You are on page 1of 25

g l o b a l l e a d e r i n e n g i n e e ri n g p l a s t i c s f o r m a c h i n i n g

Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
ENGINEERING PLASTIC PRODUCTS
ADHE SIVE
BONDING
INSTRUC TIONS
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
1
Adhesive Bonding Instructions
[
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Introduction 2
How to make the best use of this brochure? 3
1. Advantages and disadvantages of adhesive bonding 4
2. The correct design of bonded joints 5-6
3. Surface preparation 7-10
3.1 General engineering plastics
3.2 Advanced engineering plastics
3.3 Other commonly used materials
4. The different adhesive types 11-15
4.1 Solvent cementing
4.2 Adhesive bonding
5. Suitable adhesives for Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products' materials 16-21
5.1 General Engineering Plastics
5.2 Advanced Engineering Plastics
6. Safety regulations 22
7. Adhesive manufacturers 23
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
2
Introduction
>>
(
General Engineering Plastics
This brochure aim s to assist in the correct use of adhesives in com bination w ith
Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products’m aterials. This includes not only the
selection and application of the right adhesive type, but also a correct design of the joint
and an appropriate surface preparation.
Within the portfolio of Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products, we distinguish:
ERTALON
®
/ NYLATRON
®
Polyamide PA 6, PA 66, PA 4.6
ERTACETAL
®
Polyacetal POM-C, POM-H
ERTALYTE
®
Polyethylene terephtalate PET
PC 1000 Polycarbonate PC
CESTILENE / CESTICOLOR
CESTIDUR
®
/ CESTILITE Polyethylene PE-(U)HMW
CESTITECH
>>
(
Advanced Engineering Plastics
CELAZOLE
®
PBI Polybenzimidazole PBI
TORLON
®
PAI Polyamide-imide PAI
(4203, 4503, 4301, 4501, 5530)
KETRON
®
PEEK Polyetheretherketone PEEK
(PEEK-1000, PEEK-H PV, PEEK-G F30, PEEK-C A30)
TECHTRON
®
HPV PPS Polyphenylene sulphide PPS
PPS 1000 Polyphenylsulphone PPSU
PEI 1000 Polyetherimide PEI
PSU 1000 Polysulphone PSU
SYMALIT
®
PVDF 1000 Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF
[
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
3
1. R ead chapter 1 about advantages and disadvantages of adhesives and w eigh these against those of
other joining m ethods.
2. If it turns out that adhesive bonding is the m ost suitable joining technique for your application, use the
design tips from chapter 2 to arrive at the best geom etry for the bonded joint.
3. R efer to chapter 3 for the correct preparation of the surfaces to be bonded and ensure that this
operation is carried out before attem pting to perform bonding itself.
4. In chapter 5, select a suitable adhesive for your application. In order to m ake a good choice, it is
necessary to read thoroughly the description and properties of the adhesive types being considered
(chapter 4).
5. W hen an adhesive has been selected, m ake a few prototype bonds and test the bonded com ponent
for perform ance, preferably in the intended application. If this test is satisfactory, production can be
undertaken. If the bond fails, repeat the test w ith other adhesives or w ith variants of the first adhesive
until a satisfactory product is found.
6. Attention m ust be paid to the safety precautions sum m arised in chapter 6. Alw ays follow the directions
for use and safety instructions given by the m anufacturer.
7. If you have difficulty in selecting the right adhesive for your application, Q uadrant Engineering Plastic
Products w ill be pleased to render assistance.
IMPORTANT
N ever hesitate to ask adhesive suppliers or m anufacturers for advice about your application. N ever start
bonding on a large scale before doing a practical test.
How to make the best use of this
brochure?
[
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
4
[
1. Advantages and disadvantages
of adhesive bonding
As w ith every joining m ethod, adhesive bonding has a num ber of advantages and disadvantages.
The enum eration below contains the m ost im portant ones.
ADVANTAGES
the bond is continuous w hich results in a
m ore uniform distribution of stresses
over the bonded area (local
concentrations of stresses are avoided).
m ost adhesives have good m echanical
dam ping properties (sound and vibration
dam ping).
in m ost cases the assem bly can take
place at relatively low tem peratures.
the joint is gas and w aterproof and as
such form s a reliable seal.
m aterials of com pletely different nature
can be joined.
adhesive bonding reduces the w eight of
the w hole construction.
in com parison w ith other joining
techniques, adhesive bonding is a rather
sim ple m ethod.
DISADVANTAGES
the strength of the joint is often low in
com parison w ith other joining
techniques.
adhesives perform badly under peel
and cleavage stresses.
full strength is attained only after a
curing period.
certain chem icals m ay affect the
adhesives.
this m ethod of joining is not suitable
for joints subject to alternate loading.
it is often difficult to separate the
bonded com ponents in a non-
destructive w ay.
precautions m ust be taken to avoid
health hazards by solvents and other
chem icals.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
5
[
Fig. 1 : peel
(at least 1 component is flexible)
AVOID
Fig. 2 : cleavage
(2 rigid components)
AVOID
Fig. 3 : tension
FAIR
Fig. 4 : shear
GOOD
Fig. 5 : compression
BEST
2. The correct design
of bondedjoints
B onded joints can be subject to tensile, com pressive, shear, peel or cleavage forces, often in com bination.
Adhesives are strongest in shear and com pression, but perform relatively poorly under peel and cleavage
loading (see fig. 1 to 5). C onsequently, bonded joints need to be designed so as to m inim ise or avoid
cleavage or peel forces.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
6
Figures 6 and 7 show how tw o com m on types of joints can be designed in the "w rong" w ay (subject to
destructive cleavage forces), and how they can be re-designed, w ith dram atic im provem ents in
perform ance
WRONG WRONG
GOOD
BEST (Fig. 7) BEST (Fig. 6)
GOOD
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
7
[
3. Surface preparation
The strength of a bonded joint is determ ined by:
•the cohesion of the cured adhesive
•the adhesion betw een adhesive and surfaces to be bonded
The cohesive forces depend on the type of adhesive used. The adhesive forces are influenced by
electrostatic and chem ical effects and depend as such largely upon the surface preparation.
