality

Y Shahs correlation parameter

y distance from wall; the

combined mass fraction of

vapor and saturated liquid

z axial coordinate

Grrx Sxxnois

: Void fraction

[ Volumetric quality

o Gap distance; lm thickness

I Function in Moodys critical

ow model

c Roughness

p Pressure ratio

0

angle with respect to the

horizontal plane

dimensionless coefcient

z Laplace length scale

j dynamic viscosity

j density

o surface tension

t shear stress

v kinematic viscosity

parameter dened in Eq. (110)

u two-phase multiplier

u* shape factor dened in Eq. (78)

function dened in Eq. (132);

contact angle

+ function dened in Eqs.

(119)(121)

"

function dened in Eq. (145)

D function dened in Eq. (134)

c function dened in Eq. (159)

Sinscii1s

B bubble, vapor blanket

b boiling

cr critical (choked)

E effective

eq equilibrium

eqv equivalent

f frictional; saturated liquid

FC forced convection

G gas

g saturated vapor

GS supercial gas

G0 all-gas

H heated

h homogeneous

i inlet

L liquid

L M metastable liquid

L S supercial liquid; saturated

liquid

L 0 all liquid

m average

mod modied

n noncondensable

p pipe

sat saturation

T P two-phase

v vapor

w wall

0 stagnation

o lm edge

Siirscii1s

mean

243 1vo-in:sr riov iN xicocn:NNris

Annrvi:1ioNs

CHF critical heat ux

HHF high heat ux

NVG net vapor generation

OFI onset of ow instability

ONB onset of nucleate boiling

OSV onset of signicant void

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218. Geng, H., and Ghiaasiaan, S. M. (1998). Mechanistic modeling of critical ow of initially

subcooled liquid containing dissolved noncondensables through cracks and slits based on

the homogeneous-equilibrium mixture method. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 129, 294304.

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220. Leung, J. C., and Grolmes, M. A. (1988). A generalized correlation for ashing choked

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221. Idelchik, I. E. (1994). Handbook of Hydraulic Resistances, 3rd ed., CRC Press, London.

222. Moody, F. J. (1966). Maximum two-phase vessel blowdown from pipes. J. Heat Transfer

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223. Abdolahian, D., Chexal, B., and Norris, D. M. (1983). Prediction of leak rates through

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225. Chexal, B., Abdollahian, D., and Norris, D. (1984). Analytical prediction of single-phase

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226. Schwellnus, C. F., and Shoukri, M. (1991). A two-uid model for non-equilibrium

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228. Blinkov, V. N., Jones, O. C., Jr., and Nigmatulin, B. I. (1993). Nucleation and ashing in

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230. Kroeger, P. G. (1978). Application of a non-equilibrium drift-ux model to two-phase

blowdown experiments. Paper presented at OECD/NEA Specialists Meeting on Transi-

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ejection of the produced phases. Intl. J. Multiphase Flow 5, 131141.

232. Hardy, Ph., and Mali, P. (1983). Validation and development of a model describing

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Row, New York.

254 s. x. cni::si::N :Nn s. i. :nnri-xn:iix

Turbulent Flow and Convection:

The Prediction of Turbulent Flow and Convection

in a Round Tube

STUART W. CHURCHILL

Department of Chemical Engineering

The University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

The quantitative prediction of turbulent ow and convection in chan-

nels extends at least from Boussinesq, who in 1877 proposed the eddy-

viscosity model, to Papavassiliou and Hanratty, who in 1997 computed the

rate of transport of molecular species by the turbulent uctuations using

Lagrangian direct numerical simulation. The history and current state of the

art of such predictions are examined herein. It is concluded that the eddy-

diffusivity, mixing-length, and c models should now be completely aban-

doned in favor of generalized correlating equations for the turbulent shear

stress and the turbulent heat ux density based on semitheoretical asymp-

totic expressions, even though those for the latter quantity are yet uncertain

and incomplete. Correlating equations for the time-averaged velocity dis-

tribution, the friction factor, the time-averaged temperature distribution,

and the heat transfer coefcient may serve as conveniences, but such

expressions are unessential since these four quantities may be determined

numerically with comparable accuracy from simple, single integrals of the

two more elementary quantities. Such direct numerical evaluations reveal

that all of the classical algebraic analogies between heat and momentum

transfer are in signicant error functionally as well as numerically, in large

part because of inaccurate representations of the radial variation of the total

heat ux density. In the interests of simplicity and clarity, this presentation

is primarily limited to fully developed heat transfer in a uniformly heated

round tube, but the methodologies and formulations may readily be adapted

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOLUME 34

255

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOL. 34

ISBN: 0-12-020034-1 Copyright 2001 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

0065-2717/01 $35.00

or extended for other one-dimensional ows and other thermal boundary

conditions.

I. Introduction

Progress in engineering and science occurs by discarding old concepts and

correlations in favor of new or improved ones. Turbulent ow and convec-

tion have been somewhat resistant to this process of renewal; many early

concepts and correlations remain enshrined in our current textbooks and

handbooks and in the software for design calculations even though they

long ago became obsolete in terms of accuracy or were shown to be

untenable in a theoretical sense. We should of course recognize and honor

the pioneers of our eld and preserve their contributions in a historical

context, but at the same time be alert and aggressive about identifying and

incorporating experimental and theoretical improvements.

Turbulent forced convection is analogous to turbulent ow in many

respects, but is far more complex and demanding analytically, experiment-

ally, and in practice. Under many circumstances, ow may be studied

independently from heat transfer. On the other hand, the detailed analysis

of forced convection requires a quantitative description of the details of the

ow. Also, turbulent convection invokes the Prandtl number as a parameter

as well as several other complexities that are not encountered in the

description of the ow. For these reasons, ow is examined rst and

convection thereafter. That division and order is observed in this Introduc-

tion as well as in the presentation as a whole.

In the interests of simplicity and clarity, the detailed descriptions that

follow are limited in the main to fully developed turbulent ow inside a

straight smooth round tube and to fully developed forced convection from

a uniformly or isothermally heated wall. However, the adaptation or

extension of these methodologies and formulations for other one-dimen-

sional ows is examined briey and shown to be rather straightforward.

Attention is also limited to single-phase Newtonian uids with invariant

physical properties, including the specic density. The latter restriction

excludes natural convection. Physical property variations are of course often

signicant in magnitude and may greatly inuence the ow and convection.

However, since the variations of the viscosity and thermal conductivity are

different for every uid and that of the density for every liquid, accounting

for these effects would eliminate almost all of the generality that is a primary

feature of the new and old developments described herein. At the present

time the best compensation for this oversimplication is to incorporate

empirical corrections in the nal idealized results for invariant physical

256 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 1. Self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci observing turbulent vortices behind a disturbance

in a river. (from Richter [2], Plate XXV).

properties. As computational tools and techniques advance, it may become

feasible to incorporate such variations in direct numerical simulations of the

time-dependent differential equations of conservation or numerical integra-

tions of their time-averaged counterparts.

For convenience, a single standardized notation is utilized throughout

rather than necessarily those that were originally employed in particular

contributions. All symbols are dened when they appear rst or in a new

context.

A. TiniirN1 Fiov

Lamb [1], in his classical treatise Hydrodynamics, rst published in 1879

but periodically revised by himself through 1932, a span of over half a

century, begins his rather brief treatment of turbulent motion in even the

latest of those editions with the statement, It remains to call attention to

the chief outstanding difculty of our subject. He then proceeds to explain

the reasons for that difculty, noting that the motion becomes wildly

irregular and the tube appears to be lled with interlacing and constantly

varying streams, crossing and recrossing the pipe.

257 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Leonardo da Vinci in 1515, at age 63, sketched in his notebook, as shown

in Fig. 1 (Plate XXV from Richter [2]), a self-portrait with a river owing

past obstructions. As indicated by the accompanying text, he was interested

in the pattern of ow in a scientic as well as an artistic sense. His

description has been translated (Richter [2], p. 200) as Observe the motion

of the surface of the water which resembles that of hair, and has two

motions, of which one goes on with the ow of the surface, the other forms

the lines of the eddies; thus the water forms eddying whirlpools one part of

which are due to the impetus of the principal current and the other to the

incidental motion and return ow. Even such a universal genius and

perceptive observer as Leonardo may sometimes err; he sketched symmet-

rical pairs of vortices rather than the alternating ones that actually occur.

The later renowned physicists and applied mathematicians who have

written on the subject of turbulent ow include Subrahmanyan Chandrasek-

har [3], Albert Einstein [4], Werner Heisenberg [5], Pyotr Kapitsa [6], Lev

Landau [7], Hendrik Lorentz [8], Isaac Newton [9], Lord Rayleigh [10],

Arnold Sommerfeld [11], George Uhlenbeck [12], Richard von Mises [13],

C. R. von Weizsa cker [14], and Yakob Zeldovich [15]. It is intimidating

and humbling for anyone who undertakes the study of turbulent ow to

realize that even these great scientists made few signicant contributions to

this subject outside the special topic of stability.

The focus herein on shear ows and in particular on fully developed ow

in a round tube avoids the necessity of reviewing the statistical develop-

ments that have found applicability primarily in the idealized domains of

isotropic and homogeneous tubulence. Another quotation is appropriate in

this regard. Schlichting [16], in the Authors Preface of the rst German

edition of Boundary L ayer T heory, wrote (in translation) No account of the

statistical theories of turbulence has been included because they have not

attained any practical signicance for engineers. In a later edition he writes

begrudgingly and deantly in apparent response to criticisms of that

statement that This (the statistical theory of turbulence) admittedly has

contributed to our understanding of turbulent ows but it has not yet

acquired any importance to engineers. Although statistical representations

of turbulence have recently been utilized in the development of approximate

expressions for the kinetic energy of turbulence, , and the rate of dissipation

of the energy of turbulence, c, in connection with the c and related

models, the details of that usage are outside the chain of development herein

and only merit this brief mention.

The general partial-differential equations for the conservation of mass and

momentum in time-dependent form are generally presumed to describe

turbulent ow insofar as the uid may be treated as a continuum. Because

of their complexity, and in particular their nonlinearity, they resisted

258 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

numerical as well as analytical methods of solution until roughly the last

decade. Accordingly, as an alternative approach, Sir Osborne Reynolds [17]

in 1895 reduced these expressions to manageable proportions and a tract-

able form by space-averaging. This great simplication has inspired a

century-long development of semitheoretical models and approximate sol-

utions for the reduced equations. In particular, Ludwig Prandtl and his

associates and contemporaries developed a very useful structure for the

prediction and correlation of turbulent shear ows by postulating mechan-

istic models for the unknown term(s) in the time-averaged (rather than

space-averaged) equations of conservation in differential form. This pro-

cedure proved to be so successful in an applied sense that only sporadic and

limited improvements were made over the ensuing half-century. Finally, in

the 1980s and 1990s, a signicant breakout occurred in the form of

essentially exact solutions of the general time-dependent equations of

conservation by direct numerical simulation (DNS). Although the results

obtained by this technique are yet very restricted in scope, both intrinsically

and because of their computational demands, this development has invigor-

ated the elds of turbulent ow and convection and has played a key role

in the development of the new formulations that constitute the principal

contribution of this article.

Before the presentation of these improved formulations, a retrospective

assessment of the historical development and validity of the quantitative

descriptions of turbulent shear ow in the classical and current literature is

provided. This survey is limited to representative contributions with long-

lasting consequences, both positive and negative, rather than being exhaus-

tive, since the primary objective is to provide a framework and perspective

for the new improved expressions. This portion of the presentation is

organized chronologically on the mean, but also topically, in part in the

interests of clarity, continuity, and the avoidance of repetition.

B. TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN

Although the path of development of a structure for the correlation and

prediction of convection in turbulent ow might have been expected to

follow the path of development for the ow itself because of the similar

structure of the equation of conservation for energy to those for momentum,

this is not found to be the case. Turbulent convection is much more

complicated because of (1) the coupling of the equations for the conserva-

tions of energy and momentum, (2) the possibility of different boundary

conditions, and (3) the appearance of additional parameters.

Reynolds [18] in 1874, and thus 21 years prior to his great contribution

to the development of a simplied structure for turbulent ow by means of

259 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

space averaging, derived a simple algebraic equation, now known as the

Reynolds analogy, by postulating equal mass rates of transport of energy and

momentum from the bulk of the uid stream all the way to a conning

surface by the turbulent eddies. This expression, which is free of any explicit

empiricism and independent of geometry, is only of rst-order accuracy at

best, but it lives on after 125 years by virtue of its implicit or explicit

presence within many predictive correlations for heat and mass transfer.

An alternative approach to the prediction of the rate of heat transfer

involves the adaptation of the mechanistic models of Prandtl and others to

represent the primary unknown term (the turbulent heat ux density) in the

time-averaged differential equation for the conservation of energy. Such

modeling has, however, evolved more slowly and less successfully for

convection than for ow because of the inherently more complex behavior

mentioned earlier. Direct numerical simulation has also been utilized for

convection, but even more severe limitations are encountered than for ow

and, as a consequence, less success has been achieved.

In contrast with ow, the historical development of a structure for

turbulent convection is reviewed retrospectively in the light of the new and

improved formulations that prompted this article. Finally, some representa-

tive numerical results obtained by means of these new formulations are

presented and generalized.

II. The Quantitative Representation of Turbulent Flow

Structures for the prediction and correlation of the characteristics of

turbulent ow that are important in the subsequent prediction and correla-

tion of rates of heat transfer are rst examined from a historical point of

view. New and improved formulations are then described and compared

with experimental data and numerical predictions. The derivations and nal

expressions are presented herein primarily in the context of a round tube,

even though they may have been formulated originally for ow between

parallel plates or for unconned ow along a at plate. The adaptation or

extension of these new expressions for other geometries is nally examined

briey.

A. His1oic:i Hicniicn1s

1. The Exact Structure

The partial differential equations for the conservation of momentum in

the ow of a single-phase Newtonian uid with invariant viscosity and

260 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

density may be expressed in cylindrical coordinates as follows:

Radial component:

j

cu

'

ct

u

'

cu

'

cr

u

r

cu

'

c0

u`

r

u

cu

'

cz

cp

cr

j

_

c

cr

1

r

c

cr

(ru

'

)

1

r`

c`u

'

c0

`

2

r`

cu

c0

c`u

'

cz`

jg

'

(1)

Angular component:

j

cu

ct

u

'

cu

cr

u

r

cu

c0

u

'

u

r

u

cu

cz

1

r

cp

c0

j

_

c

cr

1

r

c

cr

(ru

1

r`

c`u

c0

`

2

r`

cu

'

c0

c`u

cz`

jg

(2)

Axial component:

j

cu

ct

u

'

cu

cr

u

r

cu

c0

cu

cz

cp

cz

j

_

1

r

c

cr

r

cu

cr

1

r`

c`u

c0

`

c`u

cz`

jg

. (3)

Here, t represents time, r, z and 0

g

'

, g

, and g

'

,

u

, and u

thermodynamic pressure, j the specic density, and j the dynamic viscosity.

Equations (1)(3) are generally known as the NavierStokes equations in

recognition of their derivation by Navier [19] in 1822 and their renement

by Stokes [20] in 1845. After repeated attempts to derive or justify these

expressions on the basis of statistical mechanics, Uhlenbeck [12] noted that

Quantitatively, some of the predictions from these equations surely deviate

from experiment, but the very remarkable fact remains that qualitatively the

NavierStokes equations always describe physical phenomena sensibly. . . .

The mathematical reason for this virtue of the NavierStokes equations is

completely mysterious to me.

The greatest advance ever in the analysis of turbulent ow was made in

1895 by Reynolds [17], who not only conceived of the practical advantages

of space averaging but also derived in detail the required mathematical

procedures for this averaging. He then applied this process to Eqs. (1)(3).

Time averaging, which is generally presumed to be equivalent to space

averaging, followed by specialization for steady fully developed ow, reduces

261 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

these equations to

cP

cr

1

r

d

dr

(jru'

'

u'

'

)

j(u'

u'

)

r

0 (4)

1

r

d

dr

(ru'

'

u'

)

u'

'

u'

r

0 (5)

and

cP

cz

1

r

d

dr

jr

du

dr

(jru'

'

u'

0, (6)

where here, as contrasted with Eqs. (1)(3), u

velocity, and P the time-averaged dynamic pressure that arises from changes

in velocity only; u'

'

, u'

and u'

about the time-averaged values; and the superbars the time-averaged values

of products of these uctuations. The validity of the equations obtained by

space or time averaging has been questioned, but no specic failures have

been demonstrated for conditions such that treatment of the uid as a

continuum is a valid approximation. Barenblatt and Goldenfeld [21] have

questioned the concept of full development for turbulent shear ows (the

attainment of a velocity eld and pressure gradient independent from z), but

such behavior is certainly attained for all practical purposes (see, for

example, Abbrecht and Churchill [22]), and such a postulate has resulted

in many apparently valid asymptotic predictions.

Equations (4)(6), even if exact, are, in contrast with Eqs. (1)(3), an

incomplete description of the uid motion. The terms u'

'

u'

'

, u'

u'

, u'

'

u'

, and

u'

'

u'

sent the information lost by time averaging since they are indeterminate

from these equations alone. Most of the modeling of turbulent ow has

involved the postulate of empirical expressions for these time-averaged

products of the uctuating components of the velocity. On the other hand,

the structural gain from time averaging is quite evident, not only from the

relative simplicity of Eqs. (4)(6) as compared to Eqs. (1)(3), but also from

their susceptibility to analytical and formal integration with respect to r to

obtain

PP

"

ju'

'

u'

'

j

,

'

(u'

u'

u'

'

u'

'

)

dr

r

(7)

u'

'

u'

0 (8)

and

r

2

cP

cz

j

du

dr

ju'

'

u'

. (9)

262 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Equation (7) expresses the radial variation in pressure wholly in terms of

the uctuations in u

and u

'

; Eq. (8) indicates that the Coriolis force is zero

at all radii. Here P

"

is the pressure on the wall of the pipe at r a, where

a is the radius of the pipe. Since u'

'

u'

'

and u'

u'

developed ow, it follows that cP/cz is also independent of z and hence a

constant that may be expressed as dP/dz. From a force balance over a

central cylindrical segment of the uid it may be shown that

t

r

2

dP

dz

, (10)

where t is the total shear stress in the z-direction imposed on the outer uid

at any radius by this inner segment. It follows that at r a,

t

"

a

2

dP

dz

. (11)

Here t

"

is the shear stress imposed on the wall in the z-direction. From the

ratio of Eqs. (10) and (11),

t

t

"

r

a

. (12)

Now for convenience and simplicity, letting u

u, u'

'

v', u'

u', and

a r y allows Eq. (9) to be reexpressed as

t

"

1

y

a

j

du

dy

ju'v' . (13)

From Eq. (13), which is the starting point for all subsequent modeling herein

for ow in a round tube, it is evident that the contribution of the turbulent

uctuations to the time-averaged velocity is wholly represented by u'v'.

Similarly, it is evident from Eq. (7) that the radial variation of the dynamic

pressure is wholly a consequence of u'

'

u'

'

and u'

u'

.

2. Dimensional, Asymptotic, and Speculative Analyses

The most useful technique for the development of functional relationships

for the characteristics of turbulent ow has proven to be a combination of

dimensional, asymptotic, and speculative analyses. Here speculation refers to

a tentative postulate whose consequences are ultimately to be tested with

experimental or exact theoretical results. It is unfortunate that the uncer-

tainty implied by this terminology has often discouraged its formal usage.

The techniques and results of dimensional, asymptotic, and speculative

analysis have evolved independently in many different contexts and there is

263 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

no general agreement on the priority of the various contributions. The

attributions herein are conceded to be somewhat arbitrary.

Fourier [23] in 1822 established the fundamental basis for dimensional

analysis by noting that all added and equated terms in a complete relation-

ship between the variables must have the same net dimensions. Rayleigh [24,

25] in 1892 illustrated the expression of functional relationships in terms of

dimensionless groups, and in 1915 proposed a general mechanistic process

for the determination of an appropriate minimal set of dimensionless

groupings to describe the behavior dened by a listing of dependent

variables, independent variables, physical properties, and any other relevant

parameters.

Asymptotic dimensional analysis, as used herein, refers to the reduction of

such a listing, and hence of the number of dimensionless groupings, for

limiting conditions or locations or times. Speculative dimensional analysis, as

dened by Churchill [26], refers to the tentative elimination of individual

variables or parameters and thereby reduction of the number of dimension-

less groupings without necessarily any justication or rationale in advance.

This latter procedure may be characterized by the question, What if . . .?

Insofar as the chosen set of variables and parameters is sufcient and

self-consistent, the results obtained by ordinary and speculative dimensional

analyses are exact. The results from an asymptotic dimensional analysis may

additionally depend on arbitrary constraints. Since the original choice of a

set of variables, whether from a mathematical model or a heuristic listing, is

always a possible source of error, Churchill [27] has proposed that all

processes of dimensional analysis be considered to be speculative and

thereby tentative until conrmed by experimental data or exact theoretical

results.

Since neither analytical nor numerical solutions of the general time-

dependent equations of conservation for conditions resulting in turbulent

shear ow have been accomplished until very recently, these several pro-

cesses of dimensional analysis have proven to be invaluable in terms of

suggesting forms for the efcient correlation of experimental data. Such

forms may be expected to serve the same role for the currently emerging

exact but discrete numerical results.

The rst application of dimensional analysis for turbulent ow was by

Reynolds [28, 17], who in 1883 determined the conditions for the onset of

turbulence in ow through a long pipe and then in 1895 surmised that the

transition was characterized by the dimensionless grouping Du

"

j/j, now

known as the Reynolds number. Here D2a is the diameter of the pipe and

u

"

the space- and time-mean velocity. This result and its direct counterparts

for the friction factor and the time-mean velocity distribution are all that

may be inferred from the variables of Eq. (13) by simple dimensional

264 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

analysis. On the other hand, Prandtl and his associates and contempories

utilized asymptotic and speculative dimensional analysis with great insight

and success to choose forms of these types for the correlation of experimen-

tal data starting from either Eqs. (1)(3) or (13). Some such analyses follow.

It may be speculated on purely physical grounds, inferred from Eqs.

(1)(3), or inferred from Eq. (13) that the local time-mean velocity in steady,

fully developed turbulent ow in a round tube with a radius a may be

expressed in general as

u y, t

"

, a, j, j}, (14)

where the notation x} designates an unknown function of any indepen-

dent variable x. [The inference of Eq. (14) from Eq. (13) implies that u'v' is

a function of the same variables as u.] It follows from the application of

ordinary dimensional analysis to Eq. (14) that one possible set of dimen-

sionless groupings is

u

j

t

"

y(t

"

j)`

j

,

y

a

. (15)

Prandtl [29] introduced the notation uu(j/t

"

)` and yy(jt

"

)`/j,

which is still used almost universally today, to reexpress Eq. (15) as

u

y,

y

a

'

y,

y

a

. (16)

Equation (13) may be reexpressed in this notation as

1

y

a

du

dy

(u'v'), (17)

where, as may be inferred, (u'v')ju'v'/t

"

.

Prandtl next speculated that near the wall u might be essentially indepen-

dent of a, thereby reducing Eq. (16) to

uy}, (18)

which is now known as the universal law of the wall. The limitation of Eq.

(18) to ya explains the terminology law of the wall, and the depend-

ence only on y suggests its possible applicability to all geometries, and

thereby the term universal.

Very, very near the wall, the contribution of the turbulent uctuations in

the velocity to the local shear stress might be expected to be negligibly small

relative to the viscous stress, permitting Eq. (17) to be integrated to obtain

uy

(y)`

2a

y. (19)

265 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

The limiting form of Eq. (19) may be noted to conform to Eq. (18), and both

the general and the limiting form to apply to laminar ow.

The corresponding speculation that near the centerline the viscous stress

might be negligible with respect to that due to the turbulent uctuations in

the velocity implies independence of du/dy from j. From the same process

of dimensional analysis for du/dy as carried out for u in Eqs. (14)(18), it

may be inferred that

du

d(y/a)

y

a

'

d(y/a})

d(y/a)

, (20)

where and designate arbitrary functions of y/a. Formal integration of

Eq. (20) from u u

'

, the velocity at the centerline at y a, leads to

u

'

u1}

y

a

y

a

. (21)

The term u

'

u, which characterizes the behavior near the centerline in

the same general sense that u does near the wall, is called the velocity defect

(or deciency), while Eq. (21) is called the law of the center.

Millikan [30], with great imagination and insight, speculated that Eqs.

