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NAPOLEONIC ERA

WHO IS NAPOLEON BONAPARTE?
Napoleon I (1769-1821), is a general and emperor of
France (1804-1814). Napoleon onapar!e "as #orn in
$orsicca in 1769, "en! !o mili!ar% sc&ools in France, and
#ecame a lie'!enan! in !&e ar!iller% in 178(. )e associa!ed
"i!& *aco#ins on !&e o'!#rea+ of !&e Frenc& ,e-ol'!ion,
dro-e !&e ri!is& form .o'lon in 178/, and dispersed a
ro%alis! re#ellion I 0aris on 1c!o#er 179(. )e defea!ed !&e
2's!ro-3ardinian armies in I!al% on 1796-1797 and signed
!&e !rea!% of $ampo Formio, e4!ending !&e Frenc& !erri!or%.
)e !&en campaigned in 5g%p! and !&e 6iddle 5as!,
!&rea!ening 7rea! ri!ain8s posi!ion in India. 2l!&o'g& &e "on
land #a!!les, !&e Frenc& 9ee! "as des!ro%ed in !&e a!!le of
!&e Nile in 1798. ,e!'rning !o 0aris Napoleon engineered !&e
co'p d8e!a! of No-em#er 9, 1799, es!a#lis&ing a $ons'la!e
"i!& &imself as !&e :rs! cons'l and dic!a!or. )e recogni;ed
!&e go-ernmen! and es!a#lis&ed !&e an+ of France and !&e
$ode of Napoleon, s!ill !&e #asis of !&e Frenc& <a".
.&e .rea!% of <'ne-ille !&a! "as signed on 1801 made
peace "i!& 2's!ria. .&e .rea!% of 2miens of 1802 made
peace "i!& ri!ain. Napoleon #ecame !&e :rs! cons'l for life
on 1802 and made &imself emperor for life on 1804. In !&e
Napoleonic =ars &e "on -ic!ories o-er !&e 5'ropean alliance
a! 2's!erli!; on 180(, *ena on 1806 and Friedland on 1807,
dissol-ing !&e )ol% ,oman 5mpire on 1806, and #ecoming
r'ler of almos! !&e "&ole con!inen!. 2f!er *ena &e
ina'g'ra!ed !&e $on!inen!al 3%s!em "&ere#% &e &oped !o
+eep !&e 5'ropean por!s closed !o ri!is& !rade, #'! !&e
a!!le of .rafalger on 180( es!a#lis&ed !&e dominance of
ri!ain a! sea.
In 1809 Napoleon di-orced *osep&ine de ea'&arnais
and married 6arie <o'ise, "&o #ore &im an &eir, Napoleon II.
.&e 0enins'lar =ar re-ealed gro"ing Frenc& "ea+ness, and
1812 Napoleon #egan &is disas!ro's campaign agains!
,'ssia. 2 ne" alliance of 5'ropean na!ions defea!ed !&e
Frenc& a! <eip;ig on 181/. In 1814, af!er France "as
in-aded, Napoleon a#dica!ed and "as e4iled !o !&e island of
5l#a. 1n 6arc& 181( &e escaped, re!'rned !o France, and
r'led for !&e )'ndred >a%s, "&ic& ended in Frenc& defea! in
!&e a!!le of =a!erloo on 181(. Napoleon "as !&en e4iled !o
3ain! )elena, "&ere &e died in1821.
WHAT IS THE NAPOLEONIC ERA ?
.&e Napoleonic 5ra dominan!l% incl'ded France and
5'rope. I! is !&e era !&a! ended !&e Frenc& ,e-ol'!ion. I!
#egan "i!& Napoleon8s co'p d8 e!a!, o-er!&ro"ing !&e
>irec!or%, es!a#lis&ing !&e Frenc& $ons'la!e and ends a!
Napoleon8s defea! a! !&e a!!le of =a!erloo.
IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS OF NAPOLEON AND THE
NAPOLEONIC ERA
Temporary peace in Europe
1n 1c!o#er 1801 and 6arc& 1802 France signed a
!rea!% "i!& 7rea! ri!ain !&a! ca'sed a s&or! li-ed peace in
5'rope and France, !&e .rea!% of 2miens. .&e reason "&% !&e
peace in 5'rope and France "as s&or! li-ed #eca'se ri!ain
did no! e-ac'a!e 6al!a as promised and !&e% pro!es!ed
agains! onapar!e8s anne4a!ion of 0iedmon! and &is 2c! of
6edia!ion, "&ic& es!a#lis&ed a ne" 3"iss $onfedera!ion.
Reorm!
onapar!e ins!i!'!ed las!ing reforms, incl'ding cen!ralised
adminis!ra!ion of !&e depar!men!s, &ig&er ed'ca!ion, a !a4
code, road and se"er s%s!ems and !&e an?'e de France@
!&e co'n!r%As cen!ral #an+. )e nego!ia!ed !&e $oncorda! of
1801 "i!& !&e $a!&olic $&'rc&, "&ic& so'g&! !o reconcile !&e
mos!l% $a!&olic pop'la!ion !o &is regime. I! "as presen!ed
alongside !&e 1rganic 2r!icles, "&ic& reg'la!ed p'#lic
"ors&ip in France. In 6a% 1802, &e ins!i!'!ed !&e <Bgion
dA)onne'r, a s'#s!i!'!e for !&e old ro%alis! decora!ions and
orders of c&i-alr%, !o enco'rage ci-ilian and mili!ar%
ac&ie-emen!s. )is po"ers "ere increased #% !&e
$ons!i!'!ion of !&e Cear D incl'dingE Article 1. The French
people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte
First Consul for Life 2f!er !&is &e "as generall% referred !o as
Napoleon ra!&er !&an onapar!e.
F16G
NapoleonAs se! of ci-il la"s, !&e Code Civil@no" of!en +no"n
as !&e Napoleonic code@"as prepared #% commi!!ees of
legal e4per!s 'nder !&e s'per-ision of *ean *ac?'es ,Bgis de
$am#acBrHs, !&e Second Consul. Napoleon par!icipa!ed
ac!i-el% in !&e sessions of !&e $o'ncil of 3!a!e !&a! re-ised
!&e draf!s. .&e de-elopmen! of !&e $ode "as a f'ndamen!al
c&ange in !&e na!'re of !&e ci-il la" legal s%s!em "i!& i!s
s!ress on clearl% "ri!!en and accessi#le la". 1!&er codes
"ere commissioned #% Napoleon !o codif% criminal and
commerce la"I a $ode of $riminal Ins!r'c!ion "as p'#lis&ed,
"&ic& enac!ed r'les of d'e process.
Frenc" Empire
Napoleon faced ro%alis! and *aco#in plo!s as FranceAs r'ler,
incl'ding !&e Conspiration des poignards F>aggers
conspirac%G in 1c!o#er 1800 and !&e 0lo! of !&e ,'e 3ain!-
Nicaise !"o mon!&s la!er. In *an'ar% 1804, &is police
'nco-ered an assassina!ion plo! agains! &im "&ic& in-ol-ed
6orea' and "&ic& "as os!ensi#l% sponsored #% !&e o'r#on
former r'lers of France. 1n !&e ad-ice of .alle%rand,
Napoleon ordered !&e +idnapping of !&e >'+e of 5ng&ien, in
-iola!ion of neig&#o'ring adenAs so-ereign!%. 2f!er a secre!
!rial !&e >'+e "as e4ec'!ed, e-en !&o'g& &e &ad no! #een
in-ol-ed in !&e plo!.
Napoleon 'sed !&e plo! !o J's!if% !&e re-crea!ion of a
&eredi!ar% monarc&% in France, "i!& &imself as 5mperor, as a
o'r#on res!ora!ion "o'ld #e more diKc'l! if !&e onapar!is!
s'ccession "as en!renc&ed in !&e cons!i!'!ion. Napoleon
cro"ned &imself 5mperor Napoleon I on 2 >ecem#er 1804 a!
No!re >ame de 0aris and !&en cro"ned *osBp&ine 5mpress.
$laims !&a! &e sei;ed !&e cro"n o'! of !&e &ands of 0ope
0i's LII d'ring !&e ceremon%@!o a-oid &is s'#J'ga!ion !o !&e
a'!&ori!% of !&e pon!iM@are apocr%p&alI !&e corona!ion
proced're &ad #een agreed in ad-ance. 2! 6ilan $a!&edral
on 26 6a% 180(, Napoleon "as cro"ned Ning of I!al% "i!&
!&e Iron $ro"n of <om#ard%. )e crea!ed eig&!een arshals
of the !mpire from amongs! &is !op generals, !o sec're !&e
allegiance of !&e arm%. <'d"ig -an ee!&o-en, a long-!ime
admirer, "as disappoin!ed a! !&is !'rn !o"ards imperialism,
and scra!c&ed &is dedica!ion !o Napoleon from &is /rd
3%mp&on%.
#e$i!" emancipa%ion
Napoleon from la"s "&ic& res!ric!ed !&em !o g&e!!os, and
e4panded !&eir rig&!s !o proper!%, "ors&ip, and careers.
>espi!e !&e an!i-semi!ic reac!ion !o NapoleonAs policies from
foreign go-ernmen!s and "i!&in France, &e #elie-ed
emancipa!ion "o'ld #ene:! France #% a!!rac!ing *e"s !o !&e
co'n!r% gi-en !&e res!ric!ions !&e% faced else"&ere. )e
s!a!ed !&a!, OI "ill ne-er accep! an% proposals !&a! "ill
o#liga!e !&e *e"is& people !o lea-e France, #eca'se !o me
!&e *e"s are !&e same as an% o!&er ci!i;en in o'r co'n!r%. I!
!a+es "ea+ness !o c&ase !&em o'! of !&e co'n!r%, #'! i!
!a+es s!reng!& !o assimila!e !&em.O )e "as seen as so
fa-ora#le !o !&e *e"s !&a! !&e ,'ssian 1r!&odo4 $&'rc&
formall% condemned &im as O2n!ic&ris! and !&e 5nem% of
7odO.
Napo&eonic Co'e
Napoleonic $ode is !&e Frenc& <egal $ode, oKciall% !&e $ode
$i-il. Napoleon I, as :rs! cons'l appoin!ed a commission !o
de-ice a replacemen! for !&e conf'sed and corr'p! local
s%s!ems formerl% in force. .&e code, made 'p of 2,281
ar!icle arranged in / #oo+s, "as enac!ed in 1804 and,
al!&o'g& m'c& al!ered, is s!ill in force !oda%.
RULERS DURIN( THE NAPOLEONIC ERA )
• FRANCIS II OF (ERMAN* +FRANCIS I OF AUSTRIA,
+FEBRUAR* -./ -012 3 MARCH ./ -245,
Francis II of 7erman% "as !&e las! )ol% ,oman
5mperor. )e r'led in 7erman% from 1792 P 2'g's! 6,
1806. .&en &e dissol-ed !&e 5mpire af!er !&e disas!ro's
defea! in !&e =ar o f !&e .&ird $oali!ion #% Napoleon a!
!&e a!!le of 2's!erli!;. In 1804 &e fo'nd !&e 2's!rian
5mpire "&ile &e "as s!ill !&e 5mperor of 7erman% !&en
&e #ecame Francis I of 2's!ria from 1804 P 18/(. )e
#ecame !&e one and onl% >1005<N2I35, (do'#le
emperor) in &is!or%.
1!&er !&an #eing !&e emperor of #o!& 7erman%
and 2's!ria &e also #ecame !&e 2pos!olic Ning of
)'ngar% as Ferenc. )e #ecame !&e Ning of $roa!ia P
3la-onia as FranJo II. )e also #ecame !&e Ning of
o&emia as Francis I. 2nd las!l% &e #ecame !&e Firs!
0residen! of !&e 7erman $onfedera!ion in 181(.
)e &as #een a s!rong opponen! of Frenc& 5mperor,
Napoleon onapar!e d'ring !&e Napoleonic =ars. '!
&is mos! se-ere defea! e-er "as !&e pro4% marriage of
s!a!e of &is da'g&!er 62,I5 <1QI35 1F 2Q3.,I2 !o
Napoleon I on 6arc& 10, 1810.
• FREDERIC6 I +FRIEDRICH I, +NO7EMBER -058 3
OCTOBER 49/ -2-1,
Friedric& I "as no!ed for &is si;e 6 f!. 11 inc&es
and &is "eig&! of 200 +g.
)e "as appoin!ed #% $a!&erine II of ,'ssia as 7o-ernor
P 7eneral of eas!ern Finland.
=&en &is fa!&er died &e #ecame !&e >'+e of
='r!!em#erg as Friedric& III on >ecem#er 22, 1797.
)o"e-er &is reign "as s&or!l% ended in 1800 "&en !&e
Frenc& arm% occ'pied ='r!!em#erg. >'+e Friedric&
:led a pri-a!e !rea!% ceding 6on!#eliard, an encla-e
"i!&in !&e #o'ndaries of France, !o !&e Frenc& ,ep'#lic,
and recei-ed 5ll"angen in e4c&ange !"o %ears la!er.
2ccording !o !&e
,5I$)>50Q.2.I1N3)2Q0.3$)<Q33, !&e emperor of
='r!!em#erg no" &olds !&e !i!le 0rince 5lec!or. In
e4c&ange for pro-iding France a large a'4iliar% force,
Napoleon recogni;ed Friedric& as !&e Ning of
='r!!em#erg as Friedric& I. 3oon af!er, =Rr!!em#erg
seceded from !&e )ol% ,oman 5mpire and Joined
NapoleonAs $onfedera!ion of !&e ,&ine. 1nce again, !&e
ass'mp!ion of a ne" !i!le also mean! !erri!orial
e4pansion, as !&e !erri!ories of -ario's near#% princes
"ere anne4ed #% =Rr!!em#erg. 2s a s%m#ol of &is
alliance "i!& !&e Frenc& 5mperor, Friedric&As da'g&!er
$a!&erine "as married !o NapoleonAs %o'nges! #ro!&er
*erome. .&e ne"l% ele-a!ed +ingAs alliance "i!& France
!ec&nicall% made &im !&e enem% of &is fa!&er-in-la",
ri!is& Ning 7eorge III. )o"e-er, !&e NingAs d%nas!ic
connec!ions "o'ld ena#le &im !o in!ermi!!en!l% ac! as a
go #e!"een !&e ri!is& go-ernmen! and -ario's
con!inen!al po"ers.
