You are on page 1of 43


Napoleon I (1769-1821), is a general and emperor of
France (1804-1814). Napoleon onapar!e "as #orn in
$orsicca. %e a!!ended mili!ar& sc'ools in France, and
#ecame a lie(!enan! in !'e ar!iller& in 178). %e associa!ed
"i!' *aco#ins on !'e o(!#rea+ of !'e Frenc' ,e-ol(!ion,
dro-e !'e ri!is' form .o(lon in 178/, and dispersed a
ro&alis! re#ellion I 0aris on 1c!o#er 179). %e defea!ed !'e
2(s!ro-3ardinian armies in I!al& on 1796-1797 and signed
!'e !rea!& of $ampo Formio, e4!ending !'e Frenc' !erri!or&.
%e !'en campaigned in 5g&p! and !'e 6iddle 5as!,
!'rea!ening 7rea! ri!ain8s posi!ion in India. 2l!'o(g' 'e "on
land #a!!les, !'e Frenc' 9ee! "as des!ro&ed in !'e a!!le of
!'e Nile in 1798. ,e!(rning !o 0aris, Napoleon engineered !'e
co(p d8e!a! of No-em#er 9, 1799, es!a#lis'ing a $ons(la!e
"i!' 'imself as !'e :rs! cons(l and dic!a!or. %e recogni;ed
!'e go-ernmen! and es!a#lis'ed !'e an+ of France and !'e
$ode of Napoleon, s!ill !'e #asis of !'e Frenc' <a".
.'e .rea!& of <(ne-ille !'a! "as signed on 1801 made
peace "i!' 2(s!ria. .'e .rea!& of 2miens of 1802 made
peace "i!' ri!ain. Napoleon #ecame !'e :rs! cons(l for life
on 1802 and made 'imself emperor for life on 1804. In !'e
Napoleonic =ars 'e "on -ic!ories o-er !'e 5(ropean alliance
a! 2(s!erli!; on 180), *ena on 1806 and Friedland on 1807,
dissol-ing !'e %ol& ,oman 5mpire on 1806, and #ecoming
r(ler of almos! !'e "'ole con!inen!. 2f!er *ena 'e
ina(g(ra!ed !'e $on!inen!al 3&s!em "'ere#& 'e 'oped !o
+eep !'e 5(ropean por!s closed !o ri!is' !rade, #(! !'e
a!!le of .rafalger on 180) es!a#lis'ed !'e dominance of
ri!ain a! sea.
In 1809 Napoleon di-orced *osep'ine de ea('arnais
and married 6arie <o(ise, "'o #ore 'im an 'eir, Napoleon II.
.'e 0enins(lar =ar re-ealed gro"ing Frenc' "ea+ness, and
1812 Napoleon #egan 'is disas!ro(s campaign agains!
,(ssia. 2 ne" alliance of 5(ropean na!ions defea!ed !'e
Frenc' a! <eip;ig on 181/. In 1814, af!er France "as
in-aded, Napoleon a#dica!ed and "as e4iled !o !'e island of
5l#a. 1n 6arc' 181) 'e escaped, re!(rned !o France, and
r(led for !'e %(ndred >a&s, "'ic' ended in Frenc' defea! in
!'e a!!le of =a!erloo on 181). Napoleon "as !'en e4iled !o
3ain! %elena, "'ere 'e died in 1821.
.'e Napoleonic 5ra dominan!l& incl(ded France and
5(rope. I! "as !'e era !'a! ended !'e Frenc' ,e-ol(!ion. I!
#egan "i!' Napoleon8s co(p d8 e!a!, o-er!'ro"ing !'e
>irec!or&, es!a#lis'ing !'e Frenc' $ons(la!e and ended a!
Napoleon8s defea! a! !'e a!!le of =a!erloo.
Temporary peace in Europe
1n 1c!o#er 1801 and 6arc' 1802 France signed !'e
!rea!& of 2miens "i!' 7rea! ri!ain !'a! ca(sed a s'or! li-ed
peace in 5(rope and France. 0eace in 5(rope and France "as
s'or! li-ed #eca(se ri!ain did no! e-ac(a!e 6al!a as
promised and !'e& pro!es!ed agains! onapar!e8s anne4a!ion
of 0iedmon! and 'is 2c! of 6edia!ion, "'ic' es!a#lis'ed a
ne" 3"iss $onfedera!ion.
onapar!e ins!i!(!ed las!ing reforms, incl(ding
cen!rali;ed adminis!ra!ion of !'e depar!men!s, 'ig'er
ed(ca!ion, a !a4 code, road and se"er s&s!ems and !'e
an?(e de France@!'e co(n!r&As cen!ral #an+. %e
nego!ia!ed !'e $oncorda! of 1801 "i!' !'e $a!'olic $'(rc',
"'ic' so(g'! !o reconcile !'e mos!l& $a!'olic pop(la!ion !o
'is regime. I! "as presen!ed alongside !'e 1rganic 2r!icles,
"'ic' reg(la!ed p(#lic "ors'ip in France. In 6a& 1802, 'e
ins!i!(!ed !'e <Bgion dA%onne(r, a s(#s!i!(!e for !'e old
ro&alis! decora!ions and orders of c'i-alr&, !o enco(rage
ci-ilian and mili!ar& ac'ie-emen!s. %is po"ers "ere
increased #& !'e $ons!i!(!ion of !'e Cear D incl(dingE Article
1. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims
Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life 2f!er !'is 'e "as
generall& referred !o as Napoleon ra!'er !'an onapar!e.
NapoleonAs se! of ci-il la"s, !'e Code Civil@no" of!en
+no"n as !'e Napoleonic code@"as prepared #&
commi!!ees of legal e4per!s (nder !'e s(per-ision of *ean
*ac?(es ,Bgis de $am#acBrFs, !'e Second Consul. Napoleon
par!icipa!ed ac!i-el& in !'e sessions of !'e $o(ncil of 3!a!e
!'a! re-ised !'e draf!s. .'e de-elopmen! of !'e $ode "as a
f(ndamen!al c'ange in !'e na!(re of !'e ci-il la" legal
s&s!em "i!' i!s s!ress on clearl& "ri!!en and accessi#le la".
1!'er codes "ere commissioned #& Napoleon !o codif&
criminal and commerce la"G a $ode of $riminal Ins!r(c!ion
"as p(#lis'ed, "'ic' enac!ed r(les of d(e process.