(18) and (21) might have some region of overlap, far from the wall and far

from the centerline, where both were applicable, at least as an approxi-

mation. Accordingly, he reexpressed Eq. (18) in terms of the velocity defect,

that is, as

u

'

ua} y}, (22)

and noted that the only functional expression for the velocity defect

satisfying both Eqs. (21) and (22) is

u

'

uB ln

a

y

, (23)

where B is an arbitrary dimensionless coefcient. The necessary counterpart

for the velocity itself is

uAB lny}, (24)

where A is an arbitrary dimensionless constant. Although Eqs. (23) and (24)

conform to both the law of the center and the law of the wall, they would

be expected to have only a narrow identical region of validity far from both

the centerline and the wall. Von Ka rma n [31] postulated that despite this

restriction, Eq. (23) might provide an adequate approximation for the entire

cross-section insofar as integration to determine u

"

is concerned. The result

266 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

of such an integration is

u

'

u

"

3B

2

, (25)

which may be combined with Eq. (24), as specialized for ya, to obtain

2

f

`

u

"

A

3B

2

B lna}. (26)

Here f 2t

"

/ju`

"

is the Fanning friction factor. Equation (26) may of course

also be derived directly by integrating u from Eq. (24) over the cross-

section. The derivation of Eq. (26) by von Ka rma n is one of the most fateful

in the history of turbulent ow, in that it has remained to this day the most

common correlating equation for the friction factor, with its fundamental

shortcomings compensated for and disguised by differing and varying values

of A(3B/2) and B.

For a pipe with a roughness e, the same type of analysis that led to Eq.

(16) results in

u

y,

y

a

,

e

a

(27)

or the equivalent. The speculation that the velocity is independent of the

radius and dependent primarily on the roughness rather than on the

viscosity leads to the following modied law of the wall:

u

y

e

. (28)

Equation (21) remains applicable for the region near the centerline for

roughened as well as smooth pipe. The equivalent of the speculation of

Millikan results again in Eq. (23) for the velocity defect in the possible

region of overlap but the following different expression for the velocity

distribution itself in that region:

uCB ln

y

e

. (29)

Here, C is a dimensionless arbitrary constant and B is implied to have the

same value as in Eqs. (23) and (24). Integration of Eq. (29) over the

cross-section results in

2

f

`

u

"

C

3B

2

B ln

a

e

, (30)

267 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

but Eq. (25) remains applicable. It may be inferred that the effect of

roughness is simply to decrease u for a given value of y by the quantity

Blne} AC and to decrease u

"

by the same amount for a given value

of a. Here ee(t

"

j)`/j in conformity to the denition of y.

Murphree [32] and several others used a variety of methods of asym-

ptotic expansion to derive the following relationship for the time average of

the product of the uctuating components of the velocity and thereby the

turbulent shear stress very near a wall:

ju'v' :'y` ['y" . . . . (31)

Here, :',[', . . . are arbitrary dimensional coefcients. Equation (31) may be

reexpressed in terms of the previously dened dimensionless variables as

(u'v') :(y)` [(y)" . . . , (32)

where : and [ are dimensionless coefcients. Substitution of (u'v') from Eq.

(32) in Eq. (17), followed by integration from u0 at y0, leads to a

corresponding expression for u, namely,

uy

:

4

(y)"

[

5

( y)`

(y)`

2a

. (33)

Equation (33) without the term in (y)`/2a, which is negligible for typical

values of a, has also been derived directly by asymptotic expansion.

The recognition on physical grounds that the fraction of the shear stress

due to turbulence, namely ju'v'/t, is necessarily nite, positive, and less

than unity at the centerline requires, by virtue of Eq. (17), that

u

'

uE

1

y

a

`

, (34)

and therefore that

(u'v')

1

2E

a

1

y

a

, (35)

where E is an arbitrary dimensionless coefcient. Equations (34) and (35)

are the counterparts for the region near the centerline of Eqs. (33) and (32),

respectively, for the region near the wall.

The range of validity, if any, of each of the foregoing speculative

expressions, namely Eqs. (18)(35), is subsequently evaluated on the basis

of experimental data and direct numerical simulations.

268 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

3. Empirical Models

An alternative and supplementary approach to dimensional, speculative,

and asymptotic analyses is the postulate of mechanistic empirical models for

the turbulent shear stress and thereby for the prediction of the local

time-mean velocity distribution and its space mean.

a. The Eddy Viscosity Boussinesq [33] in 1877, and thus before the

identication by Reynolds in 1895 of the relationship between the turbulent

shear stress and the uctuating components of the velocity, proposed by

analogy to Newtons law for the viscous shear stress the following expression

for the total shear stress in a shear ow:

t (j j

'

)

du

dy

. (36)

Here j

'

is the eddy viscosity, an empirical quantity that is a function of local

conditions rather than a physical property such as j. This expression may

be recognized as equivalent to the following differential model for the

principal Reynolds stress:

ju'v' j

'

du

dy

. (37)

Equation (17), with the turbulent shear stress represented by Eq. (37), may

be rewritten as

1

y

a

1

j

'

j

du

dy

. (38)

b. The Mixing Length Another historically important model for the tur-

bulent shear stress was proposed by Prandtl [34] in 1925 on the basis of a

postulated analogy between the chaotic motion of the eddies and that of the

molecules of a gas. This model may be expressed as

ju'v' jl`

du

dy

du

dy

(39)

where l is a mixing length for eddies corresponding to the mean free path of

molecules as dened by the kinetic theory of gases. Although this analogy,

as noted by Bird et al. [35, p. 160], has little physical justication, the

mixing-length model has generally been accorded more respect by analysts

than the eddy viscosity model, apparently because of its mechanistic

rationale, however questionable that may be.

Von Ka rma n [31] speculated on dimensionless grounds that near the

wall, l might be proportional to the distance from the wall; that is, he

269 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

proposed the expression

l ky, (40)

where k is a dimensionless factor that is now generally called the von

Karman constant. Prandtl [29] substituted l from Eq. (40) in Eq. (39) and

in turn the resulting expression for ju'v' in Eq. (13) to obtain

t

"

1

y

a

j

du

dy

k`y`j

du

dy

`

, (41)

which may be reexpressed in the canonical dimensionless form as follows:

1

y

a

du

dy

k`(y)`

du

dy

`

. (42)

Prandtl [34], starting from Eq. (42), neglected the variation in the total

shear stress with y/a, neglected the viscous shear stress, took the square

root of the resulting expression, and integrated indenitely to derive

uA

1

k

lny}. (43)

Equation (43) is seen to be equivalent to Eq. (24) with B1/k. Because of

the two idealizations made in the reduction of Eq. (42), the resulting

expression would be expected to be invalid near the wall where the viscous

shear stress is controlling and near the centerline where the variation of the

total shear stress is important. Even within the remaining region, Eq. (43) is

subject to the two postulates represented by Eqs. (39) and (40). The

existence of a region of overlap, which was postulated by Millikan in

deriving Eq. (24), may be inferred to be equivalent to these two empirical

postulates of Prandtl. It is worthy of note that despite the postulate of

negligible viscous shear in its derivation, Eq. (43) incorporates, when

rewritten in terms of dimensional variables, a dependence on the viscosity

insofar as A is a constant independent of the Reynolds number and hence

of the viscosity. The subsequently demonstrated success of Eq. (43) and (24)

with empirical values for A and B1/k in representing experimental data

is a testament to the insight and ingenuity of both Prandtl and Millikan in

following two different and tortuous paths in their derivations.

Analytical solutions of Eq. (42) in closed form are actually possible if one

or the other of the simplications made by Prandtl in reducing Eq. (42) in

order to derive Eq. (43) is avoided. Furthermore, a solution in integral form

may be derived without making either simplication. For example, if the

viscous shear stress is taken into account, the resulting quadratic equation

270 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

in du/dy may be solved and then integrated from u0 at y0 to

obtain

u

1 [1 (2ky)`]`

2ky

1

k

ln2ky[1 ky)`]`}. (44)

Because of the imposition of the boundary condition at the wall, this

expression, which was apparently rst derived by Rotta [36], is free of the

arbitrary constant A of Eq. (43) and provides a smooth if erroneous

transition from the limiting form of Eq. (19) for y0 to Eq. (43), with an

effective value of A(1/k)(ln4k} 1) as y. The correct limiting

behavior for y0 and the smooth transition to Eq. (43) are a consequence

of accounting for the viscous shear stress. The failure of the predicted

transitional behavior to conform functionally to Eq. (33) is clearly attribu-

table to the shortcomings of Eqs. (39) and (40), but the reason for the

prediction of highly erroneous (negative) values for the equivalent of A at

large values of y for a representative value of k is more difcult to assign.

Conversely, accounting for the linear variation of the total shear stress

with y but neglecting the viscous shear stress permits derivation of the

following solution for the so-reduced form of Eq. (42) by a process similar

to that used to obtain Eqs. (43) and (44):

u

1

k _

2

1

y

a

`

2

1

y

"

a

`

ln

_

1

1

y

a

`

_

1

1

y

"

a

`

_

1

1

y

a

`

_

1

1

y

"

a

`

. (45)

Here u0 at yy

"

was invoked as an arbitrary boundary condition.

The choice of y

"

expAk} results in matching the predictions of Eqs.

(45) and (43) at that location. Equation (45) shares the limitation of

applicability of Eq. (43) to the turbulent core near the wall and is of interest

only as a measure of the effect of neglecting the variation of the total shear

stress in that regime. For larger values of y/a it is in serious error because

of its incorporation of Eq. (40).

Taking into account both the viscous shear stress and the variation of the

total shear stress, that is, starting from Eq. (42), solving this quadratic

equation in du/dy, and integrating formally from u0 at y0 results

271 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

in the following integral expression:

u2

,

'

"

1

y

a

dy

1

_

1

1

y

a

(2ky)`

`

. (46)

Equation (46) coincides with Eq. (44) for ya and represents an

improvement on Eq. (45) for larger values of y at the expense of numerical

integration, but fails for ya owing to the inapplicability of Eq. (40) for

that regime. Comparison of the predictions of Eqs. (44)(46) with Eq. (43)

for representative values of A, k, and y

"

conrms the good judgment of

Prandtl in making the simplications leading to Eq. (43) since Eq. (40),

which all of these improved expressions incorporate, is valid even as an

approximation only in the turbulent core near the wall.

Prandtl [34], and in more detail in [37], speculated that near the

centerline the mixing length might be nearly invariant, i.e.,

l 5l

, (47)

where l

for l in

Eq. (39) and the resulting expression for ju'v' in Eq. (13), neglected the

viscous term, and integrated from u u

'

at y a to obtain, in dimensionless

form,

u

'

u

2

3

a

l

1

y

a

``

. (48)

Equation (48) correctly predicts du/dy 0 at ya, but has a different

power dependence on 1 (y/a) than does Eq. (34).

In order to improve upon Eqs. (40) and (45) and thereby on Eqs. (43) and

(48), von Ka rma n [31] postulated that

l k*

du/dy

d`u/dy`

(49)

where k* is an arbitrary dimensionless coefcient similar to k. He once

explained, in response to an oral inquiry from the author of this article, that

Eq. (49) was chosen because it was the simplest dimensionally correct

expression for l involving only derivatives of the velocity. Substituting l

from Eq. (49) in Eq. (39) and following the same procedure as used to obtain

Eq. (48), but with two integrations and the equivocal boundary condition

du/dy at y 0, results in

j

'

j

1

k* _

1

y

a

`

ln

1

y

a

`

. (50)

272 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

If the variation of the total shear stress is neglected as well, the procedure

used to derive Eq. (50), except for an indenite limit for the second

integration, leads to Eq. (43) with k replaced by k*, which suggests but does

not prove their identity in general. As ya, Eq. (50) may be approxim-

ated by

u

'

u

1

2k*

1

y

a

, (51)

which not only has a different functional dependence on 1 (y/a) than

Eq. (34) but in addition fails to predict du/dy 0 at ya.

Van Driest [38] attempted to improve upon Eq. (40), the mixing length

model of Prandtl for the region near the wall, by including a term for

viscous damping similar to the one that holds for the laminar motion of a

uid subjected to the harmonic oscillation of a plate. That is, he let

l ky(1 expy}) (52)

where is an empirical dimensionless coefcient whose numerical value is

usually taken to be 1/26, in rough correspondence to the furthest limit of

the buffer layer from the wall. Introducing l from Eq. (52) in Eq. (39) and

in turn ju'v' in Eq. (13), neglecting the variation in the total shear stress,

solving the resulting quadratic equation for du/dy, and integrating

formally from u0 at y0 results in

u2

,

'

"

dy

1 (1 [2ky(1 expy}]`)`

. (53)

For y0, Eq. (53) reduces to Eq. (29), but unfortunately with : 0 and

[k``/5. For large values of y it reduces to Eq. (44), and thereby has

the merits and shortcomings already noted for that expression. It may be

inferred from Eq. (46) that the variation of the total shear stress, which van

Driest neglected, may be taken into account to obtain

u2

,

'

"

1

y

a

dy

1

_

1

1

y

a

(2ky)`(1 expy})`]`

. (54)

Just as noted with respect to Eq. (46), the result is only a slight improvement

on Eq. (53), since Eq. (52) is not applicable in the region where the terms in

1 (y/a) have a signicant role.

c. Other Models Kolmogorov [39] and Prandtl [40] independently con-

jectured on dimensional grounds (local similarity) that

j

'

c

`l*j, (55)

273 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

where here is the kinetic energy of the turbulence and l* is an unknown

length scale. Batchelor [41] subsequently conjectured that

l* c

`

``/c, (56)

where c is the rate of dissipation of turbulence. Combination of Eqs. (53) and

(56) results in

j

'

c

c

`

j`/c. (57)

Launder and Spalding [42] proposed calculating and c numerically from

differential transport equations formulated as moments of that for momen-

tum, such as Eq. (9), and then in turn calculating j

'

from Eq. (57).

Unfortunately, the approximate expressions for the terms in these moments

of the momentum balance that have been suggested by various investigators

are somewhat arbitrary, and in any event introduce a number of empirical

coefcients in addition to c

c

`

of Eq. (57). Although some success has been

achieved with the c model in the few simple ows for which an extensive

set of data exists from experimental measurements and/or direct numerical

simulations and therefore for which the model is not needed, the predictions

for more complex ows have been disappointing in accuracy or are

precluded by singularities in j

'

and/or l. The cu'v' or Reynolds-stress

model, which adds a transport equation for u'v' similar to those for and

c, appears to be free of singularities even in a concentric circular annulus

(see Hanjalic and Launder [43]) but is essentially a correlative rather than

a predictive model for the important region near the wall. The large eddy

simulation (LES) method starts from the time-dependent equations of

conservation but introduces arbitrary terms such as those of the c and

Reynolds-stress models as well as utilizing the c model or additional

empirical terms for the region near the wall. For an illustration of the

applicability of this model, again for an annulus, see Satake and Kawamura

[44].

4. T he Experimental Data of Nikuradse

Nikuradse [4547] in 1930, 1932, and 1933 obtained extensive and

precise sets of experimental data for the time-mean velocity distribution in

the turbulent core and for the axial pressure gradient for the fully developed

ow of water in smooth round tubes for 600 Re 3.2410' and in round

tubes with a uniform articial roughness e corresponding to 15(a/a)507

for 600 Re 10'. Furthermore, he presented his data in tabular as well

as graphical forms, thereby making it readily available in full numerical

detail to subsequent investigators. For more than 60 years these data have

274 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

been generally accepted as the primary standard for the development of

models and correlating equations, for the evaluation of arbitrary constants

therein, and for evaluation of the data of subsequent investigators.

However, Miller [48] in 1949 identied an apparent discrepancy in the

tabulated values of y in Table 3 of Nikuradse [46]. By means of an inquiry

addressed to Prandtl, he learned that Nikuradse had added 7.0 to each value

of y (the dimensionless distance of each point of measurement from the

wall) in order to force the measured values of u in his smooth pipes to

approach the limiting form of Eq. (19) as y0. This discovery by Miller

may readily be conrmed by comparing the values of uy} plotted in Fig.

15 of Nikuradse [45] with those in Fig. 24 of Nikuradse [46]. This

adjustment has an insignicant effect for the large values of y but

precludes the use of the tabulated values for the small values. Robertson et

al. [49] in 1968 conjectured that Nikuradse [47] might also have adjusted

his experimental values for the velocity distribution near the centerline of

the artically roughened pipes in order to force comformity of the values of

u

'

u

"

to 3B/2 3.75, and Lynn [50] in 1959 discreetly noted the

extraordinarily low scatter in the experimental values used by Nikuradse

[46] to infer (incorrectly) that the eddy viscosity approaches zero at the

centerline. However, on the whole the measurements by Nikuradse of the

velocity distribution in the turbulent core as well as those of the axial

pressure gradient for both smooth and rough pipe have stood the test of

time, and these adjustments, except possibly those implied by Lynn, have

not had any serious consequences in either uid mechanics or heat transfer.

Nikuradse [46] used his experimental data rst of all to test the law of the

wall, Eq. (18). He found conformity for the smooth pipes for all ows, all

diameters, and all locations, including even the region near the centerline

where it might not have been expected to hold. Next, he found that Eq. (24)

with A5.5 and B2.5 represented these values well for all y50, again

even for the region near the centerline. He also found Eq. (29) with C8.5

and B2.5 to be successful for representation of the measured velocity

distribution for the articially roughened pipes at the larger values of a.

However, his experimental values for the friction factor in the smooth pipes

were found to be represented better by

2

f

`

2.00 2.46 lna} (58)

than by Eq. (26) with A5.5 and B2.5, which yields A(3B/2) 1.75

and the same value of the coefcient B as for the velocity distribution. The

discrepancy in the constant (2.0 as compared to 1.75) may be attributed to

275 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 2. Experimental velocity distribution in fully developed turbulent ow of water in a

127-mm Plexiglas tube (RRe). (Reprinted with permission from Lindgren and Chao [51],

Figure 1. Copyright 1969 American Institute of Physics.)

the neglect of the boundary layer near the wall, as represented in the limit

by Eq. (33), and of the wake, as represented in the limit by Eq. (34). Both

of these deviations from Eq. (24) are well illustrated by the much later data

of Lindgren and Chao [51] in Fig. 2. On the other hand, the discrepancy in

the coefcient (2.46 as compared to 2.50) is unacceptable on theoretical

grounds. The overly simplied and incongruent expressions for the velocity

distribution and the friction factor that appear unexplained in most of our

current textbooks and handbooks are a legacy of the failure of Nikuradse

to obtain sufciently precise and accurate values for the velocity distribution

near the wall and near the centerline and to develop correlating equations

encompassing these regions. Nikuradse is, of course, not responsible for the

failure of subsequent investigators and writers to explain and provide a

rational correction for these anomalies.

A similar discrepancy exists for the correlating equations of Nikuradse

[47] for articially roughened pipe, for which he correlated his experimental

276 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

data for the axial pressure gradient for asymptotically large values of the

Reynolds number with the expression

2

f

`

4.92 2.46 ln

a

e

. (59)

It may be noted that Eq. (30) with C8.5 and B2.5 predicts a value of

4.75 rather than 4.92 for the constant and a value of 2.5 rather than 2.46 for

the coefcient.

For the reasons just cited, the experimental measurements of the velocity

distribution by Nikuradse do not provide a test of Eqs. (19) and (33) or

allow evaluation of the coefcients of the latter. Although he apparently did

not recognize the existence of a wake, his experimental values of u

'

u

conform crudely to Eq. (34) even for y/a as low as 0.2. On the whole, they

suggest a value of E between 6.7 and 7.5. The failure of the values very near

the centerline to conform to this relationship may be due to the adjust-

ments implied by Lynn [50] as well as to the very small differences in the

measured velocities at closely adjacent locations in that region.

Nikuradse [45] determined the values of the mixing length plotted in Fig.

3 from the slope of plots of the velocity distribution. The values of the

mixing length thus determined appear to be independent of the Reynolds

number and of the roughness ratio for sufciently large values of the

Reynolds number, implying a great generality for the relationship between

l/a and y/a. Nikuradse [46] subsequently proposed representation of all of

these values by the empirical expression

l

a

0.14 0.08

1

y

a

`

0.06

1

y

a

"

, (60)

which he attributed to Prandtl and interpreted as an interpolation for-

mula between Eq. (40) with k 0.4 for y0 and Eq. (47) with l

0.14

for ya. This value of l

Eq. (48). From these same slopes of the velocity distribution he determined

the values of the eddy viscosity plotted in Fig. 4 and concluded erroneously

that it approaches zero at the centerline.

The experimental data of Nikuradse for fully developed ow in a round

tube and his own correlations for u, j

'

, l, and f based on these data have

been described and analyzed here in some detail because they have had

great inuence on the predictions and correlations for convective heat

transfer. In addition to the caveats noted earlier, some subsequent investi-

gators have questioned the numerical values of the constants and coefcients

determined by Nikuradse. In particular, Hinze [52] and other have asserted

that the constant A and the coefcient B1/k of Eq. (24) are Reynolds-

277 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 3. Experimental mixing lengths in smooth and articially roughened round tubes.

(From Nikuradse [45], Figures 9 and 12.)

number dependent. Such uncertainties and variations have not been ex-

plored herein since none of the numerical values determined from the data

of Nikuradse appear in the nal expressions for either ow or heat transfer.

5. Power-L aw Models

Power-law models for the velocity distribution and the friction factor

might not have merited attention herein had not a recent attempt been made

278 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 4. Experimental eddy viscosities in smooth tubes. (From Nikuradse [46], Figure 27.)

to resuscitate them. Furthermore, they might logically have been included

in Section II, A, 3. The deferral to this point is because the experimental data

of Nikuradse, as described in Section II, A, 4, are essential to their

interpretation and evaluation.

Blasius [53] in 1913 plotted the available experimental data for the

friction factor for round tubes, which then extended only up to Re 10`,

versus Re in logarithmic coordinates and found that a satisfactory represen-

279 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

tation could be achieved with a straight line equivalent to

f

0.0791

Re"

. (61)

C. Freeman [54] in 1941, in a Foreword to a compilation of the extensive

set of experimental data obtained in 1892 by his father, J. R. Freeman, but

not published until 49 years later, speculated that had Blasius had access to

these values, which extend up to Re 9 10`, he might have developed a

more general correlating equation and thereby changed the course of history

in applied uid mechanics. This assertion not only was justied when it was

written, but has proven prophetic.

Prandtl [55] in 1921, and therefore prior to his development of the

mixing-length model, recognized from dimensional considerations that Eq.

(61) implies

u

u

'

y

a

`

, (62)

which by virtue of the numerical coefcient of 0.0791 may also be expressed

as

u8.562(y)`. (63)

Nikuradse [4547] tested Eq. (62) with his experimental data for the

velocity distribution and found that it provided a good representation only

for the turbulent core, only for smooth pipes, and only for Re 10`.

Accordingly, he generalized Eq. (62) as

u

u

'

y

a

, (64)

which corresponds to

u[( y). (65)

Here : is an arbitrary dimensionless exponent and [ is an arbitrary

dimensionless coefcient. From integration of Eq. (65) over the cross-section

it follows that

[

(1 :)(1 2:)u

"

2:(a)

. (66)

He determined numerical values of : and [ as functions of Re and e/a from

his experimental velocity distributions, but abandoned this mode of corre-

lation as inferior to Eqs. (24), (26), (29), and (30).

280 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Nunner [56] in 1956 somewhat revived the power-law model by discover-

ing that the empirical relationship

: 2 f ` (67)

provides a good approximation for both smooth and roughened pipes.

However, a separate correlation is required for the friction factor as a

function of the Reynolds number and roughness ratio.

Thirty-seven years later, Barenblatt [54], apparently unaware of the work

of Nunner, rationalized the form of the power law for the velocity distribu-

tion using scaling arguments, and proposed, on the basis of the data of

Nikuradse [46] for smooth pipe, empirical expressions for : and [ in Eq.

(65) as functions of Re. These expressions are not reproduced herein, since

that for : is inferior to Eq. (67) and that for [ is equivalent but inferior to

most other correlating equations for the friction factor.

Equation (65) with : from Eq. (67) and [ from Eq. (66), and with u

"

from

Eq. (58) or (59), whichever one is appropriate, is slightly superior to Eq. (24)

for 30 y0.1a. However, it is seriously in error for larger as well as

smaller values of y. These errors might have been anticipated from the

predictions by Eq. (65) of an unbounded velocity gradient at the wall and a

nite velocity gradient at the centerline.

Equation (66) may be reexpressed as

f

(1 :)(1 2:)

[:`2''`'`Re

`''

, (68)

which implies that a xed-power dependence of the velocity on the distance

from the wall over the entire cross-section is required to obtain a power-law

dependence of the friction factor on the Reynolds number. It may therefore

be inferred from the previously cited failures of the power-law model for the

velocity near the wall and near the centerline, and more importantly from

the observed dependence of : on Re, that a pure power-law model for the

friction factor cannot have any real range of validity with respect to Re. The

semilogarithmic dependence of the square root of the reciprocal of the

friction factor on the Reynolds number has already been noted to be subject

to a related but numerically less severe defect.

Churchill [58] has recently compared the predictions of the power-law

models for the velocity distribution and the friction factor with experimental

data and other correlating equations. These comparisons support the

preceding qualitative conclusions.

The failure of the power-law models might have been anticipated on the

basis of dimensional analysis. Rayleigh [25] used a power-series expansion

281 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

as a mechanical means of identifying a minimal set of dimensionless groups

from a listing of the variables, physical properties, and parameters. He fully

recognized, as demonstrated by his own illustrations of this technique, that

the derivation of the rst term in the expansion in the form of a product of

arbitrary powers of the independent dimensionless groups did not imply

either powers or products for the unknown functional relationship. Unfor-

tunately, such misinterpretations plague us to this day. Indeed, relationships

in the form of powers other than the unity ordinarily occur only in

asymptotic expressions, such as the limiting form of Eq. (32), or in special

cases, such as with the friction factor (but not the velocity distribution) for

fully developed laminar ow in a round tube.

