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Early Humans &

Early Civilizations
Unit 1: 8000-600 BCE
Eras to Know:
Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age
1 million - 8,000 BCE 8,000 - 3,000 BCE
First Humans
Australopithecus
Homo habilis
Homo erectus
Homo sapiens:
Neanderthals
Homo sapiens sapiens
1
2
3
First Migrations
Out of Africa
Eurasia
Australia
The Americas
The Pacific
First Societies
Bands of 25-50
people
Nomadic with little
to no food surplus
Egalitarian
Gender-based
division of labor
First Societies
Economy &
Environment
More leisure time
Low life expectancy
Slash & burn
agriculture
First Societies
Spiritual life
Rock art
Some monotheistic
Levels of supernatural
beings
Cyclical view of time
Patterns
Settling Down
Improved living conditions
More permanent villages
Societies became larger & more complex
Store & accumulate goods
Beginnings of Agriculture
Neolithic Revolution
Deliberate
cultivation of
plants & taming of
animals
Replaced hunting
& gathering
Beginnings of Agriculture
Common Patterns
Improved conditions
New knowledge & technology
Disappearance of many large mammals
Growing populations
Beginnings of Agriculture
Variations
Agriculture Goes Global
Diffusion vs. displacement
Bantu Migrations
3,000 BCE
Paleo people were
absorbed, killed, or
driven away
10,000 years to go global
Agriculture Goes Global
Population increase
Environmental
transformations
Health deterioration
Technological
innovations
Social Variation
Pastoral Societies Agricultural Villages Chiefdoms
•Relied on animals
•Herders, pastoralists,
or nomads
•Central Asia, Arabian
Peninsula, Sahara
•Moved seasonally
•Relative gender
equality
•Horticultural farmers
•Banpo or Jericho
•Social & gender
equality
•Catal Huyuk
•Kinship groups
•Some economic
inequality
•Inherited positions of
power
•Relied on generosity
not the use of force
•Mesopotamia, Pacific
Islands, North America
•Patrilineal descent
•Many jobs for chiefs
What makes a civilization?
Food Surplus
Cities
Specialization
Trade
Social Stratification
Organized government
Complex religions
Written language
Arts/architecture
The First Civilizations
Mesopotamia
Egypt
Indus
Shang
The Americas
The First Civilizations