A good adhesion can only be achieved by an appropriate preparation of the surfaces to be bonded. B ad
or no preparation results in a w eaker bonded joint and m ay even lead to failure. It is good practice to start
bonding as soon as possible after com pletion of the surface preparation.
Surfaces are prepared by one of the follow ing pre-treatm ent procedures (listed in order of increasing
effectiveness as to the strength of the bonded joint):
1. Clean and degrease; dirt, grease and paint obstruct a good adhesion.
2. Clean, degrease and abrade mechanically; m echanical abrasion increases and activates the
contact surfaces of the parts to be bonded.
3. Clean, degrease and pre-treat chemically; chem ical etching considerably im proves the affinity of
the surfaces to be bonded for the adhesive. Apart from chem ical etching, surface activation by a flam e-
, an electrical (corona discharge) or a plasm a pre-treatm ent is also possible.
Depending on the nature of the materials to be bonded and the requirements of the bonded
joint, a pre-treatment consisting of cleaning and degreasing, followed by abrasion with
emery paper, may often be sufficient (see 3.1.1).
For m axim um bond perform ance, a chem ical-, therm al, electrical or plasm a pre-treatm ent has to be
applied.
If solvent cem enting is possible (see p. 4.1), chem ical etching is redundant. Then, cleaning, degreasing
and abrasion w ith m edium -grit em ery paper are sufficient.
R ecom m ended procedures for surface preparation of Q uadrant Engineering Plastic Products’m aterials
and of a few other com m on m aterials are described in detail below .
Note : W hen using chem icals, one m ust proceed w ith caution. Safety m easures are given in chapter 6.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
8
ERTALON / NYLATRON AND ERTALYTE
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner*.
•Abrade w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose particles w ith a clean soft brush.
ERTACETAL
Method I:
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner*.
•Abrade w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose particles w ith a clean soft brush.
Method II
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith
isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and
effective ‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’
cleaner*.
•Im m erse for 5 m inutes at room tem perature in
the follow ing solution:
- w ater 330 pbw
- concentrated sulphuric acid*
(density 1,84 g/cm
3
) 184 pbw
- potassium or sodium dichrom ate* 2 pbw
(pbw = parts by w eight)
•or etch for 5 to 20 seconds in phosphoric acid*
(85% ) at 50°C .
•W ash w ith clean cold running w ater follow ed by
clean hot running w ater.
•D ry w ith hot air.
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner*.
•Etch the surface for 15 m inutes at room tem perature in a chrom o-sulphuric acid bath w ith the
follow ing com position:
- w ater 20 pbw
- concentrated sulphuric acid* (density 1,84 g/cm
3
) 184 pbw
- potassium or sodium dichrom ate* 3 pbw
•W ash w ith clean cold running w ater follow ed by clean hot running w ater. (pbw = parts by w eight)
•D ry w ith hot air.
* see chapter 6.
Method III
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith
isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and
effective ‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’
cleaner*.
•Im m erse for 10 to 20 seconds in the follow ing
solution at 90-100°C :
- perchloroethylene* 96 pbw
- dioxane* 3,7 pbw
- p-toluene-sulfonic acid* 0,3 pbw
(pbw = parts by w eight)
•Place for 30-60 seconds in a 100-120°C hot
oven.
•Im m ediately after rem oving from the oven, rinse
w ith clean, hot (about 60°C ) running w ater.
•D ry w ith hot air.
PC 1000
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner* (pay attention for stress-cracking).
•Abrade w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose particles w ith a clean soft brush.
[
3.1.General Engineering Plastics
3.1.1.
3.1.2.
3.1.3.
3.1.4. CESTILENE / CESTICOLOR / CESTIDUR / CESTILITE
[
3.1.General Engineering Plastics
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
9
CELAZOLE PBI, TORLON PAI, KETRON PEEK AND TECHTRON HPV PPS
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner*.
•Abrade w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose particles w ith a clean soft brush.
PPSU 1000, PEI 1000 AND PSU 1000
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner* (pay attention for stress-cracking).
•Abrade w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose particles w ith a clean soft brush.
SYMALIT PVDF 1000
B eing a fluoropolym er w ith a very good chem ical resistance, SYM ALIT PVD F 1000 is very hard to bond
(w eak joints) to any other m aterials than itself. W hereas only pre-treating the bonding surface m echanically
(M ethod I) w ill give poor bond strength, better results w ill be obtained by chem ical etching of the PVD F
bonding surface (M ethod II).
Method I
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith
isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and
effective ‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’
cleaner*.
•Abrade w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose
particles w ith a clean soft brush.
* see chapter 6.
Method II
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith
isopropyl alcohol*
•Pre-treat the PVD F bonding surface w ith Acton
FluoroEtch or G ore Tetra-Etch.
For inform ation on the use of these products:
Acton Technologies, Inc.
100 Thom pson Street
P.O . B ox 726
Pittston, Pennsylvania 18640
1-717-654-0612
W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
1505 N orth Fourth Street
P.O . B ox 3000
Flagstaff, Arizona 86003-3000
1-800-344-3644
3.2.1.
3.2.2.
3.2.3.
[
3.2.Advanced Engineering Plastics
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
10
[
3.3.Other commonly used materials
METALS [ALUMINIUM (ALLOYS), COPPER (ALLOYS), STEEL, CAST IRON...]
•C lean and degrease the bonding surface w ith isopropyl alcohol* or any other suitable and effective
‘ozone-depleting-chem ical-free’cleaner*.