6. T he Analogy of MacL eod

Before examining some important recent work it is convenient if not

essential to describe a little-known conjecture that suggests a means of

obtaining congruence of the turbulent shear stress and the velocity distribu-

tion for round tubes with their counterparts for ow between parallel plates

of innite extent. Rothfus and Monrad [59] showed that complete congru-

ence of the velocity prole in fully developed laminar ow in a round tube

with that between parallel plates may be achieved by specifying t

"^

t

"'

and a b, where the subscripts R and P designate round tubes and parallel

plates, respectively, and b is the half-spacing of the plates. This requirement

is excessive; a sufcient condition for u

^

y, a} u

'

y, b} is simply

that ab. MacLeod [60] subsequently speculated that this latter

relationship might also hold for fully developed turbulent ow. His specu-

lation is beautifully conrmed in Fig. 5, in which the experimental values of

Whan and Rothfus [61] for u

'

in ow between parallel plates are compared

with a curve representing the corresponding experimental values of Senecal

and Rothfus [62] for a round tube. The velocities at the central plane and

the centerline were chosen for this comparison because as extreme values

they provide the most severe test of the analogy. It is evident that the

analogy does not hold for the regime of transition from fully developed

laminar to fully developed turbulent ow. This discrepancy was to be

anticipated since the onset of transitional ow has long been known to

occur at differing values of a and b. It may be inferred from Eqs. (17),

(38), and (39) that the analogy of MacLeod applies directly to (u'v'), j

'

/j,

and l insofar as it is valid for u.

The special importance of the analogy of MacLeod is that it provides a

formal justication for the use of experimental data as well as values from

direct numerical simulations for u and (u'v') in ow between parallel

282 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 5. Experimental conrmation of the analogy of MacLeod for central velocities. (From

Whan and Rothfus [61], Figure 3.)

plates in the development of correlating equations for round tubes. A critical

assessment of the analogy of MacLeod as applied to (u'v') would appear

to be of crucial importance in both ow and heat transfer, but that requires

values of greater precision and reliability for both geometries than are

currently available from either experimental measurements or direct numeri-

cal simulations.

The results from direct numerical simulations for round tubes are current-

ly less extensive and reliable than those for parallel plates because of the

computational complexities associated with curvature. On the other hand,

the experimental measurements for ow in round tubes are more extensive

and reliable than those for parallel plates because of the difculty of aligning

and supporting plates of sufcient extent and small enough spacing to

minimize side-wall effects. Entrance effects also appear to be more serious.

The law of the wall of Prandtl [Eq. (18)] may be noted to be a special

case of the analogy of MacLeod for the region near the wall, but, on the

other hand, it is presumed to be applicable for all shear ows, not just those

for round tubes and parallel plates.

283 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

7. T he Colebrook Equation for the Friction Factor

in Naturally Rough Piping

The contribution of Colebrook [63] to the prediction of turbulent ow in

piping is perhaps second only to that of Nikuradse in practical importance.

Although the results of his work appear implicitly in almost every plot of

the friction factor in our handbooks and textbooks, he is seldom cited as the

primary source.

Nikuradse [47] chose uniform articial roughness for his experimental

investigation for the obvious reasons of reproducibility of the measurements

of the ow and of simple quantitative characterization of the roughness.

Such measurements would not be expected to be representative for the

naturally occurring roughness of commercial piping, which is characterized

by the highly variable and perhaps chaotic amplitude and spacing asso-

ciated with particular materials of construction (such as glass and concrete)

and different methods of manufacture (such as extruding and casting), as

well as with aging, corrosion, erosion, fouling, and different methods of

linkage (such as welding and threading).

The measurements of Colebrook for a variety of natural materials and

conditions revealed that the pressure drop not only depends on the

magnitude of the roughness but, even more importantly, has a completely

different functional dependence on the Reynolds number: The friction factor

decreases to an asymptotic value, as contrasted with an increase to an

asymptotic value for uniform articial roughness and an unending decrease

for smooth piping. In order to represent this behavior, he arbitrarily dened

and designated by e

'

a nominal roughness for each material and condition

that would result in the same asymptotic value of f

'

for the friction factor

for very large Reynolds numbers as the value of the uniform articial

roughness of Nikuradse. Thus, on the basis of Eq. (50),

e

'

a

exp

4.92 (2/ f

'

)`

2.46

. (69)

This ingenious concept of correlation avoids the necessity and difculty of

measuring and characterizing the roughness statistically, and instead focuses

directly on the behavior of primary interest, namely the shear stress on the

wall.

Colebrook also found that his measured pressure drops at less than

asymptotically large values of the Reynolds number could be represented

closely by

2

f

`

2.46 ln

e

'

7.39a

1

2.25a

. (70)

284 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

He justied the form of Eq. (70) simply by asserting without any rational-

ization that the two terms in the argument of the logarithm must be

additive. Churchill [64] subsequently reinterpreted Eq. (70) in terms of the

canonical correlating equation of Churchill and Usagi [65], namely,

yx} y

"

x} y

x}, (71)

where y

"

x} and y

large values of x, respectively, and n is an arbitrary exponent. By trial and

error, exp(2/ f )`/2.46} was found to be a better choice for yx} in Eq. (71)

than (2/ f )` or f . Then, from Eq. (58) rearranged as

exp

(2/ f )`

2.46

2.255a, (72)

y

"

x} 2.255a, and from Eq. (59) rearranged as

exp

(2/ f )`

2.46

7.389

a

e

'

, (73 )

y

x} 7.389a/e

'

. A value of n 1 was chosen on the basis of the

experimental data of Colebrook. The result of this procedure may be

expressed as

2

f

`

2.002.46 ln

a

1 0.304(e

'

/a)a

, (74)

which is exactly equivalent to Eq. (70). Most of the graphical representa-

tions of the friction factor in the turbulent regime in the current literature

are simply plots of Eq. (74) or its near equivalent, most often in the form of

f or f ` versus Re a(8/ f )` or Re f ` 8`a with e

'

/a or e

'

as a

parameter, accompanied by a table of values of e

'

for various materials and

conditions. Most of the values of e

'

that appear in the standard tabulations

were determined many decades ago by Colebrook and his contemporaries

and may not be representative of modern materials and modern methods of

manufacture and joining. A redetermination and recompilation of values of

e

'

would appear to be worthwhile.

The plot in Fig. 6 of the experimental data of Nikuradse and Colebrook

for uniformly and naturally roughened pipe, respectively, in the form of

2

f

`

2.46 ln

2a

e

as a function of

(e)`

e`(t

"

/j)

j`

e

a

`

(a)`

285 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 6. The transitional behavior for uniformly and naturally roughened round tubes: ()

Data of Colebrook [63], natural roughness; all other points are from Nikuradse [47], uniform

roughness.

demonstrates the fundamentally different paths of transition for uniformly

roughened and naturally roughened pipe from ow in a smooth pipe, as

represented by the linear oblique asymptote, to ow controlled wholly by

roughness, as represented by the horizontal asymptote.

On the basis of Eqs. (24), (26), (29), and (30), the velocity distribution in

the turbulent core near the wall of naturally rough pipe may be predicted

speculatively by dividing y in the argument of the logarithm by

1 0.304(e

'

/a)a.

8. Experimental and Computed Values of u'v' Near the Wall

Difculty has been encountered in the past in determining : in Eq. (32)

or (33), since measurements of very small values of u'v' or u very near the

wall are required. However, the uncertainty in : has been greatly reduced in

the past decade by virtue of direct numerical simulations. This computational

method, which was pioneered by Orszag and Kells [66], is essentially free

from empiricism except for the choice of a wave form, but it is sensitive to

the number of grid points used in all three coordinate directions. The

286 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

implementation of direct numerical simulations for channels is yet limited

by computational demands, with only a few exceptions, to ow between

parallel plates of unlimited extent and even then to values of b just above

the minimal value of about 145 for fully developed turbulence. The com-

puted values of u'v' by Kim et al. [67], Lyons et al. [68], and Rutledge and

Sleicher [69] are in fair agreement with one another and with the best

experimental measurements, such as those of Eckelmann [70], for the

intrinsically important region very near the wall where the behavior is

presumed to be independent of or at least negligibly dependent on b. This

combination of computational and experimental results for parallel plates

conrms beyond question the form of Eq. (32) and indicates a value

5710" for :.

9. Experimental Values of u'v' and u Near the Centerline

The coefcient E of Eqs. (34) and (35) is the analog of : for the region

near the wall. It may in principle be determined from Eq. (34) by virtue of

experimental values of u, from Eq. (35) by virtue of experimental or

computed values of (u'v'), or from the derivative of Eq. (34) by virtue of

experimental values of du/dy. Unfortunately, all three of these methods

require experimental values of greater accuracy and precision than are

currently available. Even the values of (u'v') computed by direct numer-

ical simulation are marginal in this respect.

It follows from Eqs. (38) and (34) that for ya

j

'

ja

1

a _

dy

du

1

y

a

1

1

2E

1

a

5

1

2E

. (75)

Equation (75) predicts that near the centerline, j

'

/ja approaches an

asymptotic value independent of y and essentially independent of a. Such

behavior has been conrmed (see, for example, Figure 5 of Churchill and

Chan [71]). Groenhof [72] examined and compared experimental determi-

nations of j

'

/ja by ve sets of investigators for round tubes and one

investigator for parallel plates. These values range from 0.062 to 0.08,

corresponding to values of E from 8.06 to 6.25.

10. T he Experimental Data of Zagarola

Most of the correlating equations mentioned earlier, including the empiri-

cal constants, are based on the experimental data of Nikuradse [46, 47]

despite their age and indicated limitations. Recently a new, comprehensive

287 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

set of experimental data has been obtained for fully developed turbulent

ow in a round tube that challenges the dominant role of the measurements

of Nikuradse. Zagarola [73] in 1996, using modern instrumentation and

carefully controlled conditions, measured the time-averaged velocity and

axial pressure gradient in air owing through a 129-mm tube with a highly

polished surface. His ows extended from Re 3.5510" to 3.52610` and

thus to higher values than those of Nikuradse, but not to as low ones.

Zagarola conceded that his own measurements of the time-mean velocity

were excessively high for y/a 0.0155 for all Re. This requires discarding all

of his values in the viscous sublayer (0y10) and all but a few in the

buffer layer (10y30). Also, the slight displacement of many of the

maximum measured values of the velocity from the centerline suggests that

their accuracy is marginal for purposes of differential analysis in that region.

Despite great effort to attain an aerodynamically smooth surface, the

directly measured roughness ratio of e/a 2.410' is, according to Eq.

(74), of sufcient magnitude to have a signicant effect on both the friction

factor and the velocity distribution at the higher values of Re. The effective

roughness ratio, e

'

/a, was concluded by Churchill [58] to have the some-

what lower value of 710`, which, however, is still aerodynamically

signicant for the largest values of Re studied by Zagarola.

In spite of these caveats, the tabulated values of Zagarola for the velocity

and the friction factor represent a very signicant contribution to uid

mechanics and may be considered to supplant the tabulated experimental

data of Nikuradse within the range of conditions for which they overlap,

namely 3.15810" Re 3.2410'. They justify renement or replace-

ment of most of the algebraic and graphical correlations for the velocity

distribution and the friction factor in the current literature.

Zagarola found, as illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8, a signicant variation of

the coefcient k 1/B of Eqs. (23), (24), and (26) with Re, but concluded

that a value of 0.436 provided an adequate representation for the

semilogarithmic regimes in all three instances. The constant A of Eq. (24),

as determined on the basis of k 0.436, was also found to vary somewhat

with Re, as illustrated in Fig. 9, but a value of 6.13 was concluded by

Zagarola to provide an adequate representation for all values of y and Re

for which this equation is applicable. The plots of u

'

u versus lna/y},

such as illustrated in Fig. 10 for 3.110" Re 2.510`, which he used

as one method of evaluating k, indicated to him that the following

expression was preferable to Eq. (23) for 0.01 y/a 0.1:

u

'

u

1

0.436

ln

a

y

1.51. (76)

288 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 7. Variation with Re of the coefcient k 1/B in Eqs. (24) and (43) for

50 y0.1a. (From Zagarola [73], Figure 4.38.)

Fic. 8. Variation of the coefcient k 1/B in Eq. (23) for u

'

and Eq. (26) for u

"

for various

sets of increasing values of Re. (From Zagarola [73], Figure 4.30.)

289 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 9. Variation with Re of the constant A of Eqs. (24) and (43) for 50 y0.1a with

the coefcient k 1/B xed at 0.436 and free. (From Zagarola [73], Figure 4.40.)

Fic. 10. Determination of the deviation in the velocity at the centerline due to the wake.

(From Zagarola [73], Figure 4.53.)

290 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 11. Comparison of semilogarithmic and power-law representations of the velocity

distribution for 3110` Re 4.410'. (From Zagarola [73], Figure 4.44.)

Although Zagarola did not present a correlating equation for the region of

the wake, Eq. (24) with A6.13 and B1/0.436 may be combined with

Eq. (76) to obtain the following expression for the velocity at the centerline

itself:

u

'

7.64

1

0.436

lna}. (77)

Zagarola also tested Eq. (65) and found, as illustrated in Fig. 11 for

3.110" Re 4.410' and 001 y/a 0.1, that the expression

u8.7(y)"``, (78)

where 8.7 and 0.137 are purely empirical, represents the measured velocities

better for 30 y500 but much more poorly for y500 than

u6.13

1

0.436

lny}. (79).

Both representations are seen to fail for y50. Similar representations

and misrepresentations were found to be provided by these two expressions

for other ranges of Re.

291 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Zagarola represented his experimental data for the friction factor with the

following expression:

2

f

`

3.30

138.5

(a)""

1

0.436

lna}. (80)

He proposed the term 138.5/(a)"" as a correction for the deviation of the

velocity distribution in the boundary layer from the semilogarithmic regime

on the basis of a subsequently described expression of Spalding [74] for the

velocity distribution for all y0.1a. Zagarola actually proposed several

different leading coefcients for Eq. (80). The value of 3.30 was chosen here

for consistency with Eqs. (76) and (79).

11. Overall Correlating Equations for the Velocity Distribution

With only a few exceptions, to be noted here, the correlating equations of

the past, as well as those of Zagarola, are for a single regime, primarily the

turbulent core near the wall, although such expressions have often been

implied to be applicable for the entire turbulent core. Equations (44)(46),

as well as Eqs. (53) and (54), purport to encompass the boundary layer, but

the rst three do not include the higher-order terms of Eq. (33) and the latter

two imply erroneously that : 0. Despite the presence of a in several of

these expressions, none of them approaches Eq. (34) as ya.

Churchill and Choi [75] combined the limiting form of Eq. (19) for

y0 and Eq. (24) with A5.5 and B2.5 in the form of Eq. (71) and

chose a value of 2 for n on the basis of the experimental data of Abbrecht

and Churchill [22] to obtain

u

y

_

1

y

2.5 ln9.025y}

`

`

. (81)

Here 5.5 2.5lny} is expressed as 2.5 ln9.025y} for compactness and

to emphasize the presence of a singularity at y1/9.025 0.1108. This

singularity may be avoided without a signicant effect on the predictions of

u for any value of y by simply adding unity to the argument of the

logarithm to obtain

u

y

_

1

y

2.5 ln1 9.025y}

`

`

. (82)

292 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 12. Representation of the velocity distribution in a smooth round tube by Eq. (82).

(From Churchill and Choi [75], Figure 2.)

Equation (82) may be seen in Fig. 12 to represent the data upon which it is

based very well for all but the largest and smallest values of y. The

deviations for y2 are probably due to experimental error but those for

the largest y are denitely a consequence of failing to account for the wake.

The previously mentioned expression of Spalding [74] for the viscous

sublayer, buffer layer, and turbulent core near the wall is

yu0.1108

_

e

0.4u

1 (0.4u)

(0.4u)`

2

(0.4u)`

3

. (83)

Equation (83) approaches Eq. (24) with A5.5 and B2.5 for large values

of y, just as does Eq. (82), but approaches Eq. (33) as y0, albeit with

a somewhat low value of 4.1310" for :. It is thereby superior to Eq. (82)

functionally but is not necessarily more accurate numerically. The inverse

form of Eq. (83) is inconvenient functionally for a specied value of y, but

numerical values of u may then readily be obtained by iteration. As

indicated by the absence of a, Eq. (83) also fails to account for the wake.

293 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Even earlier, Reichardt [76] proposed the following expression for the

entire cross-section, including the region of the wake:

u7.8

_

1 e

y/11

y

11

e

0.33y

2.5 ln

3a(1 0.4y)(2a y)

2(3a 4ay2(y)`)

. (84 )

Equation (84) conforms to Eq. (34) with E7.5 for ya and to Eq.

(24) with A5.5 and B2.5 for intermediate values of y. Reichardt

apparently intended it to conform to the rst two terms on the right-hand

side of Eq. (33) for y0, but it fails in that respect since the coefcients

of (y)` and (y)` that result from the expansion of the logarithmic and

exponential terms in series are not quite zero. Furthermore, the correspond-

ing coefcient of the term in (y)" has the very excessive value of

1.54810` as compared to 710"/41.7510" from the direct nu-

merical simulations. (Values of 18.738 and 0.5071 in place of 11 and 0.33,

respectively, would eliminate the terms in (y)` and (y)`, but would

decrease the coefcient of (y)" only slightly to 1.37110` and therefore

insufciently.) Despite these discrepancies, the numerical predictions of Eq.

(84) do not differ greatly from those of Eqs. (82) and (83) for y0.1a

while it is more accurate functionally as well as numerically for

0.1aya.

B. Nrv Ixiovrn Foxii:1ioNs :Nn Cori:1iNc Eqi:1ioNs

The models just described all appear to have a defect or shortcoming and

the correlating equations to be limited in scope or generality. The objective

of the work described in this section has been to develop formulations and

correlating equations that avoid these defects and limitations.

1. Model-Free Formulations

The mixing-length model, as expressed by Eq. (39), was proposed by

Prandtl to facilitate the prediction of the turbulent shear stress in the

time-averaged equation for the conservation of momentum on the premise

that algebraic or differential correlating equations for the mixing length,

such as Eqs. (40), (47), and (49), would be simpler or more general than a

correlating equation for the shear stress itself. The eddy diffusivity model of

Boussinesq, as represented by Eq. (37), may be interpreted to have an

equivalent objective.

294 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

In contradistinction, Churchill and Chan [71, 77, 78] and Churchill [79]

investigated the direct use of the turbulent shear stress itself as a variable for

integration and correlation, thereby avoiding the need for heuristic variables

such as the mixing length and the eddy viscosity altogether. The conse-

quences are generally favorable and in some respects quite surprising. They

started from Eq. (17), which is expressed in terms of (u'v')ju'v'/t

"

,

namely the local turbulent shear stress as a fraction of the shear stress on

the wall. The negative sign was used in this denition since u'v' is negative

over the entire radius of a round tube. Churchill [80] subsequently proposed

as slightly advantageous the use of a new, alternative dimensionless quantity

(u'v')ju'v'/t, which may be recognized as the local fraction of the

total shear stress due to turbulence. Equation (13) then becomes

1

y

a

[1 (u'v')]

du/dy

. (85)

From physical considerations (u'v') must be positive, less than unity, and

greater than zero at all locations within the uid. This latter characteristic

gives (u'v') a signicant advantage in terms of correlation over (u'v'),

which is zero at the centerline.

Eliminating du/dy between Eqs. (38) and (85) reveals that

j

'

j

(u'v')

1 (u'v')

(86)

The eddy viscosity is thus seen to be related algebraically to (u'v'), which

is a physically well-dened and unambiguous quantity, and thereby to be

independent of its heuristic diffusional origin. (Boussinesq was either very

intuitive or just lucky.) It further follows from Eq. (85) and the indicated

behavior of (u'v') that j

'

/j is also nite and positive at all locations

within the uid, including the centerline.

It similarly follows from Eqs. (39) and (85) that

(l)`

(u'v')

1

y

a

[1 (u'v')]`

(87)

The mixing length is thus also independent of its mechanistic and heuristic

origin but is unbounded at the centerline. How did such an anomaly, which

has a counterpart in all geometries and which refutes the very concept of a

mixing length for practical purposes, escape attention for more than 70

years? One reason is the uncritical extension of respect for Prandtl to all

details of his work. A second reason is the false mindset created by Fig. 3.

A third is the requirement of even more precise data for the velocity

295 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

distribution near the centerline than is available even today, although in

retrospect the singular behavior of the mixing length at the centerline is

apparent, at least qualitatively, from most sets of data.

Although the anomalous behavior of the mixing length was apparently

rst recognized by Churchill [80] as a consequence of his derivation of Eq.

(85) and therefore because of his introduction of (u'v') as a variable, it

could have been identied much earlier merely by the substitution of

du/dy from Eq. (34), which goes back at least to Reichardt [76] in 1951,

in the combination of Eqs. (17) and (39) or the equivalent. Inference of this

singularity from Eq. (17) requires consideration of Eq. (35). In any event,

the continued use of the mixing length does not appear to have any

justication under any circumstance.

Now reconsider Eq. (85), which represents the momentum balance in a

round tube in terms of (u'v'), which, as noted, is well behaved and

constrained between zero and unity for all values of y. Formal integration

results in the following expressions for the time-averagedvelocity distribution:

u

,

'

"

1

y

a

[1 (u'v')]dy

y

(y)`

2a

,

'

"

1

y

a

(u'v')dy (88)

These may be expressed more compactly as

u

a

2 ,

^

[1 (u'v')]dR`

a

2

(1 R`)

,

^

(u'v')dR` (89)

The leftmost forms of Eqs. (88) and (89) are more convenient for numerical

integration because the rightmost ones involve small differences of large

numbers, but the latter have the advantage of demonstrating that the effect

of the turbulence is simply to provide a deduction from the well-known

expressions for purely laminar ow at the same value at a.

Equation (89) may in turn be integrated formally over the cross-sectional

area to obtain the following expression for the space- or mixed-mean

velocity and thereby the friction factor:

2

f

`

u

"

a

2 ,

"

_,

[1 (u'v')]dR`

dR`. (90 )

Equation (90) may be reduced by integration by parts to obtain

2

f

`

u

"

a

4 ,

"

[1 (u'v')]dR"

a

4

a

4 ,

"

(u'v')dR",

(91)

296 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

which involves only a single integral. The rightmost form of Eq. (91) reveals

that the effect of the turbulence on the mixed-mean velocity is also simply

a deduction from the well-known expression (Poiseuilles law) for purely

laminar ow. This deductibility of an integral term from the expressions for

the time-mean velocity distribution and the mixed-mean velocity in purely

laminar ow may seem to be obvious in retrospect, but such a structure is

not so evident in the analogs of Eqs. (89) and (91) in terms of the eddy

viscosity and the mixing length, and does not appear ever to have been

mentioned in the literature. Also, although it is evident in retrospect that the

double integral of the analogs of Eq. (90) in terms of the eddy viscosity and

the mixing length may be reduced to a single integral by means of

integration by parts, that simplication was apparently never recognized or

implemented because the more complex forms obscure this possibility. It

may be noted that (u'v') has no advantage over (u'v') in this respect, that

is, both the deductibility of the effects of turbulence and the possibility of

integration by parts are quite evident when starting from Eq. (17) rather

than Eq. (85).

Equations (88)(91) are exact insofar as Eq. (13) is valid, but some

empiricism is necessarily invoked in the required correlating equation for

(u'v'). Before turning to such expressions several partial precedents for

Eqs. (89) and (91) should be acknowledged. Kampe de Fe riet [81] derived

the equivalent of Eq. (89) and the analog of Eq. (91) for parallel plates in

terms of (u'v') but did not implement these expressions; while Bird et al.

[35, p. 175], note that the use of a correlating equation for (u'v') rather

than one for the eddy viscosity or the mixing length might lead to a simpler

integration for the velocity distribution.

2. Correlating Equations for the L ocal Turbulent Shear Stress

Despite the advantages of the dimensionless turbulent shear stress in

predicting the velocity distribution and the mixed-mean velocity, as de-

scribed in the immediately preceding paragraphs, the general failure to

recognize those advantages has resulted in a dearth of correlating equations.

One exception is due to Pai [82], who was inspired by the aforementioned

formulations of Kampe de Fe riet to represent the experimental data of

Nikuradse [46] for the velocity distribution at Re 3.2410' (his highest

rate of ow) by a polynomial in R and to substitute the derivative of that

expression in Eq. (17) to obtain

(u'v')0.9835R(1 R`"). (92 )

Equation (92) is reasonably accurate numerically and functionally for

ya(R 0), but fails badly for both small and intermediate values of

297 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

y. Integration of either Eq. (92) or the velocity distribution from which it

was derived leads to an obviously invalid expression for the friction factor.

Churchill and Chan [71] constructed a more comprehensive and general

expression for (u'v') that may be reexpressed for simplicity in terms of

(u'v') as follows:

(u'v')

_

0.7

y

10

`

``

exp

2.5

y

2.5

a

1

4y

a

``

``

.

