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Lovely Professional University, Punjab

Course Code Course Title Course Planner Lectures Tutorials Practicals Credits
CAP632 FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATION
THEORY
12962::Harjinder Kaur 3.0 0.0 0.0 3.0
Course Category Courses with conceptual focus
TextBooks
Sr No Title Author Edition Year Publisher Name
T-1 THEORY OF COMPUTER
SCIENCE :AUTOMATA,
LANGUAGES & COMPUTATION
K.L.P MISHRA & N.
CHANDRASEKRAN
1st PHI (PRETICE HALL INDIA)
Reference Books
Sr No Title Author Edition Year Publisher Name
R-1 INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGES
& THE THEORY OF
COMPUTATION
JOHN C MARTIN 1st TATA MCGRAW HILL
R-2 THEORY OF COMPUTATION KAVI MAHESH 1st WILEY INDIA PVT LTD
R-3 AN INTRODUCTION TO FORMAL
LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA
PETER LINZ 4th 2010 NAROSA PUBLISHING HOUSE PVT. LTD
Other Reading
Sr No Journals articles as Compulsary reading (specific articles, complete reference)
OR-1 http://cs.fit.edu/~dmitra/FormaLang/ ,
OR-2 http://www.mywbut.com/syllabus.php?mode=VT&paper_id=14&dept_id=2 ,
OR-3 http://www.gobookee.net/formal-languages-and-automata-theory-by-krithivasan/ ,
Audio Visual Aids
Sr No (AV aids) (only if relevant to the course) Salient Features
AV-1 http://www.ida.liu.se/~TDDA89/ To provide students in learning basic and advanced concepts through
remote experimentation
AV-2 http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~andrejb/csc3130/f08/ To provide various tools for learning, including web recources, video
lectures, animated demonstration and seld evaluation
AV-3 http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/106106049/ To provide various tools for learning, including web recources, video
lectures, animated demonstration and seld evaluation
LTP week distribution: (LTP Weeks)
Weeks before MTE 7
Week
Number
Lecture
Number
Broad Topic(Sub Topic) Chapters/Sections of
Text/reference
books
Other Readings,
Relevant Websites,
Audio Visual Aids,
software and Virtual
Labs
Lecture Description Learning Outcomes Pedagogical Tool
Demonstration/
Case Study /
Images /
animation / ppt
etc. Planned
Live Examples
Week 1 Lecture 1 Automata(Definition) T-1:Ch-1 AV-1 Introductory Lecture Students will learn
about the need and
use of TOC in the
field of Computer
Science
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Automata theory
is the basis for
the theory of
formal
languages
Lecture 2 Automata(Description and
transition modes)
T-1:Ch-3 AV-2 Complexity theory
Computability theory
Automata theory
Students will learn
about the transition
modes
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Accept and
Generate modes
Lecture 3 Automata(NDFA and DFA) T-1:Ch-3 DK-1 NDFA is a variation of
the FSM that will make
it much easier to design
FSMs
Makes it easy to
design FSMs
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
DFA can model
software that
decides whether
or not online
user-input such
as email
addresses are
valid
Week 2 Lecture 4 Automata(Mealy and Moore
machine)
T-1:Ch-3 DK-3 Variants of Finite
automata
Students learn about
Finite automata with
output
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
A simple Mealy
machine has one
input and one
output,complex
Mealy machines
can have
multiple inputs
as well as
multiple outputs
Automata(Minimization of
Finite Automata)
T-1:Ch-3 AV-2 Deterministic finite
automata and example
of a finite automata
Students learn to
reduce a Complex
Finite Automata
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Select one state
in each set of the
partition final as
the
representative
for the set.