Frenc" Empire
Napoleon faced ro&alis! and *aco#in plo!s as FranceAs
r(ler, incl(ding !'e Conspiration des poignards H>aggers
conspirac&I in 1c!o#er 1800 and !'e 0lo! of !'e ,(e 3ain!-
Nicaise !"o mon!'s la!er. In *an(ar& 1804, 'is police
(nco-ered an assassina!ion plo! agains! 'im "'ic' in-ol-ed
6orea( and "'ic' "as os!ensi#l& sponsored #& !'e o(r#on
former r(lers of France. 1n !'e ad-ice of .alle&rand,
Napoleon ordered !'e +idnapping of !'e >(+e of 5ng'ien, in
-iola!ion of neig'#oring adenAs so-ereign!&. 2f!er a secre!
!rial !'e >(+e "as e4ec(!ed, e-en !'o(g' 'e 'ad no! #een
in-ol-ed in !'e plo!.
Napoleon (sed !'e plo! !o J(s!if& !'e recrea!ion of a
'eredi!ar& monarc'& in France, "i!' 'imself as 5mperor, as a
o(r#on res!ora!ion "o(ld #e more diKc(l! if !'e onapar!is!
s(ccession "as en!renc'ed in !'e cons!i!(!ion. Napoleon
cro"ned 'imself 5mperor Napoleon I on >ecem#er 2, 1804
a! No!re >ame de 0aris and !'en cro"ned *osBp'ine
5mpress. $laims !'a! 'e sei;ed !'e cro"n o(! of !'e 'ands of
0ope 0i(s LII d(ring !'e ceremon&@!o a-oid 'is s(#J(ga!ion
!o !'e a(!'ori!& of !'e pon!iM@are apocr&p'alG !'e
corona!ion proced(re 'ad #een agreed in ad-ance. 2! 6ilan
$a!'edral on 6a& 26, 180), Napoleon "as cro"ned Ning of
I!al& "i!' !'e Iron $ro"n of <om#ard&. %e crea!ed 18
6ars'als of !'e 5mpire among 'is !op generals, !o sec(re
!'e allegiance of !'e arm&. <(d"ig -an ee!'o-en, a long-
!ime admirer, "as disappoin!ed a! !'is !(rn !o"ards
imperialism, and scra!c'ed 'is dedica!ion !o Napoleon from
'is /rd 3&mp'on&.
#e$i!" emancipa%ion
Napoleon freed !'em from la"s "'ic' res!ric!ed !'em
!o g'e!!os, and e4panded !'eir rig'!s !o proper!&, "ors'ip,
and careers. >espi!e !'e an!i-semi!ic reac!ion !o NapoleonAs
policies from foreign go-ernmen!s and "i!'in France, 'e
#elie-ed emancipa!ion "o(ld #ene:! France #& a!!rac!ing
*e"s !o !'e co(n!r& gi-en !'e res!ric!ions !'e& faced
else"'ere. %e s!a!ed !'a!, OI "ill ne-er accep! an& proposals
!'a! "ill o#liga!e !'e *e"is' people !o lea-e France, #eca(se
!o me !'e *e"s are !'e same as an& o!'er ci!i;en in o(r
co(n!r&. I! !a+es "ea+ness !o c'ase !'em o(! of !'e co(n!r&,
#(! i! !a+es s!reng!' !o assimila!e !'em.O %e "as seen
fa-oring !'e *e"s !'a! !'e ,(ssian 1r!'odo4 $'(rc' formall&
condemned 'im as O2n!ic'ris! and !'e 5nem& of 7odO.
Napo&eonic Co'e
Napoleonic $ode is !'e Frenc' <egal $ode, oKciall& !'e
$ode $i-il. Napoleon I, as :rs! cons(l appoin!ed a
commission !o de-ice a replacemen! for !'e conf(sed and
corr(p! local s&s!ems formerl& in force. .'e code, made (p
of 2,281 ar!icles arranged in !'ree #oo+s, "as enac!ed in
1804 and, al!'o(g' m(c' al!ered, is s!ill in force !oda&.
+FEBRUAR* -./ -012 3 MARCH ./ -245,
Francis II of 7erman& "as !'e las! %ol& ,oman
5mperor. %e r(led in 7erman& from 1792-2(g(s! 6,
1806. .'en 'e dissol-ed !'e 5mpire af!er !'e disas!ro(s
defea! in !'e =ar of !'e .'ird $oali!ion #& Napoleon a!
!'e a!!le of 2(s!erli!;. In 1804 'e fo(nd !'e 2(s!rian
5mpire "'ile 'e "as s!ill !'e 5mperor of 7erman& !'en
'e #ecame Francis I of 2(s!ria from 1804P18/). %e
#ecame !'e one and onl& >1005<N2I35, (do(#le
emperor) in 'is!or&.
1!'er !'an #eing !'e emperor of #o!' 7erman&
and 2(s!ria 'e also #ecame !'e 2pos!olic Ning of
%(ngar& as Ferenc. %e #ecame !'e Ning of $roa!ia P
3la-onia as FranJo II. %e also #ecame !'e Ning of
o'emia as Francis I. 2nd las!l& 'e #ecame !'e Firs!
0residen! of !'e 7erman $onfedera!ion in 181).
%e 'as #een a s!rong opponen! of Frenc' 5mperor
Napoleon onapar!e d(ring !'e Napoleonic =ars. (!
'is mos! se-ere defea! e-er "as !'e pro4& marriage of
s!a!e of 'is da(g'!er 6arie <o(ise of 2(s!ria !o
Napoleon I on 6arc' 10, 1810.
OCTOBER 49/ -2-1,
Friedric' I "as no!ed for 'is si;e 6 f!. 11 inc'es
and 'is "eig'! of 200 +g.
%e "as appoin!ed #& $a!'erine II of ,(ssia as
7o-ernorP7eneral of eas!ern Finland.
='en 'is fa!'er died 'e #ecame !'e >(+e of
=(r!!em#erg as Friedric' III on >ecem#er 22, 1797.
%o"e-er 'is reign "as s'or!l& ended in 1800 "'en !'e
Frenc' arm& occ(pied =(r!!em#erg. >(+e Friedric'
:led a pri-a!e !rea!& ceding 6on!#eliard, an encla-e
"i!'in !'e #o(ndaries of France, !o !'e Frenc' ,ep(#lic,
and recei-ed 5ll"angen in e4c'ange !"o &ears la!er.