(93 )

The construction of Eq. (93) will be described in detail since almost all

subsequent expressions herein for the velocity distribution, the friction

factor, and the heat transfer coefcient are based on this expression with

only slight numerical modications.

Equation (93) has the form of Eq. (71) with n 8/7,

(u'v')

"

0.7

y

10

`

(94 )

and

(u'v')

1

2.5

y

2.5

a

1

4y

a

. (95)

Equation (94) has the limiting form of Eq. (32) with the previously discussed

value of 710" for :. Equation (95), on the other hand, is based on the

following expression of Churchill [83] for the velocity distribution across

the entire turbulent core:

u5.5 2.5 lny}

15

4

y

a

`

10

3

y

a

`

. (96 )

The terms in ( y/a)` and (y/a)` were added to the correlating equation

of Nikuradse [46] to encompass the wake. The coefcients 15/4 and (10/3)

were chosen to force du/dy0 and u

'

u7.5(1 y/a)` as

ya. The coefcient of 7.5 is based on Eq. (84) of Reichardt [76] and

therefore indirectly on the experimental data of Reichardt himself for

parallel plates as well as that of Nikuradse for round tubes. Substituting for

du/dy in Eq. (85) from the derivative of Eq. (96) and then simplifying

algebraically results in Eq. (95). The absolute value sign and the approxim-

ation of 1 (2.5/y) by exp2.5/y} in Eq. (93) are merely mathematical

contrivances to avoid singularities in ranges of y in which these terms have

an otherwise negligible role. Equation (95) was constructed from the

correlating equation for the velocity because the supporting data are more

298 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 13. Representation of experimental data and directly simulated values of (u'v') at

small values of b. (From Churchill [80], Figure 1.)

extensive and reliable than those for the turbulent shear stress itself.

However, the value of 8/7 for the arbitrary combining exponent is based

on the experimental data of Wei and Willmarth [84] for u'v' in ow between

parallel plates, which appear to be the most accurate ones over a wide range

of values of both y and b. Hence, the validity of the analogy of MacLeod

is implied in the value of this exponent as well as in the value of 710"

for :.

Equation (93) is compared with experimental data and values determined

by direct numerical simulations for small values of y and b in Fig. 13 and

with the experimental data of Wei and Willmarth for moderate and large

values of y and b in Fig. 14. The agreement appears to be within the

bands of uncertainty of the experimental and computed values. The small

oscillations in the curves in Fig. 13 are an artifact of the structure of Eq.

(93) rather than an error in plotting.

Because the nominal lower and upper limits of y30 and y0.1a,

respectively, for Eq. (24) with A5.5 and B2.5, coincide at a300, a

semilogarithmic regime presumably does not exist for any lesser value of a.

Equation (93), which implies the existence of a semilogarithmic regime for

299 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 14. Representation of experimental data of Wei and Willmarth for (u'v') by Eq. (93).

(From Churchill and Chan [71], Figure 3.)

the velocity for all values of a, is therefore of questionable functionality for

intermediate values of y for a300 despite the reasonable representa-

tion in Figures 13 and 14.

The recent experimental data of Zagarola [73] for the time-averaged

velocity distribution as discussed in Section II, A, 10 suggest updating Eq.

(96) as

u6.13

1

0.436

lny} 6.824

y

a

`

5.314

y

a

`

. (97)

Equation (97) may be seen to be in agreement with Eq. (79) for ya

300 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

and with Eq. (77) for ya. For ya, Eq. (97) leads to Eq. (34) with

E10.264. Substituting for du/dy in Eq. (85) from the derivative of Eq.

(97), and then simplifying, results in the following updated version of Eq.

(95):

(u'v')

1

1

0.436y

1

0.436a

1

6.95y

a

. (98 )

Combination of Eq. (98) with Eq. (94), again with a combining exponent of

8/7 and the same mathematical contrivances, results in the nal correlat-

ing equation for (u'v'), namely

(u'v')

_

0.7

y

10

"

``

exp

1

0.436y

1

0.436a

1

6.95y

a

``

``

. (99)

As may be inferred from the detailed description of the formulation of Eq.

(93), the form of each of the three principal terms of Eq. (99) is speculative

and the values of the three numerical coefcients are subject to some

uncertainty. The most uncertain elements of Eqs. (93) and (99) are, however,

the form of Eq. (71) and the value of 8/7 for the combining exponent. On

the other hand, a virtue of correlating equations with this form is the

numerical insensitivity of their predictions to the value of the arbitrary

exponent.

Equation (99) differs from all prior expressions for the turbulent shear

stress, except for Eq. (93), by virtue of its presumed generality for all values

of y and all values of a300 (and perhaps even for a145), and its

incorporation of all of the known theoretical structure, namely, Eq. (32) for

y0, Eq. (35) for ya, and 1 B/y for the regime of overlap. It

supersedes all existing correlating equations for the eddy viscosity and the

mixing length. Although a correlating equation with the same generality

may be constituted for the eddy viscosity by the combination of Eqs. (99)

and Eq. (86), and for the mixing length by combination of Eqs. (99) and

(87), such expressions would not appear to serve any useful purpose.

3. New Correlating Equations for the Velocity Distribution

and the Friction Factor

Although numerical values for the velocity distribution and the friction

factor may be determined simply by evaluating the integrals of Eqs. (89) and

301 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

(91), respectively, using values of (u'v') from Eq. (99), generalized correlat-

ing equations for these two quantities may be constructed for convenience.

Churchill and Chan [71, 77] developed such correlating equations using

Eq. (93) for (u'v'). Their expression is not reproduced here, since these same

forms have recently been updated by Churchill [58] using Eq. (99) and the

experimental data of Zagarola [73]. The resulting nal expressions for u

and u

"

are

u

_

(y)`

1 yexp1.75(y/10)"}

`

_

1

0.436

ln

1 14.48y

1 0.301(e/a)a

6.824

y

a

5.314

y

a

`

`

(100)

and

u

"

3.30

227

a

50

a

`

1

0.436

ln

a

1 0.301(e/a)a

. (101)

Equation (100) has the form of Eq. (71) with u

"

adapted from the limiting

form of Eq. (33) with : 710" and [0, and u

The modied form of u

"

and the added value of unity in the argument of

the logarithm of u

arities in ranges of y for which these terms do not contribute signicantly.

The coefcient of 14.48 corresponds to 6.13 in Eq. (79), that is, (1/

0.436) ln14.48} 6.13. The combining exponent of 3 was chosen by

Churchill and Chan [71] on the basis of various early sets of experimental

data (see their Fig. 1). The term 10.301(e/a)a was included in the

argument of the logarithmic term to extend the applicability of Eq. (100) to

commercial (naturally rough) piping, at least for ye. The coefcient of

0.301 as compared to 0.304 in Eq. (74) represents the slightly rened

expressions for the components for smooth and rough pipes. The leading

coefcient of 3.30 for Eq. (101) is adopted from Eq. (79) of Zagarola, but the

terms in (a) and (a)` are a necessary consequence of uy near

the wall, although such corrections have generally been overlooked. The

coefcients 227 and 50 are based on the numerical integration of Eq. (99)

since the experimental data of Zagarola do not encompass the regime of a

for which these terms are the most signicant. The term in (a)"" in Eq.

(80) is a purely empirical approximation for this behavior, and as was noted

in Section II, A, 10, is based on integration of Eq. (83) of Spalding. Again,

the term 10.301(e/a)a was incorporated in the argument of the logarith-

mic term to extend the applicability of Eq. (101) to encompass commercial

(naturally rough) piping.

302 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Numerical integration of Eq. (90) using (u'v') from Eq. (99) predicts

values of the constant in Eq. (97) that vary from 5.39 to 5.76 with a, and

integration of Eq. (92) predicts values of the constant in Eq. (101) that vary

only slightly about 2.71. In this instance, the experimentally based values of

6.13 and 3.30 were given preference. The discrepancy between the predicted

and the experimentally determined leading constants is presumed to be due

to a slight underprediction of Eq. (99) in the regime of interpolation.

Churchill [58] compared the prediction of u

'

by Eq. (100) with the

experimental values of Zagarola and found an average absolute deviation of

only 0.17% and a maximum deviation of 0.39%. The deviations for small

and intermediate values of y were even less on the whole. The prediction

of u

"

by Eq. (101) was found to have an average absolute deviation of only

0.22%and a maximum deviation of 0.5%. In both instances these deviations

are less than those corresponding to the correlating equations of Zagarola

himself.

4. New Formulations and Correlating Equations for Other Geometries

Equation (85) with t/t

"

substituted for 1 (y/a) is applicable for all

one-dimensional fully developed turbulent ows. However, the variation of

t/t

"

with distance from a wall is known a priori only for forced ow in a

round tube and between identical parallel plates (both smooth or both

equally rough) and in planar Couette ow (induced by the movement of one

plate parallel and uniformly with respect to an identical one).

On the basis of the analogy of MacLeod, Eqs. (99) and (100) are

presumed to be directly applicable for forced ow between identical parallel

plates if b is simply substituted for a, while the friction factor may be

represented by

2

f

`

u

"

4.615

155

b

1

0.436

ln

b

1 0.301(e/b)b

. (102)

The value of 4.615 for the constant term as well as that of 155 for the

coefcient are based on computations by Danov et al. [85] using Eq. (99),

since experimental values of u

"

for parallel plates of accuracy and modern-

ity comparable to those of Zagarola for round tubes do not appear to exist.

Churchill [83], Chapter 3, constructed a theoretically based correlating

equation for u in planar Couette ow, for which t t

"

at all locations

within the uid. A corresponding correlating equation for (u'v') might be

postulated, but experimental data to test such an expression critically over

a wide range of conditions do not appear to be available.

303 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Churchill [86] also constructed a generalized empirical expression from

which t/t

"

but not u or (u'v') may be estimated for forced ow through

a circular concentric annulus. The construction of such expressions for

combined forced and induced ow between parallel plates and for rotational

annular ow is not yet feasible because of the lack of appropriate data for

u'v' and/or u.

5. Recapitulation

The primary purposes in deriving Eqs. (99)(102) was to provide the basis

for the development of the corresponding expressions for forced convection

in a round tube and between parallel plates. In this regard, the path of their

derivation is as relevant as their nal form. However, over and above this

objective, these four expressions are presumed to be the most accurate and

comprehensive ones in the literature for turbulent ow, at least for a and

b300. Indeed, the rst of these, for the turbulent shear stress, has no

counterpart in the current literature, while Eq. (101) for the friction factor

in a round tube may be considered to be an improvement upon as well as

a replacement for all current graphical and algebraic correlations.

Although the structure of Eqs. (99)(102) represents the current state of

the art, and the constants, coefcients, and exponents therein are based on

the best available experimental data and computed values, these expressions

and values should all be considered to be subject to improvement on the

basis of future contributions, both theoretical and experimental.

III. The Quantitative Representation of Fully Developed

Turbulent Convection

The history and present state of predictive and correlative expressions for

the turbulent forced convection of energy in a round tube differ greatly from

those described previously for ow. One reason is the greater difculty in

characterizing the process of thermal convection experimentally. For

example, (1) the thermal conductivity and the viscosity both vary signi-

cantly with the primary dependent variable, the temperature of the uid,

forcing the use of small overall temperature differences, whereas the viscosity

does not vary with the velocity for ordinary uids; (2) the mixed-mean

temperature must be determined by integrating the product of the tempera-

ture and the velocity over the cross-section at a series of axial distances,

whereas the mixed-mean velocity is invariant with axial length and may be

determined externally and directly with a owmeter; (3) the heat ux

density, which is difcult to measure accurately, and/or the temperature

304 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

varies along the wall, whereas the velocity is zero at the wall and the shear

stress at the wall, which is ordinarily invariant with distance, may readily be

determined from a single measurement of the axial pressure drop; (4) the

heat ux density within the uid, which is almost impossible to measure

accurately, varies complexly with the distance from the wall and depends on

both the Reynolds number and the thermal boundary condition, whereas

the shear stress within the uid is known a priori to vary linearly with

radius; (5) the extent of the deviation from fully developed convection is

more difcult to determine than that for fully developed ow because the

latter condition is dened simply as a negligible change in the velocity

distribution and/or the axial pressure gradient with axial distance, whereas

the former is ordinarily dened as a negligible change in

T

"

T

T

"

T

"

or

T

"

T

T

"

T

'

and/or h

j

"

T

"

T

"

while T r}, T

'

, T

"

, and j

"

or T

"

are still varying individually; and nally (6)

the experiments must be repeated for a series of different uids encompass-

ing a wide range of values of the Prandtl number. Corresponding complex-

ities arise in modeling, as revealed in the sections that immediately follow.

These complexities and uncertainties appear to have inspired rather than

discouraged the development of purely empirical and semiempirical express-

ions for heat transfer since their number and variety far exceed those for

ow. Another difference is the focus of the work in ow and convection. In

many applications of ow, the velocity distribution is of equal or greater

interest than the friction factor, whereas in most applications of forced

convection interest in the heat transfer coefcient greatly exceeds that in the

temperature distribution.

A somewhat different order and scheme of presentation is followed for

turbulent convection than that for turbulent ow. The essentially exact

structure is rst examined in order to provide a framework and standard

for evaluation of the early work. Thereafter new developments are con-

sidered within this same framework as well as in terms of historical

precedents.

A. EssrN1i:iix Ex:c1 Foxii:1ioNs

1. New Differential Formulations

The general differential equation for the conservation of energy in a

moving uid with constant density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity may

305 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

be expressed in cylindrical coordinates as follows:

jc

cT

ct

u

'

cT

cr

u

r

cT

c0

cT

cz

k

_

1

r

c

cr

r

cT

cr

1

r`

c`T

c0

`

c`T

cz`

2j

cu

'

cr

`

_

1

r

cu

c0

u

'

cu

cz

`

cu

cz

1

r

c`u

c0

`

`

cu

cr

cu

'

cz

`

_

1

r

cu

'

c0

r

c

cr

v

r

`

. (103)

The only new variables as compared to Eqs. (1)(3) are the temperature

T, the thermal conductivity k, and the specic heat capacity c

. Viscous

dissipation, as represented by the terms with the viscosity j as a coefcient,

is signicant only for very high velocities and for very viscous uids. Such

conditions and uids will not be considered herein. Hence these terms with

j as a coefcient will be dropped. The time- averaged form of the remaining

terms of Eq. (103) for steady, fully developed ow and fully developed

thermal convection may then be expressed as

jc

u

cT

cz

1

r

c

cr

kr

cT

cr

jc

rT 'v'

, (104)

where for consistancy with Eq. (13), the substitutions u u

and v u

'

have been made. Equation (104) may be integrated formally to obtain

jc

r ,

'

"

u

cT

cz

rdr k

cT

cy

j c

T 'v' . (105)

The terms k(dT /dy) and jc

y-direction (negative-r-direction) due to thermal conduction and the turbu-

lent uctuations, respectively. The integral term on the left-hand side of Eq.

(105) represents the axial heat ux in the central core of uid with a radius

r. It may also be interpreted, by virtue of Eq. (105) itself, as the total heat

ux density j at r in the negative-r-direction. Equation (105) may also be

expressed in the dimensionless form

j

j

"

[1 (T 'v')]

dT

dy

, (106)

where

T k(T

"

T )(t

"

j)`/jj

"

(T 'v') jc

T 'v'/j

306 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

and

j

j

"

1

R ,

^

"

(cT /cx)

(cT

"

/cx)

u

u

"

dR`. (107)

This denition of T was chosen in order to achieve the same form for Eq.

(106) as for Eq. (85) and to result in T 0 at y0 in analogy to u0

at y0. The term (T 'v') is also analogous to (u'v') in the sense that

it is the local fraction of the heat ux density due to the turbulent

uctuations. Equation (107) was constructed by noting that, according to

Eq. (105), the total heat ux density at the wall may be expressed as

j

"

jc

a ,

"

u

cT

cz

rdr

jc

a

2 ,

"

u

cT

cz

dR`

jc

au

"

2

cT

"

cz

. (108)

Equation (108) may also be considered, as indicated, to dene the velocity-

weighted (mixed) mean of the longitudinal temperature gradient.

The only explicit difference between Eqs. (85) and (106) is that j/j

"

is given

by Eq. (107) in the latter whereas t/t

"

is simply equal to 1 (y/a) R

in the former. This difference is, however, a source of great complexity in the

expressions for convection. Another implicit difference is that although the

velocity is ordinarily postulated to be zero at the wall, a temperature varying

along the wall or a uniform or varying heat ux density along the wall may

be specied. Although T remains zero at the wall, T

"

itself may vary. The

thermal boundary condition thus becomes a parameter. An implicit differ-

ence of even greater signicance is the dependence of (T 'v') on a

parameter Pr c

It follows that T depends on Pr, and in general so does j/j

"

. This

parametric dependence is not avoidable in general simply by some other

choice of dimensionless variable, although it may vanish in certain narrow

regimes.

The measured values of T 'v' or T and j that are required to evaluate

(T 'v') are too limited in scope and accuracy to support the construction

of a generalized correlating equation in terms of y, a, and Pr comparable

to Eq. (98) for (u'v'). This deciency may be alleviated somewhat by

reexpressing Eq. (106) as

j

j

"

[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dT

dy

(109)

where

Pr

'

Pr

1 (T 'v')

1 (u'v')

(110)

307 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Since (u'v') is implied to be known in advance, the net effect of this

substitution is to replace (T 'v') by Pr

'

/Pr as an unknown. The quantity

Pr

'

/Pr, as dened by Eq. (110), may be recognized in physical terms as the

ratio of the local fractions of the transport of energy and momentum by

molecular motion. This quantity suffers from the same uncertainties as

(T 'v') as well from the lesser ones associated with (u'v'), but has, as

will be demonstrated, a more constrained behavior for small and moderate

values of Pr. Therein lies its principal merit as a characteristic quantity. The

following alternative to both Eqs. (106) and (109) also has some advantages:

j

j

"

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

1 (u'v')

dT

dy

. (111)

Here

Pr

'

Pr

(u'v')

(T 'v')

1 (T 'v')

1 (u'v')

. (112)

The quantity Pr

'

/Pr, as dened by Eq. (112), may be recognized in physical

terms as the ratio of the transport of momentum by molecular and eddy

motions, divided by the equivalent ratio for the transport of energy.

Although Eq. (112) appears to be more complex than Eq. (110), and Eq.

(111) more complex than either Eq. (106) or (109), Pr

'

proves to be

essentially constant for large Pr, which results in a signicant simplication.

Elimination of (T 'v') between Eqs. (110) and (112) or of j/j

"

(dy/dT )

between Eqs. (109) and (111) results in

1

Pr

'

(u'v')

Pr

'

1 (u'v')

Pr

. (113)

This relationship between Pr

'

and Pr

'

will subsequently prove very useful.

Since j/j

"

differs only moderately from t/t

"

R, it is convenient to

introduce the variable , dened by

1

j

j

"

t

"

t

j/j

"

R

j/j

"

1 (y/a)

. (114)

Substituting for j/j

"

in Eq. (109) from Eq. (114) results in

(1 )

1

y

a

[1 (u'v') ]

Pr

'

Pr

dT

dy

. (115)

Comparison of Eqs. (115) and (85) indicates more explicitly the complica-

tions associated with convection than does comparison of Eqs. (106) and

308 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

(85). Substitution for j/j

"

from Eq. (111) in Eq. (114) results in

(1 )

1

y

a

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

1 (u'v')

dT

dy

. (116)

Equations (115) and (116) are the starting points for the subsequent exact

formulations for fully developed thermal convection.

Reichardt [87] in 1951 was apparently the rst to propose as a

correlative quantity. Rohsenow and Choi [88] in 1961 subsequently sugges-

ted the use of M1 as an alternative quantity for correlation. Although

the effects represented by and M are generally signicant, as will be shown

on the basis of experimental and computed values, they have been over-

looked or ignored in many analyses of convection.

2. New Integral Formulations

Equation (115) may be reexpressed in terms of R and then integrated

formally to obtain the following exact expression for the temperature

distribution:

T

a

2 ,

(1 ) [1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dR`. (117)

Integration of this expression for T , weighted by u/u

"

, over the cross-

section of the pipe then gives the following expression for the mixed-mean

temperature

T

"

a

2 ,

"

_,

^

(1 )[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dR`

u

u

"

dR`, (118)

from which it follows that

Nu

j

"

D

k(T

"

T

"

)

2a

T

"

4

,

"

_,

^

(1 )[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dR`

u

u

"

dR`

. (119)

The quantity Nu, called the Nusselt number, may be interpreted as the

dimensionless rate of convective heat transfer. The corresponding express-

ions for T and Nu in terms of Pr

'

rather than Pr

'

are

T

a

2 ,

^

(1 )dR`

1

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

1 (u'v')

(120)

309 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

and

4

Nu

2T

"

a

,

"

_

,

^

(1 )dR`

1

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

1 (u'v')

u

u

"

dR`. (121)

Equations (117)(121) are the nal, general integral formulations herein for

the temperature distribution, mixed-mean temperature, and Nusselt num-

ber. However, some reductions are possible for particular boundary condi-

tions and particular values of the Prandtl number as described in the

immediately following sections.

It may be inferred that the analytical or numerical evaluation of T by

means of Eqs. (117) or (120) requires (u'v') as a function of y and a,

and and Pr

'

or Pr

'

as a function of Pr and the thermal boundary condition

as well as of y and a. The evaluation of T

"

by means of Eqs. (118) or

(120), and Nu by means of Eqs. (119) or (121), may further be inferred to

require a relationship for u as a function of y and a and u

"

as a function

of a. However, these requirements may be relaxed somewhat. First, u and

u

"

are given exactly as integral functions of (u'v') by Eqs. (89) and (91),

respectively, and approximately but probably with sufcient accuracy for all

practical purposes by Eqs. (100) and (101), respectively. Yahkot et al. [89]

assert, although they do not prove, that Pr

'

is a universal function of j

'

/j

and Pr for all geometries and boundary conditions. By virtue of Eq. (86),

this generality, if valid, must extend to Pr

'

as a function of (u'v') and Pr.

Although this assertion of Yahkot et al. has been implied in a number of

analyses, Abbrecht and Churchill [22] appear to have provided the only

experimental conrmation. They found Pr

'

to be invariant with axial

distance in developing thermal convection following a step in wall tempera-

ture in fully developed turbulent owa severe test of independence from

the thermal boundary condition. Their results for a round tube were also

found to agree closely with those of Page et al. [90] for heat transfer from

a plate at one uniform temperature to a parallel one at a different uniform

temperature for ows at the same values of a and ba severe test of

independence from geometry as well as from the thermal boundary condi-

tion. Thus, the evaluation of T , T

"

, and Nu only requires (u'v') as a

function of y and a, Pr

'

or Pr

'

as a function of (u'v') and Pr, and as

a function of y, a, Pr and the thermal boundary condition. The depend-

ence of on Pr vanishes under some circumstances. Finally, as will be

shown, the relationship for , although quite complex, is known exactly,

whereas those for Pr

'

and Pr

'

are highly uncertain both theoretically and

experimentally.

310 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

a. A Uniform Heat Flux Density from the Wall As noted in the rst

paragraph of Section III, fully developed convection is ordinarily dened as

the attainment of essentially unchanging values of

T

"

T

T

"

T

"

or

T

"

T

T

"

T

'

and/or of h j

"

/(T

"

T

"

)

with axial distance. Although the exact point of this attainment is ill dened,

the concept is a useful one in both an analytical and an applied sense. The

majority of the theoretical semitheoretical solutions and correlations in the

literature for the Nusselt number in turbulent ow are for this regime, which

prevails or is closely approached over most of the length of ordinary

industrial heat exchangers.

A uniform heat ux density from the wall to the uid may be attained

approximately by passing an electrical current axially through the metal

wall of a heat exchanger, which thereby functions as an electrical resistance.

Small deviations from uniform heating of the uid may then occur because

of end effects, for example, thermal conduction along the tube wall or

nonuniform heat losses to the surroundings. A uniform heat ux density

from the wall to the uid may also be closely approached in the inner pipe

of a concentric circular double-pipe heat exchanger operated in equal

countercurrent ow. In this case small deviations may be expected due to

variations in the local overall heat transfer coefcent as a consequence of

entrance effects in ow and the variation of the physical properties of the

two uids with temperature. If the heat transfer coefcent h j

"

/(T

"

T

"

)

approaches an asymptotic value with axial distance for a uniform heat ux

density, T

"

T

"

must as well. Then, if (T

"

T )/(T

"

T

"

) approaches an

asymptotic value,

c

cz

T

"

T

T

"

T

"

1

(T

"

T

"

)

cT

"

cz

cT

cz

0 (122)

and

c

cz

(T

"

T

"

)

cT

"

cz

cT

"

cz

0. (123)

Hence, for fully developed convection with uniform heating,

cT

cz

5

cT

"

cz

5

cT

"

cz

. (124)

Then from Eqs. (107) and (114)

1

1

R` ,

^

"

u

u

"

dR`. (125)

311 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

By virtue of Eq. (125), Eq. (118) may be integrated by parts to obtain

8

Nu

4a

T

"

"

(1 )`[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dR". (126)

The analog of Eq. (126) in terms of Pr

'

is readily shown to be

8

Nu

4T

"

a

,

"

(1 )`dR"

1

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

1 (u'v')

. (127)

The evaluation of Nu from Eqs. (126) or (127) appears to involve only a

single integration. However, the quantity must be evaluated by integration

for each value of a, as indicated by Eq. (125). This latter relationship may

be expressed directly in terms of (u'v') by substituting for u and u

"

from

Eqs. (89) and (91), respectively, integrating by parts, and simplifying to

obtain

1R`

R` ,

^`

"

[1(u'v')]dR"

,

^`

1 R`

R`

[1 (u'v')]dR"

,

"

[1 (u'v')]dR"

.

