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**Course Code Course Title Course Planner Lectures Tutorials Practicals Credits
**

CAP632 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATION

THEORY

12962::Harjinder Kaur 3.0 0.0 0.0 3.0

Course Category Courses with conceptual focus

TextBooks

Sr No Title Author Edition Year Publisher Name

T-1 THEORY OF COMPUTER

SCIENCE :AUTOMATA,

LANGUAGES & COMPUTATION

K.L.P MISHRA & N.

CHANDRASEKRAN

1st PHI (PRETICE HALL INDIA)

Reference Books

Sr No Title Author Edition Year Publisher Name

R-1 INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGES

& THE THEORY OF

COMPUTATION

JOHN C MARTIN 1st TATA MCGRAW HILL

R-2 THEORY OF COMPUTATION KAVI MAHESH 1st WILEY INDIA PVT LTD

R-3 AN INTRODUCTION TO FORMAL

LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA

PETER LINZ 4th 2010 NAROSA PUBLISHING HOUSE PVT. LTD

Other Reading

Sr No Journals articles as Compulsary reading (specific articles, complete reference)

OR-1 http://cs.fit.edu/~dmitra/FormaLang/ ,

OR-2 http://www.mywbut.com/syllabus.php?mode=VT&paper_id=14&dept_id=2 ,

OR-3 http://www.gobookee.net/formal-languages-and-automata-theory-by-krithivasan/ ,

Audio Visual Aids

Sr No (AV aids) (only if relevant to the course) Salient Features

AV-1 http://www.ida.liu.se/~TDDA89/ To provide students in learning basic and advanced concepts through

remote experimentation

AV-2 http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~andrejb/csc3130/f08/ To provide various tools for learning, including web recources, video

lectures, animated demonstration and seld evaluation

AV-3 http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/106106049/ To provide various tools for learning, including web recources, video

lectures, animated demonstration and seld evaluation

LTP week distribution: (LTP Weeks)

Weeks before MTE 7

Week

Number

Lecture

Number

Broad Topic(Sub Topic) Chapters/Sections of

Text/reference

books

Other Readings,

Relevant Websites,

Audio Visual Aids,

software and Virtual

Labs

Lecture Description Learning Outcomes Pedagogical Tool

Demonstration/

Case Study /

Images /

animation / ppt

etc. Planned

Live Examples

Week 1 Lecture 1 Automata(Definition) T-1:Ch-1 AV-1 Introductory Lecture Students will learn

about the need and

use of TOC in the

field of Computer

Science

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Automata theory

is the basis for

the theory of

formal

languages

Lecture 2 Automata(Description and

transition modes)

T-1:Ch-3 AV-2 Complexity theory

Computability theory

Automata theory

Students will learn

about the transition

modes

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Accept and

Generate modes

Lecture 3 Automata(NDFA and DFA) T-1:Ch-3 DK-1 NDFA is a variation of

the FSM that will make

it much easier to design

FSMs

Makes it easy to

design FSMs

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

DFA can model

software that

decides whether

or not online

user-input such

as email

addresses are

valid

Week 2 Lecture 4 Automata(Mealy and Moore

machine)

T-1:Ch-3 DK-3 Variants of Finite

automata

Students learn about

Finite automata with

output

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

A simple Mealy

machine has one

input and one

output,complex

Mealy machines

can have

multiple inputs

as well as

multiple outputs

Automata(Minimization of

Finite Automata)

T-1:Ch-3 AV-2 Deterministic finite

automata and example

of a finite automata

Students learn to

reduce a Complex

Finite Automata

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Select one state

in each set of the

partition final as

the

representative

for the set.

These

representatives

are states of

minimum DFA

Detailed Plan For Lectures

Weeks After MTE 7

Spill Over 3

Week 2 Lecture 4 Automata(Constructing

simple automata)

T-1:Ch-4 DK-2 Formal definition of a

finite automaton

Students learn to

Design

finite automata

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Defining Initial

and Final

States,Creating

Transitions,Dele

ting States and

Transitions,Run

ning the FA on

Multiple Strings

Lecture 5 Automata(Handling end

conditions)

T-1:Ch-4 OR-1 Regular operations of

simple automata

Students learn the

importance of Finite

Automata

conditions

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Useful for

specifying

behavior of

systems that are

not expected to

terminate, such

as hardware,

operating

systems and

control systems

Automata(Handling reject

states)