These
representatives
are states of
minimum DFA
Detailed Plan For Lectures
Weeks After MTE 7
Spill Over 3
Week 2 Lecture 4 Automata(Constructing
simple automata)
T-1:Ch-4 DK-2 Formal definition of a
finite automaton
Students learn to
Design
finite automata
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Defining Initial
and Final
States,Creating
Transitions,Dele
ting States and
Transitions,Run
ning the FA on
Multiple Strings
Lecture 5 Automata(Handling end
conditions)
T-1:Ch-4 OR-1 Regular operations of
simple automata
Students learn the
importance of Finite
Automata
conditions
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Useful for
specifying
behavior of
systems that are
not expected to
terminate, such
as hardware,
operating
systems and
control systems
Automata(Handling reject
states)
T-1:Ch-4 OR-2 Proof techniques of
automata states
Students learn the
importance of Finite
Automata
states
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
All states have a
transition for all
possible input
signals. If an
input signal is
considered
'illegal' it cannot
be rejected
Automata(Step by step
method for constructing
automata)
T-1:Ch-4 OR-3 To construct and analyse
automata behaviour
Learn the importance
of construction of
Automata
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Defining Initial
and Final
States,Creating
Transitions,Dele
ting States and
Transitions,Run
ning the FA on
Multiple Strings
Automata(States as
Memory)
T-1:Ch-5 OR-2 To construct states to
compute functions
Learn the importance
of corresponding
states
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
An automaton
may also contain
some extra
memory in the
form of a stack
in which
symbols can be
pushed and
popped
Automata(Why finite
number of states)
T-1:Ch-5 OR-1 Process and accept
infinite sets if input
strings
Students learn the
importance of
Automata states
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
vending
machines
,elevators,traffic
lights
Week 2 Lecture 5 Automata(Limitations of
finite automata)
T-1:Ch-5 DK-2 Constructing automata
to solve computing
problems
Learn the Limitations
of finite automata
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
FA is that they
have only a
finite number of
states. Hence, a
finite automata
can only "count"
a finite number
of input
scenarios.
Lecture 6 Automata(Non deterministic
finite automata)
T-1:Ch-5 DK-3 Formal definition of a
non deterministic finite
automata
Learn the importance
of NDFA Closure
under the regular
operations
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Does not require
input symbols
for state
transitions and
is capable of
transitioning to
zero or two or
more states for a
given start state
and input
symbol
Construction of Finite
Automata(Construction of
Finite Automata equivalent
to Regular expression &
vice versa)
T-1:Ch-5 AV-3 Relation between Finite
Automata Regular
Expressions
Any FSM can be
converted to a regular
expression, and every
regular expression
can be converted into
a nondeterministic
FSM
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Works
recursively by
splitting an
expression into
its constituent
subexpressions,
from which the
NFA will be
constructed
using a set of
rules
Construction of Finite
Automata(Pumping Lemma
for regular sets & its
applications)
T-1:Ch-5 DK-1 Non regular Languages
The pumping lemma for
regular languages
The pumping lemma
for Regular sets is a
way to convince
students that certain
sets are not Regular
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
To prove a fact
about all infinite
regular
languages that
will be helpful
in proving that
specific
languages are
nonregular.
Week 3 Lecture 7 Pushdown Automata
(Definition)
T-1:Ch-7 DK-2 Describing the basics of
Push Down Automata
A push down
automaton PDA or is
a type of automaton
that uses a stack for
temporary data
storage
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
They are more
capable than
finite-state
machines but
less capable than
Turing
machines.
Week 3 Lecture 7 Pushdown Automata
(Acceptance)
T-1:Ch-7 AV-2 Types of acceptance by
Pushdown Automata
Students learn about
the technique for
acceptance of string
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
The first
acceptance
mode uses the
internal memory
(state), the
second the
external
memory (stack).
Pushdown Automata
(Pushdown Automata and
Context Free Languages)
T-1:Ch-7 OR-1 Relationship between
Push down Automata
and Context Free
Languages
Learn about
Connection between
Push down Automata
and Context Free
Languages
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
When the
grammar
rewrites a
nonterminal, the
PDA takes the
topmost
nonterminal
from its stack
and replaces it
by the right-
hand part of a
grammatical
rule
Lecture 8 Pushdown Automata
(Parsing and Pushdown
automata)
T-1:Ch-7 OR-2 Purpose of Parsing in
automata
Learn about Top
Down and Bottom
Up Parsing
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Top down and
bottom up
parsing
Pushdown Automata
(Constructing PDAs)
T-1:Ch-7 DK-3 To teach about the
construction of PDA
Students solve the
examples of push
down automata
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Regarded as
being "pushed
down" like a
tray dispenser at
a cafeteria, since
the operations
never work on
elements other
than the top
element
Lecture 9 Pushdown Automata
(Converting CFGs to PDAs)
T-1:Ch-7 AV-1 Designing PDAs from
context free grammars
Ways to simplify
CFGs
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
For each
pushdown
automaton M
one may
construct a
context-free
grammar G such
that N(M)=L(G)
Pushdown Automata
(Converting PDAs to CFGs)
T-1:Ch-7 AV-3 Designing PDAs to
CFGs
Ways to simplify
PDAs
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
using the tools
under the
“Convert ?