2ccording !o !'e
,5I$%>50Q.2.I1N3%2Q0.3$%<Q33, !'e emperor of
=(r!!em#erg no" 'olds !'e !i!le 0rince 5lec!or. In
e4c'ange for pro-iding France a large a(4iliar& force,
Napoleon recogni;ed Friedric' as !'e Ning of
=(r!!em#erg as Friedric' I. 3oon af!er, =Rr!!em#erg
seceded from !'e %ol& ,oman 5mpire and Joined
NapoleonAs $onfedera!ion of !'e ,'ine. 1nce again, !'e
ass(mp!ion of a ne" !i!le also mean! !erri!orial
e4pansion, as !'e !erri!ories of -ario(s near#& princes
"ere anne4ed #& =Rr!!em#erg. 2s a s&m#ol of 'is
alliance "i!' !'e Frenc' 5mperor, Friedric'As da(g'!er
$a!'erine "as married !o NapoleonAs &o(nges! #ro!'er
*erome. .'e ne"l& ele-a!ed +ingAs alliance "i!' France
!ec'nicall& made 'im !'e enem& of 'is fa!'er-in-la",
ri!is' Ning 7eorge III. %o"e-er, !'e NingAs d&nas!ic
connec!ions "o(ld ena#le 'im !o in!ermi!!en!l& ac! as a
go #e!"een !'e ri!is' go-ernmen! and -ario(s
con!inen!al po"ers.
>(ring !'e =ar of <i#era!ion in 181/, Friedric'
c'anged sides and "en! o-er !'e 2llies, "'ere 'is
s!a!(s as !'e #ro!'er-in-la" of !'e ri!is' 0rince ,egen!
(la!er 7eorge IL) and (ncle !o !'e ,(ssian .sar
2le4ander I 'elped 'is s!anding. 2f!er !'e fall of
Napoleon, 'e a!!ended !'e $ongress of Lienna and "as
con:rmed as Ning. 2! Lienna, Friedric' and 'is
minis!ers "ere -er& concerned !o ma+e s(re !'a!
=Rr!!em#erg "o(ld #e a#le !o re!ain all !'e !erri!ories i!
'ad gained in !'e pas! 1) &ears. Friedric'As 'ars'
!rea!men! of !'e media!i;ed princes "i!'in 'is domain
made 'im one of !'e principal !arge!s of !'e
organi;a!ion of dispossessed princes, "'ic' 'oped !o
gain !'e s(ppor! of !'e 0o"ers in regaining !'eir los!
so-ereign!&. In !'e end, 'o"e-er, 2(s!ria, "'ic' "as
seen as !'e na!(ral all& of !'e princes, "as more
in!eres!ed in alliance "i!' !'e medi(m-si;ed 7erman
s!a!es li+e =Rr!!em#erg !'an "i!' asser!ing i!s
!radi!ional role as pro!ec!or of !'e smaller so-ereigns of
!'e old 5mpire, and Friedric' "as allo"ed !o re!ain 'is
d(#io(sl& ac?(ired lands. Friedric', along "i!' !'e o!'er
7erman princes, Joined !'e ne" 7ermanic
$onfedera!ion in 181). %e died in 1c!o#er of !'e ne4!
+AU(UST 4/ -009 3 #UNE 0/ -289,
%e s(cceeded !'e !'rone on No-em#er 16, 1797
and a! once ga-e earnes! of 'is good in!en!ions #&
c(!!ing do"n !'e e4penses of !'e ro&al es!a#lis'men!,
dismissing 'is fa!'erAs minis!ers, and reforming !'e
mos! oppressi-e a#(ses of !'e la!e reign. Qnfor!(na!el&,
'o"e-er, 'e 'ad all !'e %o'en;ollern !enaci!& of
personal po"er "i!'o(! !'e %o'en;ollern geni(s for
(sing i!. .oo dis!r(s!f(l !o delega!e 'is responsi#ili!& !o
'is minis!ers, 'e "as !oo in:rm of "ill !o s!ri+e o(! and
follo" a consis!en! co(rse for 'imself. 2! :rs! 'e and 'is
ad-isors a!!emp!ed !o p(rs(e a polic& of ne(!rali!& in
!'e Napoleonic =ars. 2l!'o(g' !'e& s(cceeded in
+eeping o(! of !'e .'ird $oali!ion in 180), e-en!(all&
Frederic+ =illiam "as s"a&ed #& !'e #elligeren!
a!!i!(de of !'e ?(een, "'o led 0r(ssiaAs pro-"ar par!&,
and en!ered in!o "ar in 1c!o#er 1806. 1n 1c!o#er 14,
1806, a! !'e a!!le of *ena-2(ers!Sd!, !'e Frenc'
defea!ed !'e 0r(ssian arm& led #& Frederic+ =illiam,
and !'e 0r(ssian arm& collapsed. .'e ro&al famil& 9ed
!o 6emel, 5as! 0r(ssia, "'ere !'e& fell on !'e merc& of
5mperor 2le4ander I of ,(ssia ("'o, r(mor 'as i!, 'ad
fallen in lo-e "i!' T(een <o(ise).
2le4ander, !oo, s(Mered defea! a! !'e 'ands of !'e
Frenc', and a! .ilsi! on !'e Niemen France made peace
"i!' ,(ssia and 0r(ssia. Napoleon deal! "i!' 0r(ssia
-er& 'ars'l&, despi!e !'e pregnan! T(eenAs personal
in!er-ie" "i!' !'e Frenc' emperor. 0r(ssia los! man& of
i!s 0olis' !erri!ories, as "ell as all !erri!or& "es! of !'e
5l#e, and 'ad !o :nance a large indemni!& and !o pa&
for Frenc' !roops !o occ(p& +e& s!rong poin!s "i!'in !'e
2l!'o(g' !'e ineMec!(al Ning 'imself seemed
resigned !o 0r(ssiaAs fa!e, -ario(s reforming minis!ers,
s(c' as aron -om 3!ein, 0rince -on %arden#erg,
3c'arn'ors!, and $o(n! 7neisena(, se! a#o(! reforming
0r(ssiaAs adminis!ra!ion and mili!ar&, "i!' !'e
enco(ragemen! of !'e T(een ("'o died, grea!l&
mo(rned, in 1810).
In 181/, follo"ing NapoleonAs defea! in ,(ssia,
Frederic+ =illiam !(rned agains! France and signed an
alliance "i!' ,(ssia a! Nalis;, al!'o(g' 'e 'ad !o 9ee
erlin, s!ill (nder Frenc' occ(pa!ion. 0r(ssian !roops
pla&ed a +e& par! in !'e -ic!ories of !'e allies in 181/
and 1814, and !'e Ning 'imself !ra-eled "i!' !'e main
arm& of 0rince 3c'"ar;en#erg, along "i!' 2le4ander of
,(ssia and Francis of 2(s!ria.
2! !'e $ongress of Lienna, Frederic+ =illiamAs
minis!ers s(cceeded in sec(ring impor!an! !erri!orial
increases for 0r(ssia, al!'o(g' !'e& failed !o o#!ain !'e
anne4a!ion of all of 3a4on&, as !'e& 'ad "is'ed.
