You are on page 1of 11

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.

SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

UNIT NAME:

UNIT CODE:

TITLE:

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS III

EEE 2302

WIEN - BRIDGE OSCILLATOR.

NAME:
REG NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

MWALE OSCAR LITEMBEKHO


EN271-0571/2009
MICHAEL HENRY ODUOR
EN271-0575/2009
OTIENO JOHN OUKO
EN271-0577/2009
GIDEON MUASYA
EN271-2179/2010
MOMANYI GEORGE KIMANGA
EN271-0565/2009
CHESOLI DAVIS WANYAMA
EN271-3408/2011
TONYA COLVIN NYAKUNDI
EN271-0581/2009
OMBATI DEBORAH KEMUNTO
EN271-0576/2009

LECTURER:

MR. OMBATI

DATE DUE:

10 TH AUGUST,2012.

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 0

Contents
OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT...............................................................................2
EQUIPMENT......................................................................................................................2
1. THEORY.....................................................................................................................2
2. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM.................................................................................................3
3. PROCEDURE..............................................................................................................4
4. RESULTS....................................................................................................................4
4.1. Clipping.................................................................................................................5
4.2. Sample output waveforms obtained......................................................................5
5. DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................6
6. CONCLUSION............................................................................................................9
7. REFERENCE..............................................................................................................9

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 1

OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT


To study, investigate and understand the operation of the Wein Bridge
oscillator.

EQUIPMENT

Resistors, 10K (3)


Capacitors, 16nF (2)
Rheostat, 50K (40%)
IN4148 diodes (2)
U741 Op-amp
Signal generator
CRO oscilloscope
Connecting wires

1.THEORY
A Wien bridge oscillator is the most commonly used type of oscillator
because it gives better oscillations than RC phase shift oscillators. It can
output a large range of frequencies. The basic Wien bridge oscillator
comprises four resistors and two capacitors and it is known for its low
distortion. The key to a low distortion oscillator is effective amplitude
stabilization. The amplitude of electronic oscillators tends to increase
until clipping or other gain limitation is reached. This leads to high
harmonic distortion, which is often undesirable.
A common way of stabilizing the amplitude is by using non-linear
elements, such as diodes, to modify the resistance of the negative
feedback network.
As with other oscillators, the condition Av = 1 is required for oscillations
to be initiated. For the oscillations to be sustained, then there must be
positive feedback. Combining the two conditions gives the absolute
condition for oscillations to be initiated and sustained at constant
amplitude.
Av = 1 0 Barkhausen condition.

However the practical condition is Av 1 0 and an allowance of 5% is


given.
The frequency of oscillation is given by:
JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 2

In Wein bridge oscillator, Wein bridge circuit is connected between the


amplifier input terminals and output terminals. The bridge has a series
RC network in one arm and parallel network in the adjoining arm. In the
remaining 2 arms of the bridge resistors R1and Rf are connected. To
maintain oscillations total phase shift around the circuit must be zero and
loop gain unity. First condition occurs only when the bridge is balanced.
Assuming that the resistors and capacitors are equal in value, the
resonant frequency of balanced bridge is given by
FO = 0.159 RC

This circuit produces an extremely low distortion sine-wave, in spite of


the non-linear devices used for amplitude limiting (D1 and D2). The
reason is first that distortion (harmonics) are fed to the minus input of
the op-amp with far less loss than to the plus input, severely attenuating
them. Second, a Wien Bridge oscillator requires a gain of exactly 3.00: No
more and no less. For lowest distortion, calculate the minimum and
maximum available gain to just above and just below 3.00. In other
words, use as little amplitude control as possible.

2.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 3

Fig.1: Circuit diagram for the Wien Bridge oscillator.

3.PROCEDURE
1. The circuit was connected as shown above, then the theoretical
frequency of oscillation was calculated and then the experimental
oscillation frequency was determined from the oscilloscope and
compared with the theoretical one.
2. Simultaneously, both Vf and Vo were displayed on the dual slope
oscilloscope and their peak-to-peak voltages were measured and their
ratios were taken. The ratio was then compared with the theoretical
value.
3. The waveforms of voltages Vo, Vx and Vf were displayed on the
oscilloscope and their amplitude and phases were compared.
4. The variable resistor R1 was varied and the changes in the behavior of
the output signal were observed.
5. The two diodes were disconnected from the circuit and variable
resistor R1 was varied and the behavior of the output signal was
observed and compared with the behavior when the diodes were
connected.
6. R4 was exchanged with a variable resistor and varied then the changes
in the signal generated were observed.

4.RESULTS
Theoretical frequency of oscillation =

=1591.55HZ

Practical frequency of oscillation= 1430.5 HZ


Vf(p-p) = 1.1 V,
Vo(p-p) = 2.8 V
VX = 1.9V
Increase in R1 increases output amplification till clipping occurs.
R
R

=10k+RL=10+34=44k
1 clipping=10+37.5=47.5k
1 oscillation

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 4

4.1. Clipping
V o=18.5v
V f = 6v
Vx=10.8v
After disconnecting diode clipping was 34.4k+RL+10K=78.4K
Crossover distortion was observed.

