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NEW ERA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Department of Civil Engineering
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TESTING (L)
LABORATORY MANUAL
!"#! EDITION$
Compile% an% E%ite% &'(
GERMAN B) BARLI*+ DT
La&orator' E,er-i.e No) #
Wood Compression Test
Name(Ramo.+ Lalaine G) Date /erforme%( 01ne
Co1r.e2Year( B*CE 2 3
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Yr) Date *1&mitte%(
*e-tion( F #"("" 5 #("" In.tr1-tor( BRO) GERMAN B) BARLI*
CE472 Laboratory 1
Abstract
A compression test is a method for determining the behavior of
materials under a compressive load. Compression tests are
conducted by loading the test specimen between two plates and
then applying a force to the specimen by moving the crossheads
together. he compression test is used to determine elastic limit!
proportionality limit! yield point! yield strength and compressive
strength
CE472 Laboratory 1
Photographs
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Tabulation or Graph
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Trial no. Load
Deformat
ion Stress Strain
1 2""" ".17 1.#$2#% ".""1141
2 4""" ".#$ 2.7&472 ".""2%1&
# %""" ".'7' 4.177"& ".""#&%
4 &""" ".74 '.'%$44 ".""4$%&
' 1"""" ".$1 %.$%1&"1 ".""%1"$
% 12""" 1.1 &.#'41%1 ".""7#&'
7 14""" 1.# $.74%'21 ".""&72&
& 1%""" 1.44 11.1#&&& ".""$%%&
$ 1&""" 1.%1 12.'#124 "."1"&"$
1" 2"""" 1.77 1#.$2#% "."11&&#
11 22""" 1.$ 1'.#1'$% "."127'%
12 24""" 2.11 1%.7"&#2 "."141%%
1# 2%""" 2.#2' 1&.1""%& "."1'%"$
14 2&""" 2.'# 1$.4$#"4 "."1%$&%
1' #"""" 2.7 2".&&'4 "."1&127
1% #2""" 2.$4 22.2777% "."1$7#&
17 #4""" #.17 2#.%7"12 "."212&2
1& #%""" #.4% 2'."%24& "."2#22$
1$ #&""" #.7# 2%.4'4&4 "."2'"42
2" 4"""" 4."' 27.&472 "."271$
21 42""" 4.#$ 2$.2#$'% "."2$47#
22 44""" 4.7& #".%#1$2 "."#2"$1
2# 4%""" '.42 #2."242& "."#%#&&
24 4&""" $.2% ##.41%%4 "."%21%$
1 2 # 4 ' % 7 & $ 1"11121#141'1%171&1$2"21222#24
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2"
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(tress)(train *iagram
(tress (train
CE472 Laboratory 1
Sample Calculation
1.
CE472 Laboratory 1
Analysis of Data and Result
he modulus of elasticity for the parallel sample of +roup no. 7 was
much higher for the parallel than for the perpendicular sample,
".'#7#+-a vs. ".4&1 respectively. (ame situation was notice on all the
group.s data.
he results of mechanical tests performed on wood specimens
fre/uently show large scatter because wood is neither homogeneous
nor isotropic. 0t is e1tremely di2cult to perform tension tests on wood
due to physical problems of gripping the specimen in a testing device.
3or this reason! mechanical tests on wood are usually limited to
compression
Compression tests of wood are generally performed with the load
applied both parallel to! and perpendicular to the grain. he parallel)
load tests may be used to determine a modulus of elasticity! a highly
variable property for construction lumber! with an upper range of
appro1imately 1.& 1 1"% psi! which is about si1 percent that of ferrous
metals. 4ood members loaded in the direction perpendicular to the
grain include 5oists bearing on beam and other similar situations6!
hence! this test is performed mainly for the purpose of establishing
minimum standards and speci7cations for this type of loading. he
test! also! demonstrates the very small tolerance to loading in this
direction compared to that parallel to the grain.
he modulus of elasticity determination from the parallel
compression tests is done by a successive accumulation of data of
simultaneous load and deformation in the same manner it is done for
the tensile test of steel. 8ther mechanical properties such as the yield
stress and the ultimate stress are selected from the stress)strain curve!
although this may not provide a clearly de7ned yield point.
8ne of the most important mechanical properties to be
determined is the ultimate stress of wood in compression! because
wor9ing stresses de7ned by building codes and other standards usually
employ a factor of safety based on this ultimate stress. his results in
CE472 Laboratory 1
wor9ing stresses that are fractional values of the ultimate stress! and
not the yield stress. he yield stress! therefore! is not a highly
important property.
CE472 Laboratory 1
Conclusion
4ood proved to be a brittle material in the compression tests. he
loading and the resultant behavior in all of the 7gures is 5umpy :not
smooth6. his is because wood is anisotropic. ;y nature wood has
9nots. 4ood is irregular in composition. his causes irregularities in the
stress vs. strain curves for wood in compression. his also causes
irregularities for load vs. displacement for wood in bending. 0n spite of
these irregularities! however! the 7gures still e1hibit characteristic
behavioral patterns for specimens in compression and bending.
his wor9 addressed the correct evaluation of the longitudinal modulus
of elasticity :EL6 of wood by compression tests parallel to the grain.
he in<uence of parasitic end)e=ect > occurring locally at the contact
between the specimen and the compression platens > on the apparent
EL modulus was investigated. *i=erent geometries of the specimens
were tested in compression! by changing the cross)section area and
length. he results obtained by conventional data reduction were
compared to values of reference determined from full) 7eld strain
measurements provided by a stereovision techni/ue. he stereovision
strain measurements are in good agreement with strain)gauge
measurements! which is an important validation. 3urthermore!
stereovision strain measurements resulted in lower scatter than strain)
gauge measurements.
CE472 Laboratory 1