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River Valley Civilizations

Unit 1: 8000 BCE to 600 CE
Mesopotamia
Unit 1: 8000 BCE-600 CE
Geography
Between
Tigris &
Euphrates
Rivers
Middle East
Mesopotamian Rulers
Sumerians
c. 3200 - 2350 BCE
Akkadians
c. 2350 - 2150 BCE
Babylonians
c. 1900 - 1500 BCE
Sumerians
Migrated c. 4000
BCE
Created first
civilization within
the region
Organized the area
into city-states
Sumerians
Cuneiform
First known case
of human writing
Geometric
shapes to
symbolize
sounds
Complex skill
Sumerians
Statues &
painted frescoes
Began science of
astronomy
Number system
(10, 60, and 360)
Charts of major
constellations
Sumerians
Ziggurats
Polytheistic
Belief in
afterlife of
punishment
Sumerians
Organized city-states
Ruled by a king
More formal political structure
Govt. regulated religion
Court system
Class system
Sumerians
Agricultural
prosperity
Wheeled carts
Fertilizers
Use of silver for
buying & selling
Akkadians
Conquered the Sumerians
Unified with Akkad
Founded by Sargon
Akkadians
Sargon
Unified city-
states
Est. world’s
first empire
Babylonians
Amorites
dominated
Mesopotamia
Led by King
Hammurabi of
Babylon
Babylonians
King Hammurabi
Improved walls
around Babylon
Allies with cities to
the north
Conquered Lower
Mesopotamia
Used river to flood
his enemies
Babylonians
Code of Hammurabi
Code of 282 laws
Rules of procedure for
courts
Regulated property rights
& duties of family members
Harsh punishments for
crimes
Invasions
Large political units declined
Return to city-states & regional kingdoms
Assyrians & Persians would eventually
create large new empires in the Middle
East!
Egypt
Unit 1: 8000-600 BCE
Early Civilizations
3000 BCE
Northern Africa
Along the Nile River
Geography
Nile River
Red Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Sahara Desert
PROTECTION!
Old Kingdom
2700 - 2200 BCE
“The Pyramid
Age”
Greatest &
largest pyramids
Capital at
Memphis
Giza
Middle Kingdom
2100 - 1800 BCE
Golden Age of
literature in Egypt
Trade, arts, &
literature flourished
New Kingdom
1500 - 1000 BCE
Expansion period
Creation of an Egyptian empire
Pharaohs gained power
Empire destroyed by invasions
Economy
Govt. exercised
much control
Necessary
because of
irrigation?
Society
Class Structure
Pharaoh
Priests
Commoners
Slaves
Society
Role of Women
Buy & sell property
Serve on juries
Enter legal contracts
Right to divorce &
remarry
Equal pay
Religion
Polytheistic
Afterlife
Mummification
Technology
Bronze weapons
Mathematics
Medicine
Astronomy
Hieroglyphics
Arts & Architecture
Pyramids
Painting
Sculpture
Indus River Valley
8000 BCE-600 CE
Indus River Valley
Developed between
3000 BCE & 2500
BCE
Declined by 1500
BCE
Indus River Valley
Traded: From Persia:
From
Mesopotamia:

Pottery

Tools

Decorative
items

Gold

Silver

Copper

Wool

Leather

Olive oil
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
Largest Indus cities
Walled
Grid
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
Marketplaces, assembly halls, baths, &
uniform housing
Town divided between rich & poor
Indus River Valley
Writing still a
mystery
400 symbols to
represent sounds
& words
Indus River Valley
Collapsed by 1500 BCE
Environmental factors
Aryans
Nomadic
Khyber Pass,
1700 BCE
Aryans
Vedas
Male-
dominated
society
Polytheistic
Aryans
Strict social
structure
Varnas
Basis for
future caste
system
Brahmins
Ksatriyas
Vaisyas
Shudras
After the Aryans...
India developed into
small regional kingdoms!
There were periods of
centralized rule.
China’s Shang Dynasty
8000 BCE-600 CE
Geography
3 major rivers
Huang He
Chang Jiang
Xi Jang
Temperate Climate
Mountainous
Shang Dynasty
First true
civilization
Capital at
Anyang
Shang
Dynasty
Religion
Polytheistic
Oracle bones
Shang
Dynasty
Accomplishments
Written script
Bronze metal-casting
Ivory carvings
Silk Clothing
White clay
Shang Dynasty
Decline & Fall
ca. 1100 BCE
Lack of strong leadership
Lieutenant Wu
Established Zhou dynasty