T-1:Ch-4 OR-2 Proof techniques of

automata states

Students learn the

importance of Finite

Automata

states

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

All states have a

transition for all

possible input

signals. If an

input signal is

considered

'illegal' it cannot

be rejected

Automata(Step by step

method for constructing

automata)

T-1:Ch-4 OR-3 To construct and analyse

automata behaviour

Learn the importance

of construction of

Automata

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Defining Initial

and Final

States,Creating

Transitions,Dele

ting States and

Transitions,Run

ning the FA on

Multiple Strings

Automata(States as

Memory)

T-1:Ch-5 OR-2 To construct states to

compute functions

Learn the importance

of corresponding

states

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

An automaton

may also contain

some extra

memory in the

form of a stack

in which

symbols can be

pushed and

popped

Automata(Why finite

number of states)

T-1:Ch-5 OR-1 Process and accept

infinite sets if input

strings

Students learn the

importance of

Automata states

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

vending

machines

,elevators,traffic

lights

Week 2 Lecture 5 Automata(Limitations of

finite automata)

T-1:Ch-5 DK-2 Constructing automata

to solve computing

problems

Learn the Limitations

of finite automata

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

FA is that they

have only a

finite number of

states. Hence, a

finite automata

can only "count"

a finite number

of input

scenarios.

Lecture 6 Automata(Non deterministic

finite automata)

T-1:Ch-5 DK-3 Formal definition of a

non deterministic finite

automata

Learn the importance

of NDFA Closure

under the regular

operations

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Does not require

input symbols

for state

transitions and

is capable of

transitioning to

zero or two or

more states for a

given start state

and input

symbol

Construction of Finite

Automata(Construction of

Finite Automata equivalent

to Regular expression &

vice versa)

T-1:Ch-5 AV-3 Relation between Finite

Automata Regular

Expressions

Any FSM can be

converted to a regular

expression, and every

regular expression

can be converted into

a nondeterministic

FSM

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Works

recursively by

splitting an

expression into

its constituent

subexpressions,

from which the

NFA will be

constructed

using a set of

rules

Construction of Finite

Automata(Pumping Lemma

for regular sets & its

applications)

T-1:Ch-5 DK-1 Non regular Languages

The pumping lemma for

regular languages

The pumping lemma

for Regular sets is a

way to convince

students that certain

sets are not Regular

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

To prove a fact

about all infinite

regular

languages that

will be helpful

in proving that

specific

languages are

nonregular.

Week 3 Lecture 7 Pushdown Automata

(Definition)

T-1:Ch-7 DK-2 Describing the basics of

Push Down Automata

A push down

automaton PDA or is

a type of automaton

that uses a stack for

temporary data

storage

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

They are more

capable than

finite-state

machines but

less capable than

Turing

machines.

Week 3 Lecture 7 Pushdown Automata

(Acceptance)

T-1:Ch-7 AV-2 Types of acceptance by

Pushdown Automata

Students learn about

the technique for

acceptance of string

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

The first

acceptance

mode uses the

internal memory

(state), the

second the

external

memory (stack).

Pushdown Automata

(Pushdown Automata and

Context Free Languages)

T-1:Ch-7 OR-1 Relationship between

Push down Automata

and Context Free

Languages

Learn about

Connection between

Push down Automata

and Context Free

Languages

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

When the

grammar

rewrites a

nonterminal, the

PDA takes the

topmost

nonterminal

from its stack

and replaces it

by the right-

hand part of a

grammatical

rule

Lecture 8 Pushdown Automata

(Parsing and Pushdown

automata)

T-1:Ch-7 OR-2 Purpose of Parsing in

automata

Learn about Top

Down and Bottom

Up Parsing

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Top down and

bottom up

parsing

Pushdown Automata

(Constructing PDAs)

T-1:Ch-7 DK-3 To teach about the

construction of PDA

Students solve the

examples of push

down automata

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Regarded as

being "pushed

down" like a

tray dispenser at

a cafeteria, since

the operations

never work on

elements other

than the top

element

Lecture 9 Pushdown Automata

(Converting CFGs to PDAs)

T-1:Ch-7 AV-1 Designing PDAs from

context free grammars

Ways to simplify

CFGs

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

For each

pushdown

automaton M

one may

construct a

context-free

grammar G such

that N(M)=L(G)

Pushdown Automata

(Converting PDAs to CFGs)

T-1:Ch-7 AV-3 Designing PDAs to

CFGs

Ways to simplify

PDAs

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

using the tools

under the

“Convert ?