•G rit-blast or abrade the surface w ith m edium -grit (80-150) em ery paper or a steel w ire brush.
•D egrease again carefully and rem ove loose particles w ith a clean soft brush.
•B ond the surfaces as soon as possible now as to prevent surface corrosion.
The adhesion to the plastics surface being the w eakest link of the plastics-m etal joint, the preparation
procedure indicated above for the m etal surface is the m ost satisfactory. H ow ever, if a better bond
perform ance of the adhesive to the m etal surface is required, this can be obtained by chem ical etching of
the latter.
WOOD
•W ood w ith a m oisture content of over 20% should be oven-dried before bonding.
•R em ove contam inated m aterial m echanically.
•R em ove loose particles and dust from the surface w ith a clean brush.
CONCRETE, STONE AND CERAMICS
•R em ove all dust and dirt from the surface. If contam inated w ith oil or grease, scrub the surface w ith a
detergent solution, follow ed by rinsing w ith clean running w ater.
•G rit-blast or abrade the surface w ith em ery paper or a steel w ire brush.
•R em ove all loose particles and dust from the surface w ith a clean brush. Ensure the surface is
com pletely dry before applying the adhesive.
* see chapter 6.
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
11
[
4. The different adhesive types
We distinguish solvent cementing and adhesive bonding:
Solvent cementing
Solvent cem enting can only be used for bonding identical or sim ilar therm oplastics. The solvent is
applied to the bonding surfaces, after w hich the parts are assem bled and firm ly clam ped together.
After diffusion of the solvent out of the bond, one gets a very strong bond (usually stronger than
w ith adhesive bonding).
The quantity of solvent applied greatly influences the strength of the bond: the use of too little
solvent leads to a w eak bond; if the solvent layer is too thick, how ever, it can take days before the
solvent is diffused out of the bond and local m aterial degradation can occur.
Adhesive bonding
Plenty of one or tw o part adhesives are com m ercially available. The choice of the right adhesive
depends on the m aterials to be bonded and the operating conditions.
B elow follow s a sum m ary of the m ost im portant adhesives for plastics and their principal properties.
EPOXY ADHESIVES
Description and properties
Epoxy adhesives are therm osetting resins.
Tw o-part resin/hardener system s cure after m ixing (curing can m ostly be accelerated by heating). In single-
part epoxies these tw o com ponents are already m ixed and sim ply require heating to cure.
B onding am orphous therm oplastics (PC , PPSU , PEI, PSU ) w ith tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives containing
am ines can cause stress-cracking ; conduct a com patibility test and/or get advice from the adhesive supplier.
C om pared w ith other adhesives, epoxies yield joints w ith high shear strength and excellent creep properties.
Peel and im pact strength, how ever, are relatively low , w hich can be im proved by use of the so-called
"toughened" adhesives. These contain a finely dispersed rubber phase, w hich prevents crack propagation.
Epoxy adhesives are w ell know n for their versatility of application.
O perating tem perature range:
- tw o-com ponent adhesives: -50 to +80°C
- one-com ponent adhesives: -50 to +120°C
(there are now also types available, w hich can be used up to 200°C )
Method of use
The m anufacturer's directions for use should be observed. W eighing and m ixing of the tw o com ponents
needs to be done very carefully.
The m ix is applied to one of the bonding surfaces. The parts are then assem bled im m ediately and
clam ped together until sufficient handling strength is achieved. The curing tim e is generally long, but can
usually be shortened by applying heat. The tem perature resistance of the plastics to be bonded m ust
obviously be born in m ind.
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
Epoxy-resins are relatively hazard free, unless sw allow ed. It's recom m ended to avoid contact w ith the skin
and to provide proper ventilation of the w orkshop.
4.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
12
POLYURETHANE ADHESIVES
SOLVENT-BORNE RUBBER ADHESIVES (CONTACT ADHESIVES)
Description and properties
These are usually tw o-com ponent adhesives, one
of w hich is isocyanate-based.
Polyurethane adhesives w ith low viscosity are
available but health hazards are associated
w ith their low -m olecular-w eight reactants.
C onsequently, one preferably w orks w ith the
higher viscous grades.
After m ixing at room tem perature both com ponents
react rapidly and a polym er is form ed. These
adhesives give strong, resilient bonds and can be
used for the bonding of a w ide range of m aterials.
They have a high im pact strength and an excellent
resistance to peel forces. They have general utility
but their high viscosity and rate of cure can be
lim iting.
They can not be used in hot, w et environm ents.
O perating tem perature range: -50 to +80°C
Method of use
The m anufacturer's specific directions for each
adhesive should be follow ed.
The w orking environm ent should be as dry as
possible since atm ospheric m oisture reacts readily
w ith the isocyanate resin, in this w ay disturbing the
curing process.
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
Very high standards of hygiene are required
because the isocyanate is physiologically active.
This should be backed up by detailed attention to
ventilation of the w orkshop and the alertness of
the staff.
Description and properties
These are based on natural and synthetic rubber
solutions ranging from relatively low viscous
solutions to high viscous pastes and sem i-solids.
They cure at room tem perature by evaporation
and/or absorption of the solvent.
These adhesives are very sim ple to use and can be
applied to nearly all m aterials w hich are not
attacked by the solvent.
B onding am orphous therm oplastics (PC , PPSU ,
PEI, PSU ) w ith solvent-borne rubber adhesives
can cause stress-cracking ; conduct a
com patibility test and/or get advice from the
adhesive supplier.
Solvent-borne rubber adhesives are em inently
suitable in those cases w here flexibility is required,
the load is light and the operating environm ent is
not too dem anding.
The high viscosity and stringy nature m ake som e
variants difficult to use in fine w ork.
