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Praise for the Innovative Leadership Fieldbook

A practical guide using comprehensive assessments and practices that develop a

balanced Integral leadership approach critical for these quickly changing times.
Jim Grote, Founder, Donatos and the Grote Companies
This Fieldbook takes an insightful journey through the five stages of innovative
leadership developmentwith a fresh perspective. eaders will find a comprehensive
set of tools to help them both personally develop and also to coach their employees.
The insight has helped me dramatically improve productivity and effectiveness among
the leaders working for me.
Andrew Maner, President and C!" at #$hu%ler &ospital
The Innovative Leadership Fieldbook offers a fresh perspective and thoughtful
approach on leadership that helps leaders align their actions with the organi!ational
culture and systems. This alignment is critical in successfully transforming organi!ations
and implementing sustainable change in a comple" environment.
Mi$hael 'ills, !(e$utive Dire$tor Innovation
Fisher Colle)e of 'usiness, *he "hio #tate +niversit%
As the Innovative Leadership Fieldbook so artfully points out# $true leaders are both
born and madeour leadership skills evolve as we grow.% &ad I had insights from this
book earlier in my career# including my first '() role# my leadership development
would have been significantly accelerated# helping me better navigate new challenges.
*evertheless# I%m happy to have it now+
Mike #a%re, President and C"" at ,Che$kout-$om
The Innovative Leadership Fieldbook is the perfect blend of important
information and personal e"ploration. ,everal times# I put the book aside to take
stock of who I am today and who I want to be tomorrow. As a leader or leadership
coach# The Innovative Leadership Fieldbook is a -must have. for your personal
development and your clients. /eautifully written# academically brilliant# and
masterfully designed0 The Innovative Leadership Fieldbook leads readers on
path to become a better leader and a happier person.
Mike Morrow.Fo(, /i$e President for &uman 0esour$es and *alent
at the Great Lakes A1liate of the Ameri$an &eart Asso$iation
The Innovative Leadership Fieldbook offers important insight and gives needed
information that would be of great help to leaders of every discipline. It offers a
comprehensive set of tools and e"tensive case studies and e"amples from real
e"ecutives that have applied this program with success. The combination of theory and
application make this a must read leadership book.
2amal Aboshamaa, /i$e President, 03D, 'olthouse Farms
The Innovative Leadership Fieldbook tackles the comple" topic of leadership and
makes it real# practical# and powerful for leaders in all walks of life. I have used
elements of this approach in an organi!ational transformation and found it delivered
significant positive results. This book e"plains the key domains of leadership required
for comple" change and how to build them in yourself and your team.
0ob 0i$hardson, CI" Lar)e Global Manufa$turin) Firm
Field6Tested Integral Approaches to 2eveloping eaders#
Transforming )rgani!ations and 'reating ,ustainability
7 A83( ( * 7( T' A F 7 A 3 5 4A 7( 3
First Published by
Integral Publishers
1418 N. Jefferson Ave.
Tucson, A 8!"1#
Published in the $nited %tates &ith 'rinting and
distribution in the $nited (ingdo), Australia,
and the *uro'ean $nion.
+ #,11 Integral Publishers
All rights reserved. No 'art of this boo- )ay
be re'rinted or re'roduced or utili.ed in any
for) or by electronic, )echanical, or other
)eans, no& -no&n or hereafter invented,
including 'hotoco'ying and recording, or in any
infor)ation storage of retrieval syste), &ithout
'er)ission in &riting fro) the 'ublisher.
4De5ne Personal /ision and Che$klist of /alues6
Peter #en)e, Charlotte 0oberts, 0i$hard 0oss,
#mith and Art 2leiner, Fifth Dis$ipline Fieldbook,
7ew 8ork9 Doubleda%, :;;<, used with
I%/N0 1"82124!,"211"32#
First Printing %e'te)ber #,11
4over 5esign, 6ra'hics and 7ayout by
4reative %'ot 2 &&&.creatives'
'ontributing Authors9 /elinda :ore and 2ena 4aluck
The theoretical giants on whose hard work we built our structure9
Terry )%Fallon# ,usann 'ook6:reuter# 5en ;ilber# /elinda :ore#
'indy ;igglesworth# &ilke 3ichmer# 3o"anne &owe67urphy# and
4eter ,enge# who not only shared their theories but whose ongoing
guidance and encouragement helped us create a solid framework
that is theoretically grounded and comprehensive.
)ur friends and colleagues who served as constant cheerleaders#
listened to the stories and dreams about the book# and helped
us make it come to fruition.
)ur clients who participated as case studies# as well as 7/A
students who gave feedback on the book by virtue of doing the
graduate work using this Fieldbook.
)ur families who inspired us to be thoughtful and dedicated to our
work# and to contribute to the world in a meaningful way.
)ur 4ublisher# :raphic 2esign and ayout firm# reviewers# editors#
endorsers# thought partners including 'had ,tewart# and countless
others who spent untold hours making this possible.
Table of 'ontents
4reface9 3e61isioning eadership and Innovation <
Introduction 6 Innovating eadership ==
,ection I 6 Five 2omains of Innovative eadership >?
'hapter =9 eader Type ?=
'hapter >9 2evelopmental 4erspectives @?
'hapter ?9 3esilience A<
'hapter @9 ,ituational Analysis BC
'hapter <9 eadership /ehaviors DB
,ection II 6 /uilding Innovative eadership 'apacity CC
'hapter A9 'reate a 'ompelling 1ision =E=
'hapter B9 Analy!e Four ,ituation and ,trengths =?<
'hapter D9 4lan Four Gourney =<C
'hapter C9 /uild Four Team and 'ommunicate =DC
'hapter =E9 Take Action >=?
'hapter ==9 (mbed Innovation ,ystematically >?=
'hapter =>9 'onclusion >@C
3e61isioning eadership and Innovation
8ou9ve enhanced your 'roductivity by ado'ting ne& technology. 8ou9ve strea)lined your
o'erations and aligned your tea)s, )eticulously i)'le)enting the details of your
strategic 'lan. 8ou9ve fully invested to better innovate the &ay you run your business. /ut
have you invested in the innovation of your leadershi': Are you getting the business results
you need to thrive:
;ithout <uestion, today9s organi.ational challenges have )ade recurrent innovation
a re<uisite 'art of your business. As you are &ell a&are, a''lying innovative strategies
can be e=haustive, s'anning everything fro) 'rocess and 'roducts to )ar-eting,
ac<uisitions and custo)er e='erience. 5ecisions involving innovation &ill often
be a)ong the )ost influential choices e=ecutive tea)s ulti)ately )a-e to&ard a
co)'any9s future outloo-.
8et des'ite its broad a''licability, )ost innovation is largely geared to&ard
enhance)ents in technology, such as develo'ing better goods and services or
redesigning syste) functionality. Though good )anage)ent tea)s i)'licitly
understand the i)'ortance of boosting syste) 'erfor)ance, very fe& of the)
co)'rehend the need for innovation &ithin an e<ually crucial yet often overloo-ed
di)ension of their core business0 their leadership-
>ore s'ecifically, co)'anies often seriously neglect the &ays in &hich their leaders
actually relate &ith the organi.ation, envision strategy, and )ost funda)entally,
ste&ard their o&n 'ersonal and 'rofessional gro&th. The &ay you, as a leader,
'erceive your business is itself an unta''ed o''ortunity for innovation. %trea)lining
the &ay your business &or-s is essential, but )erely innovating the functionality of
your syste)s can only address half your issues. *ven &orse, it can blind your strategic
vision concerning 'erfor)ance i)'rove)ent and o'erational e=cellence.
?o& did such a broad notion as innovation get reduced to technological advance)ent and
'iece)eal strategies that focus solely on i)'roving functional syste)s:
43(FA'( 3e61isioning eadership and Innovation
An !ver.Chan)in) "r)aniational Climate
%i)'ly consider today9s vast o'erating co)'le=ities, as &ell as their egregious by2
'roducts ste))ing fro) t&enty years of accelerated globali.ation, )ar-et volatility and advanced
co))oditi.ation. *scalating uncertainty and resulting econo)ic decline have beco)e
staggeringly fa)iliar. 4o)'anies struggle to )atch their 'ast 'erfor)ances &ith considerably
fe&er resources. *ntire seg)ents, and in so)e cases entire industries, once thriving a )ere decade
ago, are no& e='eriencing i))ense decline.
In short, the current state of organi.ational cli)ates is &ildly a)bivalent. The
assertion of unli)ited gro&th and &ealth a''ears unli-ely, at best. @ese)bling
5ar&in9s Asurvival of the fittest,B )ar-et forces 'ressured the fate of organi.ations,
generously re&arding e=ecutive tea)s that ada'ted &hile dis'assionately retiring the less
successful. *ven in cases &here business innovations enhance the botto)2line, success is
often a short2ter) outloo-.
/ut here9s the glaring irony of the situation0 the accelerated gro&th of technological
innovation eventually created an increased need for itC never )ind that )ost of
those e)erging innovations &ere largely e='eri)ental to begin &ith. The near
e='onential drive of tech innovation, fueled largely by a need for co)'etitive
relevance, contributed to conditions that 'roduced hostile o'erating environ)ents.