(128)

The behavior of for two special cases is worthy of note. From Eq. (125)

it is apparent that is zero for all values of y only for the hypothetical case

of plug ow. On the other hand, it is apparent from Eqs. (125), (89), and

(91) that for R0, for which u approaches a nearly constant value,

1

u

'

u

"

"

[1 (u'v')]dR`

,

"

[1 (u'v')]R`dR`

. (129)

Equation (129), which may also be derived directly but by a considerably

longer path from Eq. (128), denes the maximum value of for each value

of a and thereby characterizes the magnitude of the deviation of j/j

"

from

t/t

"

1/R.

Equations (117), (125), and (126), together with Eq. (128), constitute the

nal exact and completely general formulations herein for fully developed

turbulent convection in a uniformly heated round tube. Their numerical

evaluation requires only an expression such as Eq. (99) for (u'v') and one

for Pr

'

or Pr

'

, presumably as a function only of (u'v') and Pr. [Actually,

Eqs. (117), (126), (127), and (128) are also applicable for fully developed

312 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

laminar convection with uniform heating as well. For this case, (u'v')0,

Eq. (113) gives Pr/Pr

'

1, Eq. (128) gives 1 R`, and both Eqs. (126)

and (127) give Nu 48/11.]

In the limit of Pr 0, Eq. (113) reduces to

Pr

Pr

'

1 (u'v'). (130)

Substitution of this expression in Eq. (117) gives

T Pr 0}

a

2 ,

^

(1 )dR`

a

2

(1 R`)(1

mR`

), (131)

where

"^

is seen to be the integrated-mean value from R` to 1. Since is

nite and positive for all R1 for both laminar and turbulent ow, the

term

"^

is nite and positive as well. Similarly, substitution of

Pr

Pr

'

from

Eq. (130) in Eq. (126) gives

8

NuPr 0}

4T

"

Pr 0}

a

,

"

(1 )`dR" (1 )`

"^`

, (132)

where (1 )`

"^`

is seen to be the integrated mean of (1 )` over R" from

0 to 1.0. Equation (131) provides an upper bound for T /a and Eq. (132)

a lower bound for Nu for all Pr as a function of a. In all of these

expressions, 1 represents the effect of the deviation of j/j

"

from t/t

"

(which has often been neglected) while (1 )` includes the effect of the

velocity distribution as well.

Insofar as Pr

'

approaches a nite value as y0, the corresponding

asymptotic solution may be derived for Pr . For this case, the entire

temperature development takes place within the viscous boundary layer

where y/a may be neglected, 0, and (u'v') may be approximated by

the rst term on the right-hand side of Eq. (32). Equation (116) thereby

reduces to

dT

dy

1 :(y)`

1

Pr

Pr

'

1

:(y)`

. (133)

The function on the right-hand side of Eq. (133) may be integrated

analytically if Pr

'

is postulated to be invariant with respect to y. With the

313 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

boundary condition u0 at y0, the result is

T

Pr

Pr

'

3:`

Pr

Pr

'

1

"` _

1

2

ln

(1 z)`

1 z z`

3` tan

2z 1

3`

3`

6

y

Pr

Pr

'

1

, (134)

where

z :`

Pr

Pr

'

1

`

y.

Near the wall for very large values of Pr, the last term on the right-hand

side of Eq. (134) may be dropped. Finally, letting z gives the following

expression for the fully developed temperature, which differs negligibly from

the mixed-mean temperature, and thereby:

T

5T

"

2a

Nu

2

Pr

Pr

'

3``:`

Pr

Pr

'

1

"`

. (135)

For : 710", it follows that

Nu0.07343

1

Pr

'

Pr

"`

Pr

Pr

'

`

Re

f

2

`

0.07343

Pr

Pr

'

`

Re

f

2

`

(136)

The more general form of Eq. (136) was apparently rst derived by

Churchill [91], but the equivalent of the limiting form, usually with Pr

'

postulated to be unity, was derived much earlier by Petukhov [92] and

others. The utility of the term

1

Pr

'

Pr

"`

is in providing a rst-order correction for the effect of a nite value of Pr

and conversely of dening the lower limit of applicability of this limiting

form with respect to nite values of Pr. It may be inferred from the absence

of a and that Eqs. (134)(136) are applicable for fully developed turbulent

314 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

convection in any fully developed shear ow and for any thermal boundary

condition, not just for a uniformly heated round tube. As shown subsequent-

ly, the one speculative element in the derivation of Eqs. (134) and (135),

namely the attainment of a nite asymptotic value for Pr

'

as y0 and Pr

increases, is supported by some sets of experimental data and direct

numerical simulations but is contradicted by others.

The postulate that Pr

'

Pr requires, by virtue of Eq. (113), that Pr

'

Pr

as well. Insofar as Pr

'

Pr for all y, Eq. (117) reduces to

T Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr}

a

2 ,

^

(1 )[1 (u'v')]dR`, (137)

which, by virtue of Eq. (89), may be expressed as

T Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr} u(1

""^

) (138)

where

""^

is the integrated mean of , weighted with respect to 1(u'v')

over R` from R` to 1.0. The deviation of the T y, a} from uy, a}

for Pr

'

Pr is seen to be wholly a consequence of the factor 1 and thus

wholly due to the deviation of j/j

"

from t/t

"

. The similarity of the

distribution of T to that of u, as represented by Eq. (138), is one reason

for the arbitrary denition of T herein. The postulate of Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr

for all y allows the reduction of both Eqs. (126) and (127) to

8

NuPr

'

Pr

'

Pr}

4 T

"

Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr}

a

,

"

(1 )`[1(u'v')]dR".

(139)

Comparison of Eqs. (139) and (91) reveals the following similarity for T

"

and u

"

:

T

"

Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr} u

"

(1 )`

""^`

(140)

Here (1 )`

""^`

is the integrated mean of (1 )`, weighted with respect

to 1 (u'v'), over R" from 0 to 1.0. It follows that

NuPr

'

Pr

'

Pr}

2a

u

"

(1 )`

""^`

Re( f /2)

(1 )`

""^`

. (141)

Equation (141) is a surprising and remarkable result. It has the same explicit

functional dependence on ow as the famous analogy of Reynolds [18],

namely

Nu Re

f

2

Pr, (142)

315 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

but occurs at Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr instead of Pr 1 and differs by the factor

(1 )`

""^`

. The speculative element upon which the derivation of Eqs.

(137)(141) is based, namely the invariance of Pr

'

with y for the particular

value of Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr, has some experimental and semitheoretical support

for Pr 5 0.87, in particular over the turbulent core. The observed behavior

of Pr

'

and Pr

'

in the viscous sublayer and the buffer layer is not necessarily

contradictory, just uncertain.

Despite the indicated uncertainties with regard to Eqs. (136) and (141),

these two expressions, together with Eq. (132), prove to be invaluable in

evaluating approximate and speculative formulations and solutions and in

constructing generalized correlating equations.

b. A Uniform Wall Temperature Next to uniform heating, the most

frequently postulated thermal boundary condition in analytical formula-

tions for convective heat transfer in a round tube is a uniform temperature

on the wall, higher (or lower) than that of the entering uid. This boundary

condition is closely approximated in real exchangers cooled or heated on

the outer surface of the tubes(s) by a boiling liquid or condensing vapor,

respectively. Deviations from a uniform wall temperature may occur as a

result of a nite value of the outer heat transfer coefcient and of end effects.

For a uniform wall temperature, fully developed convection may be charac-

terized by

c

cz

T

"

T

T

"

T

"

cT

cz

T

"

T

"

(T

"

T )

cT

"

cz

(T

"

T

"

)`

0, (143)

which implies that

cT/cz

cT

"

/cz

T

"

T

T

"

T

"

T

T

"

. (144)

Substituting this expression in Eq. (107) and then that result in Eq. (114)

leads to

1

1

R` ,

^

"

T

T

"

u

u

"

dR`

1

R`T

"

u

"

,

^

"

T udR`. (145)

Seban and Shimazaki [93] were apparently the rst to identify the equival-

ent of Eqs. (143) and (144) as characterizing convection with a uniform wall

temperature.

It is apparent from Eq. (145) that for a uniform wall temperature, as

contrasted with a uniform heat ux density from the wall, is nite even for

the hypothetical case of plug ow. Furthermore, the maximum value of

316 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

1 may be inferred from Eq. (145) to be equal to (T

'

/T

"

)(u

'

/u

"

) and

therefore greater than for uniform heating by the factor T

'

/T

"

. It follows

that the error due to neglecting is greater for a uniform wall temperature.

Equations (117)(121) are directly applicable for a uniform wall tempera-

ture, but because of the dependence of on T , as expressed by Eq. (145),

an iterative process of solution is required. For example, for a specied value

of Pr, a correlating equation for Pr

'

/Pr and an arbitrary postulated

expression

"

y} for y}, T y} may be calculated from Eq. (117), T

"

from Eq. (118), and then

repeated, starting with

1

y}, and continued until convergence is achieved.

Now consider the three special cases of Pr 0, Pr , and

Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr for a uniform wall temperature. For Pr , Eqs. (133)

(136), which are independent of , remain directly applicable. For Pr 0,

must be determined iteratively from Eq. (145) using T from Eq. (131) and

T

"

from the following reduced form of Eq. (118):

T

"

Pr 0}

a

2 ,

"

_,

(1 )dR`

u

u

"

dR`. (146)

Similarly, for Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr, must be determined iteratively from Eq.

(144) using T from Eq. (136) and T

"

from the following reduced form of

Eq. (118):

T

"

Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr}

a

2 ,

"

_,

^

(1 )[1 (u'v')]dR`

u

u

"

dR`.

(147)

c. Generalized Expressions An alternative form of expression for T

"

and

Nu is useful for interpretation if not for numerical evaluations. Setting R0

in the lower limit of the integral of Eq. (117) results in the following

expression for the temperature at the centerline:

T

'

a

2 ,

"

[1 ][1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dR`. (148)

From this it follows that

Nu

2a

T

"

2a

T

'

T

'

T

"

4(T

'

/T

"

)

,

"

[1 ][1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dR`

. (149)

317 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

For Pr 0, Eq. (149) reduces to

NuPr 0}

2a

T

"

Pr 0}

4(T

'

/T

"

)

,

"

[1 ]dR`

4(T

'

/T

"

)

(1 )

"^

, (150)

where here (1 )

""^

is the integrated mean of 1 over R` from 0 to 1,

whereas for Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr Eq. (150) reduces to

NuPr

'

Pr

'

Pr}

4(T

'

/T

"

)

,

"

(1 )[1 (u'v')]dR`

T

'

T

"

u

"

u

'

Re

f

2

(1 )

""^

,

(151)

where (1 )

""^

is the integrated mean of 1, weighted by [1(u'v')],

over R` from 0 to 1.0. The factors T

'

/T

"

and u

"

/u

'

may be expected to

compensate for each other to some extent, although T

'

/T

"

is always larger.

Equations (149)(151) do not have any merit relative to Eqs. (119), (121),

(126), (127), (132), (139), and (141) as far as numerical calculations are

concerned because of the presence of T

'

/T

"

. However, these formulations

will be shown subsequently to be invaluable in terms of constructing a

theoretically based correlating equation.

As mentioned previously, the factor (1 ) represents in all cases the

effect of the deviation of the heat ux density ratio from the shear stress

ratio, while the factor (1 )` represents the effect of the velocity distribu-

tion as well. Equations (148)(151) are applicable for both uniform heating

and uniform wall temperature. This approach does not result in an alterna-

tive expression for NuPr } since the postulate that T

'

T

"

is

inherent for that limiting case. It may be inferred that the effects of these two

thermal boundary conditions are exerted wholly through (T

'

/T

"

)/

(1 )

""^

for Pr 0 and

T

'

/T

"

u

'

/u

"

(1 )

""^

for Pr

'

Pr

'

Pr.

3. Parallel Plates and Other Geometries

Insofar as the analogy of MacLeod is applicable for (u'v') and u, all

of the previous expressions in Section III for T and dT /dy are directly

applicable for fully developed convection from parallel plates heated equally

318 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

on both surfaces (either uniformly or isothermally) if a is simply replaced

by b and R by Z1 (y/b) wherever they appear. The expressions for

and for T

"

are, however, different because they invoke integrations over

a planar rather than a circular area. As an example, for equal uniform

heating on both plates, the expression analogous to Eq. (126) is

12

Nu

"'

3T

"

b

,

"

(1 )`[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dZ`. (152)

where here, as contrasted with Eq. (128),

1 Z

Z ,

"

[1 (u'v')]dZ`

,

1 Z

Z

[1 (u'v')]dZ`

,

"

[1 (u'v')]dZ`

.

(153)

Again, as for a round tube, increases monotonically from 0 at Z0 to

u

'

/u

"

at Z1.

For Pr 0, Eq. (152) reduces to

Nu

"'

Pr 0}

12

,

"

(1 )`dZ`

12

(1 )`

"

, (154)

where (1 )`

"

is the integrated-mean value over Z`. On the other hand,

for Pr Pr

'

Pr, Eq. (152) reduces, by analogy with Eq. (141), to

Nu

"'

Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

}

12

,

"

(1 )`[1 (u'v')]dZ`

Re

"'

f

2

(1 )`

""

,

(155)

where (1 )`

"

is the integrated-mean value, weighted by [1 u'v'],

over Z`. Equation (136) for Pr is directly applicable in terms of Nu

"'

and Re

"'

.

For parallel plates at different uniform temperatures, j is uniform across

the channel and 0. It follows that

T

,

'

"

[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dZ (156)

319 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

and that

Nu

'

j

"

b

k(T

"

T

'

)

b

T

'

1

,

"

[1 (u'v')]

Pr

'

Pr

dZ

. (157)

For Pr 0, Eq. (157), by virtue of Eq. (130), reduces to simply

Nu

'

Pr 0} 1. (158)

The half-spacing b was chosen as the characteristic dimension in order to

achieve this particular, obvious result. For Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

, Eq. (157) re-

duces to

Nu

'

1

,

"

[1 (u'v')]dZ

1

1 (u'v')]

"

, (159)

where [1 (u'v')] is the integrated-mean value over the channel. For

Pr , Eq. (136) is directly applicable in terms of Nu

'

and Re

'

.

Expressions for equal uniform wall-temperatures may readily be for-

mulated by analogy to those for an isothermal round tube in Section III, A,

2, b. but are not included here in the interests of brevity. Expressions for

parallel-plate channels analogous to Eqs. (149)(151) are also omitted, even

though they are referred to subsequently, since their form is readily inferred.

Equivalent formulations for fully developed convection are possible for all

one-dimensional ows, but their implementation is dependent upon individ-

ual expressions for (u'v'), as discussed in II, B, 4, and in turn for .

4. Alternative Models and Formulations

None of the differential models that have been proposed in the past for

the heat transfer in turbulent ow appear to provide any improvement over

the dimensionless turbulent heat ux density, (T 'v'), or its exact equival-

ents in terms of the dimensionless turbulent shear stress, (u'v'), and Pr

'

or Pr

'

. However, the eddy conductivity, k

'

, and its implementation are

described here in some detail because of the widespread use of this quantity

or its exact equivalent, :

'

k

'

/jc

tion and prediction in the past and present literature. The eddy conductivity

itself may be dened by

k

'

dT

dy

jc

(T 'v') (160)

320 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

and incorporated in the elementary differential energy balance to obtain, in

dimensionless form,

j

j

"

1

k

'

k

dT

dy

. (161)

Elimination of dT /dy between Eqs. (161) and (106) reveals that

k

'

k

(T 'v')

1 (T 'v')

. (162)

Equations (160)(162) are directly analogous to Eqs. (37), (38), and (86),

respectively, for momentum transfer. Since, from physical considerations,

(T 'v') must be greater than zero and less than unity at all locations within

the uid in a round tube, k

'

may be inferred to be positive, bounded, and

interchangeable with (T 'v') in this geometry.

Equation (161) has often been expanded as

j

j

"

_

1

c

j

k

k

'

c

j

'

j

'

j

dT

dy

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

dT

dy

(163)

or as

j

j

"

_

c

j

k

k k

'

c

(j j

'

)

jj

'

j

dT

dy

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

dT

dy

. (164)

where here Pr

'

c

j

'

/k

'

, Pr

'

c

(j j

'

)/(k k

'

), j

'

j j

'

, and

k

'

k k

'

. These denitions of Pr

'

and Pr

'

are consistent in every respect

with those of Eqs. (112) and (110), respectively. Such transformations were

of course initially made with the expectation that Pr

'

/Pr or Pr

'

/Pr would

be more constrained in its behavior than k

'

/k.

Equation (163) may be integrated formally to obtain

T

,

'

"

j

j

"

dy

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

, (165)

and then T from Eq. (165), weighted by u/u

"

, may be integrated formally

over the cross-section of the round tube to obtain

2a

Nu

T

"

,

"

_

,

'

"

j

j

"

dy

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

u

u

"

dR`. (166)

For uniform heating it has been the custom, when utilizing the eddy

conductivity ratio k

'

/k or its equivalent such as (Pr/Pr

'

)(j

'

/j), to substitute

321 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

from Eq. (125) for j/j

"

, thereby transforming Eq. (165) to

T

a

^

_,

^

"

u

u

"

dR`

dR

R

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

(167)

and Eq. (166) to

2

Nu

T

"

a

,

"

^

_,

^

"

u

u

"

dR`

dR

R

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

u

u

"

dR`.

(168)

Lyon [94] in 1951 recognized that changing the order of integration allows

reduction of Eq. (168) to

Nu

2

,

"

_,

^

"

u

u

"

dR`

` dR

R

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

, (169)

which requires far less computation for numerical evaluations than does the

triple integral of Eq. (168). The analogous reduction of Eq. (119) to (126)

was much simpler and more obvious because of the use of (u'v') rather

than both u and j

'

/j as variables. Lyon further recognized that setting

Pr 0 in Eq. (169) gives an expression for the lower limiting value of Nu

that varies with a (or Re) only by virtue of the variation in the velocity

distribution. He further inferred (incorrectly, as will be shown) that this

limiting value is approached asymptotically as RePr approaches zero.

For a uniform wall temperature, Eqs. (165) and (166) become, by virtue

of Eq. (145),

T

a

,

^

_,

^

"

T

T

"

u

u

"

dR`

dR

R

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

(170)

and

Nu

2

,

"

^

_,

^

"

T

T

"

u

u

"

dR`

dR

R

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

u

u

"

dR`

.

(171)

322 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Equations (165)(171) may be expressed in terms of Pr

'

rather than Pr

'

simply by replacing

1

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

by

Pr

Pr

'

j

'

j

.

The preceding expressions in terms of j

'

, u, and Pr

'

or Pr

'

are exact but

more cumbersome than the corresponding ones in terms of (u'v'), , and

Pr

'

or Pr

'

. An expression for j

'

/j could be derived from a correlating

equation for u by virtue of Eq. (38), but in most applications, for some

unexplained reason, separate, incongruent correlating equations have been

used for u and j

'

. Despite appearances to the contrary, the use of (u'v')

rather than j

'

/j does not decrease the number of integrations to determine

values of T and Nu; the integration or integrations of u/u

"

are simply

performed separately in the process of evaluating .

The c and u'v' T 'v' models do not appear to have a useful role for

convection in round tubes or parallel-plate channels, but the latter one has

promise for circular annuli despite the considerable empiricism involved in

the implementation of the supplementary equations of transport.

B. EssrN1i:iix Ex:c1 Nixric:i Soii1ioNs

The integral formulations of Section III, A are exact, except possibly the

reduced ones for the special case of Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

, which incorporate the

postulate of invariance of Pr

'

and Pr

'

with y. In addition, the closed-form

solution for Pr is subject to the asymptotic attainment of a nite value

for Pr

'

as y0. Some uncertainty arises in the numerical evaluation of the

integral expressions for Nu for all nite values of Pr by virtue of the

empirical expression, such as Eq. (99), that is used for (u'v'), but the net

effect is presumed to be completely negligible. On the other hand, the

uncertainty introduced by the expressions utilized for Pr

'

or its equivalent

[Pr

'

, k

'

, k

'

or (T 'v')] is potentially very signicant. The uncertainty

associated with expressions for Pr

'

or its equivalent extends to all prior

numerical results for turbulent convection, other than those from direct

numerical simulations, as well to those subsequently presented herein. The

estimation of values of Pr

'

or its equivalent is therefore given rst attention

in this section.

1. Expressions for the Turbulent or Total Prandtl Number

As noted heretofore, Pr

'

is presumed on the basis of theoretical conjec-

tures, as well as experimental evaluations, to be the same unique function of

323 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

(u'v') (or j

'

/j) and Pr for all geometries and all thermal boundary

conditions. This presumption, which has been overlooked or denied impli-

citly by many prior investigators, greatly simplies the task of correlation

for Pr

'

as well as the integrations for T and Nu.

The high degree of uncertainty of the various expressions for Pr

'

arises on

the one hand from the very severe requirements for precision in the

measurements of either T 'v' or dT/dy, and on the other hand from the lack

of a universally accepted theoretical model. A vast but generally disappoint-

ing body of literature exists on this subject (see, for example, Reynolds [95]

and Kays [95a]). Only a few directly relevant contributions will be noted

here.

Jischa and Rieke [96] and others have successfully correlated the exten-

sive data for the turbulent core for uids with Pr 0.7 by means of a simple

algebraic expression, such as

Pr

'

0.85

0.015

Pr

. (172)

Over the purported range of validity of Eq. (172), the turbulent Prandtl

number is predicted to vary only from 0.85 to 0.87 and to be independent

of y and a [or (u'v')]. Such constrained behavior, insofar as this

prediction is valid, appears to justify the use of Pr

'

rather than (T 'v') or

k

'

/k or even Pr

'

as a variable for correlation. The nominal restriction of Eq.

(172) to the turbulent core may be attributed in part to the widespread

scatter of the experimental data for Pr

'

in the viscous sublayer and the buffer

layer rather than wholly to its inapplicability in those regimes. Kays [95a]

proposed the extension of Eq. (172) for small values of Pr by replacing the

constant 0.85 by Aj

'

/j with a value for A of 0.7 based on direct numerical

simulations or 2.0 based on experimental data. Because of the excessive

values of Pr

'

predicted by this modication of Eq. (172) very near the wall,

he proposed to set Pr

'

1 in that region.

A more complex empirical expression is that of Notter and Sleicher [97],

which may be rewritten in terms of (u'v') rather than j

'

/j as follows:

Pr

'

1 90Pr``

u'v')

1 (u'v')

"

1

10

35

(u'v')

1(u'v')

0.025 Pr

u'v')

1(u'v')

90Pr``

u'v')

1(u'v')

"

.

(173)

324 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Equation (173) predicts an asymptotic value of Pr

'

`

"

0.778 as y0

for large values of Pr, which supports the critical postulate in the derivation

of Eq. (136). However, it predicts higher values than Eq. (172) for the

turbulent core and values of Pr Pr

'

that depend slightly on (u'v') even

in the turbulent core, which is not in accord with the critical postulate in

the derivation of Eq. (141). Yahkot et al. [89] used renormalization group

theory to derive

1.1793

1

Pr

'

1.1793

1

Pr

"'`

2.1793

1

Pr

'

2.1793

1

Pr

"``

1 (u'v') (174)

Equation (174) is implied by the authors to be applicable for all geometries,

all thermal boundary conditions, and all values of Pr and (u'v'). Further-

more, they assert that this expression is free of any experimentally adjusted

parameters. However, they undermine its credibility somewhat by suggest-

ing, in a footnote added in proof, the change of a theoretical index in their

derivation from 7 to 4, which appears to have signicant numerical

consequences. The dependence of Pr

'

on the rate of ow and on location

within the uid stream may be inferred from Eq. (174) itself to be charac-

terized wholly by (u'v'). The dependence of Pr

'

on Pr and (u'v') only,

if valid, must extend to Pr

'

by virtue of Eq. (113). The limited experimental

support for these various presumptions has already been discussed in the

paragraph following Eq. (121). In any event, Eq. (174) is attractive in terms

of simplicity and purported generality, and its predictions appear to be

qualitatively if not quantitatively correct. For example, it predicts

Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

over the entire cross-section of ow for Pr 0.848, but on

the other hand an obviously low value of Pr

'

0.39 at the wall for

asymptotically large values of Pr. Elperin et al. [97a] showed that only one

of the constants and exponents of Eq. (174) is independent, and determined

an improved value thereof. However, the latter value does not eliminate

the indicated shortcomings.