H eat-curing variants (vulcanised versions) usually
result in high load-bearing joints. Their suitability
forbonding therm oplastics depends on the curing
tem perature.
O perating tem perature range: -30 to +80°C
Method of use
As w ith all adhesives the m anufacturer's directions
for use should be follow ed strictly.
After application of the adhesive an "open tim e" is
needed for the necessary solvent loss prior to joint
closure. C om ponents m ust be designed to allow
precise placem ent because instantaneous "grab"
is displayed by m any form ulations, not allow ing
post-repositioning of the com ponents. Adequate
m eans of pressing the parts together after initial
contact m ust often be available. In the sim ple,
evaporating variants, assem bling either too soon
or too late, is the m ajor hazard, because too m uch
or too little solvent does not allow adhesion to
occur.
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
The physiological activity of the solvents and the
vapours and fum es released during evaporation/
vulcanisation m ust be recognised. G ood ventilation
of the w orkshop is essential.
C ontact of the adhesive w ith skin or eyes m ust be
avoided.
These adhesives cause few problem s, how ever,
w hen used sensibly.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
13
CYANOACRYLATE ADHESIVES
Description and properties
C yanoacrylates are relatively low viscous fluids
based on acrylic m onom ers. They cure very rapidly
upon contact w ith m inute traces of surface
m oisture. W hen placed betw een closely fitting
surfaces, som e w ill cure to give a strong joint in
tw o to three seconds. Full strength is attained after
5 to 20 hours.
B ecause of the rapid cure rate, cyanoacrylates can
only be used to bond relatively sm all surfaces.
They produce bonds w ith high shear strength, but
m ostly these can't sustain peeling forces and
shock loads.
These adhesives w ill bond alm ost all m aterials
except polyolefin plastics (e.g. PE), fluoropolym ers
(e.g. PTFE and PVD F) and silicone-based rubbers.
H ow ever, recently developed prim ers, to be used
in conjunction w ith cyanoacrylates, have show n
that even these "difficult" plastics can be bonded
successfully.
B onding am orphous therm oplastics (PC , PPSU ,
PEI, PSU ) w ith cyanoacrylate adhesives can cause
stress-cracking: conduct a com patibility test
and/or get advice from the adhesive supplier.
O perating tem perature range: -50 to +100°C
(w ith allyl-based cyanoacrylates, operating
tem peratures up to 250°C are possible)
Method of use
The m anufacturer's directions for use should be
follow ed. N orm ally the adhesive is applied directly
from the bottle in a thin layer on one of the bonding
surfaces. The tw o parts are then im m ediately
assem bled (precise placem ent!) and held together
by contact pressure. H andling strength is achieved
in seconds, but it is recom m ended to w ait another
24 hours before loading the joint.
Too high or too low a percentage of m oisture in the
environm ent, or too thick an adhesive layer, m ay
cause w eak bonds or can prevent curing
altogether. The sam e occurs w hen acid residues
are left on the surface, e.g. after degreasing w ith
chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane,
trichlorotrifluoroethane (not recom m ended
anym ore because of their high ozone depleting
potential). If bonding w ith cyanoacrylate adhesives,
prior degreasing should be done w ith isopropyl
alcohol.
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
C yanoacrylate adhesives bond skin very readily
and rapidly, presenting a real hazard, w hich m ust
be anticipated. Several cyanoacrylates have irritant
vapours (nose and eyes) w hich m ust be extracted
under constant use.
The fam ily of cyanoacrylate adhesives as a w hole
is not considered as toxic.
4.2.4.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
14
TOUGHENED ACRYLIC ADHESIVES
HOT MELT ADHESIVES
Description and properties
This group of adhesives, based on a variety of
acrylic m onom ers, incorporate low m olecular
w eight rubbers that build in a very good resistance
to im pact and peel forces. They are tw o-
com ponent adhesives (resin + hardener) w ith
viscosities ranging from very low to very high.
The toughened acrylic adhesives are suitable for
bonding nearly all m aterials w ith the exception of
the polyolefine plastics, the fluoropolym ers and
several rubber-based m aterials.
The bonded joint is very robust and w ill cope w ith
dem anding environm ents. Som e versions of these
adhesives induce stress-cracking in am orphous
therm oplastics (PC , PPSU , PEI, PSU ) ; conduct a
com patibility test and/or consult the adhesive
supplier.
O perating tem perature range: -50 to +120°C
Method of use
D irections for use can differ greatly depending on
the type of adhesive. In m ost types a thin layer of
hardener (initiator) is applied to one surface and a
layer of resin to the other, after w hich they are
assem bled. For som e types, the com ponents
should be pre-m ixed.
Although all these adhesives are intended to cure
at room tem perature, som e of them m ay be
heated in order to speed up the process.
D epending on the type of adhesive used, it takes
m inutes to hours before the bond m ay be handled.
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
Although not hazardous, all products in the group
should be considered to be physiologically active
to som e degree and appropriate precautions
taken. Vapour extraction should be used w here the
m ore volatile versions are in continuous use.
Description and properties
H ot m elts are a refinem ent of the first know n
adhesive: m olten w ax. They are available in a
variety of form s: tapes, film s, rods, pow ders,
pellets and also liquids. M any synthetic
therm oplastic polym ers can be used as hot m elt
adhesive.
These adhesives m elt on heating and solidify on
cooling. They harden quickly but cannot sustain
high loads and usually have a poor tem perature
resistance.
H ot m elts w ill even bond the difficult polyolefins.
H ow ever, they are unsuitable for m ost rubbers. The
generally high m elt-viscosities m ake close w ork on
sm all objects difficult.
O perating tem perature range: -20 to +60°C
(there are now also types available, w hich can be
used up to 180°C ).
Method of use
M ostly the adhesive is supplied in form of
cartridges and applied by m eans of an electrically
heated gun. This is an easy, fast and econom ical
w ay for applying hot m elts.