4.2. Sample output waveforms obtained

Fig.2: The sample output waveform obtained upon connecting the


circuit.

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 5

Fig.3: Simultaneously displaying both Vf and VO on the dual oscilloscope

Fig.4: Simultaneously displaying the waveforms for VO, VX and Vf.


Vf was displayed as a distorted sine wave

5.DISCUSSION AND ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 6

A. Connect the circuit and confirm that the circuit oscillates.


Compare the theoretical and experimental oscillation
frequency. How do they compare? Explain the differences.

The theoretical frequency of oscillation was calculated as follows:

R1 = R2 = R = 10k
C1 = C2 = C = 10nF
f = 1/ (2 x 10x103 x 10x 10-9)
= 1.59 kHz
The experimental oscillation frequency from the oscilloscope was;
T = 0.7 ms
F = 1/T = 1/0.7 x 10-3
= 1.43 kHz
The values of the theoretical and the experimental frequencies
were almost equal but the theoretical frequency of oscillation was
slightly higher than the experimental frequency due to;
The tolerance of the resistors was not taken into consideration.
Parallax error in reading the accurate values from the oscilloscope.

B. Simultaneously display both Vf and VO on the dual oscilloscope.


Measure the peak to peak voltage of the two voltages and take
their ratio. Compare this ratio with the theoretical value. Explain
any difference in the two values.

The measured peak-to-peak voltages (Vf and VO) were;

Vf(pp) = 1.1 V,
Vo(pp) = 2.8 V
Therefore measured ratio = Vf(pp)/ VO(pp) = 1.1/2.8 = 0.39
The theoretical voltage ratio () is given by;
= Vf/ Vo = Z2/ (Z1+Z2)

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 7

Equating j terms to zero, we have;


= oCR / 3oCR = 1/3 = 0.33333
The calculated value of was slightly lower than the measured value due
to;
The tolerance of the resistors was not taken into consideration,
Errors in reading the oscilloscope measurements.

C. Display the waveforms VO, VX and Vf. Compare the three


waveforms (in terms of amplitude, phase, and e.t.c). Explain any
difference in the three waveforms.

The amplitude of the output voltages Vo, Vf and Vx as measured from the
oscilloscope were;
a) Vo = Vx = 2.8V
b) Vf = 1.1V

All the three voltages were in phase.


Vo and Vx were both displayed in a square wave form but Vf was
displayed as a distorted sine wave. This is because the wave forms
of Vo and Vx were affected by the op-amp parameters while Vf was
measured across the parallel RC circuit.
D. Vary R1and observe any changes in the behavior of the output
signal. Explain the changes observed when R1 is varied. Also
explain how and why this method of varying R1 can be used to
generate a square wave.

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 8

As R1 is varied, the frequency of the output signal decreases with


increase in resistance but the amplitude remains the same and vice
versa. This is because varying R1 changes the operating frequency of the
op-amp. In order to generate a square wave, the value of R 1 was
increased.

E. Disconnect the two diodes, vary R1 and observe the behavior of

the output signal. Compare the same behavior when R1 is varied


with the diodes in circuit and with the diodes disconnected. From
the two behaviors, suggest the function of diodes D1 and D2.

With the diodes in the circuit the amplitude of the output signal was
stable but when the diodes were disconnected, the amplitude of the
output signal was unstable. Therefore the function of the two diodes is to
stabilize the amplitude of the output signal by modifying the resistance of
the negative feedback network.

F. Exchange R4 with a variable resistor. Vary R4 and observe any


change in the signal generated. Comment on any change
observed.

As R4 was varied, the output voltage Vo reduces with increase in R4,


and vice versa and since gain (Av) = Vo/Vf, therefore a change in R4
affects the gain.

6.ERROR AND ARROR ANAYLYSIS


This value is close to the experimental frequency which is 1550Hz.
This difference in value can be attributed to the low sensitivity of the
cathode ray oscilloscope. The time scale does not allow for very
accurate readings and hence estimation has to be made.
Errors in the experiment could be attributed to:
1. Reading errors of measuring instruments.
2. Resistor tolerances.
3. Loose terminal connections, thus increasing the effective
resistance.
4. Noise in the d.c power supply.

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 9

7.CONCLUSION
The experiment was conducted successfully and the operation of the
Wien Bridge oscillator was investigated and compared with the expected
theoretical operation. The objective of the experiment was thus met.
There were some deviations from the expected theoretical values
expected due to error as above mentioned.

8.REFERENCE
1. Advanced techniques in power amplifier design by Steve .C.
Cripps 2002 Artech House INC.
2. Analog and digital circuits for electronic control systems
applications by Jerry Luecke Newnes, pages 69 71.
3. Electrical Technology by A. K. Theraja
4. Analogue Electronics 3 Lecturers Notes.

JKUAT IS ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED

Page 10