The nal recent contribution to be examined here is that of Papavassiliou

and Hanratty [98], who used both Lagrangian and Eulerian direct numeri-

cal simulations to predict Pr

'

for heat transfer between parallel plates for a

series of values of Pr from 0.05 to 2400, but only for b150, which is just

above the minimum value for fully developed turbulence. The title of the

previously cited paper by Einstein [4] on Brownian motion does not suggest

any relevance to turbulent ow and convection, but its statistical develop-

ment serves as the origin of the Lagrangian DNS methodology of Papavas-

siliou and Hanratty. Their predictions appear to be in fair qualitative and

325 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

quantitative agreement with Eqs. (172)(174) for most conditions, but for

Pr 100 they indicate an increase without limit in Pr

'

as y0. This latter

prediction, as represented (in thermal terms) by

Pr

'

Pr

1.71

(y)"``

, (175)

is in accord with the measurements by Shaw and Hanratty [99] of the rate

of electrochemical mass transfer. This result would appear to refute the

validity of Eq. (136), but since convective turbulent heat transfer is usually

limited to uids with Pr 100, Eq. (136) may remain applicable as an

asymptotic element of a correlating equation as long as the latter is not

utilized for higher values.

In view of the contradictions among these representative results, the

principal challenge in turbulent convection appears to be the resolution of

the uncertainties in the qualitative and quantitative dependence of Pr

'

on

(u'v') (or y and a) and Pr. In the following section the effects of this

uncertainty in Pr

'

are avoided insofar as possible by choosing particular

conditions for which its impact is minimal.

Substitution of Pr

'

from Eq. (172) or (173) and of (u'v') from Eq. (99)

in Eq. (112) would yield a direct analog of (u'v') for convection, that is,

an algebraic expression for (T 'v') as a function of y, a, and Pr.

Substitution of Pr

'

from Eq. (110) and again of (u'v') from Eq. (99) in

Eq. (174) or its alternatives would yield much more complex algebraic

expressions for (T 'v'), again as a function of y, a, and Pr. Such

expressions for (T 'v') have not been presented herein because they would

obviously be less convenient to apply than those for Pr

'

and Pr

'

. It is

obvious that such expressions for (T 'v') would incorporate the consider-

able uncertainties of the generating expressions for Pr

'

and Pr

'

as well as

the lesser ones attributable to Eq. (99) and its components.

2. Numerical Results for Nu for a Uniformly Heated Tube

a. Solutions for Particular Conditions Consideration is rst given to those

conditions for which the dependence of Nu on the uncertainty of the values

of Pr

'

is absent or minimal. Heng et al. [100] were the rst to use the new

formulations herein for numerical evaluations of Nu but the later evalu-

ations of Yu et al. [100a] are presented herein since they are presumed to

be slightly more accurate.

For Pr 0, the Nusselt number, as given by Eq. (132), is independent of

both Pr and Pr

'

. Values of Nu, and T

'

/T

"

for a500, 1000, 2000, 5000,

and 10,000, as computed using Eq. (99) for (u'v') and in turn Eq. (128)

for , are listed in Table I along with values for laminar and plug ow. The

326 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

TABLE II

Coxii1rn Cn::c1ris1ics or Fiiix Drvrioirn TiniirN1 Fiov 1noicn : RoiNn Tinr

(from Yu et al. [100a])

a u

"

Re10` u

'

/u

"

f 10` Re( f /2)

500 17.0 17.0 1.2696 6.920 58.82

1000 18.815 37.63 1.2375 5.650 106.3

2000 20.518 82.07 1.2148 4.751 194.96

5000 22.69 226.9 1.1926 3.885 440.72

10,000 24.295 485.9 1.1793 3.388 823.21

20,000 25.90 1036 1.1680 2.981 1544.4

50,000 28.01 2801 1.1552 2.549 3570.15

TABLE I

Coxii1rn Tnrx:i Cn::c1ris1ics or Fiiix

Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN iN :

UNiroxix Hr:1rn RoiNn Tinr ro Pr 0

Nu

a T

'

/T

"

(YOC) (KL) (NS)

500 1.862 6.480 6.490 6.82

1000 1.884 6.675 6.695 6.935

2000 1.889 6.808 6.845 7.03

5000 1.911 6.932 6.895 7.175

10,000 1.918 7.004 6.995 7.30

20,000 1.924 7.063

50,000 1.930 7.130

YOC, Yu et al. [100a]; KI, Kays and Leung [101],

interpolated with respect to Re

`

; NS, Notter and

Sleicher [97], interpolated with respect to Re

`

.

values of Re were obtained from 2au

"

and hence may be used to recover,

if desired, the computed values of u

"

(2/ f )`. Values of Nu were obtained

from 2a/T

"

and hence can be used to recover the computed values of T

"

and in turn those of T

'

. The values of Nu attributed to Kays and Leung

[101] and Notter and Sleicher [97] were obtained by theoretically based

interpolation of their actual computed values with respect to Re. In all cases,

the new values lie between the older ones. The models and procedures used

to obtain these earlier computed values are discussed subsequently. The

computed values of u

"

, u

'

/u

"

, Re 2au

"

, f 2/(u

"

)` and Re( f /2)

2a/u

"

corresponding to the computed values of Nu, etc. in Table I are

listed in Table II.

327 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

TABLE III

Coxii1rn Tnrx:i Cn::c1ris1ics or Fiiix

Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN iN :

UNiroxix Hr:1rn RoiNn Tinr ro

Pr Pr

'

0.8673 B:srn oN Eq. (172)

Nu

a T

'

/T

"

(YOC) (KL) (NS)

500 1.242 53.63 55.12 52.7

1000 1.222 99.45 102.0 97.1

2000 1.206 185.3 189.5 177.7

5000 1.189 424.1 433.0 401.7

10,000 1.177 796.7 812.4 749.8

20,000 1.167 1502

50,000 1.155 3487

See footnotes in Table I and values of Re

`

and

u

'

/u

"

in Table II. Values of KL and NS were

interpolated for both Re

`

and Pr.

Equation (172) implies that Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

for Pr 0.8673. Values of Nu

computed for this condition using Eq. (139), and again Eq. (99) for (u'v')

and Eq. (128) for , are listed in Table III. The corresponding values of

T

'

/T

"

are also provided. Individual values of T

"

and T

'

may be

determined from the tabulated values of Nu and T

'

/T

"

. The indicated

values of Re( f /2) 2a/u

"

may be used to determine values of (1 )`

""^`

.

The values of Nu attributed to Kays and Leung [101] and Notter and

Sleicher [97] were in this case obtained by interpolating their computed

values with respect to both Pr and Re. Again the new values are intermedi-

ate to the older ones.

b. Solutions for General Values of Pr For Pr 0.867, Eq. (127) may be

rearranged and approximated by

Nu

8

,

"

(1 )`

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

u'v')

1 (u'v')

dR"

, (176)

and hence by

Nu

8

(1 )`

"^

_

1

Pr

Pr

'

u'v')

1 (u'v')

""^`

, (177)

where the weighting factor for the integrated-mean value of the term in

328 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

TABLE IV

Prnic1rn Nissri1 Nixnrs ro Fiiix Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN iN :

UNiroxix Hr:1rn RoiNn Tinr vi1n Pr

'

n:srn oN Eq. (172) (from Yu et al. [100a])

Small Pr

a 10" 10` 0.01 0.1 0.7

Nu

500 6.481 6.489 7.073 16.67 48.17

1000 6.675 6.694 7.927 26.70 88.53

2000 6.809 6.848 9.327 44.39 163.7

5000 6.933 7.035 12.95 90.62 371.5

10,000 7.006 7.210 18.25 159.1 694.0

20,000 7.068 7.476 27.63 283.3 1302

50,000 7.141 8.154 51.84 618.6 3006

Large Pr

a 1 10 100 1000 10,000

Nu/(0.07343(Pr/Pr

'

)`Re( f /2)`)

500 0.7462 0.9227 0.9794 0.9935 0.9950 1.0000

1000 0.6957 0.9066 0.9763 0.9934 0.9953 1.0000

2000 0.6510 0.8903 0.9726 0.9928 0.9953 1.0000

5000 0.5993 0.8688 0.9673 0.9918 0.9952 1.0000

10,000 0.5650 0.8529 0.9631 0.9909 0.9948 1.0000

20,000 0.5341 0.8374 0.9588 0.9899 0.9945 1.0000

50,000 0.4979 0.8176 0.9532 0.9886 0.9936 1.0000

square brackets is (1 )`. Since Eqs. (172)(174) all predict increasing

values of Pr

'

as Pr decreases, it may be inferred from Eq. (177) that the effect

of any error in the values of Pr

'

used to compute Nu from Eq. (127) for small

values of Pr will be very limited and will continually decrease as Pr

decreases below a value of 0.867. Insofar as Eq. (172) is valid, Pr

'

only varies

slightly for Pr 0.867, at least in the turbulent core. On the basis of these

considerations for small and large values of Pr, Eq. (172) might, despite its

obvious shortcomings, be expected to result in a reasonable approximation

for Nu for all values of Pr. Values so computed are listed in Table IV. As a

quantitative test, the computations leading to the values in Table IV were

repeated using Eq. (173) rather than Eq. (172) for Pr

'

. The results differ

signicantly only for very large a with Pr 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 10" or

greater and therefore are not reproduced herein.

329 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

c. Prior Computed Values of Nu Many prior analytical and numerical

solutions for turbulent convection have neglected the variation in the total

heat ux density with radius or postulated the same linear variation as for

the total shear stress. Many have postulated Pr

'

1 or some other xed

value for all conditions, and a number have incorporated the postulate that

u'v' is proportional to y" near the wall. Only the two numerical solutions

that avoid all of these gross idealizations will be examined here, namely the

previously mentioned ones of Kays and Leung [101] and Notter and

Sleicher [97].

The solutions of Kays and Leung are ostensibly for circular annuli but

include a uniformly heated round tube and parallel plates as limiting cases.

They carried out numerical integrations of the partial differential energy

balance using separate, incongruent correlating equations for the velocity

and eddy viscosity as well as an expression of unknown accuracy for the

turbulent Prandtl number. Their expressions for j

'

and u are unquestionably

less accurate than the equivalent values used by Yu et al. [100a]. For Pr 0

the errors due to their expressions for the eddy viscosity and the turbulent

Prandtl number phase out, and the slight discrepancies between their values

of Nu and those of Yu et al. must be due to the inaccuracy of their values

of u as compared to those of Yu et al. for (u'v'). The slightly greater

discrepancies in Table III presumably stem only from the values that Kays

and Leung used for j

'

and u since the dependence on Pr

'

is effectively

eliminated.

Notter and Sleicher [97, 111] developed Graetz-type series solutions for

Nu in developing as well as fully developed convection. The correlating

equations that they utilized for u, j

'

/j, and Pr

'

[Eq. (173)] are almost

certainly more accurate than those used by Kays and Leung, but less

accurate, with respect to u and j

'

/j, than the equivalent values used by Yu

et al. The remarks concerning the discrepancies of the values of Kays and

Leung for Nu in Tables I and III are applicable at least qualitatively to those

of Notter and Sleicher.

All in all, the values of Yu et al. for Nu in Tables I, III and IV are

presumed to be more accurate than any previously computed values,

primarily because of the greater accuracy associated with Eq. (99) for

(u'v'). Neither the absolute nor the relative error in Nu associated with

the values used for Pr

'

in the numerical predictions of Yu et al., Kays and

Leung, and Notter and Sleicher can be evaluated with certainty at this time.

Fortunately, the error associated with Pr

'

is reduced in Nu in all cases by

the integration or summation involved in the evaluation of the latter.

Comparison of the numerically computed values of Nu with experimental

data is deferred until after their representation by correlating equations.

330 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

TABLE V

Tnr Tnrx:i Cn::c1ris1ics or Fiiix

Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN iN : RoiNn

Tinr vi1n UNirox W:ii-Trxir:1ir ro

Pr 0 (from Yu et al. [100a])

a Nu T

'"

/T

""

500 4.959 2.124

1000 5.055 2.152

2000 5.122 2.171

5000 5.187 2.188

10,000 5.225 2.198

20,000 5.258 2.205

50,000 5.295 2.214

TABLE VI

Tnr Tnrx:i Cn::c1ris1ics or Fiiix

Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN iN : RoiNn

Tinr vi1n UNirox W:ii-Trxir:1ir ro

Pr Pr

'

0.8673 B:srn oN Eq. (172)

(from Yu et al. [100a])

a Nu T

'

/T

"

500 52.07 1.276

1000 97.08 1.251

2000 181.5 1.232

5000 416.9 1.210

10,000 784.8 1.196

20,000 1482 1.184

50,000 3447 1.169

3. Numerical Results for an Isothermal Wall-Temperature

Yu et al. [100a] carried out numerical calculations for fully developed

turbulent convection in a round tube following a discrete step in wall

temperature for the same conditions as those of Tables I, III, and IV. Owing

to the presence of T in Eq. (145) for and of in Eq. (120) for T , an

iterative method of solution is required. They concluded that stepwise

solution of the differential equivalents of these two equations for trial values

of T

"

was more efcient computationally than iterative evaluation of the

integrals by quadrature. The results obtained using Eq. (172) for Pr

'

are

summarized in Tables V, VI, and VII. The computed values of Nu for

331 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

TABLE VII

Prnic1rn Nissri1 Nixnrs ro Fiiix Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN iN : RoiNn

Tinr vi1n UNirox W:ii-Trxir:1ir vi1n Pr

(from Yu et al. [100a])

Small Pr

10" 10` 0.01 0.1 0.7

a Nu

500 4.959 4.967 5.488 14.61 46.50

1000 5.055 5.072 6.155 23.89 86.01

2000 5.123 5.157 7.328 40.53 159.7

5000 5.188 5.275 10.50 84.57 364.1

10,000 5.227 5.402 15.27 150.4 682.0

20,000 5.262 5.611 23.89 270.6 1282

50,000 5.304 6.173 46.54 596.8 2966

Large Pr

a 1 10 100 1000 10,000

a Nu/(0.07343(Pr/Pr

'

)`Re( f /2)`)

150 0.8216 0.9440 0.9812 0.9914 0.9930 1.0000

500 0.7270 0.9200 0.9791 0.9935 0.9950 1.0000

1000 0.6811 0.9047 0.9761 0.9934 0.9953 1.0000

2000 0.6394 0.8887 0.9725 0.9928 0.9953 1.0000

5000 0.5904 0.8675 0.9672 0.9918 0.9952 1.0000

10,000 0.5575 0.8518 0.9630 0.9909 0.9948 1.0000

20,000 0.5278 0.8363 0.9588 0.9899 0.9945 1.0000

50,000 0.4928 0.8166 0.9531 0.9886 0.9936 1.0000

uniform wall temperature are observed to be signicantly less than those for

uniform heating only for Pr 1.

The values of Nu in Table VIII for a5000 only were, on the other

hand, calculated using Eq. (173) in order to provide a direct comparison

with the values computed by Notter et al. [97] who used the same

expression. The differences are therefore presumed, if numerical errors

in calculation are negligible, to be wholly a consequence of using (u'v')

from Eq. (99) rather than less accurate and incongruent expressions for j

'

and u.

332 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

TABLE VIII

Coxi:isoN or 1nr Coxii1rn V:iirs or Nu ro Fiiix

Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN vi1n : UNirox W:ii-

Trxir:1ir :1 a5000 vi1n Pr

'

B:srn oN Eq. (173)

Nu

Pr Yu et al. [100a] Notter and Sleicher* [97]

0 5.187 5.29

10` 9.350 11.86

10 84.96 65.7

0.7 360.2 332

1.0 454.0 443

8 1306

C

1220

10` 3572 3436

10` 7915 7747

10" 17,119 16,730

*Interpolated semitheoretically with respect to a.

C

Interpolated semitheoretically with respect to Pr.

4. Numerical Results for Nu for Parallel-Plate Channels

a. Equal Uniform Heating on Both Plates Danov et al. [85] utilized the

integral formulations of Eqs. (152)(155) together with (u'v') from Eq.

(99), from Eq. (153), and Pr

'

from Eq. (172) to compute numerical

solutions for fully developed convection in turbulent ow between two

parallel plates heated uniformly and equally. Their results are summarized

in Table IX. The values of Re

"'

4bu

"

in Table IX correspond to values

of u

"

determined by integrating (u'v') as given by Eq. (99) with b

substituted for a. The corresponding values of Re

"'

4u

"

b, u

'

/u

"

,

f 2/(u

"

)` and Re

"'

( f /2) 4b/u

"

are also listed in Table X. The values

of Re

"'

( f /2) were determined from 4b/u

"

and those of

""

from Re

"'

( f /

2)/Nu

"'

Pr 0.867}. Their computed values of Nu

"'

are compared in Table

XI with the earlier ones of Kays and Leung [101] for the other limiting case

of a concentric circular annulus. Interpolation was avoided by utilizing

values of b corresponding to the values of Re

"'

chosen by Kays and Leung.

The comments on the discrepancies between the new and prior results in

Tables I and III are presumed to be directly applicable here.

b. Different Uniform Temperatures on the Two Plates Danov et al. [85]

also carried out numerical integrations for this boundary condition

using the integral formulations of Eqs. (157) and (159). Their results are

333 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

TABLE IX

Prnic1rn Nissri1 Nixnrs ro Fiiix Drvrioirn CoNvrc1ioN iN TiniirN1 Fiov

nr1vrrN UNiroxix :Nn Eqi:iix Hr:1rn P::iiri Pi:1rs vi1n Pr

'

n:srn oN Eq. (172)

(from Danov et al. [85])

Nu

"'

for small values of Pr

Pr

b 0 0.001 0.01 0.10 0.70 0.867

500 10.43 10.45 11.46 28.93 90.40 101.3

1000 10.61 10.64 12.76 46.66 166.3 187.9

5000 10.85 11.03 21.15 162.4 701.6 804.7

10,000 10.93 11.27 30.31 288.0 1314 1515

50,000 11.07 12.78 89.95 1142 5732 6668

Nu

"'

for large values of Pr

Pr

b 1.0 10 100 1000 10,000 25,000

500 107.0 280.6 701.8 1535 3335 4531

1000 198.4 547.8 1392 3062 6667 9061

5000 876.2 2672 6927 15,271 33,334 45,288

10,000 1617 5148 13,815 30,466 66,656 90,568

50,000 7176 25,051 68,715 152,087 333,209 452,471

TABLE X

Coxii1rn Cn::c1ris1ics or Fiiix Drvrioirn TiniirN1 Fiov nr1vrrN P::iiri

Pi:1rs ir D:Nov et al. [85]

a u

"

u

'

/u

"

Re

"'

10` f 10` Re

"'

( f /2)

500 18.558 1.1605 37.116 5.81 107.8

1000 20.312 1.1437 81.249 4.85 196.9

5000 24.132 1.1189 482.64 3.43 828.8

10,000 25.738 1.1113 1029.5 3.02 1554

50,000 29.428 1.0974 5885.5 2.31 6796

334 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

TABLE XI

Coxi:isoN or Prnic1rn V:iirs or Nu

"'

ro Fiiix Drvrioirn TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN

rox Tvo UNiroxix :Nn Eqi:iix Hr:1rn Pi:1rs vi1n Pr

'

n:srn oN Eq. (172)

Nu

"'

Nu

"'

/Pr`

Pr 0 Pr 0.867 Pr 1000

b Re

"'

10` K & L D, A & C K & L D, A & C K & L D, A & C

415 30 10.41 10.40 84.90 85.90 99.90 127.5

1204 100 10.66 10.66 212.3 222.0 288.6 368.6

3244 300 10.74 10.81 514.2 543.1 766.5 991.9

9737 1000 10.90 10.93 1392 1478 2305 2967

K & L, Kays and Leung [101]; D, A & C, Danov, Arai and Churchill [85]; b, is based on

specied values of Re and Eq. (102).

summarized in Table XII. No appropriate prior results were identied for

comparative purposes.

C. Cori:1ioN ro Nu

Although direct numerical integrations such as those of Eqs. (89) for uand

(91) for u

"

using Eq. (99) for (u'v') are perhaps feasible on demand for each

particular condition of interest, those required for Nu for each value of aand

Pr are somewhat more demanding because of the added dependence on and

Pr

'

. Correlating equations are therefore convenient for computed values as

well as for experimental data for convection. By denition, correlating

equations for computed values necessarily incorporate some empiricism. That

empiricismmay, however, often be minimized by the appropriate use of exact

or nearly exact asymptotic expressions within the structure of the correlating

equation. Such theoretically structured expressions are more reliable func-

tionally and usually more accurate and general than purely empirical ones.

1. Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional and speculative analysis proved to be very helpful in

constructing the nal correlating equations for turbulent ow. It is, however,

much less helpful in turbulent convection, again because of the added

dependence on Pr, Pr

'

, and .

The heat transfer coefcient for fully developed convection in a smooth

round tube and for invariant physical properties might, quite justiably, be

postulated to be a function only of D, u

"

, t

"

, j, j, k, and c

. However, since

335 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

TABLE XII

Prnic1rn Nissri1 Nixnrs ro Fiiix Drvrioirn iN TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN nr1vrrN

Pi:1rs :1 UNrqi:i UNirox Trxir:1irs vi1n Pr

'

n:srn oN Eq. (172)

(from Danov et al. [85])

Nu

'

for small values of Pr

Pr

b 0 0.001 0.01 0.10 0.70 0.867

500 1.0 1.002 1.113 3.337 14.16 16.43

1000 1.0 1.003 1.230 5.609 26.74 31.20

5000 1.0 1.018 2.126 21.86 118.8 139.8

10,000 1.0 1.036 3.186 40.54 226.9 267.6

50,000 1.0 1.175 10.83 175.3 1028 1218

Nu

'

for large values of Pr

Pr

b 1.0 10 100 1000 10,000 25,000

500 18.11 66.58 169.7 382.1 833.3 1132

1000 34.49 31.07 338.1 761.3 1665 2264

5000 155.3 630.5 1671 3797 8319 11,307

10,000 180.0 1240 3380 7588 16,624 92,617

50,000 1360 5993 16,656 37,915 82,855 113,154

t

"

/ju`

"

is known to be a unique function of D(t

"

j)`/j, one of the ve

variables in these latter two groupings is redundant in the listing for h. For

example, eliminating t

"

, u

"

, and j individually allows the following three

different dimensionless groupings to be derived:

hD

k

Du

"

j

j

,

c

j

k

or Nu Re, Pr} (178)

hD

k

D(t

"

j)`

j

,

c

j

k

or Nu

Re

f

2

`

, Pr

(179)

and

hD

k

Dt

"

ju

"

,

c

j

k

or Nu

Re

f

2

, Pr

. (180)

These three expressions are functionally equivalent to one another by virtue

of the relationship between t/ju`

"

and D(t

"

j)`/j, but on speculative

336 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

reduction they lead in some but not all cases to fundamentally different

results. For example, the further speculation of independence of h from D

leads, respectively, to

Nu RePr} (181)

NuRe

f

2

`

Pr} (182)

and

NuRe

f

2

Pr}. (183)

Equation (182) has been shown [see Eq. (136)] to be a valid asymptote for

Pr , whereas Eq. (183) provides a rst-order expression for

Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

(neglecting the dependence on ). On the other hand, Eq.

(181) does not appear to be valid for any condition. The speculation of

independence from c

Pr 0, but elimination of j, k, j, and t

"

individually does not appear to

lead to valid expressions. These limited results are to be contrasted with the

extensive set of asymptotes obtained for ow by speculative analysis.

Nusselt [102] in 1909 was apparently the rst to apply dimensional

analysis to turbulent convection in a round tube. Unfortunately, he postul-

ated a power dependence of h on each of the dependent variables and

thereby obtained the equivalent of

Nu ARePr" (184)

rather than simply Eq. (178). On the basis of the various exact integral

expressions of Section III, A, Nu does not appear to be a xed power of Re

for any condition. Since the friction factor, f, was found in Section II to be

a non-power-function of Re, the proportionality of Nu to Re( f /2) or

Re( f /2)` does not constitute a power-dependence on Re. Similarly, Nu was

found to be a xed power of Pr only in the limit of Pr .

The use of Eq. (184) for correlation of experimental data has actually

impeded the representation, understanding, and prediction of turbulent

convection, as illustrated in the following paragraphs.

2. Purely Empirical Correlating Equations

Nusselt [102] tted the constants of Eq. (184) using his own experimental

data for turbulent convection in gases in a round tube and determined an

exponent n 0.786 for Re and inexplicably the same value for the exponent

of Pr. Based on experimental data for Re 10" and various gas and liquids

337 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 15. Determination of power dependence of Nu on Pr for Re 10". (From Sherwood

and Petrie [104], Figure 1.)

with 0.7 Pr 100, Dittus and Boelter [103] in 1930 recommended

A0.0265 and m0.3 for cooling, and A0.0243 and m0.4 for

heating. Sherwood and Petrie [104] in 1932 plotted experimental values of

Nu for Re 510" versus Pr in logarithmic coordinates, as shown in Fig. 15,

and determined a power dependence on Pr of 0.4. The straight line in Fig.