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
B ecause of the high tem perature of the m olten
adhesive, the m ajor problem is the possibility of
severe burns.
According to the application and the type of
adhesive used, precautions vary considerably;
ranging from gloves, glasses and good ventilation
to com plex m etering and dispensing equipm ent
coupled to fum e and vapour extracting facilities.
4.2.5.
4.2.6.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
15
ANAEROBIC ADHESIVES
Description and properties
As distinct from the adhesives m entioned above,
m ost anaerobic adhesives are not really structural
adhesives but are better know n as "sealants" or
"locking com pounds".
These one-com ponent adhesives, based on the
acrylic polyester resins, cure in absence of air and
in the presence of m etal. It is sufficient for only one
of the bonding parts to be m etal.
They are especially suited to bond closely fitting
parts (sm all clearances) and are m ainly used for:
- retention of co-axial com ponents, e.g.
bushings, bearings...
- thread-locking (bolts, nuts...),
- pipe-sealing and gasketing.
N orm ally, the joints m ay be handled betw een ten
and thirty m inutes after assem bly, w ith full strength
after 6 to 24 hours. The curing process can be
accelerated considerably by the use of a
supplem entary catalyst (surface prim er) or heat.
Anaerobic adhesives are available in a w ide range
of viscosities (function of application and gap to be
filled) and strengths (perm anent or dism antable
joints).
O perating tem perature range: -50 to +150°C
Precautions (see also chapter 6.)
N o m ajor toxicity problem s have been associated
w ith this fam ily of m aterials. Their general
physiological activity can be considered to be very
low . H ow ever, by extra long or repeated contact
w ith skin som e people can suffer from derm atitis.
4.2.7.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
16
5. Suitable adhesives for
Quadrant Engineering Plastic
Products’ Materials
This chapter indicates w hich adhesive types are considered suitable for bonding Q uadrant Engineering
Plastic Products’m aterials. The best choice does not depend only on the nature of the m aterials to be
bonded. A num ber of other factors also com e into consideration, such as:
•desired flexibility of the joint ; e.g. if tw o m aterials w ith considerably different coefficient of expansion are
bonded and afterw ards subject to a strongly varying operating tem perature
•environm ental conditions: tem perature, hum idity, contact w ith chem icals
•size and kind of load:
- co-axial parts : anaerobic adhesives
- joints subject to com pression or shear:
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives or hot m elts for lightly loaded parts
- cyanoacrylate, toughened acrylic, polyurethane or epoxy adhesives for heavier loaded parts
- joints subject to tension, peel or cleavage: toughened acrylic adhesives or toughened epoxy
adhesives
•size of the gap betw een the m ating parts: large gaps require high viscous liquids, sm all gaps low viscous
ones
•adhesive colour
•user friendliness: one-com ponent adhesives are easier in use than tw o-com ponent ones. The presence
of hazardous elem ents, if any, requires special m easures of precaution.
•curing tim e: adhesives, w hich cure rapidly, require an instantaneous precise assem bly of the bonding.
[
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
17
ERTALON / NYLATRON
• ERTALON / NYLATRON to ERTALON / NYLATRON
H ere solvent cem enting is possible. As solvent for the extruded products (ER TALO N 6SA,
ER TALO N 66SA, N YLATR O N G S and ER TALO N 4.6) form m ic acid is used; for cast nylon
(ER TALO N 6PLA, ER TALO N 6XAU +, N YLATR O N M C 901 and N YLATR O N G SM ) an aqueous
phenol solution (12% w ater) or a resorcinol/ethanol-solution (1:1 ratio) should be used.
Formic acid*
Apply a solvent layer to both surfaces. After 15 to 20 m inutes, a second layer is applied, after
w hich the bonding parts are im m ediately clam ped together under a pressure of about 0.2
N /m m
2
, pressure to be m aintained for 10 hours. Full strength is attained after 2 to 3 days.
Aqueous phenol solution* (12% water)
Im m ediately after application of the solvent to both surfaces, w hile the surfaces are still w et,
clam p the m ating parts together under a pressure of at least 0.2 N /m m
2
. H igher pressures m ay
be used but the im provem ent is negligible.
After clam ping the surfaces together, subm erge the joint in boiling w ater. The curing tim e varies
depending on the w all thickness: about 2 m inutes per m m thickness. If done properly, no phenol
odour w ill be detected w hen the joint is rem oved from the w ater.
Air curing at room tem perature is possible, but this requires considerably m ore tim e. Full
strength is then only attained after about 4 days.
Resorcinol/ethanol-solution* (1:1 ratio)
Apply a solvent layer to both surfaces. After 15 to 20 m inutes a second layer is applied follow ed
by im m ediate clam ping of the bonding parts under a pressure of about 0.2 N /m m
2
. This
pressure should be m aintained for 10 hours. Full strength is attained after 2 to 3 days.
C ontact of the solvents w ith skin or eyes and inhalation of the vapours m ust be avoided. R ubber
gloves, safety glasses and a w ell-ventilated w orkshop are necessary safety precautions.
R em ark:addition of 5 parts by w eight of ER TALO N / N YLATR O N (e.g. chips) to the solvents
m entioned above increases the viscosity and facilitates application.
• ERTALON / NYLATRON to OTHER MATERIALS
The follow ing adhesives are to be considered:
- tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives
- cyanoacrylate adhesives
- toughened acrylic adhesives
- hot m elts
These adhesives m ay also be used to bond ER TALO N / N YLATR O N to ER TALO N / N YLATR O N ,
yielding, w eaker bonds than achievable using solvent cem ents.
* see chapter 6.
5.1.1.