Convert to

Grammar” menu

option using

JFLAP

Week 3 Lecture 9 Context Free languages

(Derivation trees)

T-1:Ch-6 DK-1 Other way of

representing a CFG

Parse tree as a way to

represent the

derivation of a string

from a grammar

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

if we used a

production A : :

= X1X2...Xn (in

either top-down

or bottom-up

parsing) then we

construct a tree

with node A and

children

X1X2...Xn

Week 4 Lecture 10 Context Free languages

(Ambiguity in Context free

grammars)

T-1:Ch-6 AV-3 To ambiguity in context

free grammars

Students learn the

importance of

Ambiguity with the

help of examples

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

When there's a

word which has

two different

derivation tree

Context Free languages

(Simplification of context

free grammars)

T-1:Ch-6 AV-2 Equivalence with

context free grammars

Students learn the

ways to equivalent

context free

grammars

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Precise

mechanism for

describing the

methods by

which phrases in

some natural

language are

built from

smaller blocks,

capturing the

"block structure"

of sentences in a

natural way

Lecture 11 Context Free languages(The

Chomsky & Greibach

Normal Forms)

R-1:Ch-4

R-2:ch-6

AV-3 Describing CNF Students learn to

reduce grammar to a

CNF

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Normal

form usually

used in algebraic

specifications

Context Free Grammars(The

Kuroda Normal Form)

R-3:Ch-6 AV-1 DescribingKuroda

Normal Form

Students learn the

importance of KNF

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Every context-

sensitive

language which

does not

generate the

empty string can

be generated by

a grammar in

Kuroda normal

form

Lecture 12 Context Free Grammars

(One sided Context

Sensitive Grammars)

R-3:Ch-6 OR-1 Elaborates concept of

KNF

Learns about the

implementation of

KNF

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Noncontracting

grammar or a

linear bounded

automaton

Week 4 Lecture 12 Context Free Grammars

(Unrestricted Languages)

R-3:Ch-6 DK-2 Implementation for

making restrictions

Learn the usage of

restrictions

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Grammars make

no real

distinction

between

nonterminal and

terminal

symbols

Regular Languages and

Expressions(Idea of formal

languages)

R-3:Ch-6 AV-1 Introduction to formal

language

Learn the concept of

formal language

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Every nonempty

string that does

not contain "+"

or "=" and does

not start with

"0" is in L.

Week 5 Lecture 13 Regular Languages and

Expressions(Languages of

Automata)

R-3:Ch-6 OR-1 Highlights on Automata Understands the

concept of automaton

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Generative

model ,language

model

Regular Languages and

Expressions(Regular

expressions)

R-3:Ch-6 DK-2 Recursive definition Learn to construct

simple regular

expression

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

The set of

strings over

{0,1} that end in

3 consecutive

1's.

(0 | 1)* 111

Regular Languages and

Expressions(Converting

Regular expressions to

automata)

R-3:Ch-6 AV-2 Mapping from elements

of regular expression to

NFA

Learn to convert

regular expression to

equivalent automata

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

JLex, is to

generate the

transition tables

or to synthesize

the scanner

program given a

scanner

specification

Lecture 14 Turing Machines

(Representation)

T-1:ch-9 AV-1 Ways to design Turing

Machines

Understands about

Formal definition of a

Turing machine

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

It consists of an

infinitely-long

tape which acts

like the memory

in a typical

computer, or any

other form of

data storage

Week 5 Lecture 14 Turing Machines(Language

acceptability)

T-1:ch-9 AV-3 Examples of Turing

machines and

computable functions

Learn to construct

turing machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

A string x is said

to be accepted

by a Turing

machine* T = <

Q , , , q0 , > if

( q0 , x ) * ( h,

yaz ) for some

symbol a {} and

some strings y

and z in ( {} )

Turing Machines(Design &

description of Turing

machines)

T-1:ch-9 OR-2 Constructing complex

turing machines

Learn techniques for

constructing turing

machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Hypothetical

device that

manipulates

symbols on a

strip of tape

according to a

table of rules

Lecture 15 Term Paper,Test 1

Week 6 Lecture 16 Turing Machines(Variants of

Turing machines)

T-1:ch-9 AV-1 Machines with stay

option,multi track

machines,Semi infinite

tape machines

Understand design

variation for turing

machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

read-only Turing

machine or

Two-way

deterministic

finite-state

automaton

Turing Machines(Turing

Machines Construction)

T-1:ch-9 AV-3 Techniques used for

constructing turing

machines

Understands the

methods used for

designing turing

machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

( q , aababb )

shows that the

Turing machine

is currently in

state q, the taper

contents are the

string aababb

and the head is

reading the last

a of the string.

