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M H MILK HYGIENE

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bby
Dr. Sameh Abuseir
07.09.2011
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“MILK IS A PERFECT FOOD”
Milk is defined as the secretion of the mammary
glands of mammals, its primary natural function
being nutrition of the young.
Milk of some animals, especially cows, buffaloes,
goats and sheep is also used for human goats and sheep, is also used for human
consumption, either as such or in the form of a
range of dairy products range of dairy products.
Milk f i l i d i d b th i l b d Milk of animals is designed by the animal body
only for the offspring of like kind during the first
f th f th few months of growth.
The milk of domestic ruminants is diverted by
man for his own use.
Fermented products such as cheeses were
discovered by accident, but their history has also y , y
been documented for many centuries, as has the
production of concentrated milks, butter, and even p , ,
ice cream.
In addition to being the best single substitute for
woman’s milk is approved supplement to solid woman s milk, is approved supplement to solid
foods through infancy, adolescence, and even in
many cases throughout life many cases throughout life.
 The role of milk in the traditional diet has varied greatly
in different regions of the world. g
 The tropical countries have not been traditional milk p
consumers, whereas the more northern regions of the
world, Europe (especially Scandinavia) and North
A i h di i ll d f ilk America, have traditionally consumed far more milk
and milk products in their diet.
 In tropical countries where high temperatures and lack
of refrigeration has led to the inability to produce and of refrigeration has led to the inability to produce and
store fresh milk, milk has traditionally been preserved
through means other than refrigeration, including
immediate consumption of warm milk after milking, by
boiling milk, or by conversion into more stable products
such as fermented milks such as fermented milks.
Table 1. Per Capita Consumption of Milk and Milk Products in Various Countries, 2005 data.
Country Fluid Milk (Litres) Cheeses (kg) Butter (kg)
Fi l d 117 0 10 8 1 4 Finland 117.0 10.8 1.4
Norway 100.8 14.8 1.7
New Zealand 94.3 4.8 3.9
S d 93 7 16 3 1 2 Sweden 93.7 16.3 1.2
Spain 92.7 6.9 0.2
Australia 80.8 7.1 0.8
United Kingdom 75 2 6 3 2 2 United Kingdom 75.2 6.3 2.2
United States 67.8 5.5 0.7
Netherlands 60.3 10.7 1.4
Italy 57 8 15 5 1 1 Italy 57.8 15.5 1.1
European Union (25 countries) 57.2 5.8 1.0
Germany 54.5 9.4 3.3
Austria 51 4 7 8 2 8 Austria 51.4 7.8 2.8
Switzerland 51.3 11.6 2.4
Mexico 51.3 5.0 N/A
Canada 48 5 6 0 1 4 Canada 48.5 6.0 1.4
France 46.4 13.6 2.9
Argentina 33.5 5.4 0.8
Greece 30 3 14 3 0 7 Greece 30.3 14.3 0.7
Ireland 19.1 3.5 2.3
China 2.5 N/A N/A
T bl 2 C ilk d ti ('000 t ) i l t d t i i th ld (2005) Table 2. Cow milk production ('000 tonnes) in selected countries in the world (2005).
United States 77,470
India 38,500
Germany 28,180
France 23,970 ,
Brazil 23,300
China 18,850
N Z l d (2004) 14 500 New Zealand (2004) 14,500
United Kingdom 14,400
Poland 12,700
Netherlands 10,630
Italy 10,400
Australia (2004) 10 700 Australia (2004) 10,700
Mexico 9900
Canada 7540

MILK BIOSYNTHESIS
 Milk is synthesized in the mammary gland.
 Within the mammary gland is the milk producing
unit the alveolus It contains a single layer of unit, the alveolus. It contains a single layer of
epithelial secretory cells surrounding a central
storage area called the lumen which is connected to storage area called the lumen, which is connected to
a duct system. The secretory cells are, in turn,
surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells and y y y p
blood capillaries.
 Milk components are for the most part formed in the
mammary gland (the udder), from precursors that mammary gland (the udder), from precursors that
are the results of digestion.
 Mammals digest their food by the use of enzymes to
obtain simple soluble low-molar-mass components obtain simple, soluble, low molar mass components,
especially monosaccharides; small peptides and
amino acids; and fatty acids and monoglycerides.
 These are taken up in the blood, together with other
nutrients such as various salts glycerol organic nutrients, such as various salts, glycerol, organic
acids, etc.
 The substances are transported to all the organs in the
body, including the mammary gland, to provide
energy and building blocks (precursors) for energy and building blocks (precursors) for
metabolism, including the synthesis of proteins,
lipids, etc.
 In ruminants like the cow, considerable predigestion
occurs by means of microbial fermentation which occurs by means of microbial fermentation, which
occurs for the most part in the first stomach or rumen.