[
5.1.General Engineering Plastics
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
18
ERTACETAL
• ERTACETAL to ERTACETAL
W ith the solvent “hexafluoroacetonesesquihydrate"*, solvent cem enting ER TAC ETAL is
possible. The bonded joint is stronger than w hen bonded w ith the usual adhesives and does not
w eaken w ith tim e.
This low viscous fluid requires closely fitting and very flat m ating surfaces. Apply the solvent to
both surfaces and clam p them together w hile still w et. M axim um bond strength is attained after
a few hours.
H exafluoroacetonesesquihydrate is toxic and consequently the necessary precautions should
be taken (see directions for use from the supplier). It is a very expensive product, so use it
econom ically.
• ERTACETAL to OTHER MATERIALS
The follow ing adhesives, preferably after a thorough chem ical surface pre-treatm ent (see 3.1.2.),
are to be considered:
- tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives
- cyanoacrylate adhesives
- toughened acrylic adhesives
- hot m elts
B onding ER TAC ETAL to ER TAC ETAL w ith these adhesives is also possible.
ERTALYTE
Solvent cem enting is not possible because of the excellent resistance of ER TALYTE to solvents.
The follow ing adhesives are to be considered:
- tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives
- cyanoacrylate adhesives
- toughened acrylic adhesives
- hot m elts
* see chapter 6.
5.1.2.
5.1.3.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
19
PC 1000
• PC 1000 to PC 1000
This can be done by solvent cem enting. The m ost com m on solvent is m ethylene chloride*,
w hich is not, how ever, suitable for bonding large areas due to its fast rate of evaporation. B y
adding up to 8 per cent polycarbonate (e.g. chips), one obtains a solvent solution w ith a reduced
evaporation rate giving the supplem entary advantage that the m ating surfaces m ust not fit as
closely as they have to using the pure solvent.
Apply a thin layer of solvent (excess solvent w ill result in poor bonds) to one of the surfaces and
quickly assem ble the tw o parts. As soon as they are assem bled, the parts should be clam ped
together for a couple of m inutes under an even pressure of about 1 N /m m
2
to ensure good
interface contact.
B onded parts m ay be handled safely after the initial holding tim e, although m axim um bond
strength is only attained after about 2 days at room tem perature.
• PC 1000 to OTHER MATERIALS
The follow ing adhesives are to be considered:
- tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives (preferably w ithout am ines)
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives (not all versions are suitable)
- cyanoacrylate adhesives (not all versions are suitable)
- toughened acrylic adhesives (not all versions are suitable)
- hot m elts
- silicone adhesive sealants w ithout am ines
PC 1000 can also be bonded to itself w ith these adhesives but they produce a w eaker bond in
com parison w ith solvent cem enting.
CESTILENE / CESTICOLOR / CESTIDUR / CESTILITE / CESTITECH
Solvent cem enting of these m aterials is not possible.
Polyolefin plastics, such as PE-H D and PP, are extrem ely difficult to bond (w eak joints) and if
possible other joining m ethods should be applied.
If adhesive bonding rem ains the only joining m ethod possible, one of the follow ing adhesives
can be used after a thorough surface pre-treatm ent (see chapter 3.1.4.):
- tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives
- cyanoacrylate adhesives in conjunction w ith special prim ers
- hot m elts
* see chapter 6.
5.1.4.
5.1.5.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
20
[
5.2.Advanced Engineering Plastics
These engineering plastics find their application especially at high tem peratures (150-300°C ). W hen
designing bonded joints for these m aterials one should first look for an adhesive w hich is com patible w ith
the operating tem perature of the particular application. At tem peratures above 220°C , m ost adhesives
decom pose w ith exception of a few polyim ide-based ones. Silicone adhesive sealants, although not to be
regarded upon as structural adhesives, are suitable as w ell because of their high tem perature resistance (up
to 200°C ). They result in bonds w ith low shear strength but w ith high flexibility.
CELAZOLE PBI, TORLON PAI, KETRON PEEK AND TECHTRON HPV PPS
The follow ing adhesives are to be considered:
- epoxy adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives
- toughened acrylic adhesives
- silicone adhesive sealants
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- cyanoacrylate adhesives
- hot m elts
PPSU 1000, PEI 1000 AND PSU 1000
• PPSU to PPSU – PEI to PEI – PSU to PSU – PPSU to PEI – PPSU to PSU – PEI to PSU
B onding can be done by solvent cem enting using m ethylene chloride* to w hich 1 to 5% PPSU ,
PEI or PSU is added, as solvent.
Apply a thin layer of solvent (excess solvent w ill result in poor bonds) to one of the surfaces and
quickly assem ble the tw o parts. As soon as they are assem bled, the parts should be clam ped
together for a couple of m inutes under an even pressure of about 1 N /m m
2
to ensure good
interface contact.
B onded parts m ay be handled safely after the initial holding tim e, although m axim um bond
strength is only attained after about 2 days at room tem perature.
• PPSU 1000, PEI 1000 or PSU 1000 to other materials
The follow ing adhesives are to be considered:
- epoxy adhesives (preferably w ithout am ines)
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives (not all versions are suitable)
- cyanoacrylate adhesives (not all versions are suitable)
- toughened acrylic adhesives (not all versions are suitable)
- hot m elts
- silicone adhesive sealants w ithout am ines
These adhesives can also be used to bond PPSU 1000, PEI 1000 and PSU 1000 to each other.
* see chapter 6.
5.2.1.
5.2.2.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
21
SYMALIT PVDF 1000
• SYMALIT PVDF 1000 to SYMALIT PVDF 1000
B onding can be done by solvent cem enting. Suitable solvents are dim ethylform am ide* and
dim ethylacetam ide* to w hich up to 15% of PVD F-chips are added.
Apply a thin layer of solvent (excess solvent w ill result in poor bonds) to one of the surfaces and
quickly assem ble the tw o parts. As soon as they are assem bled, the parts should be clam ped
together for a couple of m inutes under an even pressure of about 1 N /m m
2
to ensure good
interface contact.