Interestingly, it &asn9t a lac- of innovation that fed instability across )ar-ets,
since the need for it too- on increased urgency. Though technology innovations,
at least in theory, largely i)'roved business efficiency, they also co)'ounded
co)'etitive 'ressures, &hich accelerated 'roduction and increased services,
&hich further decreased business2ti)e hori.ons, and so on. In su))ary, continual
advance)ents in syste)s efficiency, driven by evolving technologies, develo'ed at an
un'recedented rate and caused accelerating disru'tions in every sector.
The ensuing fallout has 'roved dee'ly 'roble)atic. Innovating functional efficiency
has beco)e the sole focus of strategy at the e='ense of leadershi' vision and cultural
cohesion. This has created significant dissonance bet&een an organi.ation9s 'ur'ose
and day2to2day functioning. 4o)'anies focused their energies and resources on
'erfor)ance training, yet failed to foster so'histicated thin-ing, interaction, and
co)'rehensive decision2)a-ing a)ong their leaders. This has fed a co))on yet
unso'histicated assu)'tion that technical co)'etency &as so)eho& e<uivalent to
strategic vision.
The challenge of e='loring and a''lying innovation is also a challenge to dee'en
your leadershi'. 8our 'ers'ective as a leader, along &ith the cultural align)ent
of your tea) and organi.ation, )ust -ee' 'ace &ith functional enhance)ents.
Accelerated develo')ents in technology e=tended through increased globali.ation
created une='ected ano)alies in )ar-et forces, leading to innovative solutions that &ere
geared 'ri)arily to&ard strea)lining syste)s. $nbridled gro&th in syste)s
technology s'a&ned one2sided innovation, all the &hile cri''ling advance)ents in
strategic vision and cultural cohesion.
In essence then, conventional innovation has been reduced to )erely i)'roving an
organi.ation9s functional 'rocesses. This one2sided version of innovation not only
drove )ar-et volatility, it also )arginali.ed ne& organi.ational strategies, 'articularly
those e)erging to navigate a recently flattened global econo)y. 4o)'anies &ere
a''lying technology innovation to resolve issues that &ere created by 'ri)arily
focusing on technological syste)s in the first 'lace. In fact, entering the #1
nearly t&o2thirds of Total Duality >anage)ent ETD>F 'rogra)s re'ortedly failed
along &ith ",G of the reengineering initiatives ai)ed at fostering organi.ational
stability E%enge, 1111, ''. !23F. 7eaders of the cor'orate reengineering )ove)ent
re'ort that the success rate for reengineer efforts for Fortune 1,,, co)'anies is
belo& !,G, and 'ossibly only #,G E%trebel, #,,,, '. 83F. 4o)'anies clearly needed
innovation to traverse the ne& econo)ic landsca'e, yet e='erienced little success
since the solutions they sought &ere inco)'lete to begin &ith.
/ased on these failures, today9s organi.ational co)'le=ity re<uires you to seriously
consider )ore co)'rehensive a''roaches to innovation and leadershi'. At so)e
'oint, e=clusively focusing on 'erfor)ance analytics concerning syste)s can 'rove
costly. The o''ortunity to enhance your innovative ca'acity )ust e=tend beyond
increasing functionality, &hich is crucial but inco)'lete &hen i)'le)ented alone.
If, in addition to develo'ing better functional 'rocesses, you begin to also clarify
your vision, gro&ing your leadershi' ca'acity, and building a cohesive co)'any
cultureHyou &ill achieve )uch greater and )ore sustainable success.
*he "pportunit% of Innovative Leadership
As &e9ve discussed, the over&hel)ing focus of today9s organi.ational solutions
are al)ost entirely oriented to&ard syste) functionality. This is foundationally
necessary, but only 'art of your total 'icture. /eing guided by )ore strategically
43(FA'( 3e61isioning eadership and Innovation
inclusive decisions )ay be the difference bet&een )anaging failure and creating tangible
success. 8our leadershi' )ust be su''orted by )ore balanced innovation,
co)'rehensively aligning your vision, tea)s and syste)s by integrating enhanced
leadershi' 'ers'ective &ith syste) efficiency.
This balanced a''roach to leadershi' and innovation is transfor)ative, for both you
and your organi.ation, and can hel' you to res'ond )ore effectively to challenges
e=erted &ithin and outside the enter'rise. Innovative 7eadershi' affords you the
)eans to successfully ada't in &ays that allo& o'ti)al 'erfor)ance, even &ithin an
organi.ational cli)ate fraught &ith continual change and co)'le=ity. 4once'tually,
it )odels fro) develo')ental, co))unications and syste)s theory,
delivering better insight than singular a''roaches. Innovative 7eadershi' gives you
the ca'acity to o'enly recogni.e and critically e=a)ine as'ects of yourself, as &ell as
your organi.ation9s culture and syste)s in the )idst of any circu)stance.
De5nin) an Innovative Leader
;hat are s'ecific <ualities that differentiate an innovative leader fro) a traditional
leader: In our ti)e of ra'id business, social and ecological change, a successful leader is a
leader &ho can continually0
4larify and effectively articulate vision
7in- that vision to attainable strategic initiatives
5evelo' the)selves and influence the develo')ent of other leaders
/uild effective tea)s by hel'ing colleagues enact their o&n leadershi'
4ultivate alliances and 'artnershi's
Antici'ate and res'ond to both challenges and o''ortunities aggressively
5evelo' robust and resilient solutions
5evelo' and test hy'othesis li-e a scientist. %cientifically develo' and test
>easure, learn and refine on an ongoing basis
43(FA'( 3e61isioning eadership and Innovation
To further illustrate so)e of the <ualities of innovative leadershi', &e offer this
co)'arison bet&een traditional leadershi' and innovative leadershi'0
T3A2ITI)*A (A2(3,&I4 I**)1ATI1( (A2(3,&I4
Leader is )uided primaril% b% desire
for personal su$$ess and
peripherall% b% or)aniational
Leader is humbl% )uided b% a more
altruisti$ vision of su$$ess based
both performan$e and the value of
the $ompan%=s positive impa$t
Leadership de$ision st%le 4monar$hi$al>6 Leader levera)es team for answers as an
leader has all the answers ad?un$t to de$ision.makin) pro$ess
Leader pi$ks a $ourse in 4bla$k@white6 Leader per$eives and behaves like a
manner> tends to do)mati$all% sta% s$ientist9 $ontinuall% measurin) and
the $ourse testin) for improvement
Leader fo$uses on bein) te$hni$all% Leader is $ontinuall% learnin) and
$orre$t and in $har)e developin) self and others
Leader tends to the numbers and primaril%
Auantitative measures that drive
those numbers
Leader tends to 5nan$ial
performan$e, $ustomer satisfa$tion,
en)a)ement, $ommunit%
impa$t, and $ultural $ohesion
;e invite you to e='lore this fieldboo- as a &ay to innovate your leadershi' in a
cli)ate of ve=ing uncertainty and 'artial solutions. ;e introduce you to uni<ue tools
designed to hel' leaders and their organi.ations tac-le un'recedented co)'le=ity.
5ra&ing fro) nu)erous case studies and recorded interaction a)ong e=ecutives,
)anagers, and consultants, this volu)e is the su))ation of cutting edge insights
and )ethods ai)ed at i)'roving 'ersonal and 'rofessional develo')ent.
Innovative eadership
7eadershi' and innovation are t&o of the )ost co)'elling to'ics in Irgani.ational
5evelo')ent. *ven so, and des'ite the volu)e of resources e='loring both to'ics,
)ost a''roaches 'rovide directional solutions that are )erely anecdotal. ;e -no& that
leadershi' 'lays a critical role in a co)'any9s long2ter) success, and that innovation
has beco)e a strategic necessity in today9s business environ)ent. /oth leadershi'
and innovation are 'erha's )ore i)'actful today than ever before. Technology and
increased access to infor)ation continue to accentuate their roles, yet co)'anies are
often too overrun &ith change to handle the throng of e)erging de)ands.
%till, ensuing <uestions on ho& to lead and &here to innovate re)ain 'u..lingly
'hiloso'hical0 ;hat is the role of leadershi' in a ti)e of loo)ing uncertainty: ?o&
&ill co)'anies innovate to overco)e challenges that are largely un'recedented:
In a ne& cli)ate of business, &hat is the for)ula for creating success in both areas:
This fieldboo- is designed 'recisely to hel' ans&er those <uestions and 'erfor) a
critical self2evaluation. Though its 're)ise is funda)entally about leadershi', it is
e<ually an account of innovation. 7eadershi' needs innovation the &ay innovation
de)ands leadershi', and by )arrying the) &e can i)'rove our ca'acity for gro&th.
This boo- e='lores a nu)ber of a''roaches to elaborate on both fields, not Just
conce'tually, but tangibly by 'roviding e=ercises designed to enhance your
leadershi' s-ills. >ost i)'ortantly, any )eaningful advance)ent concerning
both )ust originate fro) the leader. In other &ords, beco)ing a better leader and
o'ti) innovation Jointly hinge on the leader authentically e=a)ining his or her
inner )a-eu'.