>'ring !&e =ar of <i#era!ion in 181/, Friedric&
c&anged sides and "en! o-er !&e 2llies, "&ere &is
s!a!'s as !&e #ro!&er-in-la" of !&e ri!is& 0rince ,egen!
(la!er 7eorge IL) and 'ncle !o !&e ,'ssian .sar
2le4ander I &elped &is s!anding. 2f!er !&e fall of
Napoleon, &e a!!ended !&e $ongress of Lienna and "as
con:rmed as Ning. 2! Lienna Friedric& and &is minis!ers
"ere -er% concerned !o ma+e s're !&a! =Rr!!em#erg
"o'ld #e a#le !o re!ain all !&e !erri!ories i! &ad gained
in !&e pas! :f!een %ears. Friedric&As &ars& !rea!men! of
!&e media!i;ed princes "i!&in &is domain made &im one
of !&e principal !arge!s of !&e organi;a!ion of
dispossessed princes, "&ic& &oped !o gain !&e s'ppor!
of !&e 0o"ers in regaining !&eir los! so-ereign!%. In !&e
end, &o"e-er, 2's!ria, "&ic& "as seen as !&e na!'ral
all% of !&e princes, "as more in!eres!ed in alliance "i!&
!&e medi'm si;ed 7erman s!a!es li+e =Rr!!em#erg !&an
"i!& asser!ing i!s !radi!ional role as pro!ec!or of !&e
smaller so-ereigns of !&e old 5mpire, and Friedric& "as
allo"ed !o re!ain &is d'#io'sl% ac?'ired lands. Friedric&,
along "i!& !&e o!&er 7erman princes, Joined !&e ne"
7ermanic $onfedera!ion in 181(. )e died in 1c!o#er of
!&e ne4! %ear.
• FREDERIC6 WILLIAM III +FRIEDRICH WILHELM III,
+AU(UST 4/ -009 3 #UNE 0/ -289,
)e s'cceeded !&e !&rone on 16 No-em#er 1797
and a! once ga-e earnes! of &is good in!en!ions #%
c'!!ing do"n !&e e4penses of !&e ro%al es!a#lis&men!,
dismissing &is fa!&erAs minis!ers, and reforming !&e
mos! oppressi-e a#'ses of !&e la!e reign. Qnfor!'na!el%,
&o"e-er, &e &ad all !&e )o&en;ollern !enaci!% of
personal po"er "i!&o'! !&e )o&en;ollern geni's for
'sing i!. .oo dis!r's!f'l !o delega!e &is responsi#ili!% !o
&is minis!ers, &e "as !oo in:rm of "ill !o s!ri+e o'! and
follo" a consis!en! co'rse for &imself. 2! :rs! &e and &is
ad-isors a!!emp!ed !o p'rs'e a polic% of ne'!rali!% in
!&e Napoleonic =ars. 2l!&o'g& !&e% s'cceeded in
+eeping o'! of !&e .&ird $oali!ion in 180(, e-en!'all%
Frederic+ =illiam "as s"a%ed #% !&e #elligeren!
a!!i!'de of !&e ?'een, "&o led 0r'ssiaAs pro-"ar par!%,
and en!ered in!o "ar in 1c!o#er 1806. 1n 14 1c!o#er
1806, a! !&e a!!le of *ena-2'ers!Sd!, !&e Frenc&
defea!ed !&e 0r'ssian arm% led #% Frederic+ =illiam,
and !&e 0r'ssian arm% collapsed. .&e ro%al famil% 9ed
!o 6emel, 5as! 0r'ssia, "&ere !&e% fell on !&e merc% of
5mperor 2le4ander I of ,'ssia ("&o, r'mo'r &as i!, &ad
fallen in lo-e "i!& T'een <o'ise).
2le4ander, !oo, s'Mered defea! a! !&e &ands of !&e
Frenc&, and a! .ilsi! on !&e Niemen France made peace
"i!& ,'ssia and 0r'ssia. Napoleon deal! "i!& 0r'ssia
-er% &ars&l%, despi!e !&e pregnan! T'eenAs personal
in!er-ie" "i!& !&e Frenc& emperor. 0r'ssia los! man% of
i!s 0olis& !erri!ories, as "ell as all !erri!or% "es! of !&e
5l#e, and &ad !o :nance a large indemni!% and !o pa%
for Frenc& !roops !o occ'p% +e% s!rong poin!s "i!&in !&e
Ningdom.
2l!&o'g& !&e ineMec!'al Ning &imself seemed
resigned !o 0r'ssiaAs fa!e, -ario's reforming minis!ers,
s'c& as aron -om 3!ein, 0rince -on )arden#erg,
3c&arn&ors!, and $o'n! 7neisena', se! a#o'! reforming
0r'ssiaAs adminis!ra!ion and mili!ar%, "i!& !&e
enco'ragemen! of !&e T'een ("&o died, grea!l%
mo'rned, in 1810).
In 181/, follo"ing NapoleonAs defea! in ,'ssia,
Frederic+ =illiam !'rned agains! France and signed an
alliance "i!& ,'ssia a! Nalis;, al!&o'g& &e &ad !o 9ee
erlin, s!ill 'nder Frenc& occ'pa!ion. 0r'ssian !roops
pla%ed a +e% par! in !&e -ic!ories of !&e allies in 181/
and 1814, and !&e Ning &imself !ra-elled "i!& !&e main
arm% of 0rince 3c&"ar;en#erg, along "i!& 2le4ander of
,'ssia and Francis of 2's!ria.
2! !&e $ongress of Lienna, Frederic+ =illiamAs
minis!ers s'cceeded in sec'ring impor!an! !erri!orial
increases for 0r'ssia, al!&o'g& !&e% failed !o o#!ain !&e
anne4a!ion of all of 3a4on%, as !&e% &ad "is&ed.
Follo"ing !&e "ar, Frederic+ =illiam !'rned !o"ards
poli!ical reac!ion, a#andoning !&e promises &e &ad
made in 181/ !o s'ppl% 0r'ssia "i!& a cons!i!'!ion.
)e died on 7 *'ne 1840. )is eldes! son, Frederic+
=illiam IL, s'cceeded &im.
• CHARLES I7 +NO7EMBER --/ -082 3 #ANUAR* .9/
-2-:,
)e "as !&e Ning of 3pain from >ecem#er 14 1788
'n!il &is a#dica!ion on
6arc& 19, 1808.
In 1788, $&arles III died and $&arles IL s'cceeded
!o !&e !&rone. 5-en !&o'g& &e &ad a profo'nd #elief in
!&e sanc!i!% of &is oKce and +ep! 'p !&e appearance of
an a#sol'!e, po"erf'l monarc&, &e ne-er !oo+ more
!&an a passi-e par! in !&e direc!ion of &is o"n
go-ernmen!, occ'p%ing &imself "i!& &'n!ing. .&e
aMairs of go-ernmen! &e lef! !o &is "ife and &is prime
minis!er. In 1792, 6aria <'isa :nall% s'cceeded in
o's!ing !&e $o'n! of Florida#lanca from oKce and &ad
&im replaced "i!& 0edro 0a#lo 2#arca de olea, $o'n!
of 2randa, !&e c&ief of !&e Aragonese par!%. )o"e-er, in
!&e "a+e of !&e "ar agains! ,ep'#lican France, !&e
li#eral-leaning $o'n! of 2randa "as replaced #% 6an'el
de 7odo%, a fa-o'ri!e of !&e T'een and allegedl% &er
lo-er, "&o "o'ld &encefor!& enJo% !&e las!ing fa-o'r of
!&e Ning.
7odo% con!in'ed 2randaAs polic% of ne'!rali!%
!o"ards France #'! af!er 3pain pro!es!ed agains! !&e
e4ec'!ion of !&e deposed +ing in 179/, France declared
"ar on 3pain and in 179( forced 7odo% !o concl'de an
alliance and declared "ar on 7rea! ri!ain.
• MARIA I OF PURTU(AL +WITH #OHN 7I AS
RE(ENT, +DECEMBER -0/ -048 3 MARCH .9/ -2-1,
1n 1777, s&e #ecame !&e :rs! T'een regnan! of
0or!'gal, and !&e 2lgar-es, and !&e 26!& (or 27!&
according !o &is!orian 2lison =einer) 0or!'g'ese
monarc&. )er &'s#and #ecame &er co-monarc&, +no"n
as 0e!er III. >espi!e !&e co'ple #eing !&e face of !&e
0or!'g'ese ro%als, !&e po"er "as al"a%s !o remain "i!&
6aria "&o "as a good r'ler prior !o &er madness.
)er :rs! ac! as ?'een "as !o dismiss !&e pop'lar
0rime 6inis!er, !&e 6ar?'is of 0om#al, "&o &ad #ro+en
!&e po"er of !&e reac!ionar% aris!ocrac% -ia !&e .a-ora
aMair, par!iall% #eca'se of 0om#alAs 5nlig&!enmen!,
an!i-*es'i! policies. No!e"or!&% e-en!s of !&is period
"ere 0or!'galAs mem#ers&ip of !&e <eag'e of 2rmed
Ne'!rali!% (*'l% 1782) and !&e 1781 cession of >elagoa
a% from 2's!ria !o 0or!'gal.
T'een 6aria s'Mered from religio's mania and
melanc&olia. .&is ac'!e men!al illness (per&aps d'e !o
porp&%ria, "&ic& also ma% &a-e !ain!ed 7eorge III of !&e
Qni!ed Ningdom) made &er incapa#le of &andling s!a!e
aMairs af!er 1792.
)er madness "as :rs! oKciall% no!iced in 1786
"&en 6aria &ad !o #e carried #ac+ !o &er apar!men!s in
a s!a!e of deliri'm. .&e ?'eenAs men!al s!a!e #ecame
increasingl% "orse. .&e %ear of 1786 sa" &er &'s#and
lose &is life in 6a%. 6aria "as de-as!a!ed and for#ade
an% co'r! en!er!ainmen!s and according !o a
con!emporar%, !&e s!a!e fes!i-i!ies resem#led religio's
ceremonies. )er s!a!e "orsened af!er !&e dea!& of !&e
0rince )eir *osep&, aged 27 %ears old, from smallpo4,
and of &er confessor, in 1791. 2f!er !&e end of 1791,
&er men!al s!a!e seemed !o #e !'rning !o e-en "ors!. In
Fe#r'ar% 1792, s&e "as deemed as men!all% insane
and "as !rea!ed #% *o&n =illis, !&e same p&%sician !&a!
a!!ended 7eorge III of 5ngland. )e "an!ed !o !a+e &er
!o 5ngland, #'! !&a! "as ref'sed #% !&e 0or!'g'ese
co'r!. .&e %o'ng prince 0rince *o&n !oo+ o-er !&e
go-ernmen! in &er name, e-en if &e onl% !oo+ !&e !i!le
of 0rince ,egen! in 1799. =&en !&e 2J'da palace #'rn!
do"n in 179(, !&e co'r! "as forced !o mo-e !o T'el';
"&ere !&e ill ?'een "o'ld lie in &er apar!men!s all da%
and -isi!ors "o'ld complain of !erri#le screams !&a!
"o'ld ec&o !&ro'g&o'! !&e palace.
In 1801 !&e 3panis& dic!a!or 6an'el de 7odo%
in-aded 0or!'gal "i!& #ac+ing from Napoleon, #'! "as
forced !o a#andon !&e campaign in !&e same %ear.
)o"e-er !&e .rea!% of adaJo; on *'ne 6, 1801 forced
0or!'gal !o cede 1li-en;a and par! of 7'%ana !o 3pain.
.&e ref'sal of !&e 0or!'g'ese go-ernmen! !o Join
!&e $on!inen!al loc+ade of ri!ain c'lmina!ed in !&e
1807 Franco-3panis& in-asion led #% 7eneral *'no!. 2!
!&e 'rging of !&e ri!is& go-ernmen!, !&e en!ire
ragan;a d%nas!% 9ed !o ra;il on No-em#er 29, 1807
and es!a#lis&ed a co'r! in e4ile in ,io de *aneiro. *'no!
"as appoin!ed go-ernor of 0or!'gal pending NapoleonAs
decision on i!s 'l!ima!e fa!e.
In *an'ar% 1808, 0rince *oUo and &is co'r! arri-ed
in 3al-ador, "&ere &e signed a commercial reg'la!ion
!&a! opened commerce #e!"een ra;il and friendl%
na!ions, "&ic& in !&is case represen!ed 5ngland. .&is
impor!an! la" #ro+e !&e colonial pac! !&a!, 'n!il !&en,
onl% allo"ed ra;il !o main!ain direc! commercial
rela!ions "i!& 0or!'gal.
1n 2'g's! 1, 1808, !&e ri!is& 7eneral 2r!&'r
=ellesle% (la!er >'+e of =elling!on) landed a ri!is&
arm% in <is#on and !&'s ini!ia!ed !&e 0enins'lar =ar.
=ellesle%As ini!ial -ic!or% o-er *'no! a! Limeiro (2'g's!
21, 1808) "as "iped o'! #% &is s'periors in !&e
$on-en!ion of $in!ra (2'g's! /0, 1808). Ne-er!&eless,
=ellesle% (no" <ord =elling!on) re!'rned !o 0or!'gal on
2pril 22, 1809 !o recommence !&e campaign.
0or!'g'ese forces 'nder ri!is& command dis!ing'is&ed
!&emsel-es in !&e defence of !&e lines of .orres Ledras
(1809-1810) and in !&e s'#se?'en! in-asion of 3pain
and France.
In 181(, !&e regenc% go-ernmen! ele-a!ed ra;il
!o !&e s!a!'s of a +ingdom, and 6aria I "as proclaimed
!&e T'een of !&e Qni!ed Ningdom of 0or!'gal, ra;il and
!&e 2lgar-es. =&en Napoleon "as :nall% defea!ed in
181(, 6aria and &er famil% remained in ra;il.