Follo"ing !'e "ar, Frederic+ =illiam !(rned !o"ards
poli!ical reac!ion, a#andoning !'e promises 'e 'ad
made in 181/ !o s(ppl& 0r(ssia "i!' a cons!i!(!ion.
%e died on *(ne 7, 1840. %is eldes! son, Frederic+
=illiam IL, s(cceeded 'im.
• CHARLES I7 +NO7EMBER --/ -082 3 #ANUAR* .9/
%e "as !'e Ning of 3pain from >ecem#er 14, 1788
(n!il 'is a#dica!ion on
6arc' 19, 1808.
In 1788, $'arles III died and $'arles IL s(cceeded
!o !'e !'rone. 5-en !'o(g' 'e 'ad a profo(nd #elief in
!'e sanc!i!& of 'is oKce and +ep! (p !'e appearance of
an a#sol(!e, po"erf(l monarc', 'e ne-er !oo+ more
!'an a passi-e par! in !'e direc!ion of 'is o"n
go-ernmen!, occ(p&ing 'imself "i!' '(n!ing. .'e
aMairs of go-ernmen! 'e lef! !o 'is "ife and 'is prime
minis!er. In 1792, 6aria <(isa :nall& s(cceeded in
o(s!ing !'e $o(n! of Florida#lanca from oKce and 'ad
'im replaced "i!' 0edro 0a#lo 2#arca de olea, $o(n!
of 2randa, !'e c'ief of !'e Aragonese par!&. %o"e-er, in
!'e "a+e of !'e "ar agains! ,ep(#lican France, !'e
li#eral-leaning $o(n! of 2randa "as replaced #& 6an(el
de 7odo&, a fa-ori!e of !'e T(een and allegedl& 'er
lo-er, "'o "o(ld 'encefor!' enJo& !'e las!ing fa-or of
!'e Ning.
7odo& con!in(ed 2randaAs polic& of ne(!rali!&
!o"ards France #(! af!er 3pain pro!es!ed agains! !'e
e4ec(!ion of !'e deposed +ing in 179/, France declared
"ar on 3pain and in 179) forced 7odo& !o concl(de an
alliance and declared "ar on 7rea! ri!ain.
RE(ENT, +DECEMBER -0/ -048 3 MARCH .9/ -2-1,
1n 1777, s'e #ecame !'e :rs! T(een regnan! of
0or!(gal, and !'e 2lgar-es, and !'e 26!' (or 27!'
according !o 'is!orian 2lison =einer) 0or!(g(ese
monarc'. %er '(s#and #ecame 'er co-monarc', +no"n
as 0e!er III. >espi!e !'e co(ple #eing !'e face of !'e
0or!(g(ese ro&als, !'e po"er "as al"a&s !o remain "i!'
6aria "'o "as a good r(ler prior !o 'er madness.
%er :rs! ac! as ?(een "as !o dismiss !'e pop(lar
0rime 6inis!er, !'e 6ar?(is of 0om#al, "'o 'ad #ro+en
!'e po"er of !'e reac!ionar& aris!ocrac& -ia !'e .a-ora
aMair, par!iall& #eca(se of 0om#alAs 5nlig'!enmen!,
an!i-*es(i! policies. No!e"or!'& e-en!s of !'is period
"ere 0or!(galAs mem#ers'ip of !'e <eag(e of 2rmed
Ne(!rali!& (*(l& 1782) and !'e 1781 cession of >elagoa
a& from 2(s!ria !o 0or!(gal.
T(een 6aria s(Mered from religio(s mania and
melanc'olia. .'is ac(!e men!al illness (per'aps d(e !o
porp'&ria, "'ic' also ma& 'a-e !ain!ed 7eorge III of !'e
Qni!ed Ningdom) made 'er incapa#le of 'andling s!a!e
aMairs af!er 1792.
%er madness "as :rs! oKciall& no!iced in 1786
"'en 6aria 'ad !o #e carried #ac+ !o 'er apar!men!s in
a s!a!e of deliri(m. .'e ?(eenAs men!al s!a!e #ecame
increasingl& "orse. In 6a& 1786 6aria los! 'er '(s#and.
6aria "as de-as!a!ed and for#ade an& co(r!
en!er!ainmen!s and according !o a con!emporar&, !'e
s!a!e fes!i-i!ies resem#led religio(s ceremonies. %er
s!a!e "orsened af!er !'e dea!' of !'e 0rince %eir *osep'
a! !'e age of 27, from smallpo4, and of 'er confessor, in
1791. 2f!er !'e end of 1791, 'er men!al s!a!e seemed
!o #e !(rning !o e-en "orse. In Fe#r(ar& 1792, s'e "as
deemed as men!all& insane and "as !rea!ed #& *o'n
=illis, !'e same p'&sician !'a! a!!ended !o 7eorge III of
5ngland. %e "an!ed !o !a+e 'er !o 5ngland, #(! !'a!
"as ref(sed #& !'e 0or!(g(ese co(r!. .'e &o(ng prince
0rince *o'n !oo+ o-er !'e go-ernmen! in 'er name,
e-en if 'e onl& !oo+ !'e !i!le of 0rince ,egen! in 1799.
='en !'e 2J(da palace #(rn! do"n in 179), !'e co(r!
"as forced !o mo-e !o T(el(; "'ere !'e ill ?(een "o(ld
lie in 'er apar!men!s all da& and -isi!ors "o(ld
complain of !erri#le screams !'a! "o(ld ec'o
!'ro(g'o(! !'e palace.
In 1801 !'e 3panis' dic!a!or 6an(el de 7odo&
in-aded 0or!(gal "i!' #ac+ing from Napoleon, #(! "as
forced !o a#andon !'e campaign in !'e same &ear.
%o"e-er !'e .rea!& of adaJo; on *(ne 6, 1801 forced
0or!(gal !o cede 1li-en;a and par! of 7(&ana !o 3pain.
.'e ref(sal of !'e 0or!(g(ese go-ernmen! !o Join
!'e $on!inen!al loc+ade of ri!ain c(lmina!ed in !'e
1807 Franco-3panis' in-asion led #& 7eneral *(no!. 2!
!'e (rging of !'e ri!is' go-ernmen!, !'e en!ire
ragan;a d&nas!& 9ed !o ra;il on No-em#er 29, 1807
and es!a#lis'ed a co(r! in e4ile in ,io de *aneiro. *(no!
"as appoin!ed go-ernor of 0or!(gal pending NapoleonAs
decision on i!s (l!ima!e fa!e.
