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Non Revenue Water (NRW

)
26 September 2014
Ismu Rini Dwi Ari
http://archives.deccanchronicle.com/130129/news-current-affairs/article/bwssb-plug-illegal-
connection
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/gallery/global-water-
volume.html
Spheres representing all of
Earth's water, Earth's liquid
fresh water, and water in lakes
and rivers

The largest sphere represents
all of Earth's water, and its
diameter is about 860 miles
(the distance from Salt Lake
City, Utah, to Topeka, Kansas).
It would have a volume of
about 332,500,000 cubic miles
(mi
3
) (1,386,000,000 cubic
kilometers (km
3
)).
The sphere includes all the
water in the oceans, ice caps,
lakes, and rivers, as well as
groundwater, atmospheric
water, and even the water in
you, your dog, and your
tomato plant.
Introduction
 It is water that has been produced and is “lost” before
it reaches the customer.
 Such losses may be caused through leaking and burst
pipes, illegal connections and metering inaccuracies.
 The imperative to effectively manage NRW is further
heightened due to a rapidly growing and urbanised
global population and the impacts of climate
change which together put greater demand on
scarce water resources.
 Furthermore, reducing levels of NRW can contribute
to attaining MDG target 7 to reduce the proportion of
people without access to safe drinking water.

http://www.iwahq.org/1ny/themes/managing-utilities/utility-efficiency/non-revenue-water.html
 Whilst the problem is global in scale, solutions need to be
tailored to local circumstances due to variation in the cause
of water loss and the mechanisms available to manage
them.
 Such differences in the causality include, for instance, a
greater proportion of water loss being of a commercial
nature (customer meter under registration, data-handling
errors, theft of water etc) in developing countries in
comparison to developed countries where physical losses are
by far the highest loss factor.
 On the solution side, the right mix of technological,
institutional and financial mechanisms need to be adapted
to meet local circumstances.

http://www.iwahq.org/1ny/themes/managing-utilities/utility-efficiency/non-revenue-water.html
Introduction
Components
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
Components
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
A makeshift tap attached to an illegal water connection in
Tambaram, Chennai.
http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/illegal-water-connections-to-
be-regularised/article396592.ece
Fresh water from a Dhaka Wasa pump station is delivered to slum
dwellers beside the rail lines in Namapara in Shyampur in the capital
through at least 500 illegal connections. Inset, a man adds another
illegal connection to the tally. Locals claimed that legitimate
connection holders have to stay up at night to collect water but the
slum dwellers get Wasa water 24/7. Photo: Anisur Rahman
http://archive.thedailystar.net/beta2/news/easy-illegally/
Water leakage is a problem in the UK with just over 3 billion litres of
water leaking every year. To put that in perspective, this could be
the equivalent of 14 million baths tubs full of water.
http://www.processindustryforum.com/hottopics/water-leakage-in-the-united-
kingdom#sthash.m82YoEFE.dpuf
Unbilled Authorized Consumption
 water used for fire fighting, or
 free water distributes at standpipes, or
 provided to religious institutions
Unauthorized consumption means illegal use;
 sole illegal connections,
 illegal connections to properties that also have legal
connections, or
 illegal connections for the purpose of selling water
Metering inaccuracies
 malfunctioning water meters,
 estimated water consumption (when meters are not working), &
 misreading water meters
Components
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
Consequences