The rumen may be considered as a large and very
complex bio-fermenter. It contains numerous
bacteria that can digest cellulose, thereby
breaking down plant cell walls, providing energy
and liberating the cell contents.
From cellulose and other carbohydrates, acetic, y , ,
propionic, butyric and lactic acid are formed,
which are taken up in the blood. p
The composition of the organic acid mixture The composition of the organic acid mixture
depends on the composition of the feed. Proteins
are broken down into amino acids are broken down into amino acids.
The rumen flora uses these to make proteins but
can also synthesize amino acids from low-molar-
mass nitrogenous components.
Further on, in the digestive tract the microbes are
digested, liberating amino acids. Also, food lipids
h d l d i h d l are hydrolyzed in the rumen and partly
metabolized by the microorganisms. All these
precursors can reach the mammary gland precursors can reach the mammary gland.
Th th i f ilk t f th The synthesis of milk components occurs for the
greater part in the secretory cells of the mammary
gland At the basal end precursors of milk gland. At the basal end precursors of milk
components are taken up from the blood, and at
the apical end milk components are secreted into the apical end milk components are secreted into
the lumen.
Proteins are formed in the endoplasmic
reticulum and transported to the Golgi vesicles,
in which most of the soluble milk components are
collected.
The vesicles grow in size while being transported
through the cell and then open up to release their g p p
contents in the lumen.
Triglycerides are synthesized in the cytoplasm,
forming small globules which grow while they forming small globules, which grow while they
are transported to the apical end of the cell.
They become enrobed by the outer cell membrane
(or plasmalemma) while being pinched off into
the lumen. This type of secretion is called
merocrine, which means that the cell remains
intact.
The raw materials for milk production are p
transported via the blood stream to the secretory
cells. It takes 400-800 L of blood to deliver
components for 1 L of milk.
Excretion
 The glandular epithelium, consisting of layers of
secretory cells, form spherical bodies called alveoli.
Each of these has a central lumen into which the
freshly formed milk is secreted. From there, the milk
can flow through small ducts into larger and still
larger ones until it reaches a cavity called the cistern.
 From the cistern, the milk can be released via the teat.
A cow has four teats and hence four separate
mammary glands, commonly called (udder) quarters.
 Excretion of the milk does not happen spontaneously:
the alveoli have to contract, which can be achieved by
the contraction of muscle tissue around the alveoli.
Contraction is induced by the hormone oxytocin.
This is released into the blood by stimulation of
the teats of the animal, be it by the suckling
young or by the milker. The udder is not fully
emptied.
Lactation
When a calf is born, lactation, i.e. the formation
and secretion of milk, starts.
The first secretion greatly differs in composition
from milk.
Within a few days the milk has become normal
and milk yield increases for some months, after
which it declines.
The yield greatly varies among cows and with the
amount and the quality of the feed taken by the
cow.
For milk cows, milking is generally stopped after
about 10 months, when yield has become quite
low. The duration from parturition to leaving the
cow dry is called the lactation period, and the
time elapsed after parturition is the stage of
lactation.
Colostrum
Colostrum is a form of milk produced by the
mammary glands of mammals in late pregnancy.
Most species will generate colostrum just prior to
giving birth.
 Colostrum contains antibodies to protect the  Colostrum contains antibodies to protect the
newborn against disease, as well as being lower in
fat and higher in protein than ordinary milk fat and higher in protein than ordinary milk.
C l t i i l f b f i l Colostrum is crucial for newborn farm animals.
They receive no passive transfer of immunity via
th l t b f bi th tib di th t the placenta before birth, so any antibodies that
they need have to be ingested.
This oral transfer of immunity can occur because
the newborn's stomach is porous. This means that
large proteins (such as antibodies) can pass
through the stomach wall.
The newborn animal must receive colostrum
within 6 hours of being born for maximal transfer g
of antibodies to occur.
The stomach wall remains somewhat open up to
24 hours of age but transfer is more limited 24 hours of age, but transfer is more limited.
Livestock breeders commonly bank colostrum
from their animals.
Colostrum produced on a breeder's own premises is
considered to be superior to colostrum from other
sources, because it is produced by animals already
exposed to (and thus, making antibodies to)
pathogens occurring on the premises.
 A German study reported that multiparous mares y p p
produced on average a liter (quart) of colostrum
containing 70 grams of IgG. g g g
 In many dairy cow herds the calves are not  In many dairy cow herds the calves are not
permitted to nurse; rather, they are fed colostrum
from a bottle or by stomach tube and later milk from from a bottle or by stomach tube and later milk from
a bottle then a bucket.
Human Human consumption consumption of of bovine bovine colostrum colostrum
Assertions that colostrum consumption is of
human benefit are questionable because most
ingredients undergo digestion in the adult
stomach, including antibodies and all other
proteins.