B onded parts m ay be handled safely after the initial holding tim e, although m axim um bond
strength is only attained after about 2 days at room tem perature. H ow ever, the strength of the
bond w ill never reach the level of a w elded bond.
• SYMALIT PVDF 1000 to other materials
As m entioned on page 9, SYM ALIT PVD F 1000 is very hard to bond to other m aterials. If required,
the follow ing adhesives are to be considered:
- tw o-com ponent epoxy adhesives
- tw o-com ponent polyurethane adhesives
- solvent-borne rubber adhesives
- cyanoacrylate adhesives in conjunction w ith special prim ers
- hot m elts.
* see chapter 6.
5.2.3.
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
22
Plenty of chem icals, to be used for surface pre-treatm ent or solvent cem enting, are m entioned in this
guide for adhesive bonding of Q uadrant Engineering Plastic Products’m aterials: dim ethylacetam ide,
dim ethylform am ide, dioxane, ethanol (ethyl alcohol), form ic acid, hexafluoroacetonesesquihydrate,
isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol), m ethylene chloride, perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene), phenol,
phosphoric acid, potassium dichrom ate, p-toluene-sulfonic acid, resorcinol, sodium dichrom ate, sulphuric
acid, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane.
Always be cautious when using chemicals. All chem icals are m ore or less toxic: inhalation, sw allow ing
and contact w ith skin or eyes m ust thus be avoided. Therefore, provide good ventilation and/or an exhaust
system in the w ork area and w ear protective clothing, gloves and safety glasses or face shield. W hen
using do not eat, drink or sm oke.
O pen fire or sm oking is prohibited w hen using flam m able products since their vapours com bined w ith air
m ay form potentially explosive m ixtures.
W hen w orking w ith acids, add acid to w ater and never vice versa!
Prior to working with chemicals, carefully read their “chemical cards” and “material safety
data sheets” and observe the given directions.
W here adhesives are used, the usual safety regulations m ust be taken in consideration, together w ith the
specific directions for safe use given by the adhesive m anufacturer (ask for the m aterial safety data sheet).
[
6. Safety regulations
gl obal l e ade r i n e ngi ne e r i ng pl ast i cs f or machi ni ng Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
w w w . q u a d r a n t e p p . c o m
23
[
7. Adhesive manufacturers
B ased on the inform ation given above, w e recom m end you to consult adhesive suppliers and/or
m anufacturers in your country or area for assistance in selecting the m ost appropriate adhesive for your
specific application, the m ethod of use to apply and any safety regulations to be observed.
Im portant adhesive m anufacturers such as B O STIK, C IB A, D EG U SSA, G EN ER AL ELEC TR IC Sealants
and Adhesives, H EN KEL, PER M AB O N D and 3M are present and/or have agents practically all over the
w orld and w ill be pleased to help you selecting a suitable adhesive from their extensive portfolio’s (search
the W orld W ide W eb for their w ebsites and gain plenty of up to date inform ation on their adhesives, sites
and agents, etc.). It goes w ithout saying that this enum eration of m anufacturer nam es is not restrictive and
that adhesives of other, non-listed, producers m ay suit perfectly as w ell.
Please note that a practical test under real operating conditions is always the best way to
assess the ultimate suitability of a selected adhesive for your application.
All inform ation supplied by or on behalf of Q uadrant Engineering Plastic Products in relation to its
products, w hether in the nature of data, recom m endations or otherw ise, is supported by research and believed reliable. Q uadrant
Engineering Plastic Products assum es no liability w hatsoever in respect of application, processing or use m ade of the afore-
m entioned inform ation or products, or any consequence thereof. The buyer undertakes all liability in respect of the application,
processing or use of the afore-m entioned inform ation or product, w hose quality and other properties he shall verify, or any
consequence thereof. N o liability w hatsoever shall attach to Q uadrant Engineering Plastic Products for any infringem ent of the rights
ow ned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property by reason of the application, processing or use of the
afore-m entioned inform ation or products by the buyer.
CESTIDUR
®
, ERTALON
®
, ERTACETAL
®
, ERTALYTE
®
, NYLATRON
®
, KETRON
®
, TECHTRON
®
, FLUOROSINT
®
and
SEMITRON
®
are registered trade m arks ofQuadrant.
CESTILENE, CESTICOLOR, CESTILITE and CESTITECH are trade nam es ofQuadrant Engineering Plastic Products.
SYMALIT
®
is a registered trade m ark ofSymalitAG.
CELAZOLE
®
is a registered trade m ark ofHoechst Celanese Corporation.
KETRON
®
PEEK is m ade from genuine VICTREX
®
PEEK
TM
polym er.VICTREX
®
is a registered trade m ark ofVictrex plc.PEEK
TM
is a trade m ark ofVictrex plc.
TORLON
®
is a registered trade m ark ofSolvay Advanced Polymers.