In *an(ar& 1808, 0rince *oUo and 'is co(r! arri-ed
in 3al-ador, "'ere 'e signed a commercial reg(la!ion
!'a! opened commerce #e!"een ra;il and friendl&
na!ions, "'ic' in !'is case represen!ed 5ngland. .'is
impor!an! la" #ro+e !'e colonial pac! !'a!, (n!il !'en,
onl& allo"ed ra;il !o main!ain direc! commercial
rela!ions "i!' 0or!(gal.
1n 2(g(s! 1, 1808, !'e ri!is' 7eneral 2r!'(r
=ellesle& (la!er >(+e of =elling!on) landed a ri!is'
arm& in <is#on and ini!ia!ed !'e 0enins(lar =ar.
=ellesle&As ini!ial -ic!or& o-er *(no! a! Limeiro (2(g(s!
21, 1808) "as "iped o(! #& 'is s(periors in !'e
$on-en!ion of $in!ra (2(g(s! /0, 1808). Ne-er!'eless,
=ellesle& (no" <ord =elling!on) re!(rned !o 0or!(gal on
2pril 22, 1809 !o recommence !'e campaign.
0or!(g(ese forces (nder ri!is' command dis!ing(is'ed
!'emsel-es in !'e defense of !'e lines of .orres Ledras
(1809-1810) and in !'e s(#se?(en! in-asion of 3pain
and France.
In 181), !'e regenc& go-ernmen! ele-a!ed ra;il
!o !'e s!a!(s of a +ingdom, and 6aria I "as proclaimed
!'e T(een of !'e Qni!ed Ningdom of 0or!(gal, ra;il and
!'e 2lgar-es. ='en Napoleon "as :nall& defea!ed in
181), 6aria and 'er famil& remained in ra;il.
.'e aged T(een died a! a $armeli!es con-en! in
,io de *aneiro in 1816 a! !'e age of 81G !'e 0rince
,egen! s(cceeded 'er as Ning *o'n LI of 0or!(gal and
• FERDINAND I +#ANUAR* -./ -05- 3 #ANUAR* 8/
Ferdinand I "as Ning of Naples, 3icil&, and !'e ."o
3icilies from 17)9 (n!il 'is dea!'. %e "as !'e !'ird son
of Ning $'arges, Ning of Naples and 3icil&, la!er $'arles
III of 3pain, Ning of 3icil& #& 'is "ife 6aria 2malia of
3a4on&. 1n 2(g(s! 10, 17)9, $'arles s(cceeded 'is
#ro!'er as Ning $'arles III of 3pain. .rea!& pro-isions
made $'arles (na#le !o 'old !'e !i!les of all !'ree
Ningdoms. 1n 1c!o#er 6, 17)9 'e !'erefore a#dica!ed
in fa-or of 'is son Ferdinand ($'arlesAs eldes! son,
Infan!e Felipe, "as men!all& re!arded and !'e second
son, $'arles, "as des!ined !o in'eri! !'e 3panis'
FerdinandAs minori!& ended in 1767, and 'is :rs!
ac! "as !'e e4p(lsion of !'e *es(i!s. .'e follo"ing &ear
'e married 2rc'd(c'ess 6aria $arolina, da(g'!er of !'e
5mpress 6aria .'eresa of 2(s!ria and sis!er of 5mperor
*osep' II of 2(s!ria and !'e f(!(re T(een 6arie
2n!oine!!e of France. & !'e marriage con!rac! !'e
?(een "as !o 'a-e a -oice in !'e co(ncil of s!a!e af!er
!'e #ir!' of 'er :rs! son, and s'e "as no! slo" !o a-ail
'erself of !'is means of poli!ical in9(ence.
ea(!if(l, cle-er and pro(d, li+e 'er mo!'er, 'er
am#i!ion "as !o raise !'e +ingdom of Naples !o !'e
posi!ion of a grea! po"erG s'e soon came !o e4ercise
comple!e s"a& o-er 'er '(s#and, "'o m(c' preferred
!o lea-e !'e go-ernmen! in 'er 'ands.
.an(cci, "'o a!!emp!ed !o !'"ar! 'er, "as
dismissed in 1777, and !'e 5nglis'man 3ir *o'n 2c!on,
"'o in 1779 "as appoin!ed direc!or of marine,
s(cceeded in so comple!el& "inning !'e fa-or of 6aria
$arolina, #& s(ppor!ing 'er in 'er sc'eme !o free
Naples from 3panis' in9(ence and sec(ring a
rapprochement "i!' 2(s!ria and 7rea! ri!ain, !'a! 'e
#ecame prac!icall& and af!er"ard ac!(all& prime
minis!er. 2l!'o(g' no! a mere grasping ad-en!(rer, 'e
"as largel& responsi#le for red(cing !'e in!ernal
adminis!ra!ion of !'e co(n!r& !o a s&s!em of espionage,
corr(p!ion and cr(el!&.
1n !'e o(!#rea+ of !'e Frenc' ,e-ol(!ion in 1789
!'e Neapoli!an co(r! "as no! 'os!ile !o !'e mo-emen!,
and !'e ?(een e-en s&mpa!'i;ed "i!' !'e re-ol(!ionar&
ideas of !'e da&. (! "'en !'e Frenc' monarc'& "as
a#olis'ed and !'e +ing and ?(een (6aria $arolinaAs
sis!er) "ere e4ec(!ed, Ferdinand and 6aria $arolina
"ere sei;ed "i!' a feeling of fear and 'orror and Joined
!'e :rs! coali!ion agains! France in 179/.
Ferdinand died in Naples in *an(ar& 182).
+MA* .8/ -05- 3 OCTOBER 1/ -2-:,
In 177) $'arles 5mman(el married 6arie $lo!'ilde
of France, !'e da(g'!er of <o(is, >a(p'in of France and
0rincess 6arie-*osFp'e of 3a4on&, and sis!er of Ning
<o(is DLI of France. 2l!'o(g' !'e (nion "as arranged
for poli!ical reasons, $'arles 5mman(el and 'is "ife
#ecame de-o!ed !o eac' o!'er. .'eir a!!emp!s !o 'a-e
c'ildren, 'o"e-er, "ere (ns(ccessf(l.
2! !'e dea!' of 'is fa!'er (1c!o#er 14, 1796),
$'arles 5mman(el s(cceeded as Ning of 3ardinia. .'e
+ingdom incl(ded no! onl& !'e island of 3ardinia, #(!
also signi:can! !erri!ories in nor!'"es! I!al& incl(ding all
of 0iedmon!.