*ven so, you )ust diligently address so)e challenging li)itations. 5es'ite their
collective i)'ortance, conventional a''lications of leadershi' and innovation have
often 'roved elusive and even 'roble)atic in real2&orld scenarios. For e=a)'le0
if the leadershi' tea) of a struggling organi.ation drives initiatives that focus solely
on )a-ing innovative changes to incentives, 'roducts and services, &ithout also
advancing strategic 'ur'ose and tea) solidarity, they &ill still )iss the greater
I*T3)28'TI)* Innovative eadership
'otential to create a )eaningful turn2around in co)'any culture. Productivity and
syste) i)'rove)ents are undoubtedly critical, but ho& e)'loyees )a-e sense of
their &or- e='erience is e<ually vital. I)'le)enting 'roducts and functionality at the
e='ense of also creating a better tea) environ)ent or a )ore su''ortive co)'any
culture often a''ears as lo'sided decision2)a-ing and shortsighted leadershi'.
(no&ing that the future of organi.ations is irreversibly tied to a &orld of erratic change,
&e can no longer afford to i)'rove our syste)s and offerings &ithout e<ually
advancing our ca'acity for leadershi'. *)'athy and the ability to
ins'ire cultural align)ent offer your organi.ation significant )erit, and )ust be
i)'le)ented as shre&dly as strategic 'lanning.
4o)bining leadershi' &ith innovation, then, re<uires you to transfor) the &ay
you 'erceive yourself, others, and your business. /y vigorously loo-ing into your
o&n e='erience, including )otivations, inclinations, inter'ersonal s-ills and
'roficiencies, you can o'ti)i.e your effectiveness in &ays that dee'ly resonate &ith
the realities around you. Through dee' e=a)ination and reflective engage)ent, you
learn to balance the hard s-ills you have ac<uired &ith )eaningful intros'ection,
all the &hile setting the stage for further gro&th. In essence, you discover ho& to
strategically and tactically innovate leadershi' the sa)e &ay you innovate in other
as'ects of your business.
Marr%in) Innovation and Leadership
7et us e='lore innovative leadershi' in a )ore tangible &ay by defining it in 'ractical
ter)s. This, of course, begs the obvious <uestion0 &hat does innovative leadershi'
really )ean:
It is i)'ortant to first understand each to'ic beyond its )ore conventional )eaning. For
e=a)'le, )ost definitions of leadershi' alone are al)ost e=clusively fashioned around
e)ulating certain -inds of behaviors0 leader K did AthisB to achieve success, and leader 8 did
AthatB to enhance co)'any 'erfor)ance.
*ven if initially useful, such a''roaches are still essentially for)ulas for i)itating
leadershi', and are therefore li-ely ineffectual over the long2ter). Innovative
leadershi' cannot be a''lied as a )onolithic theory nor as si)'le 'rescri'tive
guidance. @ather, it )ust ta-e 'lace through your o&n native intelligence and ste) fro)
your o&n uni<ue sensibilities.
In order to enhance this uni<ue a&areness 'rocess you &ill need a )uch )ore
foundational basis fro) &hich to e='lore both to'ics, &hich )eans tal-ing about
the) in a different conte=t entirely.
7et9s start by straightfor&ardly defining leadershi'0
eadership is a process of influencing people directionally and tactically#
affecting change in intentions# actions# culture and systems.
;ithin this conte=t and above all else, leadershi' is influencing0 directional influence in the
sense that it i)'arts ins'iration to&ard othersC tactical influence in the sense of
e)'loying functional e=ecution.
Put differently0 leadershi' influences an individual9s intentions and cultures by ins'iring
'ur'ose and align)ent. It e<ually influences an individual9s actions and organi.ed
syste)s by e=ecuting tactical decision2)a-ing.
7i-e&ise, and as an e=tension of leadershi', innovation refers to the novel &ays in
&hich &e advance that influence 'ersonally, culturally, behaviorally and syste)atically.
Innovation is a novel advancement that shapes organi!ations9 personally#
culturally# behaviorally and systematically.
Notice here that in addition to tying the relationshi' of leadershi' to innovation,
&e9re also lin-ing the) as an essential 'art of our individual e='erience. 7i-e
leadershi' and innovation, the &ay you e='erience and influence the &orld is
defined through a )utual inter'lay of 'ersonal, cultural, behavioral and syste)atic
events. These core di)ensions &hich ground leadershi' and innovation also 'rovide
the conte=tual su))ation of your total e='erience on any given occasion.
I'ti)ally then, leadershi' is influencing through an e='licit balancing of those core
di)ensions. In res'onse, innovation naturally follo&s as a creative advance)ent of this
basic har)ony. Iur 'ersonal e='erience, leadershi' and innovation are all innately
connected, and share a dee' conte=tual )a-e2u'.
I*T3)28'TI)* Innovative eadership
Therefore, )arrying leadershi' &ith innovation allo&s you to ground and articulate
both in a &ay that can create a conte=t for dyna)ic 'ersonal develo')ent.
An Innovative eader influences by engaging self# culture and systems equally.
Though &e are, in a sense, defining innovative leadershi' very broadly, &e are
also )a-ing a distinct 'oint. ;e are saying that, in actuality, the core as'ects that co)'rise
your e='erience, &hether 'ersonal, cultural, behavioral or syste)atic, are never )utually
e=clusive. If you affect one, you affect the) all.
Innovative leadershi' is based on the recognition that those four as'ects e=ist
si)ultaneously in all e='eriences, and already influence every interactive e='erience
&e have. %o if, for e=a)'le, you i)'le)ent a strategy to re2align a co)'any9s value
syste) over the ne=t five years, you &ill also affect 'ersonal )otivations, co)'any
culture, and behavioral outco)es. Influencing one as'ect, in this case, functional
syste)s, affects the other as'ects since all four )utually sha'e that given occasion.
To deny the )utual inter'lay of any one of the four as'ects is )issing the full
'icture. 8ou can only build innovative leadershi' by addressing reality in the )ost
co)'rehensively available fashion.
Measurin) Innovative Leadership
;e )easure innovative leadershi' in t&o very distinct &aysC &e call these 'ri)ary
<ualities Capa$it% and Competen$%-
Capa$it% describes a leader9s ability to ta-e another9s 'oint of vie&, and to
co))unicate, influence, and drive the ado'tion of leadershi' 'rinci'les throughout
various levels of organi.ational culture. In this conte=t, &e are deliberately giving s'ecial
attention to the )ore subJective <ualities of innovative leadershi', such
as ta-ing other 'ers'ectives and aligning organi.ational values. ;e are not yet
considering as'ects that are action or behavior2oriented, &hich include )easures li-e
'erfor)ance, action or functionality. In essence, ca'acity describes areas li-e the
develo')ent of co)'le= thin-ing, the ability to ta-e )ulti'le 'ers'ectives, e)'athy
engage)ent, leader ty'e e='ression and 'ersonal resilience.
'apacity describes our ability to introspect# reflect and take the perspective
of others. It is subjective.
Competen$% accounts for a leader9s overall 'roficiency in hard s-ills, functional
e='ertise, and syste)s efficiency. In this case, &e are e='loring innovative leadershi' as
a''lied to 'erfor)ance, e=ecution and syste)s. 4o)'etency, in this conte=t,
is si)'ly 'roficiency in the business of your organi.ationC it entails all areas of the
enter'rise that re<uire s-ills sha'ed by )ostly obJective or <uantitative )easures,
such as )anage)ent acu)en and syste)s e=ecution. >ost available resources
describing leadershi' address hard s-ills. >uch of this fieldboo- &ill )aintain a
)ore focused discussion on ca'acity.
'ompetency describes our ability to organi!e and apply facts# such as tactical
skills and functional e"pertise. It is more objective.
To su))ari.e0 innovative leadershi' re<uires a funda)ental e=a)ination and
balancing of your e='erience along four core as'ects0 'ersonal, cultural, behavioral, and
syste)atic, that can be gauged as both $apa$it% EsubJective abilityF and
$ompeten$% EobJective 'roficiencyF.
Innovative leadershi' gro&s natively fro) your o&n realistic self2e='loration,
allo&ing you to authentically engage leadershi' beyond tactical deliberation
and syste)s.
I*T3)28'TI)* Innovative eadership
Domains of Innovative Leadership
Fi)ure I.: Five Domains of Innovative Leadership
The first five cha'ters of this fieldboo-
e='lore the five do)ains of innovative
leadershi' in )ore de'th 2 reflected
in Figure 121
;hat is truly innovative in
this fieldboo- is the overall
co)'rehensiveness of the )odel.
Theorists have loo-ed at each of these
do)ains se'arately over )any years,
and have suggested that )astering
one or t&o of the) is ty'ically sufficient for effective leaders. ;e sub)it that &hile that )ay
have been true in a less co)'le= &orld, it is no longer the case. As the #1st2
century unfolds, the )ost effective leaders &ill have a )uch )ore holistic vie& than any
other ti)e in history. In the follo&ing cha'ters, &e &ill define and describe each individual
do)ain of innovative leadershi' and ho& they interact.
After fully defining innovative leadershi', &e )ove to %ection II0 A/uilding
Innovative 7eadershi' 4a'acity,B &here &e offer a si=2ste' 'rocess in a &or-boo- for)at.
It includes tools and 'ractices for each ste' in the 'rocess designed to
su''ort you in enhancing your 'ractical effectiveness as an Innovative 7eader. The ste's in
this 'rocess are0
4reate a co)'elling vision of your future
Analy.e your situation and strengths
Plan your Journey
/uild your tea) and co))unicate
Ta-e Action
*)bed innovation syste)atically
*ach ste' of the 'rocess 'oses <uestions for reflection. It is the co)'rehensiveness of this
reflection cou'led &ith the e=ercises that &ill give you insight into yourself and your
organi.ation. This insight is re<uired to change yourself and your
organi.ation concurrently or to )anage your internal change in the conte=t of an
organi.ation that you cannot or do not &ant to change.
