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Lima Declaration

The participants of the VII Ibero-American Congress on Environmental Education
Emphasizing Community Environmental Education, which took place in Lima – Peru,
between September 10 and 12 this Year, following an invitation by the Peruvian
government through the Ministries of Education and of the Environment, after sharing
knowledge, criticism, self-criticism, reflections and commitments, projects and purposes of
changing towards a more sustainable and full life for all,


That, globally:

The United Nations Conference on Human Environment, which took place in Stockholm in
1972, emphasized education as a means to tacklewith environmental problems in the
contemporary world.

In 1975, the United nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) and
the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) launched theInternational
Environmental Education Program.

TheInter-governmental Conference on Environmental Education, which took place in
Tbilisi in 1977, called by UNESCO and UNEP, established criteria and guidelines to lay the
foundations of new educational movements.

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, which took place in Rio
de Janeiro in 1992, reaffirmedenvironmental education as a means to reach sustainable
developmentand the International Forum of Non-governmental Organizations and Social
Movements approved the Environmental Education Treaty for Sustainable Societies and
Global Responsibility, later ratified at Rio+20, creating the Environmental Education Treaty
Planetary Network.

The Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) led by UNESCO sought
to“integrate the principles, values and practices of sustainable development in every
aspect of education and learning …”

That, in Ibero-America:
The I Ibero-American Congress on Environmental Education, which took place in
Guadalajara – Mexico in 1992, under the slogan “A strategy for the future,” established the
political character of environmental education and of its becoming a vital instrument to
attain change towards a solidarity-based, democratic and fair society.

The II Ibero-American Congress on Environmental Education, which also took place in
Guadalajara in 1997, under the slogan “following into Tbilisi’s steps,” underscored the lack
of equity, poverty, teacher organization, Access to the media, legislation on environmental
education, cultural dimension of indigenous populations, need for strengthening the
theoretical aspects of proposals and acknowledging the existence of different paradigms
as topics connected to environmental education.

The III Ibero-American Congress on Environmental Education, which took place in Caracas
– Venezuela in 2000, under the slogan “Peoples and roads towards sustainable
development,” proposed an analysis of the situation of environmental education in the
region, which contributed to delving into the debate on the future, at the gates of the new
millennium. It particularly helped to build the profile ofenvironmental education with a
clear meaning and pertinence for Ibero-Americas peoples and cultures.

The IV Ibero-American Congress on Environmental Education, which took place in Havanna
– Cuba in 2003, under the slogan “A better world is indeed posible,” highlighted the
importance of environmental culture and acknowledgment of nature as an inseparable
reality of women and men, their societies, cultures and education, and defined
environmental education as a comprehensive education that firmly incorporates the
relationship between environment and development.

The V Ibero-American Congresson Environmental Education, which took place in Joinville –
Brazil in 2006, under the slogan “Perspectives of environmental education in Ibero-
America,” stated that environmental education had to anchor in globalization and in the
decade of Education for Sustainable Development, emphasizing the necessary collective
and participatory actioncommitted to socio-environmental players for the construction of
sustainable territories and educational societies.

The VI Ibero-American Congress on Environmental Education, which took place in San
Clemente del Tuyú – Argentina in 2009, under the slogan “Enriching environmental
education proposals for collective action,” stated that environmental education is rooted in
the political commitment for renovating the paths of collective action


That the socio-economic approach that is dominant in the world -unsustainable
production and consumption- has generated an unprecedented environmental crisis in our
civilization, which we need to transform from a new ethics of respect of all forms of life
and physical milieu.

That this transformation towards a sustainable world requires political decisions, collective
construction of new realities and paradigms by coordinating initiatives and actions among
different actors and at different scales.

That transformation also requires a change on how to conceive the world, on thinking and
acting to be able to build new meanings on the relationship between nature, society and


That the development of environmental education occurs in formal educational
environments, as well as in other social and communal ones, involving all social players
and promoting organization in environmental education networks that operate according
to context and under participatory schemes,

That, in spite of evident difficulties our people undergo, the space opened by
environmental education has been very important to empower numerous communities in
the defense of their common goods (shared natural and cultural values) to enable them to
generate their own alternatives to technically and politically manage their territories.


That the VII Ibero-American Congress onEnvironmental Education occurs at the doors of
historically relevant global events such as theClimate Summit, on September 23 2014 in
New York; theWorld Conference on Education for Sustainable Development(Nagoya,
November 10 to 12 2014); theTwentieth Conferenceof the Parties of the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change- COP20 (Lima, 1 to 12 December 2014) and the definition
process of the Millennium Development Objectives, including education,


That, from its transforming and political perspective, environmental education is an
indispensable dimension for a full life (sumaqkawsay). This requires education to be
comprehensive, systemic, transversal, contextualized, proactive, prospective and with
biosphere equity. It also requires environmental responsibility with common goods in
dialog with inter-cultural knowledge, within the framework of peaceful and harmonic co-
existence with gender equality and inter-generational solidarity.

That the people’s sustainability has to be protected by reducing their vulnerability,
improving their livelihoods and cultural well-being, as well as by strengthening their
resilience;this needs an education that involves respect for nature’s rights and that
incorporates an operational dynamics that should enable organizational capacity building
and strengthening of communities around daily needs and extreme events, according to
their own organizational styles.



1. We urgethe peoples and government in Ibero-America and the world to assume and
fulfill concrete commitments to develop and implement environmental education policies
that generate social, equitable and inclusive settings, new behaviors regarding production
and consumption to enable sustainable lifestyles at local and global level.

2. We acknowledge and respectthe knowledge and experience developed in Latin America
and the Iberian Peninsula regarding environmental education for life sustainability, which
have become evident in the last two decades through the Ibero-American Congresses on
Environmental Education.