.&e aged T'een died a! a $armeli!es con-en! in
,io de *aneiro in 1816 a! !&e age of 81I !&e 0rince
,egen! s'cceeded &er as Ning *o&n LI of 0or!'gal and
ra;il.
• FERDINAND I +#ANUAR* -./ -05- 3 #ANUAR* 8/
-2.5,
Ferdinand I "as Ning -ario'sl% of Naples, 3icil%,
and !&e ."o 3icilies from 17(9 'n!il &is dea!&. )e "as
!&e !&ird son of Ning $&arles, Ning of Naples and 3icil%,
la!er $&arles III of 3pain, Ning of 3icil% #% &is "ife 6aria
2malia of 3a4on%. 1n 10 2'g's! 17(9, $&arles
s'cceeded &is #ro!&er as Ning $&arles III of 3pain.
.rea!% pro-isions made $&arles 'na#le !o &old !&e !i!les
of all !&ree Ningdoms. 1n 6 1c!o#er 17(9 &e !&erefore
a#dica!ed in fa-or of &is son Ferdinand ($&arlesAs eldes!
son, Infan!e Felipe, "as men!all% re!arded and !&e
second son, $&arles, "as des!ined !o in&eri! !&e
3panis& !&rone).
FerdinandAs minori!% ended in 1767, and &is :rs!
ac! "as !&e e4p'lsion of !&e *es'i!s. .&e follo"ing %ear
&e married 2rc&d'c&ess 6aria $arolina, da'g&!er of !&e
5mpress 6aria .&eresa of 2's!ria and sis!er of 5mperor
*osep& II of 2's!ria and !&e f'!'re T'een 6arie
2n!oine!!e of France. % !&e marriage con!rac! !&e
?'een "as !o &a-e a -oice in !&e co'ncil of s!a!e af!er
!&e #ir!& of &er :rs! son, and s&e "as no! slo" !o a-ail
&erself of !&is means of poli!ical in9'ence.
ea'!if'l, cle-er and pro'd, li+e &er mo!&er, &er
am#i!ion "as !o raise !&e +ingdom of Naples !o !&e
posi!ion of a grea! po"erI s&e soon came !o e4ercise
comple!e s"a% o-er &er &'s#and, "&o m'c& preferred
!o lea-e !&e go-ernmen! in &er &ands.
.an'cci, "&o a!!emp!ed !o !&"ar! &er, "as
dismissed in 1777, and !&e 5nglis&man 3ir *o&n 2c!on,
"&o in 1779 "as appoin!ed direc!or of marine,
s'cceeded in so comple!el% "inning !&e fa-o'r of 6aria
$arolina, #% s'ppor!ing &er in &er sc&eme !o free
Naples from 3panis& in9'ence and sec'ring a
rapprochement "i!& 2's!ria and 7rea! ri!ain, !&a! &e
#ecame prac!icall% and af!er"ard ac!'all% prime
minis!er. 2l!&o'g& no! a mere grasping ad-en!'rer, &e
"as largel% responsi#le for red'cing !&e in!ernal
adminis!ra!ion of !&e co'n!r% !o a s%s!em of espionage,
corr'p!ion and cr'el!%.
1n !&e o'!#rea+ of !&e Frenc& ,e-ol'!ion in 1789
!&e Neapoli!an co'r! "as no! &os!ile !o !&e mo-emen!,
and !&e ?'een e-en s%mpa!&ised "i!& !&e re-ol'!ionar%
ideas of !&e da%. '! "&en !&e Frenc& monarc&% "as
a#olis&ed and !&e +ing and ?'een (6aria $arolinaAs
sis!er) "ere e4ec'!ed, Ferdinand and 6aria $arolina
"ere sei;ed "i!& a feeling of fear and &orror and Joined
!&e :rs! coali!ion agains! France in 179/.
Ferdinand died in Naples in *an'ar% 182(.
• CHARLES EMMANUEL I7 OF PIEDMONT 3 SARDINA
+MA* .8/ -05- 3 OCTOBER 1/ -2-:,
In 177( $&arles 5mman'el married 6arie $lo!ilde
of France, !&e da'g&!er of <o'is, >a'p&in of France and
0rincess 6arie-*osHp&e of 3a4on%, and sis!er of Ning
<o'is DLI of France. 2l!&o'g& !&e 'nion "as arranged
for poli!ical reasons, $&arles 5mman'el and &is "ife
#ecame de-o!ed !o eac& o!&er. .&eir a!!emp!s !o &a-e
c&ildren, &o"e-er, "ere 'ns'ccessf'l.
2! !&e dea!& of &is fa!&er (1c!o#er 14, 1796),
$&arles 5mman'el s'cceeded as Ning of 3ardinia. .&e
+ingdom incl'ded no! onl% !&e island of 3ardinia, #'!
also signi:can! !erri!ories in nor!&"es! I!al% incl'ding all
of 0iedmon!.
2! &is s'ccession !o !&e !&rone in 1796, 3ardinia
&ad #een forced !o concl'de !&e disad-an!ageo's
.rea!% of 0aris (1796) "i!& !&e Frenc& ,ep'#lic, gi-ing
!&e Frenc& arm% free passage !&ro'g& 0iedmon!. 1n
>ecem#er 6, 1798, !&e Frenc& 'nder *o'#er! occ'pied
.'rin and forced $&arles 5man'el !o a#dica!e all &is
!erri!ories on !&e I!alian mainland and !o "i!&dra" !o
!&e island of 3ardinia, "&ic& s!a%ed o'! of !&e reac& of
!&e Frenc& arm%. .&e follo"ing %ear &e !ried
'ns'ccessf'll% !o regain 0iedmon!. )e and &is "ife li-ed
in ,ome and in Naples as g'es!s of !&e "eal!&% $olonna
famil%.
1n 6arc& 7, 1802 $&arles 5mman'elAs "ife 6arie
$lo!&ilde died. )e "as so mo-ed #% &er dea!& !&a! &e
decided !o a#dica!e, *'ne 4, 1802 in fa-o'r of &is
#ro!&er Lic!or 5mman'el. $&arles 5mman'el re!ained
!&e personal !i!le of Ning. )e li-ed in ,ome and in !&e
near#% !o"n of Frasca!i.
In Frasca!i &e "as a fre?'en! g'es! )enr% enedic!
3!'ar!, $ardinal >'+e of Cor+, las! mem#er of !&e ,o%al
)o'se of 3!'ar!, "&o "as &is co'sin. )e "as descended
from )enrie!!a 2nne 3!'ar!, !&e %o'nges! da'g&!er of
$&arles I, "&ereas )enr% enedic! 3!'ar! "as
descended from *ames II "&o "as !&e second son of
$&arles I.
=&en )enr% died in 1807, $&arles 5mman'el
#ecame !&e senior &eir-general of Ning $&arles I of
5ngland and 3co!land, and "as !&'s regarded #%
*aco#i!es as Ning $&arles IL of 5ngland, 3co!land,
France and Ireland. .&ere is no doc'men!ar% e-idence
!&a! $&arles 5mman'el e-er a!!emp!ed !o ma+e a
p'#lic claim !o !&e !i!le of Ning of 5ngland or 3co!land.
Indeed, in 181( a! !&e age of si4!%-fo'r $&arles
5mman'el !oo+ simple -o"s in !&e 3ocie!% of *es's (!&e
*es'i!s). )e "as ne-er ordained !o !&e pries!&ood, #'!
li-ed !&e res! of &is life a! !&e *es'i! no-i!ia!e in ,ome.
$&arles 5mman'el died a! ,ome, 1c!o#er 6, 1819.
)e is #'ried in !&e $&'rc& of 3an!A2ndrea al T'irinale.
• WILLIAM 7 OF ORAN(E
=illiam L ass'med !&e posi!ion of s!ad!&older
(c&ief e4ec'!i-e and mili!ar% commander) in 1766. 1n 4
1c!o#er 1767 in erlin, 0rince =illiam married 0rincess
=il&elmina of 0r'ssia, !&e da'g&!er of !&e >'+e of
r'ns"ic+, niece of Frederic+ !&e 7rea! and a co'sin of
7eorge III.
.&e posi!ion of !&e >'!c& d'ring !&e 2merican =ar
of Independence "as one of ne'!rali!%. =illiam L,
leading !&e pro-ri!is& fac!ion "i!&in !&e go-ernmen!,
#loc+ed a!!emp!s #% pro-independence, and la!er pro-
Frenc&, elemen!s !o drag !&e go-ernmen! !o "ar.
)o"e-er, !&ings came !o a &ead "i!& !&e >'!c&
a!!emp! !o Join !&e ,'ssian-led <eag'e of 2rmed
Ne'!rali!%, leading !o !&e o'!#rea+ of !&e Fo'r!& 2nglo-
>'!c& =ar in 1780.In spi!e of !&e fac! !&a! ri!ain "as in
!&e mids! of :g&!ing se-eral o!&er co'n!ries, !&e
ens'ing "ar pro-ed diKc'l! for !&e >'!c& !o cope "i!&
and !&e ,ep'#lic "as e-en!'all% forced !o cede some
!erri!or% !o !&e ri!is&. .&e Qni!ed 0ro-inces recogni;ed
!&e Qni!ed 3!a!es in Fe#r'ar% 1782, af!er m'c& poli!ical
de#a!e and press're from 2merican and Frenc&
diploma!s. *oan -an der $apellen !o! den 0ol and $o'r!
<am#er!'s -an e%ma !oo+ !&e ini!ia!i-e.
2f!er !&e signing of !&e .rea!% of 0aris (178/), !&e
impo-eris&ed na!ion gre" res!less 'nder =illiamAs r'le.
In !&e mean!ime, a #and of %o'ng re-ol'!ionaries,
called 0a!rio!s, "as c&allenging &is a'!&ori!% more and
more. In 178( =illiam lef! !&e )ag'e and remo-ed &is
co'r! !o 7'elders, a pro-ince remo!e from !&e poli!ical
cen!re. In 3ep!em#er 1786 &e &ad !o send an arm% !o
s!op )erman =illem >aendels, organi;ing an o-er!&ro"
a! !&e ci!iesA -roedsc&ap. In *'ne 1787 &is energe!ic
"ife =il&elmina !ried !o !ra-el !o !&e )ag'e. 1'!side
3c&oon&o-en, s&e "as s!opped #% mili!ia, !a+en !o a
farm near 7oeJan-er"ellesl'is and "i!&in !"o da%s
made !o re!'rn !o NiJmegen.
.o =il&elmina and &er #ro!&er, Frederic+ =illiam II
of 0r'ssia, !&is "as an ins'l!. Frederic+ sen! in an arm%
!o a!!ac+ !&e dissiden!s. 6an% pa!rio!s 9ed !o !&e Nor!&
of France, aro'nd 3ain!-1mer, in an area "&ere >'!c&
"as spo+en. Qn!il &is o-er!&ro" !&e% "ere s'ppor!ed #%
Ning <o'is DLI of France.
.&e %ear 179( "as a disas!ro's one for !&e ancien
r"gime of !&e Ne!&erlands. 3'ppor!ed #% !&e Frenc&
2rm%, !&e re-ol'!ionaries re!'rned from 0aris !o :g&! in
!&e Ne!&erlands, and in 179( =illiam L 9ed !o !&e
safe!% of 5ngland. 2 fe" da%s la!er !&e Fall of
2ms!erdam occ'rred, and !&e >'!c& ,ep'#lic "as
a#olis&ed #% !&e -ic!orio's Frenc&.
.&e las! of !&e >'!c& s!ad!&olders, &e died in e4ile
a! r'ns"ic+, no" in 7erman%. )is #od% "as mo-ed !o
!&e >'!c& ,o%al Famil% cr%p! in !&e Nie'"e Ner+ in >elf!
on 2pril 29, 19(8.
In 181/, &is son, Ning =illiam I re!'rned !o !&e
Ne!&erlands and #ecame !&e :rs! >'!c& monarc& from
!&e )o'se of 1range.
• ALE;ANDER I OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
+DECEMBER .4/ -000 3 DECEMBER -/ -2.5,
2le4ander I of !&e ,'ssian 5mpire is o!&er"ise
+no"n as 2le4ander !&e lessed. )e ser-ed as 5mperor
of ,'ssia from 6arc& 2/, 1801 P >ecem#er 1, 182(, and
,'ler of 0oland from 181( P 182(, as "ell as !&e :rs!
,'ssian 7rand >'+e of Finland and <i!&'ania.
)e "as #orn in 3ain! 0e!ers#'rg !o 7rand >'+e
0a'l 0e!ro-ic&, la!er 5mperor 0a'l I, and 6aria
Feodoro-na, da'g&!er of !&e >'+e of =Rr!!em#erg.
2le4ander "as !&e eldes! of fo'r #ro!&ers. )e
s'cceeded !o !&e !&rone af!er &is fa!&er "as m'rdered,
and r'led ,'ssia d'ring !&e c&ao!ic period of !&e
Napoleonic =ars. In !&e :rs! &alf of &is reign 2le4ander
!ried !o in!rod'ce li#eral reforms, "&ile in !&e second
&alf &e !'rned !o a m'c& more ar#i!rar% manner of
cond'c!, "&ic& led !o !&e re-o+ing of man% earl%
reforms. In foreign polic% 2le4ander gained cer!ain
s'ccesses, mainl% #% "inning se-eral mili!ar%
campaigns. In par!ic'lar 'nder &is r'le ,'ssia ac?'ired
Finland and par! of 0oland. .&e s!range con!radic!ions
of &is c&arac!er ma+e 2le4ander one of !&e mos!
in!eres!ing .sars. 2dding !o !&is, &is dea!& "as
s&ro'ded in m%s!er%, and !&e loca!ion of &is #od%
remains 'n+no"n.
In ,'ssia, !oo, cer!ain reforms "ere carried o'!,
#'! !&e% co'ld no! s'r-i-e !&e s'spicio's in!erference
of !&e a'!ocra! and &is oKcials. .&e 3!a!e $o'ncil and
!&e 7o-erning 3ena!e, ne" #odies endo"ed for !&e :rs!