Fi)ure I., Leadership Development Pro$ess
= > ? @ < A
Gettin) the Most from the Fieldbook
/efore you get started, ta-e a )o)ent to thin- about &hy you 'urchased this
fieldboo-. %etting goals and understanding your intentions and e='ectations about
the e=ercises &ill hel' you focus on identifying and driving your desired results.
In order to hel' clarify, consider the follo&ing <uestions0
;hat are the !2" events andLor choices that brought you to &here you are
'rofessionally and 'ersonally:
?o& did these eventsLchoices contribute to choosing to buy and use this
;hat stands out in the list you have )ade: Are there any sur'rises or
;hat do you ho'e to gain fro) your invest)ent in leadershi' develo')ent:
;hat )eaningful i)'act &ill it 'roduce in your 'rofessional career and 'ersonal
In addition to your refection on the above <uestions, here are so)e ideas &e
reco))end to hel' you get the )ost out of this e='erience. It is our e='erience that
'eo'le &ho adhere to the follo&ing agree)ents tend to have a dee'er and )ore
enriching overall e='erience. /y 'artici'ating in this fashion, you &ill generate
a richer evaluation of yourself and )ost effectively ta-e advantage of &hat this
fieldboo- has to offer.
I*T3)28'TI)* Innovative eadership
Ta-e a )o)ent to reflect on the guidelines belo&0
Agreement 3elated Action or /ehavior
Let )o of thou)hts about other a$tivities
:- 'e full% present while %ou read- 'rin) %our full attention to
the work-
,- *ake responsibilit% for
own su$$ess
A$t as thou)h %ou are :BBC
responsible for the out$ome of %our
en)a)ement with this material-
Complete all the e(er$ises to the best of %our
D- Parti$ipate as full% as possible abilities- Appl% the $on$epts and skills
work best for %ou, and modif% those that
do not-
Invest time at s$heduled intervals to work
<- Pra$ti$e )ood life mana)ement on the materials when %ou are at %our best
mentall% and emotionall%-
E- Lean into optimal dis$omfort> take 'e $andid, open, and dire$t- Allow %ourself
risks without overwhelmin) %ourself- to be $urious and vulnerable-
F- *ake the pro$ess seriousl%, and more Allow %ourself balan$e- Find the learnin)
importantl% take %ourself li)htl%- Make and humor in both %our su$$esses and
this positive and rewardin) e(perien$e- mistakes- Most importantl%, have funG
&ow to +se the Fieldbook
After this introduction, each subse<uent cha'ter builds to for) a co)'lete a''roach to
develo'ing innovative leadershi'. The first section of the boo- 'rovides the
conce'tual fra)e&or-. The second section guides you through a series of e=ercises to hel'
ground those ideas in a )ore 'ractical fashion. ;e reco))end that you use the
follo&ing se<uence to hel' efficiently 'rocess the )aterial0
:- 0ead Intentl%
@ead the cha'ter through co)'letely, as &e introduce and illustrate an integrated set of
conce'ts for each do)ain in building innovative leadershi'.
,- Contemplate
$sing a set of carefully chosen a''lications and s'ecifically designed e=ercises &ill hel'
you to e)body the &or- and bring the conce'ts to life. Through a 'rocess of dyna)ic
e=a)ination and reflection, you &ill be encouraged to conte)'late so)e significant,
real2life i)'lications of change. >any of the e=ercises can be done on your o&n, yet others
are designed to be conducted &ith in'ut fro) your colleagues such as seeing their
'erce'tion of your strengths and &ea-nesses.
D- Link *o)ether 8our !(perien$e
As you se<uentially build your understanding, you &ill begin noticing habits and
conditioned 'atterns that can 'resent you clear o''ortunities for gro&th. Though
you )ay encounter 'ersonal resistance along the &ay, you &ill also discover ne& and
e=citing strengths. Ince you have co)'leted the 'rocess, you &ill have created a
'lan to gro& as an innovative leader. $lti)ately, i)'le)enting that 'lan &ill be u' to
you and your tea).
As you beco)e )ore ade't at using these ideas, you &ill find yourself increasingly ca'able
of 'roactive engage)ent &ith the conce'ts along &ith an ability to res'ond to situations
re<uiring innovative leadershi' &ith greater ca'acity.
I*T3)28'TI)* Innovative eadership
;hat innovative challenges does your organi!ation faceH
&ow does your organi!ation support effective
leadership for innovationH
In what ways would you consider yourself
an innovative leaderH
&ow do you personally connect with
leadership and innovationH
;here are the opportunities for you
to be an innovative leaderH
;hat would make you and your organi!ation
more effective in leading innovation
beyond products# services and systemsH
,('TI)* I
Five 2omains of Innovative eadership
%ection 1 2 AFive do)ains of Innovative 7eadershi'B consists of the first five cha'ters of this
Fieldboo- and e='lores the five do)ains of innovative leadershi' in )ore de'th. These
do)ains Echa'tersF are reflected in the gra'hic above0
*ach cha'ter offers a definition of the -ey do)ainC e='lains the role it 'lays in
innovative leadershi'C gives an e=a)'le of the )odels &e use and 'rovides an
e=a)'le or case study to de)onstrate ho& &e have a''lied these do)ains to i)'rove leadershi'
and organi.ational 'erfor)ance. These five -ey do)ains are interconnected and )ust be
considered as a &hole to build truly innovative leadershi'.
This )odel serves as the foundation that you &ill build on in %ection II &here you &ill
ta-e action to beco)e an innovative leader.
Innovative eadership Assessment
Follo&ing is a short self assess)ent to hel' you identify your o&n innovative
leadershi' scores. It is organi.ed by the five do)ains of innovative leadershi' and &ill
give you a general sense of &here you can focus your efforts to i)'rove your innovative
leadershi' ca'acity. As you 'rogress through the boo-, you &ill find infor)ation on the
full assess)ents if you are interested in )ore in2de'th and thorough analysis of your
current ca'acity.
;e encourage you to ta-e this assess)ent as a &ay to get a sna'shot of &here you
e=cel and &here you )ay &ant to focus your develo')ental activities and energies.
,core Fourself on Awareness of eader
Type and ,elf 7anagement
Thin- about your level of res'onse to &or- situations during the 'ast three )onths0
7ever H:I 0arel% H,I #ometimes HDI "ften H<I Almost alwa%s HEI
1. I have ta-en a leadershi' ty'e assess)ent such as the *nneagra), >yers
= > ? @ <
/riggs Ty'e Indicator or 5I%4, and used this infor)ation about )yself to
increase )y effectiveness.
#. I use the insight fro) this assess)ent to understand )y ty'e 2 s'ecifically
= > ? @ <
I understand )y gifts and li)itations and try to leverage )y strengths and
)anage )y li)itations.
M. I have a reflection 'ractice &here I understand, actively )onitor and &or- = > ? @ <
&ith )y Afi=ationsB. Ea fi=ation is a negative thought 'atternF
4. I have a clear sense of &ho I a) and &hat I &ant to contribute in the &orld. = > ? @ <
!. I )anage )y e)otional reactions to allo& )e to res'ond &ith socially = > ? @ <
a''ro'riate behavior.
3. I a) a&are of &hat causes )e stress and actively )anage it. = > ? @ <
". I have 'ositive co'ing strategies. = > ? @ <
8. I actively see- &ays to feel e)'o&ered even &hen the organi.ation )ay not = > ? @ <
e)'o&er )e in a given situation.
*otal #$ore
If your overall score in this category is #4 or less, it9s ti)e to 'ay attention to your
leadershi' ty'e and self )anage)ent.
If your overall score is M# or above, 4ongratulationsN 8ou are self a&are and using
your leadershi' ty'e to increase your effectiveness.
,core Fourself on 2evelopmental
4erspective Aligned with Innovation
Thin- about your level of res'onse to &or- situations during the 'ast three )onths0
7ever H:I 0arel% H,I #ometimes HDI "ften H<I Almost alwa%s HEI
1. I have a sense of life 'ur'ose and do &or- that is generally aligned &ith
that 'ur'ose.
#. I a) )otivated by the i)'act I )a-e on the &orld )ore than on 'ersonal notoriety.
M. I try to live )y life according to )y 'ersonal values.
4. I believe that collaboration across grou's and organi.ations is i)'ortant to
acco)'lish our goals.
!. I believe that getting business results )ust be balanced &ith treating 'eo'le
fairly and -indly as &ell as i)'act on our custo)ers and co))unity.
3. I see- in'ut fro) others consistently to test )y thin-ing and e='and )y
". I thin- about the i)'act of )y &or- on the )any ele)ents of our co))unity
and beyond.
8. I a) o'en and curious, al&ays trying ne& things and learning fro) all of the).
1. I a''reciate the value of rules and a) &illing to <uestion the) in a
'rofessional )anner in service of )eeting our goals and i)'roving the
service &e 'rovide to our custo)ers.
Ievel <J
= > ? @ <
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= > ? @ <
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= > ? @ <
*otal #$ore
If your overall score in this category is #" or less, it9s ti)e to 'ay attention to your
develo')ental level including testing your current level and focusing on
develo'ing in this area.