2! 'is s(ccession !o !'e !'rone in 1796, 3ardinia
'ad #een forced !o concl(de !'e disad-an!ageo(s
.rea!& of 0aris (1796) "i!' !'e Frenc' ,ep(#lic, gi-ing
!'e Frenc' arm& free passage !'ro(g' 0iedmon!. 1n
>ecem#er 6, 1798, !'e Frenc' (nder *o(#er! occ(pied
.(rin and forced $'arles 5man(el !o a#dica!e all 'is
!erri!ories on !'e I!alian mainland and !o "i!'dra" !o
!'e island of 3ardinia, "'ic' s!a&ed o(! of !'e reac' of
!'e Frenc' arm&. .'e follo"ing &ear 'e !ried
(ns(ccessf(ll& !o regain 0iedmon!. %e and 'is "ife li-ed
in ,ome and in Naples as g(es!s of !'e "eal!'& $olonna
1n 6arc' 7, 1802 $'arles 5mman(elAs "ife 6arie
$lo!'ilde died. %e "as so mo-ed #& 'er dea!' !'a! 'e
decided !o a#dica!e, *(ne 4, 1802 in fa-or of 'is #ro!'er
Lic!or 5mman(el. $'arles 5mman(el re!ained !'e
personal !i!le of Ning. %e li-ed in ,ome and in !'e
near#& !o"n of Frasca!i.
In Frasca!i 'e "as a fre?(en! g(es! of %enr&
enedic! 3!(ar!, $ardinal >(+e of Cor+, las! mem#er of
!'e ,o&al %o(se of 3!(ar!, "'o "as 'is co(sin. %e "as
descended from %enrie!!a 2nne 3!(ar!, !'e &o(nges!
da(g'!er of $'arles I, "'ereas %enr& enedic! 3!(ar!
"as descended from *ames II "'o "as !'e second son
of $'arles I.
='en %enr& died in 1807, $'arles 5mman(el
#ecame !'e senior 'eir-general of Ning $'arles I of
5ngland and 3co!land, and "as !'(s regarded #&
*aco#i!es as Ning $'arles IL of 5ngland, 3co!land,
France and Ireland. .'ere is no doc(men!ar& e-idence
!'a! $'arles 5mman(el e-er a!!emp!ed !o ma+e a
p(#lic claim !o !'e !i!le of Ning of 5ngland or 3co!land.
Indeed, in 181) a! !'e age of 64 $'arles
5mman(el !oo+ simple -o"s in !'e 3ocie!& of *es(s (!'e
*es(i!s). %e "as ne-er ordained !o !'e pries!'ood, #(!
li-ed !'e res! of 'is life a! !'e *es(i! no-i!ia!e in ,ome.
$'arles 5mman(el died a! ,ome, 1c!o#er 6, 1819.
%e is #(ried in !'e $'(rc' of 3an!A2ndrea al T(irinale.
=illiam L ass(med !'e posi!ion of s!ad!'older
(c'ief e4ec(!i-e and mili!ar& commander) in 1766. 1n
1c!o#er 4, 1767 in erlin, 0rince =illiam married
0rincess =il'elmina of 0r(ssia, !'e da(g'!er of !'e
>(+e of r(ns"ic+, niece of Frederic+ !'e 7rea! and a
co(sin of 7eorge III.
.'e posi!ion of !'e >(!c' d(ring !'e 2merican =ar
of Independence "as one of ne(!rali!&. =illiam L,
leading !'e pro-ri!is' fac!ion "i!'in !'e go-ernmen!,
#loc+ed a!!emp!s #& pro-independence, and la!er pro-
Frenc', elemen!s !o drag !'e go-ernmen! !o "ar.
%o"e-er, !'ings came !o a 'ead "i!' !'e >(!c'
a!!emp! !o Join !'e ,(ssian-led <eag(e of 2rmed
Ne(!rali!&, leading !o !'e o(!#rea+ of !'e Fo(r!' 2nglo-
>(!c' =ar in 1780. In spi!e of !'e fac! !'a! ri!ain "as
in !'e mids! of :g'!ing se-eral o!'er co(n!ries, !'e
ens(ing "ar pro-ed diKc(l! for !'e >(!c' !o cope "i!'
and !'e ,ep(#lic "as e-en!(all& forced !o cede some
!erri!or& !o !'e ri!is'. .'e Qni!ed 0ro-inces recogni;ed
!'e Qni!ed 3!a!es in Fe#r(ar& 1782, af!er m(c' poli!ical
de#a!e and press(re from 2merican and Frenc'
diploma!s. *oan -an der $apellen !o! den 0ol and $o(r!
<am#er!(s -an e&ma !oo+ !'e ini!ia!i-e.
2f!er !'e signing of !'e .rea!& of 0aris (178/), !'e
impo-eris'ed na!ion gre" res!less (nder =illiamAs r(le.
In !'e mean!ime, a #and of &o(ng re-ol(!ionaries,
called 0a!rio!s, "as c'allenging 'is a(!'ori!& more and
more. In 178) =illiam lef! !'e %ag(e and remo-ed 'is
co(r! !o 7(elders, a pro-ince remo!e from !'e poli!ical
cen!re. In 3ep!em#er 1786 'e 'ad !o send an arm& !o
s!op %erman =illem >aendels, organi;ing an o-er!'ro"
a! !'e ci!iesA -roedsc'ap. In *(ne 1787 'is energe!ic
"ife =il'elmina !ried !o !ra-el !o !'e %ag(e. 1(!side
3c'oon'o-en, s'e "as s!opped #& mili!ia, !a+en !o a
farm near 7oeJan-er"ellesl(is and "i!'in !"o da&s
made !o re!(rn !o NiJmegen.
.o =il'elmina and 'er #ro!'er, Frederic+ =illiam II
of 0r(ssia, !'is "as an ins(l!. Frederic+ sen! in an arm&
!o a!!ac+ !'e dissiden!s. 6an& pa!rio!s 9ed !o !'e Nor!'
of France, aro(nd 3ain!-1mer, in an area "'ere >(!c'
"as spo+en. Qn!il 'is o-er!'ro" !'e& "ere s(ppor!ed #&
Ning <o(is DLI of France.
.'e &ear 179) "as a disas!ro(s one for !'e ancien
rgime of !'e Ne!'erlands. 3(ppor!ed #& !'e Frenc'
2rm&, !'e re-ol(!ionaries re!(rned from 0aris !o :g'! in
!'e Ne!'erlands, and in 179) =illiam L 9ed !o !'e
safe!& of 5ngland. 2 fe" da&s la!er !'e Fall of
2ms!erdam occ(rred, and !'e >(!c' ,ep(#lic "as
a#olis'ed #& !'e -ic!orio(s Frenc'.