The issues related to high NRW
Consumers paying for inefficiencies of
water utilities,
A precious and scarce resource being
wasted, and
Unnecessary investments in production
Poor governance
Low Service Coverage
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
NRW in Asian cities = 50-65% due to apparent losses.
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
Managing Apparent Losses
(the IWA management strategy)
http://www.miya-water.com/facts-and-definitions/industry-methodology
Managing Real Losses
http://www.miya-water.com/facts-and-definitions/industry-methodology
The Benefits of Reducing NRW
 Need for less water to be produced, treated, and pumped,
translating into postponement of the expansion of capacity –
producing less water also translates immediately into cost
savings on O & M, due to savings in energy and treatment
costs;
 Reduction in apparent losses, which will result in more water
being billed and more revenue for utilities – it has also been
shown that water metering and adequate rates reduce
wasteful consumption, which will likely decrease total
consumption;
 Adequate understanding of consumption patterns, which will
allow utilities to optimize distribution systems;
 Better knowledge of real consumption, which will improve
demand projections; and
 Reduced sewage flows and pollution
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
 These benefits depend on adequate pricing of water
resources and services.
 Subsidies for water extraction, discharge of
wastewater, capital investment, and operation of
water supply systems lower the cost of water as
perceived by utilities and thus remove an incentive to
reduce physical losses.
 Low water rates for consumers do not encourage
utilities to meter their water consumption and detect
and deter unauthorized water use.
 Moreover, low rates fail to provide consumers with
incentive to deal with leaks and wastage beyond
their meters.
Reducing NRW
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
Case Study Singapore (pop. 2.8
million) – Public Utilities Board
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
Caretaker Approach to OM &
Reducing NRW
 Rationale
Legal & technical approaches to combating NRW
have met with limited success.
Generally, utility staff will only appear when called out
in an emergency or a crisis situation, rather than show
a daily presence in a given locality.
The proposed caretaker approach would add a
social dimension to addressing the problem.
It is based on managing water supplies at the lowest
practicable level and on maintaining a good utility
and consumer interface.
It is particularly suitable for those developing countries
without shortages of relatively cheap man power.
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
 Definition
The caretaker approach is essentially one in which
the whole of a distribution system is divided into
zones, each containing about 500 connections.
A caretaker is appointed to be responsible for all
water supply activities within a given zone.
The concept is not new. In fact, it is employed in
Tokyo and is, to some extent, also used effectively
by one of the concessionaires in Manila.
An SSWP in Manila uses this approach to manage
its system by assigning one aguador to every
connections.
Caretaker Approach to OM
& Reducing NRW
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
 Institutional Framework
A caretaker who lives in the locally is given responsibility
for a water distribution zone.
The caretaker will report to an O & M supervisor located
at a nearby maintenance depot.
The caretaker’s area of responsibility is small enough
that it can be walked in its entirely once per week.
This individual will lease an office from a resident in his or
her zone of responsibility and have access to a
telephone at that point (or will use a mobile phone).
The O & M supervisor (an engineer) will be responsible
for 10 caretakers and not more than 5,000 connections.
Caretaker Approach to OM
& Reducing NRW
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
The Caretaker Duties
The caretaker is expected to develop a
friendly relationship with the people living in
the zone of responsibility.
Caretaker Approach to OM
& Reducing NRW
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
The caretaker will do
Keep a daily diary of all activities in the
zone.
Inspect plumbing all house holds and
assist with repairs, where feasible.
Be responsible for mapping the
distribution system, including all
connections.
Disseminate to consumers notices of
interruption for supply for maintenance
purposes and information concerning
water tariffs, water consumption and
conservation, demand management,
hygiene education, and utility
performance.
Be responsible for accurately metering
all consumer connections and
arranging for meter replacement when
necessary
Analyze billing record and collections
monthly, investigate high and low
consumption and tardy payments, and
report total consumption each month.
Report alternative sources of water used
by both utility customers and
noncustomers.
Report leaks to be repaired and record
the dates the repairs were effected.
Report hours of service and pressure to
the zone (day and night)
Report maintenance or new work
requested and complemented.
Report numbers of persons in each
household in the zone each year.
Record and follow up on consumer
complaints.
Read district flow meters and pressure
gauges daily.
Inspect the entire zone on foot weekly.
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
O & M Supervisor Duties
It is expected to support the caretaker in the
following manner:
Provide timely support and quality control on
maintenance and repairs.
Visit and talk with each caretaker daily.
Review caretaker diaries weekly and provide comments
and guidance.
Inspect with each caretaker his or her zone monthly.
Encourage competition and incentives among
caretakers for good performance.
Comment on all caretaker reports before submitting them
to the head office.
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
NRW in a Nutshell
Problems Solutions
NRW includes water not billed as a result of
leakage, illegal use, inadequate measurement,
and free (authorized) use.
Governance and tariffs must be tackled
first.
NRW averages 30% of production in Asian cities,
but ranges from 4% to 65%.
Leak detection equipment comes last,
not first.
High NRW is connected to low piped water
coverage.
Repair visible leaks.
There is a need to determine whether physical
losses (leakage) are maintained to mask the
illegal use and sale of water.
Make utility staff responsible for small
zones (caretakers).
Illegal safe of water from utilities can generate
revenue equal to legal sales.
Meter all production and consumption
property.
Consumers pay for utility inefficiencies. Add district metering.
A precious and scarce resource is being wasted.
Provide incentives for utility staff
performance.
Unnecessary investments in production are
made.
Explore links to water vendors.
Source: MCINTOSH 2003 Asian Water Supply Chap 9 Non Revenue Water.pdf
Studi Kasus
PTLMH “Sumber Maron” I Desa Karangsuko
Kec. Pagelaran Kabupaten Malang
 Caretaker – Pimpinan Yayasan
Studi Kasus: PDAM Kab. Malang
No URAIAN SATUAN 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1
Tarif Dasar Air
Rata-Rata
Rp/M
3
1000 1500 1500 1500 1500
2
Jumlah Pelanggan
Non Niaga SR 66944 68099 70871 72324 79663
Niaga SR 1460 1508 1726 1744 2092
Industri Kecil SR 48 49 47 48 44
Industri Besar SR 3 3 3 3 6
Kran Umum SR 206 179 180 183 169
Sosial Khusus SR 1501 1519 1593 1629 1820
Pemda SR 203 210 246 243 283
ABRI SR 91 87 89 89 93
3
Jumlah Desa
Terlayani
Desa 285 285 289 289 289
4
Jumlah
Pengaduan
Pelanggan
Kali 7619 3054 6535 2751 2004
5
Rata-Rata
Konsumsi Air
Minum
M
3
/Pelanggan
/Bulan
19,82 19,24 18,94 18,8 19,37
6 Tingkat Kebocoran Prosen 35,4 37,5 33,3 32,51 30,12
7
Cakupan
Pelayanan
Prosen 26,76 28 28,9 29,4 32.00
Sumber : Profil PDAM Kabupaten Malang 2012
Integrated Water and Land Use Planning
By Paula Hunter
MWH New Zealand, PO Box 12
941, Penrose, Auckland 1642
paula.m.hunter@mwhglobal.c
om
Terima Kasih
http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/mc-complains-to-police-against-18-for-
illegal-water-connections/1124685/