Convert to
Grammar” menu
option using
JFLAP
Week 3 Lecture 9 Context Free languages
(Derivation trees)
T-1:Ch-6 DK-1 Other way of
representing a CFG
Parse tree as a way to
represent the
derivation of a string
from a grammar
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
if we used a
production A : :
= X1X2...Xn (in
either top-down
or bottom-up
parsing) then we
construct a tree
with node A and
children
X1X2...Xn
Week 4 Lecture 10 Context Free languages
(Ambiguity in Context free
grammars)
T-1:Ch-6 AV-3 To ambiguity in context
free grammars
Students learn the
importance of
Ambiguity with the
help of examples
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
When there's a
word which has
two different
derivation tree
Context Free languages
(Simplification of context
free grammars)
T-1:Ch-6 AV-2 Equivalence with
context free grammars
Students learn the
ways to equivalent
context free
grammars
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Precise
mechanism for
describing the
methods by
which phrases in
some natural
language are
built from
smaller blocks,
capturing the
"block structure"
of sentences in a
natural way
Lecture 11 Context Free languages(The
Chomsky & Greibach
Normal Forms)
R-1:Ch-4
R-2:ch-6
AV-3 Describing CNF Students learn to
reduce grammar to a
CNF
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Normal
form usually
used in algebraic
specifications
Context Free Grammars(The
Kuroda Normal Form)
R-3:Ch-6 AV-1 DescribingKuroda
Normal Form
Students learn the
importance of KNF
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Every context-
sensitive
language which
does not
generate the
empty string can
be generated by
a grammar in
Kuroda normal
form
Lecture 12 Context Free Grammars
(One sided Context
Sensitive Grammars)
R-3:Ch-6 OR-1 Elaborates concept of
KNF
Learns about the
implementation of
KNF
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Noncontracting
grammar or a
linear bounded
automaton
Week 4 Lecture 12 Context Free Grammars
(Unrestricted Languages)
R-3:Ch-6 DK-2 Implementation for
making restrictions
Learn the usage of
restrictions
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Grammars make
no real
distinction
between
nonterminal and
terminal
symbols
Regular Languages and
Expressions(Idea of formal
languages)
R-3:Ch-6 AV-1 Introduction to formal
language
Learn the concept of
formal language
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Every nonempty
string that does
not contain "+"
or "=" and does
not start with
"0" is in L.
Week 5 Lecture 13 Regular Languages and
Expressions(Languages of
Automata)
R-3:Ch-6 OR-1 Highlights on Automata Understands the
concept of automaton
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Generative
model ,language
model
Regular Languages and
Expressions(Regular
expressions)
R-3:Ch-6 DK-2 Recursive definition Learn to construct
simple regular
expression
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
The set of
strings over
{0,1} that end in
3 consecutive
1's.
(0 | 1)* 111

Regular Languages and
Expressions(Converting
Regular expressions to
automata)
R-3:Ch-6 AV-2 Mapping from elements
of regular expression to
NFA
Learn to convert
regular expression to
equivalent automata
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
JLex, is to
generate the
transition tables
or to synthesize
the scanner
program given a
scanner
specification
Lecture 14 Turing Machines
(Representation)
T-1:ch-9 AV-1 Ways to design Turing
Machines
Understands about
Formal definition of a
Turing machine
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
It consists of an
infinitely-long
tape which acts
like the memory
in a typical
computer, or any
other form of
data storage
Week 5 Lecture 14 Turing Machines(Language
acceptability)
T-1:ch-9 AV-3 Examples of Turing
machines and
computable functions
Learn to construct
turing machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
A string x is said
to be accepted
by a Turing
machine* T = <
Q , , , q0 , > if
( q0 , x ) * ( h,
yaz ) for some
symbol a {} and
some strings y
and z in ( {} )
Turing Machines(Design &
description of Turing
machines)
T-1:ch-9 OR-2 Constructing complex
turing machines
Learn techniques for
constructing turing
machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Hypothetical
device that
manipulates
symbols on a
strip of tape
according to a
table of rules
Lecture 15 Term Paper,Test 1
Week 6 Lecture 16 Turing Machines(Variants of
Turing machines)
T-1:ch-9 AV-1 Machines with stay
option,multi track
machines,Semi infinite
tape machines
Understand design
variation for turing
machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
read-only Turing
machine or
Two-way
deterministic
finite-state
automaton
Turing Machines(Turing
Machines Construction)
T-1:ch-9 AV-3 Techniques used for
constructing turing
machines
Understands the
methods used for
designing turing
machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
( q , aababb )
shows that the
Turing machine
is currently in
state q, the taper
contents are the
string aababb
and the head is
reading the last
a of the string.