.'e las! of !'e >(!c' s!ad!'olders, 'e died in e4ile
a! r(ns"ic+, no" in 7erman&. %is #od& "as mo-ed !o
!'e >(!c' ,o&al Famil& cr&p! in !'e Nie("e Ner+ in >elf!
on 2pril 29, 19)8.
In 181/, 'is son, Ning =illiam I re!(rned !o !'e
Ne!'erlands and #ecame !'e :rs! >(!c' monarc' from
!'e %o(se of 1range.
+DECEMBER .4/ -000 3 DECEMBER -/ -2.5,
2le4ander I of !'e ,(ssian 5mpire is o!'er"ise
+no"n as 2le4ander !'e lessed. %e ser-ed as 5mperor
of ,(ssia from 6arc' 2/, 1801P>ecem#er 1, 182), and
,(ler of 0oland from 181)P182), as "ell as !'e :rs!
,(ssian 7rand >(+e of Finland and <i!'(ania.
%e "as #orn in 3ain! 0e!ers#(rg !o 7rand >(+e
0a(l 0e!ro-ic', la!er 5mperor 0a(l I, and 6aria
Feodoro-na, da(g'!er of !'e >(+e of =Rr!!em#erg.
2le4ander "as !'e eldes! of fo(r #ro!'ers. %e
s(cceeded !o !'e !'rone af!er 'is fa!'er "as m(rdered,
and r(led ,(ssia d(ring !'e c'ao!ic period of !'e
Napoleonic =ars. In !'e :rs! 'alf of 'is reign 2le4ander
!ried !o in!rod(ce li#eral reforms, "'ile in !'e second
'alf 'e !(rned !o a m(c' more ar#i!rar& manner of
cond(c!, "'ic' led !o !'e re-o+ing of man& earl&
reforms. In foreign polic& 2le4ander gained cer!ain
s(ccesses, mainl& #& "inning se-eral mili!ar&
campaigns. In par!ic(lar (nder 'is r(le ,(ssia ac?(ired
Finland and par! of 0oland. .'e s!range con!radic!ions
of 'is c'arac!er ma+e 2le4ander one of !'e mos!
in!eres!ing .sars. 2dding !o !'is, 'is dea!' "as
s'ro(ded in m&s!er&, and !'e loca!ion of 'is #od&
remains (n+no"n.
In ,(ssia, !oo, cer!ain reforms "ere carried o(!,
#(! !'e& co(ld no! s(r-i-e !'e s(spicio(s in!erference
of !'e a(!ocra! and 'is oKcials. .'e 3!a!e $o(ncil and
!'e 7o-erning 3ena!e, ne" #odies endo"ed for !'e :rs!
!ime "i!' cer!ain (!'eore!ical) po"ers, #ecame sla-is'
ins!r(men!s of !'e .sar and 'is fa-ori!es of !'e
.'e ela#ora!e s&s!em of ed(ca!ion, c(lmina!ing in
!'e recons!i!(!ed, or ne"l& fo(nded, (ni-ersi!ies of
>orpa! (.ar!(), Lilna (Lilni(s), Na;an and N'ar+i-, "as
s!rangled in !'e s(pposed in!eres!s of OorderO and of
!'e ,(ssian 1r!'odo4 $'(rc'G "'ile !'e mili!ar&
se!!lemen!s "'ic' 2le4ander proclaimed as a #lessing
!o #o!' soldiers and s!a!e "ere forced on !'e (n"illing
peasan!r& and arm& "i!' pi!iless cr(el!&. .'o(g' !'e&
"ere s(pposed !o impro-e li-ing condi!ions of soldiers,
!'e economic eMec! in fac! "as poor and 'ars' mili!ar&
discipline ca(sed fre?(en! (nres!.
5-en !'e i#le 3ocie!&, !'ro(g' "'ic' !'e emperor
in 'is la!er mood of e-angelical ;eal proposed !o #less
'is people, "as cond(c!ed on !'e same r(!'less lines.
.'e ,oman $a!'olic arc'#is'op and !'e 1r!'odo4
me!ropoli!ans "ere forced !o ser-e on i!s commi!!ee
side #& side "i!' 0ro!es!an! pas!orsG and -illage pries!s,
!rained !o regard an& !ampering "i!' !'e le!!er of !'e
!radi!ional doc(men!s of !'e c'(rc' as a mor!al sin,
#ecame !'e (n"illing ins!r(men!s for !'e propaga!ion
of "'a! !'e& regarded as "or+s of !'e de-il.
• CHRISTIAN 7II +#ANUUAR* .:/ -08: 3 MARCH -./
$'ris!ian LII "as Ning of >enmar+ and Nor"a&,
and >(+e of 3c'les"ig and %ols!ein from 1766 (n!il 'is
%e #ecame +ing on 'is fa!'er8s dea!' on *an(ar&
14, 1766, "ee+s #efore 'is 17!' #ir!'da&. 2ll !'e earlier
acco(n!s agree !'a! 'e 'ad a "inning personali!& and
considera#le !alen!, #(! 'e "as #adl& ed(ca!ed,
s&s!ema!icall& !errori;ed #& a #r(!al go-ernor, >e!le-
7re-e ;( ,e-en!lo", and 'opelessl& de#a(c'ed #&
corr(p! pages, and "'ile 'e seems !o 'a-e #een
in!elligen! and cer!ainl& 'ad periods of clari!&, $'ris!ian
s(Mered from se-ere men!al pro#lems, possi#l&
2f!er 'is marriage a! $'ris!ians#org 0alace on
No-em#er 8, 1766 !o 'is co(sin 0rincess $aroline
6a!ilda (+no"n in >enmar+ as T(een $aroline
6a!'ilde), 'e a#andoned 'imself !o !'e "ors! e4cesses,
especiall& de#a(c'er&. In 1767, 'e en!ered in !o a
rela!ions'ip "i!' !'e co(r!isan 3!V-le!-$a!'rine. %e
p(#licl& declared !'a! 'e co(ld no! lo-e $aroline
6a!'ilde, #eca(se i! "as O(nfas'iona#le !o lo-e oneAs
"ifeO. %e (l!ima!el& san+ in!o a condi!ion of men!al
s!(por. 3&mp!oms d(ring !'is !ime incl(ded paranoia,
self-m(!ila!ion and 'all(cina!ions. %e #ecame
s(#missi-e !o (ps!ar! *o'ann Friedric' 3!r(ensee, "'o
rose s!eadil& in po"er in !'e la!e 1760s. .'e neglec!ed
and lonel& $aroline 6a!'ilde drif!ed in!o an aMair "i!'