3. We are fully committedto continue working in building environmental citizenship and
strengthening environmental education, in having them institutionalized in Ibero-
AmericanStates, particularly in the ministries of Education and Environment. Additionally,
we commit to promote them in public and private educational institutions,at home,in
companies and the mass media, in civil organizations of grassroots and in our daily family

4. We intendto strengthen theLatin American and CaribbeanEnvironmental Education
Network coordinatedbyUNEP and made up by the Ministries of the Environment. We will
also organize a Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Education Teacher Network
for Sustainable Development.These will be horizontal cooperation spaces for
environmental management and educational management in every field of sustainable
5. We are satisfiedabout the role and importance acquired by the community
environmental education as a space to relate State institutions at national, regional, and
local level and civil society to harmonize and cater for the needs and priorities, with the
perspective to attain a shared human future of freedom, prosperity and sustainability.

6. We are convincedthat community environmental education is built through a creative
dialog that integrates different knowledge sources with the people’s education,
communication for development, social promotion, environmental interpretation,
community psychology and aboriginal people’s world vision.

7. We attempt atrelating environmental education and education to manage risk in case
of disaster as ways to guarantee livelihoods and to build safe and resilient societies,
promoting population active participationand involvement.

8. We urgethe countries to implement the 2005-2015HyogoAction Framework to increase
national and community resilience in disasters, which was adopted in the World
Conference for Disaster Reduction (Hyogo, 2005) and which, among other aspects, calls us
to guarantee equal access of women and vulnerable groups to appropriate education
opportunities, to promote gender education and culture and to foster education towards
disaster reduction.

9. We fully acknowledgeprogress in basic and higher education to develop environmental
performance sustainability indicatorsand to develop networking.

10. We acknowledgeeducators, promoters and Ibero-American environmental
communicators, calling them to continue in their efforts to keep and implement innovative
educational practices and to stimulate the creation and development of public policies
that may enable States to fulfill their role of looking after and leveraging cultural and
natural values attained by different peoples, particularly indigenous peoples.

11. We relatecollective and cooperative actionof institutions and social movements
committed to environmental education, stimulating design and implementation of
territorial political-educational projects.

12. We callthe State to strengthen the definition of public policies to effectively promote
and regulate environmental management among productive industries, private sector
socio-environmental responsibility in what regardsinvestment and local development
programs and projects as one of its action lines.

13. We recommendthe creation of effective environmental authorities in all the countries
that are still lacking such institutions and the reconsideration of their elimination in
countries that are doing so, with the purpose of making headway and leverage public
policies for sustainability.
14. We are concerned about territory management policies that might encourage
unsustainable resource exploitation in peasant- and indigenous-owned territories which
endanger such populations and undermine the fundamental principles of co-habitation
and respect to life generation.

15. We proposeto include the mandates in Article 6 of the Convention in the new
universal climate agreement, referred to environmental education, sensitization,
participation, public Access to information and international cooperation.
16. We requestCOP 20 and COP21 to include financed targets and actions for Access to
environmental education, citizen participation in environmental decision-making and
Access to environmental justice –as per Principle10 in the Rio Declaration- in the
Convention’s Implementation Mechanism, which should also incorporate the principles of
sustainability, inter-culturality, gender equality and shared responsibility.
17. We demandStates and Governments to implement public policies aimed at reducing
risks and effects derived from global climate change and face their inevitable effects, while
acknowledging and leveraging the cultural and natural values of their peoples and
territories, so as to overcome inequity, exclusion and poverty, as well as to ensure life
18. We urgethe peoples, families and persons to adopt sustainable values, provisions and
good environmental practices to develop and improve their quality of life through socially
and environmentally responsible production and consumption that eill prevent or
minimize greenhouse gas emissions.


19. We proposetheUNESCO World Conference on Education for Sustainable
Development(Nagoya, 2014) to acknowledge the importance of environmental education
for Ibero-America, because it leads to acknowledging the originality, richness and reality of
each nation, towards a solidarity-based, democratic and responsible society that sustains

20. We call to involvegovernments in coordinating existing regional environmental
education strategies for sustainability, referring to the five strategic lines defined by the
World Action Program so as to contribute to update public policies in each country.

21. We call for the strengtheningof institutionalizing cross-cutting environmental
education policies in each country through an environmental education system that
coordinates governmental and non-governmental spheres, providing sufficient human and
economic resources to the Ministries of Education and Environment. These public policies
should be disseminated among communities by using clear phrasing in aboriginal
languages so that they are easily understandable by all social and ethnic groups, through
different education and communication means. These policies need to prioritize actions
addressed to those responsible for making decisions with significant social and
environmental consequences, as well as addressed to sectors that trigger unsustainable
situations and processes.
22. We urge the conference to identify and supporteducationalstrategies in formal and
informal settings committed with transformational and emancipatory processes by
designing curricula, management, educational structures and community relations that
consider context and environment.

23. We recommend to promotecritical revision of educational practices and fostering their
renewal through formal and informal learning and education processes for environmental
educators, respecting different styles, profiles, contexts and expressions (facilitators,
promoters, mediators, coaches, guides, artists, etc.), strengthening design and
implementation of participatory methodologies.

24. We call themto empower the youth so they become actively involved in managing
their territories, valuing their identity and acknowledging their sense of belonging as they
become change agents towards sustainability.

25. We urge them to fostercollective and cooperative actionamong institutions, social and
indigenous movements committed with environmental education towards sustainability,
stimulating design and implementation of political-educational projects that are coherent
vis-à-vis territory governance.

Lima, September 12 2014