If your score is M3 or above, congratulationsN 8our develo')ental level
a''ears to be aligned &ith innovate leadershi' yet this assess)ent is only a
subset of a full assess)ent.
,core Fourself on 3esilience
Thin- about your level of res'onse to &or- situations during the 'ast three )onths0
g '
7ever H:I 0arel% H,I #ometimes HDI "ften H<I Almost alwa%s HEI
1. I consistently ta-e care of )y 'hysical needs such as getting enough slee'
= > ? @ <
and e=ercise.
#. I have a sense of 'ur'ose and get to do activities that contribute to that
= > ? @ <
'ur'ose daily.
M. I have a high degree of self a&areness and )anage )y thoughts actively.
= > ? @ <
4. I have a strong su''ort syste) consisting of a healthy )i= of friends,
= > ? @ <
colleagues, and fa)ily.
!. I can refra)e challenges to find so)ething of value in )ost situations.
= > ? @ <
3. I build strong trusting relationshi's at &or-.
= > ? @ <
". I a) a&are of )y o&n self tal- and actively )anage it.
= > ? @ <
8. I have a 'rofessional develo')ent 'lan that includes gaining s-ills and
= > ? @ <
additional 'ers'ectives.
*otal #$ore
If your overall score in this category is #4 or less, it9s ti)e to 'ay attention to your
If your score is M# or above, congratulationsN 8ou are li-ely 'erfor)ing &ell in
the area of resilience yet this assess)ent is only a subset of the full resilience
,core Fourself on 7anaging Alignment of
,elf and )rgani!ation
Thin- about your level of res'onse to &or- situations during the 'ast three )onths0
7ever H:I 0arel% H,I #ometimes HDI "ften H<I Almost alwa%s HEI
1. I a) a&are of )y o&n 'assions and values .
#. >y behavior reflects )y goals and values consistently.
M. I feel safe 'ushing bac- &hen I a) as-ed to do things that are not aligned
&ith )y values.
4. I a) a&are that )y behavior and decisions as a leader have a significant
i)'act on the organi.ation9s structure and culture.
!. I a) deliberate about aligning the organi.ation9s 'ay and 'erfor)ance
syste)s &ith the ty'es of behaviors &e &ant to encourage. Eboth results
and behaviorsF
3. The organi.ation9s -ey )easures and syste)s encourage the right actions
aligned &ith the culture, and discourage actions that &ill da)age the
organi.ation or )a-e )e unco)fortable.
". I a) a&are of ho& )y values align &ith those of the organi.ation and &here
&e are )isalignedC I ta-e ste's to encourage changes in the culture such as
tal-ing about our values and reinforcing &hat &e say &e care about.
individual action
Intentional Alignment
1alues Alignment ActionKAlignment
,ystem Alignment
culture system
= > ? @ <
= > ? @ <
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= > ? @ <
= > ? @ <
= > ? @ <
= > ? @ <
*otal #$ore
If your overall score in this category is #1 or less, it9s ti)e to 'ay attention to )y
align)ent &ith the organi.ation and also the align)ent &ithin the
organi.ation that I a) able to i)'act.
If your score is #8 or above, congratulationsN 8ou are &ell aligned &ith the
organi.ation and the organi.ation9s culture and syste)s are &ell aligned.
,core Fourself on eadership /ehaviors
Thin- about your level of res'onse to &or- situations during the 'ast three )onths0
7ever H:I 0arel% H,I #ometimes HDI "ften H<I Almost alwa%s HEI
1. I tend to be 'roactive 2 I antici'ate &hat is co)ing ne=t and actively )anage
= > ? @ <
it. Ede'ending on role 2 this )ay ha''en 'ri)arily in )y 'ersonal lifeF
#. I focus on creating results in a &ay that encourages others to gro& and
= > ? @ <
develo' &hile acco)'lishing their tas-s.
M. I thin- about the i)'act of )y actions on the overall organi.ation rather than
= > ? @ <
Just getting the Job done.
4. I see ho& )y &or- contributes to the overall organi.ational success and
= > ? @ <
deliberately try to i)'rove )yself and the organi.ation.
!. I ta-e ti)e to )entor others 2 even &hen I a) busy.
= > ? @ <
3. I consider )yself a 'ersonal learner because of the ti)e I s'end reading and
= > ? @ <
trying ne& ideas and activities. I a) curious.
". I have the courage to s'ea- out in a 'rofessional )anner &hen as-ed to do
= > ? @ <
so)ething I disagree &ith.
8. I acco)'lish results by &or-ing &ith and through others in a 'ositive and
= > ? @ <
constructive )anner.
*otal #$ore
If your overall score in this category is #4 or less, it9s ti)e to 'ay attention to
your leadershi' behaviors and loo- for &ays to develo' in align)ent &ith
your goals.
If your score is M# or above, congratulationsN 8ou are li-ely 'erfor)ing &ell in the
area of leadershi' behaviors but this assess)ent is only a subset of a full leadershi'
behavior assess)ent.
'&A4T(3 =
eader Type
Fi)ure :.: Five Domains of Innovative Leadership
*he Importan$e
of Leader *%pe
Part of the challenge
in building innovative
leadershi' is learning
to leverage the clarity
of your intros'ection.
7oo-ing inside
yourself, e=a)ining
the )a-e2u' of your
inner being, enables
you to function in a highly grounded &ay, rather than o'erating fro) the innate
biases of )ore uninfor)ed decision2)a-ing.
First and fore)ost, &hen thin-ing about leadershi', start by si)'ly considering your
dis'osition, tendencies, inclinations and &ays of being. Innovative leadershi' hinges
on understanding the si)'le, native )anner in &hich you sho& u' in your life. Ine
&ay to observe is by e=a)ining as'ects of your inner being, often called leader ty'e,
&hich reflect the leader9s 'ersonality ty'e. The 7eader Personality Ty'e Ereferred to
going for&ard as 7eader Ty'eF has a critical influence on &ho you are as a leader. It is
an essential foundation of your 'ersonal )a-e2u' and greatly sha'es the effectiveness
of your leadershi'. The ancient adage of A(no& Thyself,B attributed to various 6ree-
'hiloso'hers, holds true as a crucial under'inning in leadershi' 'erfor)ance.
8our ability to use dee' intros'ection relies on your develo')ent of a ca'acity
for self2understanding and self2a&areness. /oth allo& you 'rofound o'enness of
'ers'ective as &ell as a greater understanding of others. These critical traits su''ort
leaders9 abilities to self2regulate, co))unicate effectively &ith others, and encourage
'ersonal learning. 8ou can e)'loy a 'rofound understanding of leader ty'e for both
yourself and others as a 'o&erful tool to 'ro)ote effective leadershi'.
'&A4T(3 = eader Type
It is i)'ortant to -ee' in )ind that this 'articular notion of ty'e is native to your
being and generally does not change significantly over the course of your life. This
is an essential 'oint0 by ascertaining the distinct Asha'eB of your ty'e, as &ell as that
of others around you, you can begin to see situations &ithout the bias of your o&n
'erce'tions. 8ou are then in a better 'osition to leverage &hat you and others actually
de)onstrate, rather than acting fro) naive s'eculation. 8ou learn to dee'ly understand
the inner )ove)ents of your strengths, &ea-nesses, and core 'atterns. Ty'ing tools are
hel'ful in 'ro)oting this -ind of self2-no&ledge and 'attern recognition.
'% learnin) about these patterns, %ou $an )ain perspe$tive on
%our life
and start $onne$tin) the dots amon) %our diJerent e(perien$es-
Most of
us have a $on$ept about how we behave, but that idea is likel%
and not entirel% true- "ne of the hardest thin)s for most people is
to see
themselves a$$uratel%- &ow astonishin) it is to see throu)h the
$louds and
re$o)nie %ourself $learl%-
K Deep Livin), 0o(anne &owe Murph%
7earning at this dee'er level22fro) your 'ersonal, inner dyna)ics and i))ediate
e='erience22can offer re)ar-able insight into areas of your character you tend to
e=aggerate or overe)'hasi.e.
%elf2a&areness and the ca'acity for self2)anage)ent are foundational to innovative
leadershi' and overall leadershi' effectiveness. /y beco)ing a&are of your inherent gifts as
&ell as those of others, you are able to i)'rove your 'ersonal effectiveness and that of the
tea)s and de'art)ents &ith &hich you &or-.
*he !nnea)ram Model and Leader *%pe
There are several credible ty'ing tools, so)e of &hich are used by a &ide range of
organi.ations. Pro)inent e=a)'les include0 >yers /riggs Ty'e Indicator, 5I%4,
/ig Five Personality Test, and the *nneagra). *ach of these )odels has 'articular
strengths in their 'resentations, as &ell as certain &ea-nesses. Their overall 'ur'ose
is to hel' you )a-e obJective sense of the thought and behavior 'atterns of yourself
and other 'eo'le.