16 represents the following expression:

Nu 0.024Re"`Pr"". (185)

A later correlation of this type from Coulson and Richardson [105] is

shown in Fig. 16. The data appear to be well represented on the mean for

large Re by Eq. (184) with A0.023, m0.4, and n 0.8, but the scatter

is suppressed visually by the logarithmic coordinates and furthermore is

undoubtedly due in part to the oversimplied form of correlation as well as

to experimental inaccuracy.

Colburn [106] in 1933 noted the similarity of Eq. (185) to the following

empirical expression for the friction factor:

f

2

0.023Re"`. (186)

338 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 16. Test of Eq. (185) with experimental data. (From Coulson and Richardson [105], p.

166.)

He thereby inferred that

Nu

RePr`

f

2

. (187)

He chose the exponent of

`

for Pr, not on theoretical grounds but simply as

a compromise for the values of Dittus and Boelter and others ranging from

0.3 to 0.4. Equation (187) predicts the wrong functional dependence for Nu

on Re except as a rst-order approximation for Pr O1} and on Pr except

in the asymptotic limit of Pr .

3. Numerical Predictions for L ow-Prandtl-Number Fluids

Equations (185) and (187) failed utterly to predict the convective behavior

of liquid metals in nuclear reactors in the 1950s, thereby stimulating the new

339 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

theoretical analyses described in the following section. It was soon recog-

nized that the distinctive thermal characteristic of liquid metals was their

relatively high thermal conductivity (or low Prandtl number), which results

in a signicant contribution by thermal conduction even in the turbulent

core.

Martinelli [107], Lyon [94], and others derived numerical solutions for

turbulent convection in round tubes, using the eddy conductivity and

accounting for thermal conduction over the entire cross section. These

solutions predicted a lower limiting value for Nu as Pr 0 and an improved

representation for liquidmetal heat transfer. They also had the effect of

establishing the credibility of theoretical predictions as compared to purely

empirical correlations of experimental data. However, Lyon conjectured

that his computed values of Nu would be a function only of RePr, that is, to

be independent of the viscosity, thereby leading to miscorrelations such as

that of Lubarsky and Kaufman [108], as shown in Fig. 17. The dashed and

dotted lines represent Eq. (185) for Pr 0.006 and Pr 0.03, respectively.

The other two curves represent purely empirical correlating equations.

Sleicher and Tribus [109] carried out numerical calculations for Nu for a

wide range of values of Re and Pr, developing as well as fully developed

convection, and a number of thermal boundary conditions, using a Graetz-

type series expansion and more accurate values of u, j

'

, Pr, and Pr

'

than

those of prior investigators. They concluded from their results that the scatter

in Fig. 17 and similar plots was due in part to a parametric dependence on Pr

beyond that of RePr, as well as to incomplete thermal development.

Notter and Sleicher [97, 110, 111] subsequently improved somewhat

upon these solutions. Their numerical results are probably the most reliable

in the literature other than those of Yu et al. [100a], which are based on the

equivalent of more accurate values of u and j

'

.

Churchill [112] correlated all of the computed values of Nu of Notter and

Sleicher for fully developed convection as well as culled experimental data

with the expression

Nu Nu

"

0.079Re

f

2

`

Pr

[1 Pr"`]`'

(188)

with Nu

"

4.8 and 6.3, respectively, for a uniform wall temperature and

uniform heating. He also extended this expression to encompass laminar

and transitional ow as follows:

Nu"Nu"

'

_

exp(2200Re)/366}

Nu`

'

Nu

"

0.079Re( f /2)`Pr`

[1 Pr"`]`'

`

`

.

(189)

340 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 17. Representation of experimental values of Nu for liquid metals as a function of Pe RePr by Eq. (185): (- - -) Pr 0.006; ( ) Pr 0.03. (From

Lubarsky and Kaufman [108], Figure 42.)

Fic. 18. Representation of culled experimental data and predicted values for Nu and Sh by

Eq. (189). (From Churchill [112], Figure 1.)

Here Nu

'

, the solution for laminar ow, equals 3.657 for a uniform wall

temperature and 4.364 for uniform heating. Equation (189) is seen in Fig.

18 to represent the computed values of Notter and Sleicher as well as the

experimental data very well.

4. Mechanistic Analogies

Equation (187) is commonly known as the Colburn analogy because it was

constructed by postulating the same empirical dependence for Nu/RePr`

342 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

and f /2 on the Reynolds number. Many other analogies for turbulent

convection have been devised by postulating similar mechanisms of trans-

port for momentum and energy. Although Eqs. (136) and (141) and their

counterparts relate Nu and f, those relationships are simply a consequence

of the dependence of the rate of heat transfer on the velocity eld rather than

an explicit analogy. Several of these mechanistic analogies are described

briey because of the understanding they convey, and one in detail because

it proves remarkably useful for correlation.

Reynolds [18] in 1874, as mentioned in the Introduction, made a signif-

icant contribution to turbulent convection by postulating equal rates of

transport of momentum and energy from the bulk of the uid to the wall

by means of the uctuating eddies. His result, in modern notation, takes the

form of Eq. (142).

Prandtl [113] in 1910 attempted to improve upon the Reynolds analogy,

by postulating that the transport of momentum and energy by the eddies

extends only to the edge of a boundary layer and that the completion of the

transport to the wall occurs by linear molecular diffusion. His result may be

expressed as

Nu

Re( f /2)Pr

1 o(Pr 1)( f /2)`

, (190)

where oo(t

"

j)`/j. The major contribution of the Prandtl analogy, Eq.

(190), is the prediction that the dependence of Nu on Re shifts from

proportionality to Re( f /2) to proportionality to Re( f /2)` as Pr increases

from unity to very large values. It implies that the Reynolds analogy is

valid only for Pr 1. As contrasted with the Reynolds analogy, which

is free of explicit empiricism, the Prandtl analogy contains an empirical

factor o.

Thomas and Fan [114] attempted to improve upon one other deciency

of the Reynolds analogy by applying the penetration and surface renewal

model of Higbie [115] and Danckwerts [116] to account for transport from

the eddies to the wall when they reach it. Their result is

Nu Re

f

2

Pr`. (191)

Comparison of Eqs. (142), (190), and (191) with Eqs. (132)(136) and

(141) reveals that three analogies all incorporate the postulates of 0 and

Pr 1. They all fail outright for small values of Pr because of the failure to

account for conduction in the turbulent core. For large values of Pr, the

Reynolds analogy fails because of the neglect of the boundary layer, the

Prandtl analogy fails because of the neglect of turbulent transport within the

343 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

boundary layer, and the Thomas and Fan analogy fails because periodic

transient conduction is simply a very poor model for the combination of

turbulent and molecular transport in the boundary layer. Perhaps the

greatest lasting value of these analogies is the understanding provided by

analysis of the reasons for their failure.

5. A Useful Differential Analogy

Reichardt [87] in 1951 derived an analogy based on the differential

momentum and energy balances in time-averaged form. He utilized the eddy

viscosity model for turbulent transport, but his derivation will be outlined

here in terms of (u'v'). Taking the ratio of Eqs. (115) and (116),

respectively, with Eq. (85) gives

dT

du

(1 )

Pr

'

Pr

1

1 (u'v')(Pr/Pr

'

)(u'v')

. (192)

Integrating the rightmost form from the centerline to the wall results in

T

'

,

u

'

"

_

(1 )

1 (u'v')

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

du. (193)

His ingenious expansion of the equivalent integrand in terms of j

'

may be

rephrased in terms of (u'v') as follows:

T

'

,

u

'

"

1 (u'v')

Pr

Pr

'

(u'v')

Pr

'

Pr

1

Pr

'

Pr

1

Pr

Pr

'

u'v'

1u'v'

du.

(194)

In order to obtain a solution in closed form, Reichardt suggested that for

moderate and large values of Pr the leftmost term of the integrand be

approximated by (Pr

'

/Pr) since 0 for small values of u while (u'v')

51 for uu

'

. He also concluded that the rightmost term was negligible

except very near the wall where du5dy. He further postulated Pr

'

/Pr

to be invariant over the cross-section. Had he utilized the limiting form of

Eq. (93), that is, Eq. (194) for (u'v') in the rightmost term, he would have

344 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

obtained

Nu

2a

T

"

2a

T

'

T

'

T

"

1

(1 )

"

Pr

'

Pr

u

"

u

'

T

'

T

"

Re

f

2

1

Pr

'

Pr

3``:`

2

T

'

T

"

Pr

Pr

'

`

Re

f

2

`

, (195)

where (1 )

"

this latter term may also be interpreted as the integrated mean, weighted by

1 (u'v'), over R`. Equation (195) is, by virtue of the limits of integration

and several of the approximations, applicable for a uniform wall tempera-

ture as well as for uniform heating.

6. T heoretically Based, Generalized Correlating Equations

On the basis of the asymptotic expressions for Pr Pr

'

and Pr for

uniform wall temperature, namely, Eqs. (151) and (136), Eq. (195) may be

interpreted as

Nu

1

Pr

'

Pr

1

Nu

1

Pr

'

Pr

1

Nu

,

(196)

where Nu

signies NuPr Pr

'

} and Nu

ingly, Eq. (196) may be postulated to be applicable for uniform heating with

Nu

and Nu

Prandtl [Eq. (190)] may be noted to have the form of Eq. (196) with,

however, the implicit postulates of Pr

'

1 and 0, and a missing

dependence on Pr` for Pr . Equation (195) may be interpreted on the

basis of the Prandtl analogy as the consequence of the resistances for

Pr

'

Pr and Pr in series, or alternatively as an application of Eq. (71)

with n 1 and limiting solutions of (Pr/Pr

'

) Nu

and Nu

/(1 Pr

'

/Pr).

Equations (195) and (196) are limited to Pr Pr

'

, which according to the

expressions of Yahkot et al. [89] and Jischa and Rieke [96] means to

Pr 0.848 and 0.867, respectively.

By analogy to Eq. (196), rearranged as

Nu Nu

"

Nu

Nu

1

1

Pr

'

Pr Pr

'

Nu

Nu

(197)

345 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Churchill et al. [117] speculated that

Nu Nu

"

Nu

Nu

"

1

1

Pr

Pr

'

Pr

Nu

Nu

"

(198)

might be applicable as a correlating equation for Pr Pr

'

. However, Eq.

(198) was not found to be sufciently accurate and in addition to result in

a discontinuity in the derivative of Nu with respect to Pr/Pr

'

at Pr Pr

'

.

Accordingly, they introduced an arbitrary coefcient : as a multiplier of

(Pr/Pr

'

Pr)(Nu

/Nu

"

) and evaluated it functionally to provide a continu-

ous derivative. The resulting expression

Nu Nu

"

Nu

Nu

"

1

1

Pr

Pr

'

Pr

Nu

Nu

Nu

Nu

"

Nu

Nu

"

(199)

where Nu

Nu

Pr Pr

'

} 0.07343Re( f /2)`, has proven as successful

as Eq. (196). Although Eq. (199) lacks the theoretical basis of Eq. (196) it is

free of any explicit empiricism.

Because of the generality of their structure and components, Eqs. (196)

and (199) might be speculated to be applicable for all thermal boundary

conditions and for all channels. As will be shown, this conjecture is

conrmed for all of the yet available numerical results.

Although Eq. (136) is presumed to be universally applicable for Nu

,

different expressions are required for Nu

and Nu

"

in Eqs. (196) and (199)

for each case, as discussed next.

a. Uniformly Heated Round Tubes In order to utilize Eqs. (196) and (199)

for values of a intermediate to those of Tables IIV, it is necessary to have

supplementary correlating equations for Nu

and Nu

"

. The following purely

empirical expressions, together with u

"

from Eq. (102) (with a modied

leading constant of 3.2) reproduce the values of Nu in Tables I and III

almost exactly:

Nu

"

8

1

7.7

(u

"

)`"

(200)

Nu

Re( f /2)

1

185

(u

"

)``

2a/u

"

1

185

(u

"

)``

(201)

The choice of u

"

rather than u

'

, u

'

/u

"

, a or Re as the independent

346 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

variable in Eqs. (200) and (201) is arbitrary since they all bear a one-to-one

correspondence. The leading constant of 3.3 in Eq. (102) was chosen on the

basis of the experimental data of Zagarola [73], while the recommended

value here of 3.2 corresponds more closely to the computed values of u

"

in

Table II and is thereby self-consistent with the computed values of Nu.

b. Isothermally Heated Round Tubes Separate correlating equations might

have been devised for T

'

/T

"

and u

'

/u

"

as well as for (1 )

"^

and

(1 )

""^

in Eqs. (150) and (151). However, in the interests of simplicity,

the following overall expressions were derived:

Nu

"

8

1

1.538

(u

"

)`

(202)

Nu

Re( f /2)

1

148

(u

"

)`"

2a/u

"

1

148

(u

"

)`"

(203)

Equations (202) and (203) reproduce the values of Nu in Tables V and VI,

respectively, almost exactly.

c. Uniform and Equally Heated Parallel Plates The corresponding expres-

sions are

Nu

"

12

1

5.71

(u

"

)`"

(204)

and

Nu

Re( f /2)

1

90

(u

"

)``

4b/u

"

1

90

(u

"

)``

(205)

Here, Nu and Re are based on a characteristic length of 4b and Eq. (102) is

to be used for u

"

.

d. Convection between Isothermal Plates at Different Temperatures In this

case, b is chosen as the characteristic length in order that Nu

"

1. The

corresponding expression is

Nu

Re

f

2

1

11.707

u

"

b/u

"

1

11.707

u

"

(206)

347 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Equation (206) reproduces the values in Table XII for Pr 0.867 very

closely.

e. Test of the Correlating Equations Figure 19 provides a test of Eqs. (196)

and (199) for the computed values of Nu for a uniformly heated round tube

and for parallel plates, both uniformly and equally heated and at different

uniform temperatures in terms of Pr/Pr

'

and Figure 20 for an isothermal

tube in terms of Pr with Pr

'

estimated from Eq. (172). The agreement is very

good. The slight discrepancy for Pr 0.01 and a50,000 is presumed to

result from the simplications made by Reichardt [87] in deriving the

equivalent of Eq. (195).

f. Interpretation of Correlating Equations Equation (199) predicts a rapid

increase in Nu as Pr increases followed by a point of inection and a

decreasing rate of increase as Pr Pr

'

. Equation (196) similarly predicts a

more rapid increase beyond Pr Pr

'

followed by a second point of

inection and a decreased rate of increase approaching a one-third-power

dependence. The changes for Pr Pr

'

are smaller than those for Pr Pr

'

and indeed almost indistinguishable in the scale of Figs. 19 and 20.

Such behavior, which is presumed to be real, is far more complex than

could ever be deduced from experimental or even precise computed values

and is an illustration of the value of theoretically structured equations for

correlation.

Equations (196) and (199) together with Eqs. (136), (172) and (200)(206)

are presumed to predict more accurate values of Nu than any prior

correlating equations. They are subject to signicant improvement primarily

with respect to Eq. (172). A more accurate expression for Pr

'

not only affects

the predictions of Eqs. (196) and (199) but also the numerically computed

values upon which Eqs. (136) and (200)(206) are based.

IV. Summary and Conclusions

A. TiniirN1 Fiov

1. A New Model for the Turbulent Shear Stress

The new and improved representatives proposed in Section I for fully

developed turbulent ow in a channel are a direct consequence of the

observation by Churchill and Chan [77] that the local, dimensionless,

time-averaged shear stress, namely (u'v')ju'v'/t

"

, constitutes a better

variable for this purpose than traditional mechanistic and heuristic quanti-

ties such as the mixing length and the eddy viscosity. Churchill [80]

348 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

Fic. 19. Representation of numerically predicted values of Nu by Yu et al. [100a] and

Danov et al. [85] with Eqs. (196) and (199) for a and b5000. [x, equally and uniformly

heated parallel plates (Nu 4bu

"

/v); , uniformly heated round tube (Nu 2au

"

/v); ,

parallel plates at different uniform temperature (Nubu

"

/v)].

subsequently noted that the local fraction of the shear stress due to

turbulence, namely (u'v')ju'v'/t, is an even better choice.

The presentation of new integral formulations and algebraic correlations

for fully turbulent ow based on the time-averaged partial differential

equations of conservation might appear to be atavistic in view of the recent,

presumably exact, solutions of these equations in their unreduced time-

dependent form. However, the use of integral and algebraic structures based

on the time-averaged equations may be expected to persist into the

349 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

Fic. 20. Representation of numerically predicted values by Yu et al. [100a] of Nu for a

uniform wall temperature by Eqs. (196), (199), and (172).

foreseeable future for two reasons. First, the exact numerical solutions,

which have been attained only by direct numerical simulation, are currently

very limited in scope by their computational requirements and perhaps their

inherent structure. Second, even if these limitations are eventually eliminated

or at least eased by improved computer hardware and software as well as

better inherent representations, or even if the DNS calculations are replaced

or supplemented by some other methodology, the results will be in the form

of discrete instantaneous or time-averaged values of u', v', u'v', and u for a

particular condition and therefore not directly useful for applications such

as the design of hydrodynamic piping. Correlating equations will accord-

ingly continue to be useful if not essential to summarize and generalize the

vast quantity of information that is generated. Theoretically based algebraic

structures will likewise continue to be useful in constructing forms for these

correlating equations.

2. Integral Formulations in Terms of the Turbulent Shear Stress

An unexpected result from the use of (u'v') as a variable was the

realization that, by virtue of integration by parts, u

"

as well as u may be

expressed as simple, single integrals of this quantity. The possibility of such

a simplication by means of integration by parts was apparently rst

discovered by Kampe de Fe riet [81] in the context of u'v' and a parallel-

350 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

plate channel. This suggestion was rst implemented by Pai [82] for both

parallel-plate channels and round tubes, but with very poor representations

for u'v'. The advantage of using u'v' rather than u as a primary variable was

noted by Bird et al. [35], p. 175, but only in connection with the cited work

of Pai, and even then incorrectly. The major contribution of Churchill and

Chan [77] in this context was the recognition that an accurate and

generalized correlating equation for (u'v') was the key to successful

implementation of the integral formulation.

An inherent advantage of correlating equations for (u'v') or (u'v') over

those for u apart from simplicity, is that integration is a smoothing

process and somewhat dampens any minor error in the integrand. Hence,

the predictions of Eqs. (89) and (90), using Eq. (99) for (u'v'), are

inherently more accurate than those of Eqs. (100) and (101).

3. T he Development of Correlating Equations for (u'v'), u, and u

"

The structure of an almost exact correlating equation for (u'v'), namely

Eq. (99), was developed by Churchill and Chan [71] from a number of

asymptotic and speculative expressions for the time-averaged velocity as

well as for the time-averaged turbulent shear stress. The empirical coefcient

of the asymptotic solution for y0 was evaluated using the several sets

of results obtained by DNS while those for intermediate values of y and

a were evaluated from the experimental time-averaged velocity distribu-

tions measured by Nikuradse [46]. These latter constants were subsequently

reevaluated by Churchill [80] using the recent improved measurements of

the time-averaged velocity distribution by Zagarola [73]. The incorporation

of the equivalent of the semilogarithmic expression for the time-averaged

velocity nominally restricts this correlating equation to a300, but it

provides a very good approximation for ya even down to a145,

the lower limit of fully turbulent ow.

The calculation of u and u

"

from the integral formulations using Eq.

(99) for (u'v') is feasible even with a handheld calculator. Hence, separate

correlating equations for u and u

"

are not really required. However, such

expressions were constructed in the name of convenience and tradition.

Equations (100) and (101) are presumed to be the most accurate expressions

in the literature for u and u

"

, respectively, for both smooth and naturally

rough pipe. Since u

"

(2/ f )`, the correlating equation for u

"

serves as

one for the Fanning friction factor as well.

Equations (99), (100), and (101) are subject to renement, at least in terms

of the coefcients, constants and combining exponents, upon the appearance

of better values for (u'v'), u, u

"

, and the roughness e

'

from either

experimentation or numerical simulations. The tabulated values of e

'

in the

351 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

current literature are very old and are almost certainly not representative

for modern piping. The reevaluation of these roughnesses for representative

materials and conditions would appear to have a high priority.

4. T he Analogy of MacL eod

The analogy attributed to MacLeod [60] was crucial to the development

of the just-mentioned correlations for (u'v') and u in that it allowed

experimental data and computed values for round tubes and parallel plates

to be used interchangeably. This little-known analogy appears to be

validated within the accuracy of the experimental values for u'v' and u, but

has no theoretical rationale. A critical test may be beyond the accuracy of

present experimental means, but should be possible, at least for a and

b300, by DNS. Such a resolution would appear to have great merit.

5. Obsolete and L imited Models

Science and engineering progress by discarding obsolete models as well as

by new discoveries. One of the rst discoveries resulting from the use of

(u'v') as the primary dependent variable was that the mixing length is

unbounded at one location in the uid in all channels and in addition is

negative over a nite adjacent region in all channels other than round tubes

and parallel plates. Although the eddy viscosity is well behaved in round

tubes and parallel-plate channels, it shares the failure of the mixing length

in all other channels.

How did these anomalies completely escape attention for 75 years? The

explanation has three elements. First, the initial numerical evaluation of the

mixing length by Nikuradse [45, 46] not only was based on experimental

data of insufcient precision but also was conditioned by a preconceived

notion concerning the behavior. Second, the subsequent acceptance of the

mixing length by later investigators is simply inexcusable, since the

aforementioned failures of this concept are readily apparent from a critical

examination of most of their own sets of measurements of the velocity

distribution as well as from the predictions thereof. Third, the anomalies are

much more apparent in terms of (u'v') than in terms of earlier formula-

tions.

When it was rst introduced by Launder and Spalding [42], the c

model appeared to have great promise for the predictions of turbulent ows,

but it has ultimately proven to have no real utility. For round tubes and

parallel-plate channels the c model, in all of its manifestations, not only

invokes a great deal of empiricism and approximation, but is unneeded. In

all other channels it shares the failure of the eddy-viscosity model, to which

352 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

it is directly linked. The c u'v' model avoids this linkage and thereby

has a possible role, despite its high degree of empiricism, for geometries,

such as circular annuli, in which the variation of the total shear stress is not

known a priori. The large eddy simulation (LES) methodology avoids the

need for time-averaging, at least in the turbulent core, and has a wider range

of applicability than the DNS methodology, but at the price, at least at the

present time, of a considerable degree of empiricism and approximation for

the region near a surface.

Barenblatt [57] and co-workers have recently attempted to resuscitate the

power-law correlation of Nikuradse [46] and Nunner [56] for the time-

averaged velocity, and Zagarola [73] has demonstrated that it is more

accurate than the semilogarithmic model for a narrow range of values of y.

This improvement is accomplished at the price of considerable empiricism,

functionally as well as numerically, and very poor behavior outside that

narrow range. Hence it does not appear to have any utility as an element of

overall correlating equations for (u'v') and u.

B. TiniirN1 CoNvrc1ioN

1. Initial Perspectives

As a result of the great success described earlier in developing simple

formulations and improved correlating equations for fully developed turbu-

lent ow, the development of analogous expressions for fully developed

turbulent convection was undertaken with consideration condence and

great expectations. Unfortunately, it soon became apparent that turbulent

convection is much more complex than turbulent ow even in the simplest

of contexts, and that the data base, both experimental and computational,

and the known asymptotic structure are much more limited.

Turbulent convection would be expected to be responsive to the same new

numerical methodologies used for ow, such as DNS, but so far the greater

inherent complexity of the behavior has limited the scope and accuracy of

such results.

2. New Differential Models

Time-averaging of the partial differential energy balance, followed by one

integration and expression in terms of dimensionless variables, results in Eq.

(106), in which (T 'v')jc

to turbulence, is a new variable analogous to (u'v'). However, the heat

ux density ratio, j/j

"

, is a dependent variable, given in general by Eq. (107)

as contrasted with t/t

"

1 y/a for ow. Furthermore, very few data

353 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

have been obtained for T 'v' or correlated in terms of (T 'v'). Accordingly,

Eq. (106) was reexpressed as Eq. (109) with the expectation that the

behavior of Pr

'

/Pr 1 (T 'v')/1 (u'v') would be more constrained

than that of (T 'v'). The terms Pr

'

/Pr and j/j

"

represent the complications

associated with turbulent convection as compared with turbulent ow.

3. T he Heat Flux Density Ratio

For a uniform heat ux from the wall, the heat ux density ratio is a

function only of the time-averaged velocity distribution, and Eq. (109) may

be reduced to Eq. (115) with given by Eq. (125), which may also be

expressed in terms of (u'v') [see Eq. (128)]. Owing to the accuracy and

generality of Eq. (99), the uncertainty associated with Eq. (207) and thereby

with the prediction of Nu herein is essentially conned to Pr

'

/Pr. Many past

semitheoretical expressions for Nu have, however, also been in error to an

unknown degree because of the implicit postulate of 0.

4. T he Turbulent Prandtl Number

One of the initial objectives of the investigation of turbulent convection

that culminated in this article was to eliminate Pr

'

or its equivalent, Pr

'

[see

Eq. (113)]. However, an important discovery resulting from the use of

(u'v') and (T 'v') as primary variables is that Pr

'

and Pr

'

bear a

one-to-one correspondence to (u'v') and (T 'v') and are therefore

independent of their heuristic diffusional origin.