!ime "i!& cer!ain (!&eore!ical) po"ers, #ecame sla-is&
ins!r'men!s of !&e .sar and &is fa-o'ri!es of !&e
momen!.
.&e ela#ora!e s%s!em of ed'ca!ion, c'lmina!ing in
!&e recons!i!'!ed, or ne"l% fo'nded, 'ni-ersi!ies of
>orpa! (.ar!'), Lilna (Lilni's), Na;an and N&ar+i-, "as
s!rangled in !&e s'pposed in!eres!s of OorderO and of
!&e ,'ssian 1r!&odo4 $&'rc&I "&ile !&e mili!ar%
se!!lemen!s "&ic& 2le4ander proclaimed as a #lessing
!o #o!& soldiers and s!a!e "ere forced on !&e 'n"illing
peasan!r% and arm% "i!& pi!iless cr'el!%. .&o'g& !&e%
"ere s'pposed !o impro-e li-ing condi!ions of soldiers,
!&e economic eMec! in fac! "as poor and &ars& mili!ar%
discipline ca'sed fre?'en! 'nres!.
5-en !&e i#le 3ocie!%, !&ro'g& "&ic& !&e emperor
in &is la!er mood of e-angelical ;eal proposed !o #less
&is people, "as cond'c!ed on !&e same r'!&less lines.
.&e ,oman $a!&olic arc&#is&op and !&e 1r!&odo4
me!ropoli!ans "ere forced !o ser-e on i!s commi!!ee
side #% side "i!& 0ro!es!an! pas!orsI and -illage pries!s,
!rained !o regard an% !ampering "i!& !&e le!!er of !&e
!radi!ional doc'men!s of !&e c&'rc& as a mor!al sin,
#ecame !&e 'n"illing ins!r'men!s for !&e propaga!ion
of "&a! !&e% regarded as "or+s of !&e de-il.
• CHRISTIAN 7II +#ANUUAR* .:/ -08: 3 MARCH -./
-292,
$&ris!ian LII "as Ning of >enmar+ and Nor"a%,
and >'+e of 3c&les"ig and )ols!ein from 1766 'n!il &is
dea!&.
)e #ecame +ing on &is fa!&er8s dea!& on 14
*an'ar% 1766, "ee+s #efore &is 17!& #ir!&da%. 2ll !&e
earlier acco'n!s agree !&a! &e &ad a "inning
personali!% and considera#le !alen!, #'! &e "as #adl%
ed'ca!ed, s%s!ema!icall% !errori;ed #% a #r'!al
go-ernor, >e!le- 7re-e ;' ,e-en!lo", and &opelessl%
de#a'c&ed #% corr'p! pages, and "&ile &e seems !o
&a-e #een in!elligen! and cer!ainl% &ad periods of
clari!%, $&ris!ian s'Mered from se-ere men!al pro#lems,
possi#l% sc&i;op&renia.
2f!er &is marriage a! $&ris!ians#org 0alace on 8
No-em#er 1766 !o &is co'sin 0rincess $aroline 6a!ilda
(+no"n in >enmar+ as T'een $aroline 6a!&ilde), &e
a#andoned &imself !o !&e "ors! e4cesses, especiall%
de#a'c&er%. In 1767, &e en!ered in !o a rela!ions&ip
"i!& !&e co'r!isan 3!V-le!-$a!&rine. )e p'#licl%
declared !&a! &e co'ld no! lo-e $aroline 6a!&ilde,
#eca'se i! "as O'nfas&iona#le !o lo-e oneAs "ifeO. )e
'l!ima!el% san+ in!o a condi!ion of men!al s!'por.
3%mp!oms d'ring !&is !ime incl'ded paranoia, self-
m'!ila!ion and &all'cina!ions. )e #ecame s'#missi-e !o
'ps!ar! *o&ann Friedric& 3!r'ensee, "&o rose s!eadil% in
po"er in !&e la!e 1760s. .&e neglec!ed and lonel%
$aroline 6a!&ilde drif!ed in!o an aMair "i!& 3!r'ensee.
In 1772, !&e +ing8s marriage "i!& $aroline 6a!&ilde
"as dissol-ed #% di-orce. 3!r'ensee "as arres!ed and
e4ec'!ed in !&a! same %ear. $&ris!ian signed
3!r'enseeAs arres! "arran! "i!& indiMerence, and 'nder
press're from &is s!epmo!&er, *'liana 6aria of
r'ns"ic+-=olfen#R!!el, "&o &ad led !&e mo-emen! !o
&a-e !&e marriage dissol-ed. $aroline 6a!&ilde,
re!aining &er !i!le #'! no! &er c&ildren, e-en!'all% lef!
>enmar+ in e4ile and passed &er remaining da%s in a!
$elle $as!le in &er #ro!&erAs 7erman !erri!or%, !&e
5lec!ora!e of )ano-er. 3&e died of scarle! fe-er !&ere
on 11 6a% 177(, a! !&e age of 2/.
$&ris!ian "as onl% nominall% +ing from 1772
on"ards. From 1772 !o 1784, >enmar+ "as r'led #%
$&ris!ianAs s!epmo!&er *'liana 6aria of r'ns"ic+-
=olfen#R!!el, &is p&%sicall% disa#led &alf-#ro!&er
Frederic+ and !&e >anis& poli!ician 1-e )Veg&-
7'ld#erg. From 1784 on"ards, &is son Frederic+ LI
r'led permanen!l% as a prince regen!. .&is regenc% "as
mar+ed #% li#eral and agric'l!'ral reforms #'! also #%
!&e #eginning disas!ers of !&e Napoleonic =ars.
$&ris!ian died in 1808 a! ,ends#'rg, 3c&les"ig,
no! of frig&! as some &a-e s'gges!ed, #'! from a #rain
ane'r%sm. )e "as (9.
• (USTA7 I7 6IN( OF SWEDEN +NO7EMBER -/ -002
3 FEBRUAR* -240,
7's!a- 2dolfAs promp! dismissal of !&e generall%
de!es!ed 7's!af 2dolf ,e'!er&olm, !&e d'+e-regen!As
leading ad-isor, added s!ill f'r!&er !o &is pop'lari!%. 1n
/1 1c!o#er 1797 7's!a- married Friederi+e >oro!&ea,
grandda'g&!er of Narl Friedric&, 6argra-e of aden, a
marriage "&ic& seemed !o !&rea!en "ar "i!& ,'ssia #'!
for !&e fana!ical &a!red of !&e Frenc& rep'#lic s&ared #%
!&e 5mperor 0a'l of ,'ssia and 7's!a- IL 2dolf, "&ic&
ser-ed as a #ond of 'nion #e!"een !&em. Indeed !&e
+ingAs &orror of *aco#inism "as mor#id in i!s in!ensi!%,
and dro-e &im !o #ecome increasingl% reac!ionar% and
!o pos!pone &is corona!ion for some %ears, so as !o
a-oid calling !oge!&er a die!. None!&eless, !&e disorder
of !&e s!a!e :nances, largel% in&eri!ed from 7's!a- IIIAs
,'ssian "ar of 1788-90, as "ell as "idespread crop
fail'res in 1798 and 1799, compelled &im !o s'mmon
!&e es!a!es !o Norr+Wping in 6arc& 1800 and on / 2pril
!&e same %ear. =&en !&e +ing enco'n!ered serio's
opposi!ion a! !&e ri+sdag, &e resol-ed ne-er !o call
ano!&er.
)is reign "as ill-fa!ed and "as !o end a#r'p!l%. In
180(, &e Joined !&e .&ird $oali!ion agains! Napoleon.
)is campaign "en! poorl% and !&e Frenc& occ'pied
3"edis& 0omerania. =&en &is all%, ,'ssia, made peace
and concl'ded an alliance "i!& France a! .ilsi! in 1807,
3"eden and 0or!'gal "ere lef! as 7rea! ri!ainAs
5'ropean allies. 1n 21 Fe#r'ar% 1808, ,'ssia in-aded
Finland, "&ic& consis!ed of pro-inces of 3"eden, on !&e
pre!e4! of compelling 3"eden !o Join NapoleonAs
$on!inen!al 3%s!em. >enmar+ li+e"ise declared "ar on
3"eden. In J's! fe" mon!&s af!er, almos! all of Finland
"as los! !o ,'ssia. 2s a res'l! of !&e "ar, on 17
3ep!em#er 1809, in !&e .rea!% of )amina, 3"eden
s'rrendered !&e eas!ern !&ird of 3"eden !o ,'ssia. .&e
a'!onomo's 7rand >'c&% of Finland "i!&in Imperial
,'ssia "as es!a#lis&ed.
7's!a- 2dolfAs inep! and erra!ic leaders&ip in
diplomac% and "ar precipi!a!ed &is deposi!ion !&ro'g&
a conspirac% of arm% oKcers.
1n 7 6arc& 1809, lie'!enan!-colonel 7eorg
2dlersparre, commander of a par! of !&e so-called
"es!ern arm%, !riggered !&e re-ol'!ion #% raising !&e
9ag of re#ellion and s!ar!ing !o marc& 'pon 3!oc+&olm.
.o pre-en! !&e Ning from Joining lo%al !roops in 3cania,
on 1/ 6arc& 1809 se-en of !&e conspira!ors led #% $arl
*o&an 2dlercre'!; #ro+e in!o !&e ro%al apar!men!s in !&e
palace, sei;ed !&e +ing, and imprisoned &im and &is
famil% in 7rips&olm cas!leI !&e +ingAs 'ncle, >'+e
$&arles (Narl), "as !&ere'pon pers'aded !o accep! !&e
leaders&ip of a pro-isional go-ernmen!, "&ic& "as
proclaimed !&e same da%I and a die!, &as!il%
s'mmoned, solemnl% appro-ed of !&e re-ol'!ion.
1n 29 6arc& 7's!a- IL 2dolf, !o sa-e !&e cro"n for
&is son, -ol'n!aril% a#dica!edI #'! on 19 6a% !&e
,i+sdag of !&e 5s!a!es, domina!ed #% !&e arm%,
declared !&a! no! merel% 7's!a- #'! &is "&ole famil%
&ad forfei!ed !&e !&rone, per&aps an e4c'se !o e4cl'de
&is famil% from s'ccession #ased on !&e r'mo'rs of &is
illegi!imac%. 2 more li+el% ca'se, &o"e-er, is !&a! !&e
re-ol'!ionaries feared !&a! 7's!a-As son, if &e in&eri!ed
!&e !&rone, "o'ld a-enge &is fa!&erAs deposi!ion "&en
&e came of age. 1n ( *'ne >'+e $&arles (7's!a-As
'ncle) "as proclaimed +ing 'nder !&e !i!le of $&arles
DIII, af!er accep!ing a ne" li#eral cons!i!'!ion, "&ic&
"as ra!i:ed #% !&e die! !&e ne4! da%. In >ecem#er
7's!a- and &is famil% "ere !ranspor!ed !o 7erman%. In
1812 &e di-orced from &is "ife.
In e4ile 7's!a- 'sed se-eral !i!les, $o'n! 7o!!orp,
>'+e of )ols!ein-5'!in, and :nall% se!!led a! 3!. 7allen
in 3"i!;erland "&ere &e li-ed in a small &o!el in grea!
loneliness and indigence, 'nder !&e name of $olonel
7's!afsson. I! "as !&ere !&a! &e s'Mered a s!ro+e and
died. 2! !&e s'gges!ion of Ning 1scar II of 3"eden &is
#od% "as :nall% #ro'g&! !o 3"eden and in!erred in !&e
,iddar&olms+%r+an.
• SELIM III OF THE OTTOMAN TUR6ISH EMPIRE
+DECEMBER .8/ -01- 3 #UNL* -292,
3elim III "as !&e 3'l!an of !&e 1!!oman 5mpire
from 1789 P 1807. 2 grea! lo-er of m'sic, 3'l!an 3elim
III "as a composer and performer of signi:can! !alen!.
)e crea!ed fo'r!een ma#ams, melodic !%pes, !&ree of
"&ic& are in c'rren! 'se !oda%. 3i4!%-fo'r composi!ions
#elonging !o 3elim III are +no"n, some of "&ic& are par!
of !&e reg'lar reper!or% of .'r+is& classical m'sic
performers. 2side from composing m'sic, 3elim III also
performed on !&e ne% and !an#'r.
.&e !alen!s and energ% "i!& "&ic& 3elim III "as
endo"ed &ad endeared &im !o !&e people, and grea!
&opes "ere fo'nded on &is accession. )e &ad
associa!ed m'c& "i!& foreigners, and "as !&oro'g&l%
pers'aded of !&e necessi!% of reforming &is s!a!e. '!
2's!ria and ,'ssia ga-e &im no !ime for an%!&ing #'!
defense, and i! "as no! 'n!il !&e peace of IaXi (1792)
!&a! a #rea!&ing space "as allo"ed &im in 5'rope,
"&ile NapoleonAs in-asion of 5g%p! and 3%ria soon
called for .'r+e%As s!ronges! eMor!s and for !&e !ime
s&a!!ered !&e old-s!anding Franco-1!!oman alliance.
3elim III pro:!ed #% !&e respi!e !o a#olis& !&e
mili!ar% !en're of :efsI &e in!rod'ced sal'!ar% reforms
in!o !&e adminis!ra!ion, especiall% in !&e :scal
depar!men!, so'g&! #% "ell-considered plans !o e4!end
!&e spread of ed'ca!ion, and engaged foreign oKcers
as ins!r'c!ors, #% "&om a small corps of ne" !roops
called ni$am-i-%edid "ere collec!ed and drilled. 3o "ell
"ere !&ese !roops organi;ed !&a! !&e% "ere a#le !o &old
!&eir o"n agains! re#ellio's *anissaries in !&e 5'ropean
pro-inces, "&ere disaMec!ed go-ernors made no
scr'ple of a!!emp!ing !o ma+e 'se of !&em agains! !&e
reforming s'l!an.