Turing Machines(The

Church Turing thesis)

T-1:ch-9 OR-2 Alogrithm for Church

Turing thesis

Learns about the

concept of church

turing

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

States that a

function is

algorithmically

computable if

and only if it is

computable by a

Turing machine.

Lecture 17 Turing Machines(Universal

Turing Machine)

T-1:ch-9 OR-3 Stored program

computer

Understands working

of UTM

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Electronic

Computing

Instrument" that

now bears von

Neumann's

name: the von

Neumann

architecture

Week 6 Lecture 18 Syntax Analysis(Ambiguity

and the formal power Series)

T-1:ch-9 DK-1

DK-2

Eliminating ambiguity Understands the

procedure to remove

ambiguity

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Topology,Opera

tions, Universal

property

Week 7 Lecture 19 Syntax Analysis(Formal

Properties of LL(k) and LR

(k) Grammars)

T-1:ch-9 DK-3 L19 Parsing strategies

L20 is revision

L21 is revision

Learns about the

features of LL and

LR

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

They are easy to

parse, either by

LL parsers or by

recursive

descent parsers,

and many

computer

languages are

designed to be

LL(1) for this

reason

Lecture 20 Syntax Analysis(Formal

Properties of LL(k) and LR

(k) Grammars)

T-1:ch-9 DK-3 L19 Parsing strategies

L20 is revision

L21 is revision

Learns about the

features of LL and

LR

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

They are easy to

parse, either by

LL parsers or by

recursive

descent parsers,

and many

computer

languages are

designed to be

LL(1) for this

reason

Lecture 21 Syntax Analysis(Formal

Properties of LL(k) and LR

(k) Grammars)

T-1:ch-9 DK-3 L19 Parsing strategies

L20 is revision

L21 is revision

Learns about the

features of LL and

LR

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

They are easy to

parse, either by

LL parsers or by

recursive

descent parsers,

and many

computer

languages are

designed to be

LL(1) for this

reason

MID-TERM

Week 8 Lecture 22 Formal Languages(Chomsky

classification of languages)

R-2:ch-7 OR-1

AV-1

AV-3

Definition of grammar Learn the difference

between different

types of ets

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

ts terminals are

the letters of $

\Sigma$,

its non-terminals

are the states of

the automaton $

\cal {A}$,

its start-symbol

is the initial

state of $ \cal

{A}$,

Week 8 Lecture 23 Formal Languages

(Languages and their

relation)

R-2:ch-7 DK-2 Formal Language and

their relation

Understand about the

relation of formal

languages

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Studies

primarily the

purely

syntactical

aspects of such

languages—that

is, their internal

structural

patterns.

Lecture 24 Formal Languages(Linear

Grammars and regular

Languages)

R-2:ch-7 OR-2 Linear grammar Understand the

concept of Linear

grammar

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Left-linear and

Right-linear

grammers

Week 9 Lecture 25 Formal Languages(Regular

Expressions)

R-2:ch-5 OR-2

OR-3

Definition of regular

expression

Learn to construct

simple regular

expression

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

regexp ?

switches? exp

string ?

matchVar? ?

subMatchVar

subMatchVar

...?

Lecture 26 Formal Languages(Context

Sensitive Languages)

R-2:ch-5 OR-2 Context sensitive

Language

Learn about the

concept of CSL

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

The union,

intersection,

concatenation

and Kleene star

of two context-

sensitive

languages is

context-sensitive

Lecture 27 Grammars(Parsing and

Derivation)

R-2:ch-5 AV-1 Introduction to parsing Parse tree as a way to

represent the

derivation of a string

from a grammar

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Unambiguous

and context-free

grammars can

be constructed

that produce

parse trees that

obey all desired

operator

precedence and

associativity

rules.

Week 10 Lecture 28 Grammars(Closure

properties)

R-2:ch-5 DK-3 Union,concatenation,co

mpliment , reversal

Learn to use closure

properties to obtain

more complex

regular language

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

The regular

operations:

union K \cup L,

concatenation K

\circ L, and

Kleene star L^*

Week 10 Lecture 29 Grammars(Pigeonhole

principal and pumping

lemma)

R-2:ch-6 AV-1 Adversarial Game Learn to handle

regular languages

with repeating

patterns

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Pumping lemma

for regular

languages and

the pumping

lemma for

context-free

languages and

Ogden's lemma

Lecture 30 Grammars(Constructing

Regular grammars)

R-2:ch-6 AV-2 Introduction to regular

grammars

Learn to construct

regular expression for

user dat avalidation

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

If L is regular

i.e. accepted by

an NFA, then L

- {} is generated

by a regular

grammar.