 Bovine colostrum and its components are safe for
human consumption except in the context of human consumption, except in the context of
intolerance or allergy to lactose or other
components components.
It h i i th t t t ti  It shows promise in the treatment or prevention
of a variety of disease states.
Bovine colostrum from pasture-fed cows contains
immunoglobulins specific to many human pathogens,
including Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium parvum,
Shigella flexneri, Salmonella, Staphylococcus,[27]
and rotavirus (which causes diarrhea in infants).
Before the development of antibiotics, colostrum was p ,
the main source of immunoglobulins used to fight
infections.
In fact when Albert Sabin made his first oral vaccine In fact, when Albert Sabin made his first oral vaccine
against polio, the immunoglobulin he used came
from bovine colostrum from bovine colostrum.
When antibiotics began to appear, interest in
colostrum waned, but, now that antibiotic-
resistant strains of pathogens have developed,
interest is once again returning to natural
alternatives to antibiotics, namely, colostrum.
SOME PROPERTIES OF MILK:
Milk S l ti Milk as a Solution:
Milk i dil t l ti d b h  Milk is a dilute aqueous solution and behaves
accordingly.
 Because the dielectric constant is almost as high as that
of pure water, polar substances dissolve well in milk
d l d di i ( l h h hi di i i and salts tend to dissociate (although this dissociation
is not complete).
 The ionic strength of the solution is about 0.073 M. The
pH of milk is about 6.7 at room temperature.
 The viscosity is low, about twice that of water, which
th t ilk dil b i d b means that milk can readily be mixed, even by
convection currents resulting from small temperature
fluctuations.
The dissolved substances give milk an osmotic
pressure of about 700 kPa (7 bar) and a
freezing-point depression.
The water activity is high, about 0.995. y g ,
Milk density (ρ 20) equals about 1029 kg m
3
at Milk density (ρ 20) equals about 1029 kg m
3
at
20°C; it varies especially with fat content
Milk as a Dispersion:
Milk is also a dispersion; the particles involved
are summarized. This has several consequences,
h ilk b i hi such as milk being white.
The fat globules have a membrane, which acts as
a kind of barrier between the plasma and the core
li id Th b l t t th l b l lipids. The membrane also protects the globules
against coalescence. The various particles can be
separated from the rest separated from the rest.
Th f t l b l b t t d i i l The fat globules can be concentrated in a simple
way by creaming, which either occurs due to
gravity or — more efficiently — is induced by gravity or — more efficiently — is induced by
centrifugation.
In this way cream and skim milk are obtained.
Skim milk is not identical to milk plasma, though
quite similar, because it still contains some small
fat globules.
Cream can be churned, leading to butter and
buttermilk; the latter is rather similar in ;
composition to skim milk.
Likewise, casein micelles can be concentrated and
separated from milk for instance by membrane separated from milk, for instance, by membrane
filtration. The solution passing through the
membrane is then quite similar to milk serum membrane is then quite similar to milk serum.
If the pores in the membrane are very small, also
the serum proteins are retained.
When adding rennet enzyme to milk, as is done
in cheese making, the casein micelles start to g,
aggregate, forming a gel; when cutting the gel
into pieces, these contract, expelling whey. p , , p g y
Whey is also similar to milk serum but not quite Whey is also similar to milk serum but not quite,
because it contains some of the fat globules and
part of the κ casein split off by the enzyme part of the κ-casein split off by the enzyme.
Casein also aggregates and forms a gel when the
pH of the milk is lowered to about 4.6.
Water can be removed from milk by evaporation.
Altogether, a range of liquid milk products of
various compositions can be made.
Flavor:
The flavor of fresh milk is fairly bland.
The lactose produces some sweetness and the
salts some saltiness salts some saltiness.
several small molecules present in very small
quantities also contribute to flavor.
The fat globules are responsible for the g p
creaminess of whole milk.
Nutritional value:
Milk is a complete food for the young calf, and it
can also provide good nutrition to humans. p g
It contains virtually all nutrients most of these in It contains virtually all nutrients, most of these in
significant quantities.
It is poor in iron and the vitamin C content is not
high. It contains no anti-nutritional factors, but it
lacks dietary fiber.
Milk as a Substrate for Bacteria:
Because it is rich in nutrients, many
microorganisms, especially bacteria, can grow in g , p y , g
milk.
Not all bacteria that need sugar can grow in milk,
some being unable to metabolize lactose some being unable to metabolize lactose.
Milk is poor in iron, which is an essential nutrient
for several bacteria, and contains some
antibacterial factors, such as immunoglobulins
and some enzyme systems.
Milk contains too much oxygen for strictly
anaerobic bacteria. Altogether, the growth of g , g
several bacteria is more or less restricted in raw
milk, but several others can proliferate, especially , p , p y
at high ambient temperatures.

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