#elf.awareness, the pra$ti$e of en)a)in) in self.reLe$tion and
$larit% of insi)ht, bein) $ons$ious of one=s own identit%, and the
to whi$h per$eptions about one=s self are a$$urate and
with others= observations, pla% a pivotal role in leadership-
leaders $o)nitions, emotions, and behavior more
dependin) on the situation, evaluate their impa$t on others, and
hi)her levels of emotional intelli)en$e-
*hus, the% be$ome more versatile in their leadership
and ma%
perform better- ConseAuentl%, su$$essful leader
development is
foremost personal development- *he !nnea)ram, one of the
$omprehensive s%stems for understandin) personalit% Mleader
t%peN and
human development, oJers $onsiderable merit to support
leaders to
be$ome more aware of themselves and others-
K&ilke 0i$hmer, Do$toral Dissertation-
As &e observed through ?il-e @ich)er9s research 'roJect, the *nneagra) can be a very
'o&erful ty'ing )odel. 7et9s continue to e='lore the conce't of ty'e by also using the
*nneagra) as our 'ri)ary tool to assess leader ty'e.
Fi)ure :., !nnea)ram
The *nneagra) can be a dyna)ic )a' of leader
ty'e that reveals ho& you organi.e e='erience and
find )eaning &ithin it. The *nneagra) describes
nine distinct 'atterns of attitude and behavior that
hel' to reveal an array of reasons su''orting &hy
you thin- and behave in the &ays you do. $sing
the -no&ledge of &hat co)'rises the *nneagra)9s
nine ty'es can 'rovide you a foundation for better
understanding yourself, as &ell as )aintaining
healthy relationshi's through understanding the needs
and 'ers'ectives of others.
The *nneagra) sy)bol is a circle &ith nine 'oints, re'resenting the nine ty'es native
&ithin all hu)an e='erience, connected in a distinctive 'attern of intersecting lines.
'&A4T(3 = eader Type
The *nneagra), li-e other tools, offers you a fra)e&or- and language to discuss
&hat you 'erceive about the intentions and see in the behaviors of yourself and
others. *ach *nneagra) ty'e is based on a 'attern of &hat you 'ay attention to,
or )ore s'ecifically, your naturally occurring 'erce'tions and 'references. /y
understanding the ty'es of e='eriences you habitually reinforce and 'ut energy
into, you can observe yourself )ore accurately and develo' )ore self2a&areness.
/y enhancing self2a&areness, you can e=ercise )ore choice about your o&n actions rather
than engaging in 'atterns of thought, e)otion, and behavior in an auto)atic, habitual,
unconscious fashion. This insight alone &ill allo& you to tailor 'ersonal and 'rofessional
goals to achieve better results.
Table =6= (nneagram Types
Type = 3eformer9 The 3ational# Idealistic Type
I am a prin$ipled, idealisti$ t%pe- I am $ons$ientious and ethi$al with a stron)
sense of
ri)ht and wron) behavior- I $an be a tea$her, $rusader and advo$ate for $han)e,
strivin) to improve thin)s, but sometimes afraid of makin) mistakes- Oell.
orderl% and fastidious, I tr% to maintain hi)h standards but $an slip into bein)
$riti$al and
perfe$tionisti$- I t%pi$all% have problems with resentment and impatien$e-
At 7y /est9 I am wise, dis$ernin), realisti$ and noble- I $an be morall%
heroi$- Type > &elper9 The 'aring# Interpersonal Type
I am a $arin), interpersonal t%pe- I am empatheti$, sin$ere and warm.hearted- I am
friendl%, )enerous and$ri5$in), but $an also be sentimental, Latterin)
and people pleasin)- I am well.meanin) and driven to be $lose to others, but
$an slip into doin) thin)s for others in order to be needed- I t%pi$all% have
problems with possessiveness and with a$knowled)in) m% own needs-
At 7y /est9 I am unsel5sh and altruisti$, and have un$onditional love for
others- Type ? Achiever9 The ,uccess6)riented# 4ragmatic Type
I am an adaptable, su$$ess.oriented t%pe- I am self.assured, attra$tive and
Ambitious, $ompetent and ener)eti$, I $an also be status.$ons$ious and hi)hl%
for advan$ement- I am diplomati$ and poised, but $an also be overl% $on$erned
with m%
ima)e and what others think of me- I t%pi$all% have problems with over fo$us on
and $ompetitiveness-
At 7y /est9 I am self.a$$eptin), authenti$ and a role model who inspires others-
Type @ Individualist9 The ,ensitive# ;ithdrawn Type
I am an introspe$tive, romanti$ t%pe- I am self.aware, sensitive and reserved- I am
emotionall% honest, $reative and personal, but $an also be mood% and self.
$ons$ious- Oithholdin) m%self from others due to feelin) vulnerable, I $an also
feel s$ornful and e(empt from ordinar% wa%s of livin)- I t%pi$all% have problems
with melan$hol%,
self.indul)en$e and self.pit%-
At 7y /est9 I am inspired and hi)hl% $reative and am able to renew m%self and
transform m% e(perien$es-
Type < Investigator9 The Intense# 'erebral Type
I am a per$eptive, $erebral t%pe- I am alert, insi)htful and $urious- I am able to
$on$entrate and fo$us on developin) $omple( ideas and skills- Independent,
innovative and inventive, I $an also be$ome preo$$upied with m% thou)hts and
$onstru$ts- I $an be deta$hed, %et hi)h.strun) and intense- I t%pi$all% have
problems with e$$entri$it%, nihilism and isolation-
At 7y /est9 I am a visionar% pioneer, often ahead of m% time, and able to see the
world in an entirel% new wa%-
Type A oyalist9 The 'ommitted# ,ecurity6)riented Type
I am reliable, hardworkin), responsible, se$urit% oriented and trustworth%- I am an
e($ellent troubleshooter and $an foresee problems and foster $ooperation, but
$an also be$ome defensive, evasive and an(ious9 runnin) on stress while
$omplainin) about it- I $an be $autious and inde$isive, but also rea$tive, de5ant
and rebellious- I t%pi$all% have problems with self.doubt and suspi$ion-
At 7y /est9 I am internall% stable and self.reliant, $oura)eousl% $hampionin)
m%self and others-
Type ,even (nthusiast9 The /usy# Fun6oving Type
I am a bus%, out)oin), produ$tive t%pe- I am e(troverted, optimisti$, versatile and
spontaneous- Pla%ful, hi)h.spirited and pra$ti$al, I $an also misappl% man% talents,
be$omin) over.e(tended, s$attered and undis$iplined- I $onstantl% seek new and
e($itin) e(perien$es, but $an be$ome distra$ted and e(hausted b% sta%in) on
the )o- I t%pi$all% have problems with impatien$e and impulsiveness-
At 7y /est9 I fo$us m% talents on worthwhile )oals, be$omin) appre$iative,
?o%ous and satis5ed-
'&A4T(3 = eader Type
Type (ight 'hallenger9 The 4owerful# 2ominating Type
I am a powerful, a))ressive, self.$on5dent, stron) and assertive- Prote$tive, resour$eful,
strai)ht talkin) and de$isive, I $an also be e)o$entri$ and domineerin)- I feel
I must
$ontrol m% environment, espe$iall% people, sometimes be$omin)
$onfrontational and
intimidatin)- I t%pi$all% have problems with m% temper and with allowin) m%self
be vulnerable-
At 7y /est9 I am self.masterin) and I use m% stren)th to improve others= lives,
be$omin) heroi$, ma)nanimous and inspirin)-
Type *ine 4eacemaker9 The (asygoing# ,elf6effacing Type
I am a$$eptin), trustin), eas% )oin), and stable- I am usuall% )rounded, supportive
and often $reative, but $an also be too willin) to )o alon) with others to keep
the pea$e- I want ever%thin) to )o smoothl% and be without $onLi$t, but I $an
also tend to be
$ompla$ent and emotionall% distant, simplif%in) problems and i)norin) an%thin)
upsettin)- I t%pi$all% have problems with inertia and stubbornness-
At 7y /est9 I am indomitable and all.embra$in) and able to brin) people
to)ether to heal $onLi$ts-
*he !nnea)ram and *eam !Je$tiveness
In addition to building 'ersonal a&areness, &e also use the *nneagra) to i)'rove tea)
effectiveness. ;or-ing &ithin natural &or- grou's, &e as- individuals to res'ond to each
of the follo&ing <uestions0
;hat do others a''reciate about your style:
;hat is difficult about &or-ing &ith you:
;hat do you need to re)e)ber &hen &or-ing &ith 'eo'le &ho
have other styles:
/y using the *nneaty'e structure, 'artici'ants are able to ans&er the <uestions. $sing a
)odel can hel' de'ersonali.e the feedbac- and also hel' increase self and other a&areness
re<uired to effectively relate to others. $sing this structure o'ens a dialogue about ho& to
&or- together effectively.
*=ercises li-e the one above are intended to hel' you stay a&are of both strengths and
challenges &ithin yourself and others. >oreover, they are designed to hel' you develo'
an increased sensitivity to 'eo'le &ith differing styles &ithout
being restricted by your o&n biases. As you enhance your ability to res'ectfully relate to
'eo'le of different styles, you are also able to i)'rove their i)'act on
sta-eholders both inside and outside the co)'any, i)'roving your organi.ation9s overall
*he !nnea)ram and *eam 0oles
;e also use a si)'lified grou'ing of the nine ty'es to tal- about ho& individuals
function and influence 'erfor)ance &ithin a tea) environ)ent. The nine ty'es are
grou'ed into three tea) roles. ;e are assu)ing that all of these roles are i)'ortant to high
functioning tea)s. ;hen assigning 'eo'le to a tea), it is i)'ortant to
e='licitly consider ty'e in addition to s'ecific 'rofessional acu)en and s-ills to ensure that
the &or- of the tea) &ill be done effectively.