Week 11 Lecture 31 Decidability(Decidable

languages)

T-1:Ch-10 OR-2

AV-2

Decidable problems

concerning regular

languages

Understands kinds of

problems that are

undecidable

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Let A contain all

even-length

strings, plus an

undecidable

collection of

odd-length

strings. Let B

contain all odd-

length strings

concatenation

AB consists of

all strings and

hence is

decidable

Lecture 32 Decidability(Unpredictable

languages)

T-1:Ch-10 OR-3 Decidability and

Unpredictable languages

Understand the

concept of

Unpredictable

languages

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Unpredictability

approach for

defining

randomness in

which the

preditions are

carried out by

finite-state

automata.

Lecture 33 Decidability(Halting

problems of Turing

machines)

T-1:Ch-10 OR-2

DK-2

Problems in halting

Turing machines

Understanding the

halting problem of

turing machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Given a

description of an

arbitrary

computer

program, decide

whether the

program finishes

running or

continues to run

forever

Week 12 Lecture 34 Computability(Partial

recursive functions)

T-1:Ch-11 OR-1 Computability and

turing model for

computation

Understands various

functions performed

by partial recursive

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Addition,Subtra

ction,Operations

on integers and

rational numbers

Week 12 Lecture 35 Computability(Basic

concepts)

T-1:Ch-11 AV-3 Steps of Computability Understands about

concepts of

computability

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Turing-

computable and

µ-recursive

functions, and

the lambda

calculus

Computability(Recursive

functions)

T-1:Ch-11 OR-1 Computability

Recursive functions

Understands

computability

recursive functions

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Tower of hanoi

,factorial,fibnacc

i

Computability(Partial

Recursion)

T-1:Ch-11 DK-1 Partial functions Understands concept

of partial recursive

functions

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

1)Function

symbols (for

example, f, g, h,

etc.), (2)

variables for

nonnegative

integers (for

example, x, y, z,

etc.), (3) the

constant 0, and

(4) the successor

function S(x)=x

+1.

Lecture 36 Term Paper,Test 2

Week 13 Lecture 37 Computers and the science

of computing(Idea of

computing)

R-2:ch-12 DK-1 Concept of computing Learn the importance

of Computing

machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

A variety of

minor

enhancements to

this basic

scheme are

possible, and

there are many

ways to save

unnecessary

computation

Computers and the science

of computing(Computing

machines and languages)

R-2:ch-12 DK-2 Introduction of

computing machines

Understands the

working of

computing machines

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Turing

machine,Finite

sate machines

Computers and the science

of computing(Programming

and Data structures)

T-1:Ch-11 AV-2

DK-1

Data structures used in

programming

Understands the

need of data

structures

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

For exploring

large patterns at

great time-

depths,

sophisticated

algorithms such

as Hashlife may

be useful.

Week 13 Lecture 38 The Chomsky Hierarchy

(Diagonalization)

R-2:ch-11 OR-2

DK-3

Chomsky Hierarchy

problems

Understand the

concept of Chomsky

Hierarchy

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Let R be a

binary relation

on a set A and

let D = {a|a ? A,

and (a, a) ? R}.

For each a ? A,

let Ra = {b|b ?

A, and (a, b) ?

R}. Then D is

distinct from Ra

for all a ? A.

The Chomsky Hierarchy

(Enumerable Languages)

R-2:ch-11 OR-1 Parsing with CNF Learns about the

techniques for

parsing

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Recognizable,

partially

decidable,

semidecidable

or Turing-

acceptable

Lecture 39 The Chomsky Hierarchy

(Acceptance and

membership)

R-2:ch-11 AV-3 Chomsky Acceptance Understands concept

of acceptance and

membership

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

A Streett

automaton is an

?-automaton A

that uses the

following

acceptance

condition, for

some set O of

pairs (Ei,Fi) of

sets of states

Week 14 Lecture 40 The Chomsky Hierarchy

(Recursive languages)

R-2:ch-11 AV-3 L40

Recursive languages in

The Chomsky Hierarchy

L41 is revision

L42 is revision

Understand the need

of recursive

languages

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Universal

Turing Machine

and Linear

Bounded

Automata

Lecture 41 The Chomsky Hierarchy

(Recursive languages)