Turing Machines(The
Church Turing thesis)
T-1:ch-9 OR-2 Alogrithm for Church
Turing thesis
Learns about the
concept of church
turing
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
States that a
function is
algorithmically
computable if
and only if it is
computable by a
Turing machine.
Lecture 17 Turing Machines(Universal
Turing Machine)
T-1:ch-9 OR-3 Stored program
computer
Understands working
of UTM
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Electronic
Computing
Instrument" that
now bears von
Neumann's
name: the von
Neumann
architecture
Week 6 Lecture 18 Syntax Analysis(Ambiguity
and the formal power Series)
T-1:ch-9 DK-1
DK-2
Eliminating ambiguity Understands the
procedure to remove
ambiguity
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Topology,Opera
tions, Universal
property
Week 7 Lecture 19 Syntax Analysis(Formal
Properties of LL(k) and LR
(k) Grammars)
T-1:ch-9 DK-3 L19 Parsing strategies
L20 is revision
L21 is revision
Learns about the
features of LL and
LR
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
They are easy to
parse, either by
LL parsers or by
recursive
descent parsers,
and many
computer
languages are
designed to be
LL(1) for this
reason
Lecture 20 Syntax Analysis(Formal
Properties of LL(k) and LR
(k) Grammars)
T-1:ch-9 DK-3 L19 Parsing strategies
L20 is revision
L21 is revision
Learns about the
features of LL and
LR
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
They are easy to
parse, either by
LL parsers or by
recursive
descent parsers,
and many
computer
languages are
designed to be
LL(1) for this
reason
Lecture 21 Syntax Analysis(Formal
Properties of LL(k) and LR
(k) Grammars)
T-1:ch-9 DK-3 L19 Parsing strategies
L20 is revision
L21 is revision
Learns about the
features of LL and
LR
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
They are easy to
parse, either by
LL parsers or by
recursive
descent parsers,
and many
computer
languages are
designed to be
LL(1) for this
reason
MID-TERM
Week 8 Lecture 22 Formal Languages(Chomsky
classification of languages)
R-2:ch-7 OR-1
AV-1
AV-3
Definition of grammar Learn the difference
between different
types of ets
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
ts terminals are
the letters of $
\Sigma$,
its non-terminals
are the states of
the automaton $
\cal {A}$,
its start-symbol
is the initial
state of $ \cal
{A}$,
Week 8 Lecture 23 Formal Languages
(Languages and their
relation)
R-2:ch-7 DK-2 Formal Language and
their relation
Understand about the
relation of formal
languages
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Studies
primarily the
purely
syntactical
aspects of such
languages—that
is, their internal
structural
patterns.
Lecture 24 Formal Languages(Linear
Grammars and regular
Languages)
R-2:ch-7 OR-2 Linear grammar Understand the
concept of Linear
grammar
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Left-linear and
Right-linear
grammers
Week 9 Lecture 25 Formal Languages(Regular
Expressions)
R-2:ch-5 OR-2
OR-3
Definition of regular
expression
Learn to construct
simple regular
expression
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
regexp ?
switches? exp
string ?
matchVar? ?
subMatchVar
subMatchVar
...?
Lecture 26 Formal Languages(Context
Sensitive Languages)
R-2:ch-5 OR-2 Context sensitive
Language
Learn about the
concept of CSL
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
The union,
intersection,
concatenation
and Kleene star
of two context-
sensitive
languages is
context-sensitive
Lecture 27 Grammars(Parsing and
Derivation)
R-2:ch-5 AV-1 Introduction to parsing Parse tree as a way to
represent the
derivation of a string
from a grammar
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Unambiguous
and context-free
grammars can
be constructed
that produce
parse trees that
obey all desired
operator
precedence and
associativity
rules.
Week 10 Lecture 28 Grammars(Closure
properties)
R-2:ch-5 DK-3 Union,concatenation,co
mpliment , reversal
Learn to use closure
properties to obtain
more complex
regular language
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
The regular
operations:
union K \cup L,
concatenation K
\circ L, and
Kleene star L^*
Week 10 Lecture 29 Grammars(Pigeonhole
principal and pumping
lemma)
R-2:ch-6 AV-1 Adversarial Game Learn to handle
regular languages
with repeating
patterns
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Pumping lemma
for regular
languages and
the pumping
lemma for
context-free
languages and
Ogden's lemma
Lecture 30 Grammars(Constructing
Regular grammars)
R-2:ch-6 AV-2 Introduction to regular
grammars
Learn to construct
regular expression for
user dat avalidation
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
If L is regular
i.e. accepted by
an NFA, then L
- {} is generated
by a regular
grammar.