Table =6> (nneagram Team 3oles
Initiators like to )et started and learn as the% )o alon)- *he% like a$tion,
divin) in, )ettin) en)a)ed and involved Ht%pes ei)ht, three and sevenI-
!i)ht9 4I=m here, I=ll make thin)s happen-6
*hree9 4Listen to what I have done@a$$omplished-6
#even9 4I=m here, thin)s will )et livel%-6
'ooperators want to take time to 5nd out who the team is, understand the frame.
work, what is behind it, and $larif% the e(pe$tations, rules and )uidelines in
more detail- *he% have more Auestions about who is in $har)e of what and
e(plore potential $onLi$t with diJerin) e(pe$tations Ht%pes one, two, and si(I-
"ne9 4I need to or)anie and 5( this-6
*wo9 4&ow $an I helpP6
#i(9 4I=m part of the hi)h impa$t )roup-6
,oloists want to spend some time independentl%, thinkin) about a situation and
feelin) their wa% to an inner understandin) of it- "thers ma% per$eive them as bein)
withdrawn, not in$ludin) others, or even bein) aloof Ht%pes four, 5ve, and nineI-
Four9 4I like to 5nd an un$onventional, $reative solution-6
Five9 4I like to observe and understand the patterns and theories-6
7ine9 4I like to understand the perspe$tives of all of the stakeholders and
build $onsensus-6
'&A4T(3 = eader Type
7et9s e=a)ine a very 'ractical a''lication &ithin an organi.ational setting. ?il-e @ich)er
used a ty'ing )odel, s'ecifically the *nneagra), as the foundation to create a
leadershi' develo')ent 'rogra) and &rote about the results for her Ph5 dissertation.
According to @ich)er0
*he purpose of the resear$h was to assess the eJe$ts of the
Awareness and !Je$tive Leadership Pro)ram in a medium.sied
$ompan% in the Midwest +nited #tates- *o provide middle
with a uniAue development opportunit% to enhan$e their
awareness of
self and others, the $ompan% had $ustomied the Personal
and !Je$tive Leadership Pro)ram based on the !nnea)ram in
*he pro)ram was implemented in ,B:B-
%he elaborates0
*he $ompan%Qs or)aniation development team $on$eived a pro)ram
fo$used on stren)thenin) middle mana)ers= interpersonal
and leadership versatilit%- Considerin) the e(tensive pra$ti$al
e(perien$e of most middle mana)ers and the $hallen)e of
$han)in) leadership behavior, the team de$ided on a novel approa$h-
members identi5ed the !nnea)ram, one of the most $omprehensive
of personalit% Mleader t%peN and human development, as an appropriate
instrument for the developmental pro)ram-
*he !nnea)ram represented an a$$epted s%stem to support
mana)ers to develop a better understandin) of themselves and
*herefore, tea$hin) the !nnea)ram in leader development should
middle mana)ers= self.awareness and ultimatel% advan$e
behavior- *his resear$h evaluated the eJe$ts of the ,B:B
Awareness and !Je$tive Leadership Pro)ram for middle
mana)ers on
enhan$in) self.awareness-
As a result of parti$ipatin) in the Personal Awareness and
Leadership Pro)ram, the $ompan% e(pe$ted leaders to HaI
the !nnea)ram and the nine MleaderN personalit% t%pes as
identi5ed b%
the !nnea)ram, be able to identif% their own t%pe, and realie
developmental path, HbI appl% !nnea)ram and #ituational
knowled)e in their leadership to better re$o)nie motivations and
in themselves and others, and H$I be$ome better eAuipped to
$ons$iousl% behavior in leadership situations and
more eJe$tivel%-
?er research concluded the follo&ing0
Parti$ipants in both $ohorts Mtrainin) )roupsN found the !nnea)ram
to understand the rationale for their own behavior as well as
a$tions and rea$tions- Parti$ipants a$knowled)ed that the
fostered the understandin) of wh% we behave as we do and also
how to
best read others- "ne parti$ipant stated that to be an eJe$tive
leader in
toda%Qs workfor$e, %ou must be able to understand wh% %ou are
the wa%
%ou are, so that %ou $an improve-
@ich)er9s e='eri)ent illustrates a crucial ste' to&ard building innovative leadershi'. To
begin increasing your ca'acity for clear decision2)a-ing, you )ust first learn
to i)'artially evaluate and e=a)ine the intentional and behavioral 'atterns in
yourself as &ell as others. The inherent leverage &ithin this si)'le yet 'o&erful
understanding cannot be overstated. It elicits a clarity that &ill hel' you )a-e
decisions &ithout being governed by the bias of your o&n 'erce'tions, even as you
naturally e='erience the) in any given occasion.
This obJectivity is rooted in your ability see your conditioning &ithout 'reference.
It is this nonJudg)ental 'ers'ective that allo&s the nuances of e='erience to 'ersist
in the interest of gaining real understanding. ;hen you begin seeing in this &ay, you
can navigate s-illfully and e=ecute &ithout the baggage of erroneous e='ectations.
A''lying a ty'ing )odel can be an e=ce'tionally valuable asset to tea) building and
o'ti)i.ation. Ine of the critical challenges in &or-ing &ith tea)s is overco)ing the
conflicts of interest based on )ischaracteri.ation of tea) )e)bers. %uch
)isconstrued 'erce'tions can drain tea)s of 'recious energy as ti)e is s'ent
resolving conflict rather than attending to &or-loads and goals.
'&A4T(3 = eader Type
?ere is an e=a)'le of an e=ercise &e as- tea) )e)bers to 'erfor) based on their ty'e
and tea) role0
Ohat is %our team $ompositionP &ow man% are InitiatorsP
CooperatorsP #oloistsP Is there a prominent t%pe within the teamP
Ohi$h tasks are best a$$omplished b% ea$h t%peP
Ohat do %ou need from )roup members to be most eJe$tiveP
#hare %our needs with the team-
Ohat )round rules will promote the most eJe$tive fun$tionin) of this teamP
It is i)'ortant to note that &hile assess)ent can be very 'o&erful, in so)e cases
it is used ineffectively. ;hatever ty'ing tool is e)'loyed, it should al&ays be used
to su''ort and enhance a&areness and a''reciation of yourself and others. It is
unethical to use assess)ents to 'igeon2hole, label, discri)inate or disadvantage
'eo'le. Ty'ing assess)ents are offered to benefit the individual and the tea) &ith
'ersonal gro&th and enhanced tea) effectiveness. ;e reco))end that you share
your *nneagra) ty'e &ith tea) )e)bers and colleagues to i)'rove tea) and
grou' dyna)ics. The *nneagra) is a very effective tool to i)'rove self2a&areness
and social interactions.
In su))ary, this cha'ter 'rovided a brief introduction and sa)'le of ho& ty'e
)odels can be used. /y harnessing the ca'acity to see your leader ty'e and
conditioning in an obJective, nonJudg)ental &ay, you are able to foster better insight
in relation to your o&n e='erience &ithout the strained effort that can ste) fro)
self2bias. 8ou discovered the uni<ue 'atterns that sha'e each ty'e are genuine, natural
and generally do not change )uch over ti)e. In the )ost basic &ay, they si)'ly
reflect &ho you are )ost innately. The goal &ith leader ty'e is to build self2a&areness
and leverage strengths, not try to change &ho you are. $nderstanding the natural
conditioning that co)es fro) leader ty'e is a crucial stage in develo'ing leadershi'
effectiveness, and co)'rehensive innovation &ithin the entire organi.ation.
8sing the (nneagram number system# where
would you place your leader typeH
&ow have you used other typing tools in the pastH
2oes this type information help increase your level of
awareness regarding your habitual patterns#
strengths and growth opportunitiesH
2o you use this type6based information to guide
how you interact with othersH
;ould an increased use of type knowledge help
improve your team effectiveness by promoting
discussion among team members about preferred
roles and communication stylesH
This section includes additional reco))endations to aug)ent the fieldboo- for those &ho &ant
)ore in2de'th infor)ation.
0esour$es Chapter ,
The theoretical research of %usann 4oo-26reuter and Terri I9Fallon 'rovide the )ost recent and
co)'lete references available in su''ort of 5evelo')ental levels and their a''lications. /oth can be
found on their &ebsites.
0esour$es Chapter E
For )ore infor)ation about The 7eadershi' 4ircle Profile 2 see the study &ritten by /ob
Anderson and 'ublished by *he Leadership Cir$le, *he Leadership Cir$le and
"r)aniational Performan$e, ,BBR-
0esour$es Chapter F
/oo-0 Par-er Pal)er, Let 8our Life #peak . Listen for the /oi$e of /o$ation- %an
Francisco0 Jossey /ass, #,,,.
0esour$es Chapter R
>ature Adult Profile Assess)ent E>APF &&&.'
The 7eadershi' 4ircle M3, Assess)ent &&&.theleadershi'
@esilience Assess)ent &&&.)
*nneagra) &&&.enneagra)
'&A4T(3 => 'onclusion
0esour$es Chapter S
/oo-0 @obert Frit.. ATool0 %tructural Tension,B Path of Least 0esistan$e, Learnin) to
'e$ome the Creative For$e in 8our "wn Life- Ne& 8or-0 @ando) ?ouse, 1181.
/oo-0 /ill Torbert and Associates. A$tion InAuir%, *he #e$ret of *imel% and
*ransformin) Leadership- %an Francisco0 Jossey2/ass, #,,4.