It has generally been postulated that Pr

'

and Pr

'

are functions only of

(u'v') (or j

'

/j) and Pr and thus independent of the thermal boundary

condition. For example, this postulate is inherent in the solutions of Notter

and Sleicher [97, 110, 111] for developing thermal convection with both

uniform heating and a uniform wall temperature. It is implied by Eq. (172)

of Jischa and Rieke [96], Eq. (173) of Sleicher and Notter [97], and Eq.

(174) of Yahkot et al. [89]. The last imply that their expression is also

independent of geometry. The only direct experimental conrmation of

either postulate appears to be that of Abbrecht and Churchill [22], who

found the eddy conductivity to be independent of length in developing

thermal convection in an isothermal round tube as well as identical to that

of Page et al. [90] for fully developed heat transfer across a parallel-plate

channel at equal values of a and b, respectively. The publication of this

result was greeted with two contradictory responses: one that it was

obvious, and the other that it was obviously wrong.

Despite the great simplication provided by these generalizations, neither

a completely satisfactory correlating equation nor a universally accepted

354 s1i:1 v. cnicniii

theoretical expression for Pr

'

or Pr

'

appears to exist. This is the principal

unresolved problem of turbulent convection, at least in round tubes and

parallel-plate channels, and is worthy of renewed effort, experimentally,

theoretically, and computationally. Thermal calculations by DNS, LES, and

cu'v' T 'v' generate values of (T 'v') or the equivalent and therefore

do not require a separate expression for Pr

'

. However, with the exception

of the predictions of Papavassiliou and Hanratty [98], which are limited to

b150, these methodologies have not yet produced reliable values of

(T 'v') or Pr

'

for a broad range of Pr and (u'v') or y and a.

5. Integral Formulations for Nu

Because of the great simplication in the expression for the heat ux

density ratio that is possible for uniform heating, most theoretical solutions,

including the present ones, have been restricted to this condition. By virtue

of Eq. (125), Nu may be represented by the single integral of Eq. (126) in

terms of Pr

'

and of Eq. (127) in terms of Pr

'

. Such a simplication has

apparently not been achieved before because of the greater complexity of

the formulations in terms of j

'

/j and u as compared to these in terms of

(u'v') only.

Because of the uncertainty in the various expressions for Pr

'

and Pr

'

,

particular attention has been given herein to three cases for which that

uncertainty is eliminated or greatly reduced, namely Pr 0, PrPr

'

Pr

'

,

and Pr while y0. The second of these conditions is implied by Eq.

(172) to occur for Pr 0.8673, by Eq. (174) for Pr 0.848, and by Eq. (173)

for values of Pr varying from 0.8 to 0.9, depending upon the value of

(u'v').

Equation (172) implies a limiting value of Pr

'

0.85 for Pr and Eq.

(173) a limiting value of Pr

'

0.78 for y0 for large Pr, but the

calculations of Papavassiliou and Hanratty [98] using DNS suggest that

such a nite limiting value is attained only for Pr 100. The postulate that

Pr

'

0.85 as y0 and Pr allows the derivation of an analytical

solution in closed form, as represented by Eq. (136), which, however, may

be valid only for large values of Pr but less than 100.

6. Numerical Solutions for Nu

Numerical solutions for Nu have been carried out by Heng et al. [100]

for a uniformly heated round tube and by Yu et al. [100a] for both a

uniformly heated and an isothermal tube, in both instances for a complete

range of values of Pr and a wide range of values of a using Eq. (172) for

Pr

'

. The results of Yu et al., including the three limiting cases described in

355 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

the preceding section are summarized in Tables IVIII. Similar results for

parallel-plate channels, as obtained by Danov et al. [85], are summarized in

Tables IXXII. Despite the uncertainty associated with the use of Eq. (172)

for Pr

'

, these values of Nu are presumed to be more accurate than any prior

ones because of the essentially exact representation in every other respect.

They are of course subject to improvement and should be updated when

more accurate values or expressions for Pr

'

or Pr

'

become available.

7. Final Correlating Equations

Because of a lack of data of proven reliability and broad scope, a new

correlating equation was not devised for (T 'v') or Pr

'

. For the same

reason, new correlating equations were not constructed for T . Instead

attention was focused directly on Nu.

The integral formulations for Pr 0 and Pr Pr

'

Pr

'

and the ana-

lytical solution for Pr imply that all prior correlating equations for Nu,

including the Colburn analogy, are in signicant error functionally as well

as numerically even over their own purported range of validity.

A new simple but very general correlating equation for Nu for Pr 0.867

was devised on this basis of the analogy of Reichardt. This expression, Eq.

(196), represents all of the computed values of Yu et al. and Danov et al. for

Pr 0.867 quite accurately and is presumed to be applicable for other

conditions as well. A supplementary empirical correlating equation was

devised for Pr 0.867. This expression, Eq. (199), also represents all of the

computed values very well. The overall success of Eqs. (196) and (199) is

displayed in Fig. 19. in terms of Pr/Pr

'

, and in Fig. 20. The close represen-

tation of the computed values of Nu in Fig. 20 does not constitute a critical

test of the absolute values of Nu because Eq. (172) was used for Pr

'

in both

cases. However, the accuracy of the predictions of Nu by Eqs. (199) and

(198) is presumed to be independent of the expression used for Pr

'

.

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81. Kampe de Fe riet, J. (1948). Sur le coulement dun uide visqueux incompressible entre

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361 1iniirN1 riov :Nn coNvrc1ioN

a

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Progress in the Numerical Analysis of Compact

Heat Exchanger Surfaces

R. K. SHAH

Delphi Harrison Thermal Systems

Lockport, New York 14094

M. R. HEIKAL

University of Brighton

Brighton, United Kingdom

B. THONON AND P. TOCHON

CEA-Grenoble

DTP/GRETh

38054 Grenoble, France

I. Introduction

Compact heat exchangers (CHEs) are characterized by a large heat

transfer surface area per unit volume of the exchanger, resulting in reduced

space, weight, support structure and footprint, energy requirements, and

cost, as well as improved process design, plant layout, and processing

conditions, together with low uid inventory compared to conventional

designs such as shell-and-tube heat exchangers.

Somewhat arbitrarily, a gas-to-uid exchanger is referred to as a compact

heat exchanger if it incorporates a heat transfer surface with area density

above about 700 m`/m` (213 ft`/ft`) or the hydraulic diameter D

"

6 mm

(1/4 in.) for operating in a gas stream and above about 400 m`/m` (122

ft`/ft`) for operating in a liquid or phase-change stream. In contrast, a

typical process industry shell-and-tube exchanger has a surface area density

of less than 100 m`/m` on one uid side with plain tubes, and two to three

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOLUME 34

363

ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER, VOL. 34

ISBN: 0-12-020034-1 Copyright 2001 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

0065-2717/01 $35.00

Fic. 1. Plate-n geometries: (a) offset strip n, and (b) louver n.

Fic. 2. Tube-n geometries: (a) wavy n on round tubes, (b) louver n on round tubes, and

(c) louver n on elliptical tubes.

times that with high-n-density low-nned tubing. A typical plate heat

exchanger has about two times the heat transfer coefcient h or the overall

heat transfer coefcient U compared to that for a shell-and-tube exchanger

for water/water applications. For phase-change applications, even higher

heat transfer coefcients are achieved compared to a shell-and-tube ex-

changer. A laminar ow heat exchanger (also referred to as a meso heat

exchanger) has a surface area density on one uid side greater than about

3000 m`/m` (914 ft`/ft`) or 100 jmD

"

1 mm. A heat exchanger is

referred to as a micro heat exchanger if the surface area density on

one uid side is greater than about 15,000 m`/m` (4570 ft`/ft`) or 1 jm

D

"

100 jm. A compact heat exchanger is not necessarily of small bulk and

mass. However, if it did not incorporate a surface of high area density, it

would be much more bulky and massive.

Plate-n, tube-n, and rotary regenerators are examples of compact heat

exchangers for gas ow on one or both sides; whereas gasketed, welded,

brazed plate, and printed circuit heat exchangers are examples of compact

heat exchangers for liquid ows. Typical n geometries used in plate-n

and tube-n exchangers are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and plate geometries

used in plate heat exchangers (PHEs) are shown in Fig. 3. The most

commonly used n geometries for plate-n exchangers are offset strip ns

364 . x. sn:n r1 :i.

Fic. 3. Plate heat exchanger plate geometries: (a) washboard, (b) zigzag, and (c) chevron.

and louver ns (referred to as multilouver ns in the automobile industry).

A considerable amount of experimental results are available in the

literature for ow and heat transfer phenomena in complex ow passages of

compact heat exchanger surfaces. Starting with the description of some of

the complex ows in compact heat exchanger surfaces, it is explained that

ows in compact heat exchanger surfaces are dominated by swirl and

vortices in uninterrupted ow passages, and by boundary layer ows and

wake regions (separation, recirculation, and reattachment) for interrupted

ow passages. Although unsteady laminar ows are relatively easy to

analyze, swirl and low Reynolds number turbulent ows are difcult to solve

numerically because of the lack of appropriate turbulence models. This is

the reason for the very slow progress in the numerical analysis of compact

heat exchanger surfaces.

A comprehensive experimental study of the performance of CHE surfaces

is very expensive because of the high cost of the tools needed to produce a

wide range of geometric variations. Numerical modeling, on the other hand,

has the potential of offering a exible and cost-effective means for such a

parametric investigation, with the added advantage of reproducing ideal

geometries and boundary conditions, and exploring the performance behav-

ior in specic and critical areas of ow geometry.

Thus, the objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive state-of-

the-art review on numerical studies of single-phase velocity and temperature

elds, and heat transfer and ow friction characteristics of compact heat

exchanger surfaces, as well as to provide specic comparisons to evaluate

the accuracy of numerical work where experimental data are available. The

surfaces include offset strip and louver ns used in plate-n exchangers,

wavy ns/channels used in tube-n exchangers and plate heat exchangers,

365 Nixric:i :N:ixsis or cnr sir:crs

and chevron (stamped) plates used in plate heat exchangers. First, a

description of some of the complex ows in such surfaces is presented. Next,

some highlights are presented for the numerical analysis of compact heat

exchanger surfaces. Since separation, recirculation, and reattachment as well

as large eddies and small-scale turbulence generation are common features

in CHE surfaces, a comprehensive but concise overview of turbulence

models/methods is presented next to illustrate the current capabilities and

limitations of these models. The rest of the paper covers numerical work

reported in the literature on the following CHE surfaces: offset strip ns,

louver ns, wavy ns/channels, and chevron trough plates. For each surface,

the numerical analysis is described in sufcient detail, and comparisons are

presented with experimental measurements where available. Thus, based on

the insight gained from numerical and experimental results, the performance

(uid ow and heat transfer) behavior of these CHE surfaces is discussed

and summarized. Also, briey mentioned is the proposed mode of research

that combines numerical analysis, sophisticated experimentation on the

small sample n geometries, and performance testing of actual heat ex-

changer cores.

II. Physics of Flow and Heat Transfer of CHE Surfaces

In this section, the current understanding of the physics of ow and heat

transfer in compact heat exchanger surfaces is described in order to set the

stage for the task of numerical analysis. The description is divided into

interrupted and uninterrupted complex ow passages, followed by charac-

terization into laminar unsteady and low Reynolds number turbulent ows.

A. IN1rii1rn Fiov P:ss:crs

The two most common interrupted n geometries are the offset strip n

and louver n geometries as shown in Fig. 1. Here the n surface is broken

into a number of small sections. For each section, a new leading edge is

encountered, and thus a new boundary layer development begins, and is

then abruptly disrupted at the end of the n offset length l. The objective

for such ow passages is not to allow the boundary layers to thicken, thus

resulting in the high heat transfer coefcients associated with thin boundary

layers. However, the interruptions create the wake region, and self-sustained

ow unsteadiness (see Figs. 4 and 5). As a result, the models based on the

boundary layer development are not adequate and do not accurately predict

366 . x. sn:n r1 :i.

Fic. 4. Flow phenomena in an offset strip n geometry.

Fic. 5. Flow phenomena in louver n geometry: (a) conventional louvers (section AA of Fig.

1b but not the same number of louvers); (b) and (c) CFD results of typical ow path in a louver

n array at Re

l

10 and Re

l

1600, respectively [113]; (d, see color insert) Flow visualization

in a louver n geometry (courtesy of Hitachi Mechanical Engineering Lab).

367 Nixric:i :N:ixsis or cnr sir:crs

the heat transfer coefcients (Nusselt number Nu or Colburn factor j ) and

friction factors.

Separation, recirculation, and reattachment are important ow features in

most interrupted heat exchanger geometries [1]. Consider, for example, the

ow at the leading edge of a n of nite thickness. The ow typically

encounters such a leading edge at the heat exchanger inlet or at the start of

new ns, offset strips, or louvers. For most Reynolds numbers, a geometric

ow separation will occur at the leading edge because the ow cannot turn

the sharp corner of the n as shown in Fig. 4. Downstream from the leading

edge, the ow reattaches to the n. The uid between the separating

streamline (see Fig. 4) and the n surface is recirculating. This region is

called a separation bubble or recirculation zone. Within the recirculation

zone, a relatively slow-moving uid ows in a large eddy pattern. The

boundary between the separation bubble and the separated ow (along the

separation streamline) consists of a free-shear layer. Since free shear layers

are highly unstable, velocity uctuations develop in the free shear layer

downstream from the separation point. These perturbations are advected

downstream to the reattachment region, and there they result in an

increased heat transfer. The n surface in contact with the recirculation zone

is subject to lower heat transfer because of the lower uid velocities and the

thermal isolation associated with the recirculation eddy. The separation

bubble increases the form drag, and thus usually represents an increase in

pumping power with no corresponding gain in heat transfer. If the ow does

not reattach to the surface from which it separates, a wake results.

A free shear layer is also manifested in the wake region at the trailing edge

of a n element. Depending on the Reynolds number and geometry, the wake

from the upstream ns can have a profound impact on the downstream n

elements. The highly unstable wake can promote strong mixing that destroys

the boundary layers from the upstream ns, causing downstream heat

transfer enhancement. However, at low Reynolds numbers, or for very close

streamwise spacing of n elements, the shear layers might not be destroyed

or the next n element might be embedded in the wake of an upstream n

element. In such cases, the low velocity and near-n temperature of the wake

will have a detrimental effect on the downstream heat transfer. Wake

management in complex heat exchanger passages poses a difcult challenge,

especially at moderate and high Reynolds numbers where numerical simula-

tion is difcult to perform. Nevertheless, wake management appears to be the

key to further progress in improved heat exchanger surface design.

1. Offset Strip Fins

The ow phenomenon for the offset strip n geometry is described by

Jacobi and Shah [1] as follows. The ow unsteadiness begins at relatively

368 . x. sn:n r1 :i.

low Reynolds numbers (Re -100) as waviness in the wake of the n

elements. As the Reynolds number increases, oscillating ow develops in the

wake region. At higher Reynolds numbers, individual strips shed vortices at

regular intervals. These vortices are transverse to the main ow, and as they

are carried through the n array, they refresh the boundary layer to produce

a time-averaged thinner boundary layer. For deep arrays, vortex shedding

begins at the downstream ns and moves upstream as the ow rate is

increased (see Fig. 6 of [1]). At low Reynolds numbers (less than 400), ow

through the offset strip n geometry is laminar and nearly steady, and the

boundary layer effects dominate the heat transfer and friction. For inter-

mediate Reynolds numbers (roughly 400 Re 1000), the ow remains

laminar, but unsteadiness and vortex shedding become important. For

example, at Re 850, boundary layer restarting causes roughly a 40%

increase in heat transfer over the plain channel with vortex shedding causing

an additional 40% increase. Unfortunately, there is a commensurate in-

crease in the pressure drop due to boundary layer restarting and vortex

shedding. For Reynolds numbers greater than 1000, the ow becomes

turbulent in the array, and chaotic advection may be important in the low

Reynolds number turbulent regime. A factor of 2 or 3 increase in heat

transfer and pressure drop over plain ns can be obtained as a result of the

turbulent mixing. The important variables affecting the wake region identi-

ed are the strip length l, the n spacing s, and the n thickness o. The n

spacing s and the strip length l are responsible for the boundary layer

interactions and wake dissipation; the n thickness o introduces form drag

and also affects the heat transfer performance. Higher aspect ratios (s/b

or b/s), shorter strip lengths l, and thinner ns (o) are found to provide

higher heat transfer coefcients (Nu or j ) and friction factors f.

2. L ouver Fins

Flow through louver n geometries is similar to the ow through offset

strip n geometries, with boundary layer interruption and vortex shedding

playing potentially important roles. However, another important aspect of

louver n performance is the degree to which the uid follows the louvers.

At low Reynolds numbers (Re 200), boundary layer growth between

neighboring louvers becomes pronounced, and a signicant blockage effect

can result. Thus, at very low Reynolds numbers, the uid tends to ow

mostly between the ns forming the channel without following the louvers.

This ow is referred to as the duct ow (see Fig. 5a). At intermediate

Reynolds numbers, when the boundary layers are thinner, the ow tends to

more closely follow the louvers. This ow is referred to as the louver ow

(see Fig. 5a). At high Reynolds numbers (5000), the louvers act as a

rough surface, and the duct ow oscillates after the rst bank of louvers

369 Nixric:i :N:ixsis or cnr sir:crs

in a n geometry. Effectively, at all Reynolds numbers, both the duct ow

and louver ow components exist, but the relative amount depends on the

Reynolds number. Sketches of possible ow patterns in louver ns are

shown in Figs. 5b and 5c, and a ow visualization picture of ow through

louvers is shown in Fig. 5d (see color insert).

To effectively exploit high heat transfer associated with short ow lengths

(louvers act as short at plates), it is important that the uid follow the

louver (louver ow) rather than passing between two ns (duct ow) to

obtain high Nu (and the resultant high f factors). The degree of the ow

deection by the louvers is determined by the relative hydraulic resistance

to the ow for the louver ow vs duct ow. This is dependent upon the n

geometry and the ow Reynolds number. The degree to which the uid

follows the louvers is sometimes called the ow efciency, which can be

dened as the mean angle of the ow divided by the louver angle. The

behavior of the ow efciency and its relation to heat transfer has been

examined by Cowell et al. [2]. For louver angles from 15 to 35 and n

pitch-to-louver length ratios (p

'

/l) from 1 to 2.5, the ow efciency drops

dramatically for Re

l

100. See typical results presented later in Fig. 14.

Flow efciency is nearly at its maximum by Re

l

200 and is almost

independent of the Reynolds number for higher ow rates. The ow does

not align with the louver array at the louver inlet and it takes a few louvers

to turn the ow. The heat transfer and pumping power performance is

strongly dependent on this ow-directing properties of the louver array.

Surfaces that cause the ow to follow the louvers, i.e., those with high ow

efciency, generally perform better than those in which the ow does not

follow the louvers. However, the exact heat transfer performance of these

surfaces is less well understood. Although the qualitative effect of the degree

of ow alignment on heat transfer is accepted, more accurate quantication

of these effects is needed. The degree of attening of the Stanton number

curve at low Reynolds numbers [2] should be examined further with a view

to determining, more accurately, the critical Reynolds number at which this

attening starts and the effect of the different geometrical parameters on this

phenomenon.

The experimental work of Chang and Wang [3] demonstrates clearly that

general correlating equations for predicting the heat transfer and pressure

drop performance of these surfaces are far from being achieved. This is

mainly due to the fact that the performance of these surfaces is a function

of a large number of geometric parameters and that a number of variants

of the n geometry are in use. Additionally, the manufacturing tolerances in

the production of the ns and variations in the test conditions also play a

part in producing different performances for supposedly similar ns at the

same ow conditions.

370 . x. sn:n r1 :i.

Fic. 6. (a) Plate-n exchanger, (b) tube-n exchanger with at ns. At section AA: (c) wavy

corrugated passage, and (d) wavy furrowed passage.

A novel approach for the optimization of the heat transfer performance

of ns with variable louver angles was presented by Cox et al. [4] as an

alternative to numerical modeling. Their method utilizes the Reynolds

analogy to obtain heat transfer performance characteristics from measure-

ment of the forces acting on the louvers in a 20 : 1 large-scale model of a

typical matrix. The model allows the angle of individual louver rows to be

driven automatically to specic angles. Force data logging and angle control

were performed automatically under computer control implementing opti-

mization strategies for the maximization of heat transfer performance as a

function of louver angles. Results for xed angle arrays based on known

geometries showed good agreement with previously obtained experimental

data based on thermal experiments on full-size matrix sections. Although

the model used had too few ns to be representative of an innite array, the

authors demonstrated the viability of such method for the optimization of

variable louver ns.

B. UNiN1rii1rn Coxiirx Fiov P:ss:crs

In this case, the heat transfer surface (the n or the prime surface) is not cut,

but convoluted such that the ow passage geometry does not allow the

boundary layer growth. For a plate-n geometry (Fig. 6a), two ow passages

are possible: wavy corrugated and wavy furrowed cross section (of Fig. 6a) as

shown in Fig. 6c and 6d. For plate heat exchangers, the cross section of plates

having intermating troughs (washboard design) is shown in Fig. 7a and those

of plates having chevron troughs are shown in Figs. 7b and 7c. The physics of

ow of these surfaces is discussed next. The Reynolds number for the plate

heat exchanger is commonly dened with one of two characteristic lengths:

the hydraulic diameter (D

"

four times the channel volume divided by the

total heat transfer surface area) or the equivalent diameter (D

twice the

plate spacing). The ratio D

/D

"

characterizes the surface extension ratio

(A

developed

/A

projected

), and it ranges from 1.1 up to 1.4 for industrial plates.

371 Nixric:i :N:ixsis or cnr sir:crs

Fic. 7. Cross-section of two neighboring plates: (a) intermating troughs, (b) and (c)

chevron troughs.

1. Wavy Corrugated and Furrowed Channels

Corrugated and furrowed channels, as shown in Fig. 6, differ from plain

channels of constant cross-section. Wavy geometries provide little advan-

tage at low Reynolds numbers, and maximum advantage at transitional

Reynolds numbers. However, at higher Reynolds numbers, periodic shed-

ding of transverse vortices increases the Nusselt number with a considerable

increase in the friction factor. The following are important ow mechanisms

associated with wavy ns [1]: At low Re

zones form in the troughs of the wavy passages and heat transfer is not

enhanced. For higher Reynolds numbers, the free shear layer becomes

unstable; vortices roll up and are advected downstream, thus enhancing the

heat transfer. Transition to turbulence occurs at Re -1200, depending on

the geometry. It appears that chaotic advection may contribute to the heat

transfer in the transitional Reynolds number range. For Reynolds numbers

of 4000 and over, the ow is fully turbulent with very high pressure drops.

Thus, wavy channels provide higher heat transfer rates than plain channels,

but with higher pressure drops. Ali and Ramadhyani [5] and Gschwind et

al. [6] found that a streamwise Go rtler-like vortex system forms in the

transitional Reynolds number range. Although the impact on heat transfer

and pressure drop is not completely clear, such a vortex system is known to

increase heat transfer.

Wavy passages clearly offer heat transfer enhancement over plain channel

passages; however, they do not offer a performance advantage (heat transfer

relative to the pressure drop) over interrupted passages.

2. Intermating and Chevron Trough Plates

The high heat transfer coefcients obtained in plate heat exchangers are

a direct result of the corrugated plate patterns. A cross-section of one

corrugation along the ow length of an intermating trough design is shown

372 . x. sn:n r1 :i.

in Fig. 7a. The uid ows through wavy passages in which, depending upon

the Reynolds number Re, ow will separate in hills and valleys where

TaylorGo rtler vortices are generated. The ow separation and vortices are

responsible for the high performance of these surfaces. The increases in j, f,

and j/ f are generally higher than those for ow over a plate having a dimple

surface.

In chevron plate (see Fig. 3c with [ dened there) design, the ow

geometry is 3D and quite complex. The typical cross-sectional geometries

for chevron plates at [90 are shown in Figs. 7b and 7c. In other

geometries, the furrows in the bottom plate have continuous path at angle

[ and the mating top plate has furrows at an angle 180 [; thus, the uid

moves in different directions in the ow passages of mating plates. Because

of the criss-crossing (three-dimensional, 3D) nature of corrugations of the

mating plates, the secondary ows induced are swirl ows, which are

generally superior in terms of an increase in heat transfer over friction.

Hence, the relative performance of chevron plates is superior to all other

corrugation patterns and thus it is now most commonly used heat transfer

surface in plate heat exchangers. A much better understanding of the ow

patterns in chevron plates and subsequent enhancement is now available

[79]. Flow visualization by Focke and Knibbe [10] and Hugonnot [9] in

a larger-scale channel clearly shows recirculation areas downstream of the

corrugation edges. These areas are large at low Reynolds numbers, but the

transition to turbulent ow (which occurs at Re

these areas. The recirculation area induces degradation of the kinetic energy

of mean ow and reduces heat transfer. Experimental information on local

heat transfer coefcient distribution has been