R-2:ch-11 AV-3 L40

Recursive languages in

The Chomsky Hierarchy

L41 is revision

L42 is revision

Understand the need

of recursive

languages

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Universal

Turing Machine

and Linear

Bounded

Automata

Lecture 42 The Chomsky Hierarchy

(Recursive languages)

R-2:ch-11 AV-3 L40

Recursive languages in

The Chomsky Hierarchy

L41 is revision

L42 is revision

Understand the need

of recursive

languages

Peer Learning,

Case Study

Discussion and

Demonstration of

Animation

Universal

Turing Machine

and Linear

Bounded

Automata

SPILL OVER

Week 15 Lecture 43 Spill Over

Lecture 44 Spill Over

Lecture 45 Spill Over

Scheme for CA:

Component Frequency Out Of Each Marks Total Marks

Term Paper,Test 2 3 10 20

Total :- 10 20

Details of Academic Task(s)

AT No. Objective Topic of the Academic Task Nature of Academic Task

(group/individuals/field

work

Evaluation Mode Allottment /

submission Week

Term Paper,Test 1 To define the power

of any computation

model that would be

determined by

analysing formal

languages

Unit I

Automata : Definition, Description and transition modes, NDFA

and DFA, Mealy and

Moore machine, Minimization of Finite Automata, Constructing

simple automata,

Handling end conditions, Handling reject states, Step by step

method for constructing

automata, States as Memory, Why finite number of states,

Limitations of finite

automata, Non deterministic finite automata

Construction of Finite Automata : Construction of Finite

Automata equivalent to

Regular expression & vice versa, Pumping Lemma for regular

sets & its applications

Pushdown Automata : Definition, Acceptance, Pushdown

Automata and Context

Free Languages, Parsing and Pushdown automata, Constructing

PDAs, Converting

CFGs to PDAs, Converting PDAs to CFGs

Unit II

Context Free languages : Derivation trees, Ambiguity in Context

free grammars,

Simplification of context free grammars, The Chomsky &

Greibach Normal Forms

Context Free Grammars : The Kuroda Normal Form, One sided

Context Sensitive

Grammars, Unrestricted Languages

Regular Languages and Expressions : Idea of formal languages,

Languages of

Automata, Regular expressions, Converting Regular expressions

to automata

Unit III

Turing Machines : Representation, Language acceptability,

Design & description of

Turing machines, Variants of Turing machines, Turing Machines

Construction, The

Church Turing thesis, Universal Turing Machine

Syntax Analysis : Ambiguity and the formal power Series, Formal

Properties of LL

(k) and LR(k) Grammars

Individual Based on student

performance

(scores) Each

question will be

multiple of 5. Total

marks will be 30.

5 / 6

Term Paper,Test 2 To understand the

concept of turing

machines as special

emphasis is laid on

design and

applications of

Turing Machines

Unit IV

Formal Languages : Chomsky classification of languages,

Languages and their

relation, Linear Grammars and regular Languages, Regular

Expressions, Context

Sensitive Languages

Grammars : Parsing and Derivation, Closure properties,

Pigeonhole principal and

pumping lemma, Constructing Regular grammars

Unit V

Decidability : Decidable languages, Unpredictable languages,

Halting problems of

Turing machines

Computability : Partial recursive functions, Basic concepts,

Recursive functions,

Partial Recursion

Computers and the science of computing : Idea of computing,

Computing

machines and languages, Programming and Data structures

Unit VI

The Chomsky Hierarchy : Enumerable Languages,

Diagonalization, Acceptance and

membership, Recursive languages

Individual Based on student

performance

(scores) Each

question will be

multiple of 5. Total

marks will be 30.

11 / 12

Term Paper,Test 3 To evaluate student

performance

As per given topics Individual 30 Marks (Mid

Term report- 5

marks, End Term

report- 15 marks,

Viva / presentation-

10 marks)

4 / 10

List of suggested topics for term paper[at least 15] (Student to spend about 15 hrs on any one specified term paper)

Sr. No. Topic

1 Theory of Automata

2 Finite Automata

3 Regular Languages

4 Context Free Grammars

5 Push Down Automata

6 Turing Machines and Computability

7 NFA and Regular Expressions

8 Regular Grammar and Languages

9 Computability

10 Context Free Languages

11 Grammars

12 Turing Machines

13 Chomsky Hierarchy

14 Computability and Undecidability

15 Deterministic Context Free Languages

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