5m#oldened #% !&is s'ccess, 3elim III iss'ed an
order !&a! in f'!'re pic+ed men s&o'ld #e !a+en
ann'all% from !&e *anissaries !o ser-e in !&eir ran+s.
3elim III "as, &o"e-er, !&oro'g&l% 'nder !&e
in9'ence of 3e#as!iani, and !&e 9ee! "as compelled !o
re!ire "i!&o'! eMec!ing i!s p'rpose. '! !&e anarc&%,
manifes! or la!en!, e4is!ing !&ro'g&o'! !&e pro-inces
pro-ed !oo grea! for 3elim III !o cope "i!&. .&e
*anissaries rose once more in re-ol!, ind'ced !&e
3&ei+&-'l-Islam !o gran! a fe!-a agains! !&e reforms,
de!&roned and imprisoned 3elim III, and placed &is
co'sin 6's!afa on !&e !&rone, as 6's!afa IL (1807P08).
.&e pas&a of ,'s!c&'+, 6's!afa a%ra+dar, a
s!rong par!isan of !&e reforms, collec!ed an arm% of
40,000 men and marc&ed on Is!an#'l "i!& !&e p'rpose
of reins!a!ing 3elim III, #'! &e came !oo la!e. .&e ill-
fa!ed reforming 3'l!an &ad #een s!a##ed in !&e seraglio
#% !&e $&ief lac+ 5'n'c& and &is men, and aira+darAs
onl% reso'rce "as !o "rea+ &is -engeance on 6's!afa
IL and !o place on !&e !&rone 6a&m'd II (1808P/9), !&e
sole s'r-i-ing mem#er of !&e &o'se of 1sman.
2no!&er -ersion of &is m'rder s!a!es !&a! af!er &is
deposi!ion, 3elim "as s!a%ing a! !&e )arem. .&e nig&!
of .&'rsda%, *'l% 28, 1808, &e "as "i!& &is fa-o'ri!e
lad%, ,efe! NadYn, and a sla-e girl or per&aps ano!&er
fa-o'ri!e 0a+i;e NadYn in a!!endance. 2lemdar 0as&a, a
lo%alis! of 3elim, "as approac&ing !&e ci!% "i!& &is arm%
!o reins!a!e 3elim. .&erefore 6's!afa IL ga-e orders !o
m'rder &im and &is #ro!&er 0rince 6a&m'd. .&e
assassins "ere apparen!l% a gro'p of men, incl'ding
!&e 6as!er of !&e =ardro#e called Fe!!a& !&e 7eorgian,
!&e .reas'r% s!e"ard 5#e 3elim, and #lac+ e'n'c&
named Ne;ir 2Za. 3elim apparen!l% +ne" &is end "as
coming "&en &e sa" !&eir s"ords dra"n. 0a+i;e NadYn
!&re" &erself #e!"een !&em and &er lord, s&e "as c'!
in &er &and. ,efe! NadYn s!ar!ed screaming in !error,
ano!&er sla-e girl "&o r's&ed in fain!ed "&en s&e sa"
"&a! "as a#o'! !o &appen. 2 s!r'ggle ens'ed and !&e
former s'l!an "as c'! do"n and m'rdered, &is las!
"ords apparen!l% #eing OAllahu A#&arO (O7od is grea!O).
,efe! NadYn !&re" &erself on !&e #od% #'! "as dragged
a"a%. .&e #od% "as ?'ic+l% "rapped in a ?'il!. .&e
assassins mo-ed on !o :nd 0rince 6a&m'd and a!!emp!
!o m'rder &im !oo, &e "as more for!'na!e !&o'g& and
&ad !&e assassins e4ec'!ed la!er. 3elim III "o'ld #e !&e
onl% 1!!oman s'l!an !o #e +illed #% !&e s"ord. )e died
in Is!an#'l.
• MAHMUD II OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE +#UL* .9/
-025 3 #UL* -/ -24:,
.&e -i;ier !oo+ !&e ini!ia!i-e in res'ming reforms
!&a! &ad #een !ermina!ed #% !&e conser-a!i-e co'p of
1807 !&a! &ad #ro'g&! 6's!afa IL !o po"er. )o"e-er,
soon !&e -i;ier "as +illed #% I#ra&imAs arm%, and
6a&m'd II !emporaril% a#andoned !&e reforms.
6a&m'd IIAs la!er reforma!ion eMor!s "ere more
s'ccessf'l.
>'ring !&e earl% %ears of 6a&m'd IIAs reign, &is
5g%p!ian -icero% 6e&me! 2li 0aXa s'ccessf'll%
recon?'ered !&e &ol% ci!ies of 6edina (1812) and 6ecca
(181/) from !&e NeJdi re#els.
)is reign also mar+ed !&e :rs! #rea+a"a% from !&e
1!!oman 5mpire, "i!& 7reece gaining i!s independence
follo"ing a re#ellion !&a! s!ar!ed in 1821. In 1827 !&e
com#ined ri!is&, Frenc& and ,'ssian na-ies defea!ed
!&e 1!!oman Na-% a! !&e a!!le of Na-arinoI in !&e
af!erma!&, !&e 1!!oman 5mpire "as forced !o recogni;e
7reece "i!& !&e .rea!% of $ons!an!inople in *'l% 18/2.
.&is e-en!, !oge!&er "i!& !&e occ'pa!ion of !&e
1!!oman pro-ince of 2lgeria #% France in 18/0, mar+ed
!&e #eginning of !&e grad'al #rea+-'p of !&e 1!!oman
5mpire. Non-.'r+is& e!&nic gro'ps li-ing in !&e empireAs
!erri!ories, especiall% in 5'rope, s!ar!ed !&eir o"n
independence mo-emen!s.
2mong 6a&m'd IIAs mos! no!a#le ac!s d'ring &is
reign "as, !&e *anissar% corps "as a#olis&ed in 1826,
permi!!ing !&e es!a#lis&men! of a .'r+is& domina!ed
1!!oman 2rm%I 6a&m'd "as also responsi#le for !&e
s'#J'ga!ion of !&e Ira?i 6aml'+s in 18/1 and !&e
prepara!ion of !&e .an;ima! reforms in 18/9. .&e
.an;ima! mar+ed !&e #eginning of moderni;a!ion in
.'r+e%, and &ad immedia!e eMec!s on social and legal
aspec!s of life in !&e 5mpire, s'c& as 5'ropean s!%le
clo!&ing, arc&i!ec!'re, legisla!ion, ins!i!'!ional
organi;a!ion and land reform. )e is responsi#le for !&e
des!r'c!ion of 5li!e 6'slim 6ili!ar% 1rders.
)e "as concerned also for aspec!s of !radi!ion. )e
made grea! eMor!s !o re-i-e !&e spor! of arc&er%. )e
also ordered &is arc&er% s!'den!, 6's!afa Nani, !o "ri!e
a #oo+ a#o'! !&e &is!or%, cons!r'c!ion, and 'se of
.'r+is& #o"s, from "&ic& comes mos! of "&a! is no"
+no"n of .'r+is& #o"%er%.
6a&m'd II died of !'#erc'losis - some sa%
m'rdered - a! !&e 5sma 3'l!ana 0alace, [amlYca, in
18/9. )is f'neral "as a!!ended #% cro"ds of people
"&o came !o #id !&e 3'l!an fare"ell. )is son
2#dRlmecid s'cceeded &im.
• (EOR(E III OF (REAT BRITAIN +#UNE 8/ -042 3
#ANUAR* .:/ -2.9,
7eorge III "as Ning of 7rea! ri!ain and Ning of
Ireland from 2( 1c!o#er 1760 'n!il !&e 'nion of !&ese
!"o co'n!ries on 1 *an'ar% 1801, af!er "&ic& &e "as
Ning of !&e Qni!ed Ningdom of 7rea! ri!ain and Ireland
'n!il &is dea!&. )e "as conc'rren!l% >'+e of r'ns"ic+-
<Rne#'rg and prince-elec!or of )ano-er in !&e )ol%
,oman 5mpire 'n!il &is promo!ion !o Ning of )ano-er
on 12 1c!o#er 1814. )e "as !&e !&ird ri!is& monarc&
of !&e )o'se of )ano-er, #'! 'nli+e &is !"o
predecessors &e "as #orn in ri!ain and spo+e 5nglis&
as &is :rs! lang'age. >espi!e &is long life, &e ne-er
-isi!ed )ano-er.
7eorge IIIAs long reign "as mar+ed #% a series of
mili!ar% con9ic!s in-ol-ing &is +ingdoms, m'c& of !&e
res! of 5'rope, and places far!&er a:eld in 2frica, !&e
2mericas and 2sia. 5arl% in &is reign, 7rea! ri!ain
defea!ed France in !&e 3e-en CearsA =ar, #ecoming !&e
dominan! 5'ropean po"er in Nor!& 2merica and India.
)o"e-er, man% of i!s 2merican colonies "ere soon los!
in !&e 2merican ,e-ol'!ionar% =ar, "&ic& led !o !&e
es!a#lis&men! of !&e Qni!ed 3!a!es of 2merica. 2 series
of "ars agains! re-ol'!ionar% and Napoleonic France,
o-er a 20-%ear period, :nall% concl'ded in !&e defea! of
Napoleon in 181(.
In !&e la!er par! of &is life, 7eorge III s'Mered from
rec'rren! and, e-en!'all%, permanen! men!al illness.
6edical prac!i!ioners "ere #a\ed #% !&is a! !&e !ime,
al!&o'g& i! &as since #een s'gges!ed !&a! &e s'Mered
from !&e #lood disease porp&%ria. 2f!er a :nal relapse
in 1810, a regenc% "as es!a#lis&ed, and 7eorge IIIAs
eldes! son, 7eorge, 0rince of =ales, r'led as 0rince
,egen!. 1n 7eorge IIIAs dea!&, !&e 0rince ,egen!
s'cceeded &is fa!&er as 7eorge IL. )is!orical anal%sis of
7eorge IIIAs life &as gone !&ro'g& a O+aleidoscope of
c&anging -ie"sO "&ic& &ad depended &ea-il% on !&e
preJ'dices of &is #iograp&ers and !&e so'rces a-aila#le
!o !&em.
• LOUIS ;7III FROM THE 6IN(DOM OF FRANCE
+NO7EMBER -0/ -055 3 SEPTEMBER -1/ -2.8,
<o'is DLIII "as Ning of France and Na-arre from
1814 !o 1824, omi!!ing !&e )'ndred >a%s in 181(. <o'is
DLIII spen! !"en!%-!&ree %ears in e4ile, from 1791 !o
1814, d'e !o !&e Frenc& ,e-ol'!ion, and "as e4iled
again in 181(, for 100 da%s, 'pon !&e re!'rn of
Napoleon onapar!e from 5l#a. >'ring e4ile &e li-ed in
se-eral co'n!ries, incl'ding 0r'ssia, !&e Qni!ed
Ningdom and ,'ssia.
.&e Frenc& ,ep'#lic a#olis&ed !&e monarc&% and
deposed Ning <o'is DLI on 21 3ep!em#er 1792.
2l!&o'g& !&e monarc&% &ad #een dises!a#lis&ed, <o'is
DLIII s'cceeded &is nep&e", <o'is DLII, as !i!'lar Ning,
"&en !&e la!!er died in prison in *'ne 179(.
For 2/ %ears, re-ol'!ion and "ar e4cl'ded !&e
o'r#on line from !&e !&rone of France 'n!il 1814, "&en
coali!ion armies cap!'red 0aris from Napoleon
onapar!e. <o'is DLIII "as res!ored !o "&a! &e and
o!&er ,o%alis!s considered &is rig&!f'l place. <o'is DLIII
r'led as Ning for slig&!l% less !&an a decade, d'ring !&e
so-called o'r#on ,es!ora!ion period. .&e o'r#on
,es!ora!ion "as a cons!i!'!ional monarc&% ('nli+e !&e
Ancien '"gime, "&ic& "as a#sol'!e). 2s a cons!i!'!ional
monarc&%, <o'is DLIIIAs ro%al preroga!i-e "as red'ced
s'#s!an!iall% #% !&e $&ar!er of 1814, FranceAs ne"
cons!i!'!ion.
<o'is &ad no c&ildrenI !&erefore, 'pon &is dea!&,
!&e cro"n passed !o &is %o'nger #ro!&er, $&arles,
com!e d82r!ois. <o'is DLIII "as !&e las! Frenc& monarc&
!o die "&ile reigning.
(REAT FRENCH WAR +THE WARS OF THE NAPOLEONIC
ERA,
NAPOLEONIC WARS+-294 < -2-5,
.&e Napoleonic =ars "ere fo'g&! #% France af!er
Napoleon I #ecame emperor. 2f!er !&e .rea!% of 2miens,
"&ic& &ad ended !&e Frenc& ,e-ol'!ionar% =ars, ri!ain
declared "ar on France on 180/, main!aining !&a! Napoleon
"as no! +eeping !&e !rea!%. Napoleon planned !o in-ade
ri!ain, #'! !&e ri!is& 9ee! pro-ed !oo s!rong for &im,
especiall% af!er !&e a!!le of .rafalgar on 180(. .&e ri!is&,
3"edes, 2's!rians and ,'ssians formed an alliance on *'l%
180(. napoleon defea!ed !&e 2's!rians and ,'ssians a!
2's!erli!; on >ecem#er 180(, !&e 0r'ssians a! *ena on 1806,
and !&e ,'ssians a! Friedland on 1807. .&e .rea!% of .ilsi! on
1807 lef! &im nearl% mas!er of 5'rope. 6ean"&ile, ri!ain
&ad sec'red s'premac% of !&e seas a! .rafalgar. .&e
$on!inen!al 3%s!em #eg'n af!er *ena "as Napoleon8s
a!!emp! !o #loc+ade ri!is& !rade, on !&e pre!e4! of enforcing
i! &e in-aded 0or!'gal on 1807 and 3pain on 1808. >'ring
!&e defea! of &is armies #% !&e ri!is& in !&e 0enins'lar =ar
on 1808-1814, &e signed !&e 0eace of 3c&on#r'nn on 1809
"i!& !&e defea!ed 2's!rians. In 1812 Napoleon in-aded
,'ssia "i!& an arm% of some (00,000. )e #arel% "on !&e
a!!le of orodino on 1812 and marc&ed !&e 'nc&allenged !o
6osco", #'! &is !roops s'Mered from lac+ of s'pplies and !&e
cold "ea!&er. .&eir re!rea! from 6osco" and ,'ssia "as
&orrif%ing onl% a#o'! /0,000 of Napoleon8s soldiers re!'rned.