/oo-0 (erry Patterson, Jose'h 6renny, @on >c>illan, Al %&it.ler. 4ru$ial Conversations9
*ools for *alkin) when #takes are &i)h- %an Francisco0 >c6ra&2?ill, #,,#.
/oo-0 Art (leiner, Peter %enge, @ichard @oss, /ryan %)ith, 4harlotte @oberts. Fifth
Dis$ipline Fieldbook, #trate)ies and *ools for 'uildin) a Learnin) "r)aniation-
Ne& 8or-0 4ro&n /usiness /oo-s, 1114.
/oo-0 6eorge 7eonard and >ichael >ur'hy. *he Life Oe Are Given, A Lon) *erm
for 0ealiin) Potential of 'od%, Mind, &eart and #oul- Ne& 8or-0 TarcherLPutna),
5O5s0 Integral 7ife Practice %tarter (it. Integral Institute EM2#21 shado& &or-sho' and /ig
Inline resource and tools0 ?eart)ath )editation 'ractices and e);ave to )onitor heart
activity. &&&.heart)
0esour$es Chapter ;
/oo-0 Art (leiner, Peter %enge, @ichard @oss, /ryan %)ith, 4harlotte @oberts. A4onversational
@eci'es,B Fifth Dis$ipline Fieldbook, #trate)ies and *ools for 'uildin) a Learnin)
"r)aniation- Ne& 8or-0 4ro&n /usiness /oo-s, 1114.
/oo-0 (erry Patterson, Jose'h 6renny, @on >c>illan, Al %&it.ler. Cru$ial Conversations9 *ools for
*alkin) when #takes are &i)h- %an Francisco0 >c6ra&2?ill, #,,#.
0esour$es Chapter :B
/oo-0 /ill Torbert and Associates. A$tion InAuir%, *he #e$ret of *imel% and
*ransformin) Leadership-P %an Francisco0 Jossey2/ass, #,,4.
/oo-0 @obert (egan and 7isa 7as-o& 7ahey. &ow the Oa% Oe *alk $an Chan)e the Oa% Oe
Oork- /oston0 ?arvard /usiness %chool Publishing, #,,1.
5O50 %hado& >odule M2#21 Process &ith 5iane ?a)iltonC Integral 7ife Practice %eries
'roduced by Integral Institute.
/arrett /ro&n. 4onscious 7eadershi' for %ustainability0 ?o& 7eaders &ith 7ate2%tage Action 7ogic
5esign and *ngage in %ustainability Initiatives. 5octoral 5issertation, Fielding 6raduate $niversity.
Ji) 4ollins. Good to Great9 Oh% some Companies Make the LeapTand "thers
Don=t- Ne& 8or-0 ?ar'er4ollins Publishers, Inc., #,,1.
%usanne 4oo-26reuter. 4A Detailed Des$ription of 7ine A$tion Lo)i$s in the
Leadership Development Framework Adapted from Leadership Development
&&& #,,#.
>ihaly 4si-s.entihalyi, Flo&0 *he Ps%$holo)% of "ptimal !(perien$e. Ne& 8or-0
?ar'er Perennial, 111,.
6eoff Fitch, Oenita @a)ire., and Terri I9Fallon. A*nacting 4ontainers for Integral
Transfor)ative 5evelo')ent.B Presented July #,1, Integral Theory 4onference.
Alain 6authier, A5evelo'ing 6enerative 4hange 7eaders Across %ectors0 An *='loration of
Integral A''roachesB, Inte)ral Leadership 0eview, June #,,8.
5aniel 6ole)an, Oorkin) with !motional Intelli)en$e. Ne& 8or-0 /anta) /oo-s, 1118
5aniel 6ole)an, @ichard *. / and Annie >c(ee, Primal Leadership9 Learnin) to
Lead with !motional Intelli)en$e- /oston0 ?arvard /usiness %chool Press, #,,#.
5aniel 6ole)an, !motional Intelli)en$e- Ne& 8or-0 /anta) /oo-s, 111!.
@o=anne ?o&e2>ur'hy, @o=anne, 5on @ichard @iso, and @uss ?udson. Deep Coa$hin)9
+sin) the !nnea)ram as a Catal%st for Profound Chan)e, *l 6ranada0 *nneagra)
Press, #,,".
>aryanna (latt, Janet /uc-&orth, and ;illia) /. >alar-ey. A*ffects of 7o&25ose >indfulness/ased
%tress @eduction E>/%@2ldF on ;or-ing Adults.B ?ealth *ducation and /ehavior.
Ool. M3, no. M. #,,10 3,12314.
%alvatore @. >addi and 5eborah >. (hoshaba, 0esilien$e at Oork9 &ow to #u$$eed 7o
Matter Ohat Life *hrows at 8ou- Ne& 8or-0 >JF /oo-s, #,,!.
>aureen >etcalf. A7evel ! 7eadershi'0 7eadershi' that Transfor)s Irgani.ations and 4reates
%ustainable @esults.B Inte)ral Leadership 0eview- >arch #,,8.
>aureen >etcalf, John For)an, and 5ena Paluc-. AI)'le)enting %ustainable Transfor)ation 2
Theory and A''lication.B Inte)ral Leadership 0eview- June #,,8.
'&A4T(3 => 'onclusion
>aureen >etcalf and 5ena Paluc-. AThe %tory of Jill2?o& an Individual 7eader 5evelo'ed into a
A7evel !B 7eader.B Inte)ral Leadership 0eview- June #,1,
Peter 6. Northhouse. Leadership9 *heor% and Pra$ti$e. Thousand Ia-s0 %age Publications, #,1,.
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%econd Tier 4o))unity.B Presented August, #,,8 at the Integral Theory 4onference
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and %tructure %tages.B Presented July, #,1, at the Integral Theory 4onference E1st 'lace &innerF
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A''roach.B &&&.', #,11.
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Dis$over%- Ne& 8or-0 ?oughton >ifflin, 1113.
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/ill Torbert and Associates. A$tion InAuir% . *he #e$ret of *imel% and *ransformin)
Leadership- %an Francisco0 /errett2(oehler Publishing, Inc. #,,4.
Peter %enge, Art (leiner, 4harlotte @oberts, @ichard @oss, and /ryan %)ith. *he Fifth Dis$ipline
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(en ;ilber. AIntroduction to Integral Theory and Practice0 II% /asic and ADA7 >a'.B
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About the Authors
Maureen Met$alf
>aureen >etcalf is the Founder and 4*I of >etcalf Q Associates, Inc. a
)anage)ent consulting and coaching fir) dedicated to hel'ing leaders,
their )anage)ent tea)s and organi.ations i)'le)ent the innovative
leadershi' 'ractices necessary to thrive in a ra'idly changing environ)ent.
>aureen is an acclai)ed thought leader &ho develo'ed, tested, and
i)'le)ented e)erging )odels that dra)atically i)'rove leaders and
organi.ations success in changing ti)es. %he &or-s &ith leaders to develo'
innovative leadershi' ca'acity and &ith organi.ations to further develo'
innovative leadershi' <ualities. >aureen is on the forefront of hel'ing
organi.ations to e='lore these e)erging solutions for long ter) organi.ational sustainability.
As a %enior >anager &ith t&o A/ig FourB >anage)ent consulting fir)s for 1# years, >aureen )anaged
and contributed to the successful co)'letion of a &ide array of 'roJects fro) strategy develo')ent and
organi.ational design for start2u' co)'anies to large syste) change for &ellestablished organi.ations. %he
has &or-ed &ith a nu)ber of Fortune 1,, clients delivering a &ide range of significant business results
such as0 increased 'rofitability, cycle ti)e reduction, increased e)'loyee engage)ent and effectiveness,
and i)'roved <uality.
Mark Palmer
>ar- Pal)er is a Princi'al &ith >etcalf Q Associates, Inc., a 'rofessional
services fir) s' in leadershi' develo')ent, tea) building, and
organi.ational effectiveness. >ar- is a founding )e)ber of the Integral
Institute, an international thin-2tan- created to co)bine 'rogressive
acade)ic research &ith 'ractical a''lications in the 'ublic and 'rivate
sector. ?e is an acco)'lished teacher, has conducted nu)erous se)inars
and lectured e=tensively on business leadershi' su''orted by social theory.
>ar- has also taught several online courses and served as the institute9s
Progra) 5irector for Integral Practice.
>ar- Pal)er is a &riter, editor and full2ti)e 'rofessional s' in Irgani.ation and %ocial %cience
researchC he is also a 'ioneering e='ert in the design and a''lication of Innovative 7eadershi'. ?is
bac-ground includes *cono)ics, %ocial and /ehavioral Theory, 4ultural %tudies, and Anthro'ology.
>ar- is an e='ert on the theoretical &or- of A)erican born 'hiloso'her (en ;ilber, and has &ritten
e=tensively, for 'rivate circulation, on the a''lication of ;ilber9s &or- to nu)erous disci'lines. ?e
&as the senior editor of The %i)'le Feeling of /eing, 'ublished in #,,4 as a co)'ilation of ;ilber9s &or-
s'anning #! years.
>ar- is also the head of %tore 5evelo')ent @esearch and 6I% %ervices for ;endy9s International, Inc.,
'roviding strategic 'lanning to su''ort senior and e=ecutive )anage)ent.