Week 11 Lecture 31 Decidability(Decidable
languages)
T-1:Ch-10 OR-2
AV-2
Decidable problems
concerning regular
languages
Understands kinds of
problems that are
undecidable
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Let A contain all
even-length
strings, plus an
undecidable
collection of
odd-length
strings. Let B
contain all odd-
length strings
concatenation
AB consists of
all strings and
hence is
decidable
Lecture 32 Decidability(Unpredictable
languages)
T-1:Ch-10 OR-3 Decidability and
Unpredictable languages
Understand the
concept of
Unpredictable
languages
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Unpredictability
approach for
defining
randomness in
which the
preditions are
carried out by
finite-state
automata.
Lecture 33 Decidability(Halting
problems of Turing
machines)
T-1:Ch-10 OR-2
DK-2
Problems in halting
Turing machines
Understanding the
halting problem of
turing machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Given a
description of an
arbitrary
computer
program, decide
whether the
program finishes
running or
continues to run
forever
Week 12 Lecture 34 Computability(Partial
recursive functions)
T-1:Ch-11 OR-1 Computability and
turing model for
computation
Understands various
functions performed
by partial recursive
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Addition,Subtra
ction,Operations
on integers and
rational numbers
Week 12 Lecture 35 Computability(Basic
concepts)
T-1:Ch-11 AV-3 Steps of Computability Understands about
concepts of
computability
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Turing-
computable and
µ-recursive
functions, and
the lambda
calculus
Computability(Recursive
functions)
T-1:Ch-11 OR-1 Computability
Recursive functions
Understands
computability
recursive functions
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Tower of hanoi
,factorial,fibnacc
i
Computability(Partial
Recursion)
T-1:Ch-11 DK-1 Partial functions Understands concept
of partial recursive
functions
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
1)Function
symbols (for
example, f, g, h,
etc.), (2)
variables for
nonnegative
integers (for
example, x, y, z,
etc.), (3) the
constant 0, and
(4) the successor
function S(x)=x
+1.
Lecture 36 Term Paper,Test 2
Week 13 Lecture 37 Computers and the science
of computing(Idea of
computing)
R-2:ch-12 DK-1 Concept of computing Learn the importance
of Computing
machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
A variety of
minor
enhancements to
this basic
scheme are
possible, and
there are many
ways to save
unnecessary
computation
Computers and the science
of computing(Computing
machines and languages)
R-2:ch-12 DK-2 Introduction of
computing machines
Understands the
working of
computing machines
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Turing
machine,Finite
sate machines
Computers and the science
of computing(Programming
and Data structures)
T-1:Ch-11 AV-2
DK-1
Data structures used in
programming
Understands the
need of data
structures
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
For exploring
large patterns at
great time-
depths,
sophisticated
algorithms such
as Hashlife may
be useful.
Week 13 Lecture 38 The Chomsky Hierarchy
(Diagonalization)
R-2:ch-11 OR-2
DK-3
Chomsky Hierarchy
problems
Understand the
concept of Chomsky
Hierarchy
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Let R be a
binary relation
on a set A and
let D = {a|a ? A,
and (a, a) ? R}.
For each a ? A,
let Ra = {b|b ?
A, and (a, b) ?
R}. Then D is
distinct from Ra
for all a ? A.