.&e Frenc&, #% no" drained of manpo"er and s'pplies, "ere
decisi-el% #ea!en a! <eip;ig on 181/. 0aris fell, and on 2pril
11, 1814, Napoleon a#dica!ed. .&e -ic!orio's allies signed
!&e .rea!% of 0aris "i!& !&e o'r#ons. 2f!er Napoleon8s
escape from 5l#a and !&e )'ndred >a%s, !&e second .rea!%
of 0aris "as signed on 181(.
A= NAPOLEON>S IN7ASION OF EN(LAND +-294 <
-295,
efore !&e in-asion of 5ngland !&e Frenc&
es!a#lis&ed a ne" arm% !&e 2rmee des co!es de8 l8 1cean
(2rm% of !&e 1cean $oas!s) or !&e 2rmee de l8 2ngle!erre
(2rm% of 5ngland) an arm% of 200,000 men "as ga!&ered
and !rained a! camps a! o'logne, r'ges and 6on!re'il.
Napoleon also serio'sl% considered 'sing a 9ee! of
!roop carr%ing #alloons as par! of &is proposed in-asion
force and appoin!ed 6arie 6adeline 3op&ie lanc&ard as
an air ser-ice c&ief, !&o'g& s&e said !&e proposed aerial
in-asion "o'ld fail #eca'se of !&e "inds. .&o'g& an aerial
in-asion pro-ed a dead-end, !&e prospec! of one cap!'red
!&e minds of !&e ri!is& prin! media and p'#lic.
1nl% !&e .o'lon force e-en!'all% #ro+e o'! (on 29
6arc& 180() and, !&o'g& i! managed !o cross !&e 2!lan!ic,
i! did no! :nd !&e res! 9ee! a! !&e rende;-o's and so
sailed #ac+ !o 5'rope alone, "&ere i! "as me! #% !&e force
#loc+ading ,oc&efor! and Ferrol ("&ere in-asion -essels
&ad #een prepared), defea!ed a! !&e a!!le of $ape
Finis!erre and forced #ac+ in!o por!. .&erefore, on 27
2'g's! 180( Napoleon 'sed !&e in-asion arm% as !&e core
of !&e ne" (rande Arm"e and &ad i! #rea+ camp and
marc& eas!"ards !o #egin !&e Qlm $ampaign. .&'s, #% !&e
!ime of !&e #a!!le of .rafalgar on 21 1c!o#er, !&e in-asion
&ad alread% #een called oM, and so !&is #a!!le merel%
f'r!&er g'aran!eed ri!is& con!rol of !&e $&annel ra!&er
pre-en!ing !&e in-asion.
.oda%, !&e o'logne campAs si!e is mar+ed #% a (/
me!re-&ig& $ol'mn of !&e 7rande 2rmBe (FranceAs !alles!
s'c& col'mn), #'il! in !&e 1840s, "i!& a s!a!'e of
Napoleon on !op, panels on !&e #ase s&o"ing &im
presen!ing medals of !&e <Hgion dA)onne'r !o &is !roops
and s'rro'nded #% railings decora!ed "i!& !&e golden
Frenc& Imperial eagle. .&e arsenal from !&e camp is
preser-ed.
B= WAR OF THE THIRD COALITION +-295,
% 180(, ri!ain &ad con-inced 2's!ria and ,'ssia !o
Join a .&ird $oali!ion agains! France. Napoleon +ne" !&e
Frenc& 9ee! co'ld no! defea! !&e ,o%al Na-% in a &ead-!o-
&ead #a!!le and planned !o l're i! a"a% from !&e 5nglis&
$&annel. .&e Frenc& Na-% "o'ld escape from !&e ri!is&
#loc+ades of .o'lon and res! and !&rea!en !o a!!ac+ !&e
=es! Indies, !&'s dra"ing oM !&e ri!is& defense of !&e
=es!ern 2pproac&es, in !&e &ope a Franco-3panis& 9ee!
co'ld !a+e con!rol of !&e $&annel long eno'g& for Frenc&
armies !o cross from o'logne and in-ade 5ngland.
Ins!ead, &e ordered !&e arm% s!a!ioned a! o'logne,
&is (rande Arm"e, !o marc& !o 7erman% secre!l% in a
!'rning mo-emen! - !&e Qlm $ampaign. .&is encircled !&e
2's!rian forces a#o'! !o a!!ac+ France and se-ered !&eir
lines of comm'nica!ion. 1n 20 1c!o#er 180(, !&e Frenc&
cap!'red /0,000 prisoners a! Qlm, !&o'g& !&e ne4! da%
ri!ainAs -ic!or% a! !&e a!!le of .rafalgar mean! !&e ,o%al
Na-% gained con!rol of !&e seas. 3i4 "ee+s la!er, on !&e
:rs! anni-ersar% of &is corona!ion, Napoleon defea!ed
2's!ria and ,'ssia a! 2's!erli!;. .&is ended !&e .&ird
$oali!ion and &e commissioned !&e 2rc de .riomp&e !o
commemora!e !&e -ic!or%. 2's!ria &ad !o concede
!erri!or%I !&e 0eace of 0ress#'rg led !o !&e dissol'!ion of
!&e )ol% ,oman 5mpire and crea!ion of !&e $onfedera!ion
of !&e ,&ine "i!& Napoleon named as i!s )rotector.
C= WAR OF THE FOURTH COALITION +-291 < -290,
.&e Fo'r!& $oali!ion "as assem#led in 1806, and
Napoleon defea!ed 0r'ssia a! !&e a!!le of *ena-2'ers!ed!
in 1c!o#er. )e marc&ed agains! ad-ancing ,'ssian armies
!&ro'g& 0oland, and "as in-ol-ed in !&e #lood% s!alema!e
of !&e a!!le of 5%la' on 6 Fe#r'ar% 1807.
2f!er a decisi-e -ic!or% a! Friedland, &e signed !&e
.rea!ies of .ilsi!I one "i!& .sar 2le4ander I of ,'ssia "&ic&
di-ided !&e con!inen! #e!"een !&e !"o po"ersI !&e o!&er
"i!& 0r'ssia "&ic& s!ripped !&a! co'n!r% of &alf i!s
!erri!or%. Napoleon placed p'ppe! r'lers on !&e !&rones of
7erman s!a!es, incl'ding &is #ro!&er *Br]me as +ing of !&e
ne" Ningdom of =es!p&alia. In !&e Frenc&-con!rolled par!
of 0oland, &e es!a#lis&ed !&e >'c&% of =arsa" "i!& Ning
Frederic+ 2'g's!'s I of 3a4on% as r'ler.
=i!& &is 6ilan and erlin >ecrees, Napoleon
a!!emp!ed !o enforce a 5'rope-"ide commercial #o%co!!
of ri!ain called !&e Continental S*stem. .&is ac! of
economic "arfare did no! s'cceed, as i! enco'raged
ri!is& merc&an!s !o sm'ggle in!o con!inen!al 5'rope and
NapoleonAs e4cl'si-el% land-#ased c's!oms enforcers
co'ld no! s!op !&em.
D=(UNBOAT WAR+-290 < -2-8,
.&e 7'n#oa! =ar (1807P1814) "as !&e na-al con9ic!
#e!"een >enmar+PNor"a% and !&e ri!is& Na-% d'ring
!&e Napoleonic =ars. .&e "arAs name is deri-ed from !&e
>anis& !ac!ic of emplo%ing small g'n#oa!s agains! !&e
con-en!ional ,o%al Na-%. In 3candina-ia i! is seen as !&e
la!!er s!age of !&e 5nglis& =ars, "&ose commencemen! is
acco'n!ed as !&e Firs! a!!le of $open&agen in 1801.
In !&e :rs! !&ree %ears of !&e 7'n#oa! =ar, !&ese
#oa!s "ere on se-eral occasions a#le !o cap!'re cargo
s&ips from !&e con-o%s and !o defea! ri!is& na-al #rigs,
!&o'g& !&e% "ere no! s!rong eno'g& !o o-ercome larger
friga!es and s&ips of !&e line. .&e ri!is& &ad con!rol of
>anis& "a!ers d'ring !&e "&ole of !&e 1807P1814 "ar,
and "&en !&e season "as s'i!ed !o na-iga!ion !&e% "ere
reg'larl% a#le !o escor! large merc&an! con-o%s o'!
!&ro'g& !&e 3o'nd and !&e 7rea! el!. 1n 6arc& 22, 1808,
!&e las! >anis& s&ip of !&e line )rins Christian Frederi#,
commanded #% $ap!ain $.=. *essen, "as des!ro%ed #%
!"o ri!is& s&ips of !&e line in !&e #a!!le of ^ealand 0oin!.
1n 27 Fe#r'ar% 1811, >anis& g'n#oa!s, manned #%
nearl% 1,000 men incl'ding infan!r% forces, a!!emp!ed !o
recap!'re !&e island of 2n&ol! in !&e a!!le of 2n&ol!, #'!
&ad !o "i!&dra" !o *'!land "i!& &ea-% losses. .&e las!
maJor :g&! #e!"een >anis& and ri!is& men of "ar !oo+
place on *'l% 6, 1812, "&en ri!is& "ars&ips des!ro%ed !&e
>anis& friga!e Na%aden a! !&e a!!le of <%ngVr on !&e
Nor"egian coas!.
.&e .rea!% of Niel ended !&e "ar on *an'ar% 1(,
1814. >enmar+-Nor"a% &ad !o cede !&e small island of
)eligoland !o ri!ain and all of Nor"a% !o !&e +ing of
3"eden.
E= PENINSULAR WAR +-292 < -2-8,
0enins'lar =ar "as par! of !&e Napoleonic =ars, in
"&ic& !&e Frenc& :g&!ing agains! !&e ri!is&, 0or!'gese
and 3panis&, "ere dri-en o'! of !&e I#erian 0enins'la. .o
increase &is sec'ri!% in 5'rope, Napoleon sen! 7eneral
2ndoc&e *'no! !o occ'p% 0or!'gal on 1807, and in 1808
dispa!c&ed *oac&im 6'ra! !o occ'p% &is all%, 3pain. .&e
3panis& and !&e 0or!'gese soon re#elled, and, "i!& !&e
aid of !&e ri!is& 'nder 2r!&'r =ellesel%, la!er d'+e of
=elling!on. .&e Frenc& "ere dri-en o'! of 0or!'gal in
1809. In !&e long s!r'ggle !&a! follo"ed, !&e ri!is&, aided
#% 0or!'gese and 3panis& g'erillas, grad'all% gained !&e
'pper &and, despi!e man% re-erses. % 181/ !&e Frenc&
forces in 3pain &ad #een defea!ed, and =ellesel% in-aded
3o'!&ern France. .&e "ar ended on Napoleon8s
a#dica!ion.
F= WAR OF THE FIFTH COALITION +-29:,
In 2pril 1809, 2's!ria a#r'p!l% #ro+e i!s alliance "i!&
France and Napoleon "as forced !o ass'me command of
forces on !&e >an'#e and 7erman fron!s. 2f!er earl%
s'ccesses, !&e Frenc& faced diKc'l!ies in crossing !&e
>an'#e and s'Mered a defea! in 6a% a! !&e a!!le of
2spern-5ssling near Lienna. .&e 2's!rians failed !o
capi!alise on !&e si!'a!ion and allo"ed NapoleonAs forces
!o regro'p. )e defea!ed !&e 2's!rians again a! =agram
and a ne" peace, !&e .rea!% of 3c&Wn#r'nn, "as signed
#e!"een 2's!ria and France.
ri!ain "as !&e o!&er mem#er of !&e coali!ion. In
addi!ion !o !&e I#erian 0enins'la, !&e ri!is& planned !o
open ano!&er fron! in mainland 5'rope. )o"e-er,
Napoleon "as a#le !o r's& reinforcemen!s !o 2n!"erp,
o"ing !o ri!ainAs inade?'a!el% organi;ed =alc&eren
$ampaign. )e conc'rren!l% anne4ed !&e 0apal 3!a!es
#eca'se of !&e $&'rc&As ref'sal !o s'ppor! !&e $on!inen!al
3%s!em, 0ope 0i's LII responded #% e4comm'nica!ing !&e
emperor. .&e 0ope "as !&en a#d'c!ed #% NapoleonAs
oKcers, and !&o'g& Napoleon &ad no! ordered &is
a#d'c!ion, &e did no! order 0i'sA release. .&e 0ope "as
mo-ed !&ro'g&o'! NapoleonAs !erri!ories, some!imes "&ile
ill, and Napoleon sen! delega!ions !o press're &im on
iss'es incl'ding agreemen! !o a ne" concorda! "i!&
France, "&ic& 0i's ref'sed.
(=FRENCH IN7ASION OF RUSSIA +-2-.,
.&e $ongress of 5rf'r! so'g&! !o preser-e !&e ,'sso-
Frenc& alliance and !&e leaders &ad a friendl% personal
rela!ions&ip af!er !&eir :rs! mee!ing a! .ilsi! in 1807. %
1811, &o"e-er, !ensions #e!"een !&e !"o na!ions &ad
increased and 2le4ander "as 'nder press're from !&e
,'ssian no#ili!% !o #rea+ oM !&e alliance. .&e :rs! clear
sign !&e alliance &ad de!eriora!ed "as !&e rela4a!ion of
!&e $on!inen!al 3%s!em in ,'ssia, "&ic& angered
Napoleon. % 1812, ad-isers !o 2le4ander s'gges!ed !&e
possi#ili!% of an in-asion of !&e Frenc& 5mpire and !&e
recap!'re of 0oland. 1n receip! of in!elligence repor!s on
,'ssiaAs "ar prepara!ions, Napoleon e4panded &is (rande
Arm"e !o more !&an 4(0,000 men. )e ignored repea!ed
ad-ice agains! an in-asion of !&e -as! ,'ssian &ear!land
and prepared for an oMensi-e campaignI on 2/ *'ne 1812,
&is in-asion of ,'ssia commenced.