© 2002 Copyright Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products


G
l
o
b
a
l
quality
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d


G
l
o
b
a
l
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
l
o
g
i s t i c s
G
l
o
b
a
l
t
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l
s
u
p
p
o
r
t


Quadrant Engineering Plastic Products
www.quadrantepp.com
ENGINEERING PLASTIC PRODUCTS
BELGIUM
I . P. N o o rd - R . Ta ve rn ie rla a n 2
8 7 0 0 T I E LT
Te l +3 2   0 ) 5 1 4 2 3 5 1 1
F a x +3 2   0 ) 5 1 4 2 3 3 0 0
I . P. N o o rd - S za m o tu lystra a t 1 4
8 7 0 0 T I E LT
Te l. +3 2   0 ) 5 1 4 2 3 2 2 4
F a x +3 2   0 ) 5 1 4 2 3 3 4 0
CANADA
4 9 5 L a ird R o a d
G U E L P H , O n ta rio - N 1 G 3 M 1
Te l   8 0 0 ) 5 6 7 7 6 5 9 / +1 5 1 9 8 3 7 1 5 0 0
F a x   8 0 0 ) 2 6 5 7 3 2 9 / +1 5 1 9 8 3 7 3 7 7 0
FRANCE
Z A C d e S a to la s G re e n
6 9 3 3 0 P U S I G N A N
Te l +3 3   0 ) 4 7 2 9 3 1 8 0 0
F a x +3 3   0 ) 4 7 2 9 3 1 8 9 6
Z . I . F ro n t d e B a n d iè re
B P 2 6
0 1 3 6 0 B A L A N
Te l. +3 3   0 ) 4 7 2 2 5 1 7 8 7
F a x +3 3   0 ) 4 7 2 2 5 9 1 3 5
GERMANY
K o b le n ze rstra ße 3 8
5 6 1 1 2 L A H N S T E I N
Te l +4 9   0 ) 2 6 2 1 6 9 9 0
F a x +4 9   0 ) 2 6 2 1 6 9 9 3 3
A m L e itze lb a c h 1 1
7 4 8 8 9 S I N S H E I M
Te l +4 9   0 ) 7 2 6 1 1 5 5 0
F a x +4 9   0 ) 7 2 6 1 1 5 5 1 5 5
HONG KONG
1 0 8 Ta i To Tsu e n , P in g S h a n
YU E N L O N G ,
N . T. H o n g K o n g
Te l +8 5 2   0 ) 2 4 7 0 2 6 8 3
F a x +8 5 2   0 ) 2 4 7 8 9 9 6 6
HUNGARY
S ik e rt str 2 -4
1 1 0 8 B U D A P E S T
Te l +3 6   0 ) 1 2 6 4 4 2 0 6
F a x +3 6   0 ) 1 2 6 2 0 1 4 5
INDIA
B 1 6 6 Yo jn a vih a r,
D E L H I 9 2
Te l +9 1   0 ) 1 1 2 1 4 4 9 1 7
F a x +9 1   0 ) 1 1 2 1 6 4 5 4 1
ITALY
Via Tre n to 3 9 ,
2 0 0 1 7 P a ssira n a d i R h o ,
M I L A N O
Te l +3 9 0 2 9 3 2 6 1 3 1
F a x +3 9 0 2 9 3 5 0 8 4 5 1
JAPAN
5 -2 , M a ru n o u c h i 2 -c h o m e
C h iyo d a -K ,
T O K YO 1 0 0
Te l +8 1   0 ) 3 3 2 8 3 4 2 6 7
F a x +8 1   0 ) 3 3 2 8 3 4 0 8 7
KOREA
9 7 S a m ju n g -D o n g
O h ju n g -K u , B U C H E O N -C I T Y
Te l +8 2   0 ) 3 2 6 7 3 9 9 0 1
F a x +8 2   0 ) 3 2 6 7 3 6 3 2 2
MEXICO
A p a rta d o P o sta l 1 3
5 2 0 0 0 L e rm a ,
E D O D E M É XI C O
Te l +5 2   7 2 8 ) 7 5 3 1 0
F a x +5 2   7 2 8 ) 7 5 3 1 7
POLAND
U l. D zie g ie lo wa 7
6 1 -6 8 0 P O Z N A N
Te l +4 8   0 ) 6 1 8 2 2 7 0 4 9 / 8 2 5 7 0 4 5
F a x +4 8   0 ) 6 1 8 2 0 5 7 5 1
SOUTH AFRICA
2 5 N ic k e l S tre e t, Te c h n ic o n
P. O . B o x 6 3
R O O D E P O O R T 1 7 2 5
Te l +2 7   0 ) 1 1 7 6 0 -3 1 0 0
F a x +2 7   0 ) 1 1 7 6 3 -2 8 1 1
THE NETHERLANDS
A n th o n y F o k k e rwe g 2
7 6 0 2 P K A L M E L O
Te l +3 1   0 ) 5 4 6 8 7 7 7 7 7
F a x +3 1   0 ) 5 4 6 8 6 0 7 9 6
UNITED KINGDOM
8 3 B rid g e R o a d E a st
WE LWYN G A R D E N C I T Y
H e rtfo rd sh ire A L 7 1 L A
Te l +4 4   0 ) 1 7 0 7 3 6 1 8 3 3
F a x +4 4   0 ) 1 7 0 7 3 6 1 8 3 8
U.S.A.
2 1 2 0 F a irm o n t Ave n u e - P O B o x 1 4 2 3 5
R E A D I N G , P A 1 9 6 1 2 -4 2 3 5
Te l   8 0 0 ) 3 6 6 0 3 0 0 / +1 6 1 0 3 2 0 6 6 0 0
F a x   8 0 0 ) 3 6 6 0 3 0 1 / +1 6 1 0 3 2 0 6 8 6 8
EUROPE
I.P. Noord - R. Tavernierlaan 2
8700 TIELT - Belgium
Tel +32 (0) 51 42 35 11
Fax +32 (0) 51 42 33 00
epp.europe@qplas.com
108 Tai To Tsuen, Ping Shan
YUEN LONG - N.T. Hong Kong
Tel +852 (0) 24702683
Fax +852 (0) 24789966
epp.asia@qplas.com
2120 Fairmont Avenue
PO Box 14235 - READING, PA 19612-4235
Tel (800) 366 0300 / +1 610 320 6600
Fax (800) 366 0301 / +1 610 320 6868
epp.americas@qplas.com
NORTH AMERICA
Regi onal Headquar t er s
Quadr ant E ngi neer i ng P l as t i c P r o duc t s C o mpani es Wo r l dwi de
ASIA-PACIFIC