The Chomsky Hierarchy
(Enumerable Languages)
R-2:ch-11 OR-1 Parsing with CNF Learns about the
techniques for
parsing
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Recognizable,
partially
decidable,
semidecidable
or Turing-
acceptable
Lecture 39 The Chomsky Hierarchy
(Acceptance and
membership)
R-2:ch-11 AV-3 Chomsky Acceptance Understands concept
of acceptance and
membership
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
A Streett
automaton is an
?-automaton A
that uses the
following
acceptance
condition, for
some set O of
pairs (Ei,Fi) of
sets of states
Week 14 Lecture 40 The Chomsky Hierarchy
(Recursive languages)
R-2:ch-11 AV-3 L40
Recursive languages in
The Chomsky Hierarchy
L41 is revision
L42 is revision
Understand the need
of recursive
languages
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Universal
Turing Machine
and Linear
Bounded
Automata
Lecture 41 The Chomsky Hierarchy
(Recursive languages)
R-2:ch-11 AV-3 L40
Recursive languages in
The Chomsky Hierarchy
L41 is revision
L42 is revision
Understand the need
of recursive
languages
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Universal
Turing Machine
and Linear
Bounded
Automata
Lecture 42 The Chomsky Hierarchy
(Recursive languages)
R-2:ch-11 AV-3 L40
Recursive languages in
The Chomsky Hierarchy
L41 is revision
L42 is revision
Understand the need
of recursive
languages
Peer Learning,
Case Study
Discussion and
Demonstration of
Animation
Universal
Turing Machine
and Linear
Bounded
Automata
SPILL OVER
Week 15 Lecture 43 Spill Over
Lecture 44 Spill Over
Lecture 45 Spill Over
Scheme for CA:
Component Frequency Out Of Each Marks Total Marks
Term Paper,Test 2 3 10 20
Total :- 10 20
Details of Academic Task(s)
AT No. Objective Topic of the Academic Task Nature of Academic Task
(group/individuals/field
work
Evaluation Mode Allottment /
submission Week
Term Paper,Test 1 To define the power
of any computation
model that would be
determined by
analysing formal
languages
Unit I
Automata : Definition, Description and transition modes, NDFA
and DFA, Mealy and
Moore machine, Minimization of Finite Automata, Constructing
simple automata,
Handling end conditions, Handling reject states, Step by step
method for constructing
automata, States as Memory, Why finite number of states,
Limitations of finite
automata, Non deterministic finite automata
Construction of Finite Automata : Construction of Finite
Automata equivalent to
Regular expression & vice versa, Pumping Lemma for regular
sets & its applications
Pushdown Automata : Definition, Acceptance, Pushdown
Automata and Context
Free Languages, Parsing and Pushdown automata, Constructing
PDAs, Converting
CFGs to PDAs, Converting PDAs to CFGs
Unit II
Context Free languages : Derivation trees, Ambiguity in Context
free grammars,
Simplification of context free grammars, The Chomsky &
Greibach Normal Forms
Context Free Grammars : The Kuroda Normal Form, One sided
Context Sensitive
Grammars, Unrestricted Languages
Regular Languages and Expressions : Idea of formal languages,
Languages of
Automata, Regular expressions, Converting Regular expressions
to automata
Unit III
Turing Machines : Representation, Language acceptability,
Design & description of
Turing machines, Variants of Turing machines, Turing Machines
Construction, The
Church Turing thesis, Universal Turing Machine
Syntax Analysis : Ambiguity and the formal power Series, Formal
Properties of LL
(k) and LR(k) Grammars
Individual Based on student
performance
(scores) Each
question will be
multiple of 5. Total
marks will be 30.
5 / 6
Term Paper,Test 2 To understand the
concept of turing
machines as special
emphasis is laid on
design and
applications of
Turing Machines
Unit IV
Formal Languages : Chomsky classification of languages,
Languages and their
relation, Linear Grammars and regular Languages, Regular
Expressions, Context
Sensitive Languages
Grammars : Parsing and Derivation, Closure properties,
Pigeonhole principal and
pumping lemma, Constructing Regular grammars
Unit V
Decidability : Decidable languages, Unpredictable languages,
Halting problems of
Turing machines
Computability : Partial recursive functions, Basic concepts,
Recursive functions,
Partial Recursion
Computers and the science of computing : Idea of computing,
Computing
machines and languages, Programming and Data structures
Unit VI
The Chomsky Hierarchy : Enumerable Languages,
Diagonalization, Acceptance and
membership, Recursive languages
Individual Based on student
performance
(scores) Each
question will be
multiple of 5. Total
marks will be 30.
11 / 12
Term Paper,Test 3 To evaluate student
performance
As per given topics Individual 30 Marks (Mid
Term report- 5
marks, End Term
report- 15 marks,
Viva / presentation-
10 marks)
4 / 10
List of suggested topics for term paper[at least 15] (Student to spend about 15 hrs on any one specified term paper)
Sr. No. Topic
1 Theory of Automata
2 Finite Automata
3 Regular Languages
4 Context Free Grammars
5 Push Down Automata
6 Turing Machines and Computability
7 NFA and Regular Expressions
8 Regular Grammar and Languages
9 Computability
10 Context Free Languages
11 Grammars
12 Turing Machines
13 Chomsky Hierarchy
14 Computability and Undecidability
15 Deterministic Context Free Languages