In an a!!emp! !o gain increased s'ppor! from 0olis&
na!ionalis!s and pa!rio!s, Napoleon !ermed !&e "ar !&e
Second )olish +ar@!&e First )olish +ar &ad #een !&e ar
$onfedera!ion 'prising #% 0olis& no#les agains! ,'ssia in
1768. 0olis& pa!rio!s "an!ed !&e ,'ssian par! of 0oland !o
#e Joined "i!& !&e >'c&% of =arsa" and an independen!
0oland crea!ed. .&is "as reJec!ed #% Napoleon, "&o
s!a!ed &e &ad promised &is all% 2's!ria !&is "o'ld no!
&appen. Napoleon ref'sed !o man'mi! !&e ,'ssian serfs,
#eca'se of concerns !&is mig&! pro-o+e a reac!ion in &is
arm%As rear. .&e serfs "o'ld la!er commi! a!roci!ies
agains! Frenc& soldiers d'ring FranceAs re!rea!.
.&e ,'ssians a-oided NapoleonAs o#Jec!i-e of a
decisi-e engagemen! and ins!ead re!rea!ed deeper in!o
,'ssia. 2 #rief a!!emp! a! resis!ance "as made a!
3molens+ in 2'g's!I !&e ,'ssians "ere defea!ed in a
series of #a!!les and Napoleon res'med &is ad-ance. .&e
,'ssians again a-oided #a!!le, al!&o'g& in a fe" cases
!&is "as onl% ac&ie-ed #eca'se Napoleon
'nc&arac!eris!icall% &esi!a!ed !o a!!ac+ "&en !&e
oppor!'ni!% arose. 1"ing !o !&e ,'ssian arm%As scorc&ed
ear!& !ac!ics, !&e Frenc& fo'nd i! increasingl% diKc'l! !o
forage food for !&emsel-es and !&eir &orses.
.&e ,'ssians e-en!'all% oMered #a!!le o'!side
6osco" on 7 3ep!em#erE !&e a!!le of orodino res'l!ed
in appro4ima!el% 44,000 ,'ssian and /(,000 Frenc&, dead,
"o'nded or cap!'red, and ma% &a-e #een !&e #loodies!
da% of #a!!le in &is!or% 'p !o !&a! poin!. 2l!&o'g& !&e
Frenc& &ad "on, !&e ,'ssian arm% &ad accep!ed, and
"i!&s!ood, !&e maJor #a!!le Napoleon &ad &oped "o'ld #e
decisi-e. NapoleonAs o"n acco'n! "asE O.&e mos! !erri#le
of all m% #a!!les "as !&e one #efore 6osco". .&e Frenc&
s&o"ed !&emsel-es !o #e "or!&% of -ic!or%, #'! !&e
,'ssians s&o"ed !&emsel-es "or!&% of #eing in-inci#le.O
.&e ,'ssian arm% "i!&dre" and re!rea!ed pas!
6osco". Napoleon en!ered !&e ci!%, ass'ming i!s fall
"o'ld end !&e "ar and 2le4ander "o'ld nego!ia!e peace.
)o"e-er, on orders of !&e ci!%As go-ernor F%odor
,os!opc&in, ra!&er !&an capi!'la!ion, 6osco" "as ordered
#'rned. 2f!er a mon!&, concerned a#o'! loss of con!rol
#ac+ in France, Napoleon and &is arm% lef!.
.&e Frenc& s'Mered grea!l% in !&e co'rse of a r'ino's
re!rea!, incl'ding from !&e &ars&ness of !&e ,'ssian
=in!er. .&e 2rmBe &ad #eg'n as o-er 400,000 fron!line
!roops, #'! in !&e end fe"er !&an 40,000 crossed !&e
ere;ina ,i-er in No-em#er 1812, !o escape. .&e ,'ssians
&ad los! 1(0,000 in #a!!le and &'ndreds of !&o'sands of
ci-ilians.

H=WAR OF THE SI;TH COALITION+-2-. < -2-8,
)ear!ened #% FranceAs loss in ,'ssia, 0r'ssia Joined
"i!& 2's!ria, 3"eden, ,'ssia, 7rea! ri!ain, 3pain, and
0or!'gal in a ne" coali!ion. Napoleon ass'med command
in 7erman% and in9ic!ed a series of defea!s on !&e
$oali!ion c'lmina!ing in !&e a!!le of >resden in 2'g's!
181/. >espi!e !&ese s'ccesses, !&e n'm#ers con!in'ed !o
mo'n! agains! Napoleon and !&e Frenc& arm% "as pinned
do"n #% a force !"ice i!s si;e and los! a! !&e a!!le of
<eip;ig. .&is "as #% far !&e larges! #a!!le of !&e
Napoleonic =ars and cos! more !&an 90,000 cas'al!ies in
!o!al.
Napoleon "i!&dre" #ac+ in!o France, &is arm%
red'ced !o 70,000 soldiers and 40,000 s!ragglers, agains!
more !&an !&ree !imes as man% 2llied !roops.
F110G
.&e
Frenc& "ere s'rro'ndedE ri!is& armies pressed from !&e
so'!&, and o!&er $oali!ion forces posi!ioned !o a!!ac+ from
!&e 7erman s!a!es. Napoleon "on a series of -ic!ories in
!&e 3i4 >a%s $ampaign, !&o'g& !&ese "ere no! signi:can!
eno'g& !o !'rn !&e !ide and 0aris "as cap!'red #% !&e
$oali!ion in 6arc& 1814.
=&en Napoleon proposed !&e arm% marc& on !&e
capi!al, &is mars&als decided !o m'!in%. 1n 4 2pril, led #%
Ne%, !&e% confron!ed Napoleon. Napoleon asser!ed !&e
arm% "o'ld follo" &im and Ne% replied !&e arm% "o'ld
follo" i!s generals. Napoleon &ad no c&oice #'! !o
a#dica!e. )e did so in fa-o'r of &is sonI &o"e-er, !&e
2llies ref'sed !o accep! !&is and Napoleon "as forced !o
a#dica!e 'ncondi!ionall% on 11 2pril.
.&e 2llied 0o"ers &a-ing declared !&a! 5mperor
Napoleon "as !&e sole o#s!acle !o !&e res!ora!ion of peace
in 5'rope, 5mperor Napoleon, fai!&f'l !o &is oa!&, declares
!&a! &e reno'nces, for &imself and &is &eirs, !&e !&rones of
France and I!al%, and !&a! !&ere is no personal sacri:ce,
e-en !&a! of &is life, "&ic& &e is no! read% !o do in !&e
in!eres!s of France.
In !&e .rea!% of Fon!aine#lea' !&e -ic!ors e4iled &im
!o 5l#a, an island of 12,000 in&a#i!an!s in !&e
6edi!erranean, 20 +m oM !&e .'scan coas!. .&e% ga-e &im
so-ereign!% o-er !&e island and allo"ed &im !o re!ain &is
!i!le of 5mperor. Napoleon a!!emp!ed s'icide "i!& a pill &e
&ad carried since a near-cap!'re #% ,'ssians on !&e
re!rea! from 6osco". I!s po!enc% &ad "ea+ened "i!& age
and &e s'r-i-ed !o #e e4iled, "&ile &is "ife and son !oo+
ref'ge in Lienna. In !&e :rs! fe" mon!&s on 5l#a &e
crea!ed a small na-% and arm%, de-eloped !&e iron mines,
and iss'ed decrees on modern agric'l!'ral me!&ods.
I= HUNDRED DA*S +-2-5,
1n 1/ 6arc&, !&e po"ers a! !&e $ongress of Lienna
declared Napoleon an o'!la" and fo'r da%s la!er 7rea!
ri!ain, !&e Ne!&erlands, ,'ssia, 2's!ria and 0r'ssia #o'nd
!&emsel-es !o p'! 1(0,000 men in!o !&e :eld !o end &is
r'le.
Napoleon arri-ed in 0aris on 20 6arc& and go-erned
for a period no" called !&e )'ndred >a%s. % !&e s!ar! of
*'ne !&e armed forces a-aila#le !o &im &ad reac&ed
200,000 and &e decided !o go on !&e oMensi-e !o a!!emp!
!o dri-e a "edge #e!"een !&e oncoming ri!is& and
0r'ssian armies. .&e Frenc& 2rm% of !&e Nor!& crossed !&e
fron!ier in!o !&e Qni!ed Ningdom of !&e Ne!&erlands, in
modern-da% elgi'm.
NapoleonAs forces fo'g&! !&e allies, led #% =elling!on
and 7e#&ard <e#erec&! -on lRc&er, a! !&e a!!le of
=a!erloo on 18 *'ne 181(. =elling!onAs arm% "i!&s!ood
repea!ed a!!ac+s #% !&e Frenc& and dro-e !&em from !&e
:eld "&ile !&e 0r'ssians arri-ed in force and #ro+e
!&ro'g& NapoleonAs rig&! 9an+. .&e Frenc& arm% lef! !&e
#a!!le:eld in disorder, "&ic& allo"ed $oali!ion forces !o
en!er France and res!ore <o'is DLIII !o !&e Frenc& !&rone.
1M !&e por! of ,oc&efor!, $&aren!e-6ari!ime, af!er
considera!ion of an escape !o !&e Qni!ed 3!a!es, Napoleon
formall% demanded poli!ical as%l'm from !&e ri!is&
$ap!ain Frederic+ 6ai!land on )63 Bellerophon on 1( *'l%
181(.
WAR OF THE -2-. +-2-. < -2-5,
.&e =ar of !&e 1812 is !&e con9ic! #e!"een !&e Qni!ed
3!a!es and 7rea! ri!ain from 1812-181(. >'e !o !&e
mari!ime policies of ri!ain and France d'ring !&e Frenc&
,e-ol'!ionar% =ars and !&e Napoleonic =ars, Q3 !rade
sl'mped. 2! !&e same !ime, !&e ri!is& "ere con:sca!ing Q3
s&ips and impressing Q3 cre"men, !o "&ic& !&e Qni!ed
3!a!es responded "i!& !&e 5m#argo 2c! in 1807 and !&e
Nonin!erfence 2c! in 1809, #anning !rade "i!& !&e
#elligeren!s. 2n!i-ri!is& feeling, fed #% "ar &a"+s and #%
!&e con-ic!ion !&a! ri!is& s'ppor! of !&e Na!i-e 2mericans in
!&e =es! "as &indering Q.3. e4pansion, led !o declara!ion of
"ar on *'ne 18, 1812. )o"e-er, !&e Qni!ed 3!a!es "as
'nprepared for s'c& a con9ic!, and i!s a!!emp!ed in-asion in
1812 of $anada in ri!ain8s main Nor!& 2merican possession
"as a fail're. 5arl% Q.3. na-al s'ccesses, "&ic& led !o a
re!alia!or% ri!is& #loc+ade, incl'de $ap!ain 1li-er 0err%8s
-ic!or% in 181/ a! !&e #a!!le on <a+e 5rie. In 1814 Q3 !roops
&eld !&eir o"n a! $&ipe"a and <'nd%8s <ane, and !&e -ic!or%
of !&e a!!le of !&e .&ames a! 0la!!s#'rg& &al!ed a ri!is&
ad-ance on !&e )'dson Lalle%. In $&esapea+e a% a ri!is&
force !&a! &ad cap!'red and sac+ed =as&ing!on >$, "as
repelled in i!s a!!emp! !o !a+e al!imore. .&ere "as a
mili!ar% s!alema!e, and peace nego!ia!ions "ere #eg'n in
*'ne 1814. .&e 0eace of 7&en!, signed on >ecem#er 22,
1814, "as essen!iall% a re!'rn !o !&e si!'a!ion #efore !&e
"ar. ."o "ee+s la!er, 2ndre" *ac+son defea!ed !&e ri!is& a!
!&e a!!le of !&e Ne" 1rleans, "&ic& !oo+ place #efore "ord
of !&e !rea!% reac&ed !&e Qni!ed 3!a!es. .&e "ar &ad se-eral
far reac&ing eMec!s on !&e Qni!ed 3!a!esE .&e mili!ar%
-ic!ories promo!ed na!ional con:dence and enco'raged
e4pansionism, "&ile !&e !rade em#argo enco'raged &ome
man'fac!'rers.
MA#OR BATTLES DURIN( THE NAPOLEONIC ERA
• BATTLE OF LEIP?I( +-2-4,
.&e a!!le of <eip;ig or a!!le of !&e Na!ions,
fo'g&! on 16P19 1c!o#er 181/, "as one of !&e mos!
decisi-e defea!s s'Mered #% Napoleon onapar!e. .&e
#a!!le "as fo'g&! on 7erman soil and in-ol-ed 7erman
!roops on #o!& sides, as a large propor!ion of
NapoleonAs !roops ac!'all% came from !&e 7erman
$onfedera!ion of !&e ,&ine. .&e #a!!le in-ol-ed o-er
600,000 soldiers, ma+ing i! !&e larges! #a!!le in 5'rope
prior !o =orld =ar I.
Nnoc+ed #ac+ on &is &eels, Napoleon re!'rned !o
France, "&ile !&e 2llies +ep! !&eir momen!'m, in-ading
France earl% !&e ne4! %ear. Napoleon "as forced !o
a#dica!e, and "as e4iled !o 5l#a !&a! spring.
$as'al!ies on #o!& sides "ere as!o'ndingl% &ig&I
es!ima!es range from 80,000 !o 110,000 !o!al +illed or
"o'nded. Napoleon los! a#o'! /8,000 +illed and
"o'nded. .&e 2llies cap!'red 1(,000 a#le-#odied
Frenc&men, 21,000 "o'nded or sic+, /2( cannon and
28 eagles, s!andards or colo'rs, and &ad recei-ed !&e
men of !&e deser!ing 3a4on% di-isions. 2mong !&e dead
"as 6ars&al *_;ef 2n!oni 0onia!o"s+i, a nep&e" !o !&e
las! +ing of 0oland, 3!anis`a" 2'g's! 0onia!o"s+i. .&e
0ole, "&o &ad onl% recei-ed &is mars&alAs #a!on !&e
pre-io's da%, dro"ned !r%ing !o g'ard !&e Frenc&
re!rea!. $orps commanders <a'ris!on and ,e%nier "ere
cap!'red. Fif!een Frenc& generals "ere +illed and (1
"o'nded.
1'! of a !o!al force of /62,000, !&e 2llies s'Mered
appro4ima!el% (4,000 cas'al!ies. 3c&"ar;en#ergAs
o&emian 2rm% los! /4,000, lRc&erAs 3ilesian 2rm%
los! 12,000, "&ile ernado!!eAs 2rm% of Nor!& and
ennigsenAs 2rm% of 0oland los! a#o'! 4,000 eac&.
.&e #a!!le ended !&e Firs! Frenc& 5mpireAs
presence eas! of !&e ,&ine and #ro'g&! !&e 7erman
s!a!es o-er !o !&e $oali!ion. .&e $oali!ion pressed i!s
ad-an!age and in-aded France in earl% 1814. Napoleon
"as forced from !&e !&rone of France and e4iled !o !&e
island of 5l#a.
In addi!ion !o !&e 91 m &ig&
LWl+ersc&lac&!den+mal, !&e co'rse of !&e #a!!le in !&e
ci!% of <eip;ig is mar+ed #% n'mero's mon'men!s and
!&e (0 2pel 3!ones !&a! mar+ impor!an! lines of !&e
Frenc& and allied !roops.
• BATTLE OF SALAMANCA +-2-.,
.&e a!!le of 3alamanca sa" an 2nglo-)ispano-
0or!'g'ese arm% 'nder !&e >'+e of =elling!on defea!
6ars&al 2'g's!e 6armon!As Frenc& forces among !&e
&ills aro'nd 2rapiles so'!& of 3alamanca, 3pain on *'l%
22, 1812 d'ring !&e 0enins'lar =ar.
.&e #a!!le "as a s'ccession of s!ro+es in o#li?'e
order, ini!ia!ed #% !&e 0or!'g'ese ca-alr% #rigade and
0a+en&amAs /rd di-ision, and con!in'ed #% !&e ri!is&
&ea-% ca-alr% and !&e 4!&, (!& and 6!& di-isions. .&e
Frenc& lef! "ing "as ro'!ed.
.&e losses "ere /,129 ri!is&, 6 3panis& and 2,0/8
0or!'g'ese agains! a#o'! 1/,000 Frenc&. 2s a
conse?'ence of =elling!onAs -ic!or%, &is arm% "as a#le
!o ad-ance !o and li#era!e 6adrid for !"o mon!&s, #'!
!&en re!rea!ed #ac+ !o 0or!'gal. .&e Frenc& "ere forced
!o a#andon 2ndal'sia permanen!l%, and !&e loss of
6adrid irrepara#l% damaged Ning *osep&As pro-Frenc&
go-ernmen!.
.&e #a!!le es!a#lis&ed =elling!on as an oMensi-e
general. I! "as said !&a! =elling!on Odefea!ed an arm%
of 40,000 men in 40 min'!es.O 3i4 da%s af!er !&e #a!!le,
Fo% "ro!e in &is diar%,
a.&is #a!!le is !&e mos! cle-erl% fo'g&!, !&e larges! in
scale, !&e mos! impor!an! in res'l!s, of an% !&a! !&e
5nglis& &a-e "on in recen! !imes. I! #rings 'p <ord
=elling!onAs rep'!a!ion almos! !o !&e le-el of !&a! of
6arl#oro'g&. Qp !o !&is da% "e +ne" &is pr'dence, &is
e%e for c&oosing good posi!ions, and !&e s+ill "i!&
"&ic& &e 'sed !&em. '! a! 3alamanca &e &as s&o"n
&imself a grea! and a#le mas!er of manoe'-ring. )e
+ep! &is disposi!ions &idden nearl% !&e "&ole da%E &e
allo"ed 's !o de-elop o'r mo-emen! #efore &e
prono'nced &is o"nE &e pla%ed a close gameI &e
'!ilised !&e o#li?'e order in !&e s!%le of Frederic+ !&e
7rea!.b
.&e a!!le of 3alamanca "as a damaging defea! !o
!&e Frenc&. 2s !&e Frenc& regro'ped, !&e 2nglo-
0or!'g'ese en!ered 6adrid on 2'g's! 6 and #egan !&e
3iege of 'rgos, #efore re!rea!ing all !&e "a% #ac+ !o
0or!'gal in !&e a'!'mn "&en rene"ed Frenc&
concen!ra!ions !&rea!ened !o !rap !&em.
.&e -ic!or% "as 9a"ed #% !&e fail're of 3panis&
!roops !o g'ard a cr'cial escape ro'!e o-er !&e #ridge
a! 2l#a de .ormes, possi#l% #% a mis'nders!anding
#e!"een 3panis& and ri!is& commanders. .&e p'rs'i!
failed !o des!ro% or !o cap!'re !&e 9eeing Frenc&.
.&e follo"ing da%, =elling!onAs NingAs 7erman
<egion (N7<) &ea-% dragoons performed !&e as!o'nding
fea! of O#rea+ing a s?'areO and o-err'nning a por!ion of
!&e Frenc& rear g'ard in !&e a!!le of 7arcia )ernande;.
6oreo-er, !&e% accomplis&ed !&is !"ice "i!&in a fe"
min'!es.
.&e Imperial 5agle of !&e Frenc& 62nd <ine
(.&omiHres) "as cap!'red #% <ie'!enan! 0earce of !&e
2c44!& 5as! 5sse4 ,egimen!, a par! of <ie'!enan!
7eneral <ei!&As (!& >i-ision. 2ddi!ionall%, !&e 5agle of
!&e 22nd <ine regimen! "as fo'nd among a pile of
Frenc& dead #% a 0or!'g'ese ca,ador.
• BATTLE OF TALA7ERA +-29:,
.&e a!!le of .ala-era (*'l% 27P28 1809) "as a
#lood% %e! inconcl'si-e #a!!le fo'g&! some 120
+ilome!ers so'!&"es! of 6adrid, 3pain in !&e 0enins'lar
=ar.
2! .ala-era an 2nglo-0or!'g'ese arm% 'nder 3ir
2r!&'r =ellesle% com#ined "i!& a 3panis& arm% 'nder
7eneral $'es!a in opera!ions agains! Frenc&-occ'pied
6adrid. .&e allies mean! !o isola!e and a!!ac+ 6ars&al
Lic!or, #'! Ning *osep& onapar!e reinforced !&e la!!er
and #l'n!ed !&eir oMensi-e !o"ards !&e capi!al. 2f!er
:erce :g&!ing !&e Frenc& arm% "i!&dre" from !&e :eld,
and for !&is narro" -ic!or% =ellesle% "as enno#led as
OLisco'n! =elling!on of .ala-era and of =elling!onO.
Ne-er!&eless, !&e s!ra!egic ad-an!age la% "i!& !&e
Frenc&I .ala-era remo-ed all !&rea! !o !&e capi!al and
#o'g&! precio's !ime for !&e arri-al of Frenc&
reinforcemen!s !o !&e !&ea!re.
.&e main Frenc& a!!ac+ &a-ing #een defea!ed,
Lic!or p's&ed ,'KnAs men in!o !&e -alle% #e!"een !&e
6edellin and !&e 3eg'rilla. 2nsonAs ca-alr% #rigade "as
ordered !o dri-e !&em #ac+. =&ile !&e 1s! N7< <ig&!
>ragoons ad-anced a! a con!rolled pace, !&e 2/rd <ig&!
>ragoons soon #ro+e in!o a "ild gallop. .&e
indisciplined 'ni! ran in!o a &idden ra-ine, &o##ling
man% &orses. .&ose &orsemen "&o cleared !&e
o#s!acle "ere easil% fended oM #% !&e Frenc& infan!r%,
formed in!o s?'ares. .&e 2/rd <ig&! >ragoons c&arged
pas! !&e s?'ares and plo'g&ed in!o ea'mon!As
ca-alr%, dra"n 'p #e&ind ,'Kn. .&e ri!is& dragoons
los! 102 +illed and "o'nded and ano!&er 10( cap!'red
#efore !&e% c'! !&eir "a% o'!. 2f!er !&e #a!!le, !&e
ma'led regimen! &ad !o #e sen! #ac+ !o 5ngland !o
re:!. )o"e-er, !&is ended !&e Frenc& a!!ac+s for !&e
da%. *osep& and *o'rdan failed !o emplo% !&eir reser-e,
for "&ic& !&e% "ere #i!!erl% cri!ici;ed #% Napoleon.
.&e Frenc& #ore mos! of !&e "eig&! of !&is &ard-
fo'g&! se!-piece #a!!le, losing 7,/90 +illed or "o'nded.
.&e 3paniards los! a#o'! 1,200 and !&e ri!is& los!
(,(00 men. .&is "as appro4ima!el% 2(d of !&e ri!is&
force, compared !o onl% 18d of !&e Frenc&, reinforcing
!&e s!ra!egic -ic!or% of !&e Frenc&. 6an% of !&e
"o'nded on #o!& sides "ere #'rn! !o dea!& "&en !&e
dr% grass of !&e #a!!le:eld ca'g&! :re. .&e ne4! da%,
!&e /,000 infan!r% of !&e <ig&! >i-ision reinforced !&e
ri!is& arm% af!er comple!ing a famo's marc& of
42 miles (68 +m) in 26 &o'rs.
6ean"&ile, 6ars&al 3o'l! ad-anced so'!&,
!&rea!ening !o c'! =ellesle% oM from 0or!'gal. .&in+ing
!&a! !&e Frenc& force "as onl% 1(,000 s!rong, =ellesle%
mo-ed eas! on 2'g's! / !o #loc+ i!, lea-ing 1,(00
"o'nded in !&e care of !&e 3panis&. 3'ddenl% :nding
!&a! 3o'l! &ad /0,000 men, !&e ri!is& commander sen!
!&e <ig&! rigade on a mad das& for !&e #ridge o-er !&e
.ag's ,i-er a! 2lmara;. .&e lig&! infan!r% reac&ed !&ere
on 2'g's! 6, J's! a&ead of 3o'l!. No" enJo%ing sec're
comm'nica!ions "i!& <is#on, =ellesle% considered
Joining "i!& $'es!a again. '! &e fo'nd o'! !&a! &is
3panis& all% &ad a#andoned !&e ri!is& "o'nded !o !&e
Frenc& and remained !&oro'g&l% 'ncoopera!i-e in o!&er
"a%s. 1-er !&e follo"ing mon!&s poorl% e4ec'!ed
ac!ions #% !&e 3panis& forces res'l!ed in =ellesle%As
s!ra!egic posi!ion #eing compromised. .&e 3panis& &ad
also promised food !o !&e ri!is& if !&e% ad-anced in!o
3pain, #'! !&is "as no! pro-ided. .&e lac+ of s'pplies,
co'pled "i!& !&e !&rea! of Frenc& reinforcemen!
(incl'ding !&e possi#le incl'sion of Napolean &imself) in
!&e spring, led !o !&e ri!is& deciding !o re!rea! in!o
0or!'gal.
2f!er !&is #a!!le =ellesle% "as crea!ed Lisco'n!
=elling!on of .ala-era.
• BATTLE OF WATERLOO +-2-5,
.&e a!!le of =a!erloo "as fo'g&! on 3'nda% 18
*'ne 181( near =a!erloo in presen!-da% elgi'm. 2n
Imperial Frenc& arm% 'nder !&e command of 5mperor
Napoleon "as defea!ed #% com#ined armies of !&e
3e-en!& $oali!ion, one an 2nglo-2llied arm% 'nder !&e
command of !&e >'+e of =elling!on and !&e o!&er a
0r'ssian arm% 'nder !&e command of 7e#&ard -on
lRc&er. I! "as !&e decisi-e #a!!le of !&e =a!erloo
$ampaign and Napoleon onapar!eAs las!. .&e defea! a!
=a!erloo p'! an end !o NapoleonAs am#i!ions !o r'le as
5mperor of !&e Frenc&, and mar+ed !&e end of &is
)'ndred >a%s of re!'rn from e4ile.
Qpon NapoleonAs re!'rn !o po"er in 181(, man%
s!a!es !&a! &ad opposed &im formed !&e 3e-en!&
$oali!ion and #egan !o mo#ilise armies. ."o large
forces 'nder =elling!on and -on lRc&er assem#led
close !o !&e nor!&eas!ern #order of France. Napoleon
c&ose !o a!!ac+ in !&e &ope of des!ro%ing !&em #efore
!&e% co'ld Join in a coordina!ed in-asion of France "i!&
o!&er mem#ers of !&e $oali!ion. .&e decisi-e
engagemen! of !&is !&ree-da% =a!erloo $ampaign (16
*'ne P 19 *'ne 181() occ'rred a! !&e a!!le of =a!erloo.
Napoleon dela%ed gi-ing #a!!le 'n!il noon on 18
*'ne !o allo" !&e gro'nd !o dr%. =elling!onAs arm%,
posi!ioned across !&e r'ssels road on !&e 6on! 3! *ean
escarpmen!, "i!&s!ood repea!ed a!!ac+s #% !&e Frenc&,
'n!il, in !&e e-ening, !&e 0r'ssians arri-ed in force and
#ro+e !&ro'g& NapoleonAs rig&! 9an+. 2! !&a! momen!,
=elling!onAs 2nglo-allied arm% co'n!er-a!!ac+ed and
dro-e !&e Frenc& arm% in disorder from !&e :eld.
0'rs'ing $oali!ion forces en!ered France and res!ored
<o'is DLIII !o !&e Frenc& !&rone. Napoleon a#dica!ed,
s'rrendered !o !&e ri!is&, and "as e4iled !o 3ain!
)elena, "&ere &e died in 1821.