In 1772, !'e +ing8s marriage "i!' $aroline 6a!'ilde
"as dissol-ed #& di-orce. 3!r(ensee "as arres!ed and
e4ec(!ed in !'a! same &ear. $'ris!ian signed
3!r(enseeAs arres! "arran! "i!' indiMerence, and (nder
press(re from 'is s!epmo!'er, *(liana 6aria of
r(ns"ic+-=olfen#R!!el, "'o 'ad led !'e mo-emen! !o
'a-e !'e marriage dissol-ed. $aroline 6a!'ilde,
re!aining 'er !i!le #(! no! 'er c'ildren, e-en!(all& lef!
>enmar+ in e4ile and passed 'er remaining da&s in a!
$elle $as!le in 'er #ro!'erAs 7erman !erri!or&, !'e
5lec!ora!e of %ano-er. 3'e died of scarle! fe-er !'ere
on 6a& 11, 177), a! !'e age of 2/.
$'ris!ian "as onl& nominall& +ing from 1772
on"ards. From 1772 !o 1784, >enmar+ "as r(led #&
$'ris!ianAs s!epmo!'er *(liana 6aria of r(ns"ic+-
=olfen#R!!el, 'is p'&sicall& disa#led 'alf-#ro!'er
Frederic+ and !'e >anis' poli!ician 1-e %Veg'-
7(ld#erg. From 1784 on"ards, 'is son Frederic+ LI
r(led permanen!l& as a prince regen!. .'is regenc& "as
mar+ed #& li#eral and agric(l!(ral reforms #(! also #&
!'e #eginning disas!ers of !'e Napoleonic =ars.
$'ris!ian died in 1808 a! ,ends#(rg, 3c'les"ig,
no! of frig'! as some 'a-e s(gges!ed, #(! from a #rain
ane(r&sm. %e "as )9.
• (USTA7 I7 6IN( OF SWEDEN +NO7EMBER -/ -002
3 FEBRUAR* -240,
7(s!a- 2dolfAs promp! dismissal of !'e generall&
de!es!ed 7(s!af 2dolf ,e(!er'olm, !'e d(+e-regen!As
leading ad-isor, added s!ill f(r!'er !o 'is pop(lari!&. 1n
1c!o#er /1, 1797 7(s!a- married Friederi+e >oro!'ea,
grandda(g'!er of Narl Friedric', 6argra-e of aden, a
marriage "'ic' seemed !o !'rea!en "ar "i!' ,(ssia #(!
for !'e fana!ical 'a!red of !'e Frenc' rep(#lic s'ared #&
!'e 5mperor 0a(l of ,(ssia and 7(s!a- IL 2dolf, "'ic'
ser-ed as a #ond of (nion #e!"een !'em. Indeed !'e
+ingAs 'orror of *aco#inism "as mor#id in i!s in!ensi!&,
and dro-e 'im !o #ecome increasingl& reac!ionar& and
!o pos!pone 'is corona!ion for some &ears, so as !o
a-oid calling !oge!'er a die!. None!'eless, !'e disorder
of !'e s!a!e :nances, largel& in'eri!ed from 7(s!a- IIIAs
,(ssian "ar of 1788-90, as "ell as "idespread crop
fail(res in 1798 and 1799, compelled 'im !o s(mmon
!'e es!a!es !o Norr+Wping in 6arc' 1800 and on 2pril /
!'e same &ear. ='en !'e +ing enco(n!ered serio(s
opposi!ion a! !'e ri+sdag, 'e resol-ed ne-er !o call
%is reign "as ill-fa!ed and "as !o end a#r(p!l&. In
180), 'e Joined !'e .'ird $oali!ion agains! Napoleon.
%is campaign "en! poorl& and !'e Frenc' occ(pied
3"edis' 0omerania. ='en 'is all&, ,(ssia, made peace
and concl(ded an alliance "i!' France a! .ilsi! in 1807,
3"eden and 0or!(gal "ere lef! as 7rea! ri!ainAs
5(ropean allies. 1n Fe#r(ar& 21, 1808, ,(ssia in-aded
Finland, "'ic' consis!ed of pro-inces of 3"eden, on !'e
pre!e4! of compelling 3"eden !o Join NapoleonAs
$on!inen!al 3&s!em. >enmar+ li+e"ise declared "ar on
3"eden. In J(s! fe" mon!'s af!er, almos! all of Finland
"as los! !o ,(ssia. 2s a res(l! of !'e "ar, on 3ep!em#er
17, 1809, in !'e .rea!& of %amina, 3"eden s(rrendered
!'e eas!ern !'ird of 3"eden !o ,(ssia. .'e a(!onomo(s
7rand >(c'& of Finland "i!'in Imperial ,(ssia "as
7(s!a- 2dolfAs inep! and erra!ic leaders'ip in
diplomac& and "ar precipi!a!ed 'is deposi!ion !'ro(g'
a conspirac& of arm& oKcers.
1n 6arc' 7, 1809, lie(!enan!-colonel 7eorg
2dlersparre, commander of a par! of !'e so-called
"es!ern arm&, !riggered !'e re-ol(!ion #& raising !'e
9ag of re#ellion and s!ar!ing !o marc' (pon 3!oc+'olm.
.o pre-en! !'e Ning from Joining lo&al !roops in 3cania,
on 6arc' 1/, 1809 se-en of !'e conspira!ors led #& $arl
*o'an 2dlercre(!; #ro+e in!o !'e ro&al apar!men!s in !'e
palace, sei;ed !'e +ing, and imprisoned 'im and 'is
famil& in 7rips'olm cas!leG !'e +ingAs (ncle, >(+e
$'arles (Narl), "as !'ere(pon pers(aded !o accep! !'e
leaders'ip of a pro-isional go-ernmen!, "'ic' "as
proclaimed !'e same da&G and a die!, 'as!il&
s(mmoned, solemnl& appro-ed of !'e re-ol(!ion.
1n 6arc' 29 7(s!a- IL 2dolf, !o sa-e !'e cro"n for
'is son, -ol(n!aril& a#dica!edG #(! on 6a& 19 !'e
,i+sdag of !'e 5s!a!es, domina!ed #& !'e arm&,
declared !'a! no! merel& 7(s!a- #(! 'is "'ole famil&
'ad forfei!ed !'e !'rone, per'aps an e4c(se !o e4cl(de
'is famil& from s(ccession #ased on !'e r(mors of 'is
illegi!imac&. 2 more li+el& ca(se, 'o"e-er, is !'a! !'e
re-ol(!ionaries feared !'a! 7(s!a-As son, if 'e in'eri!ed
!'e !'rone, "o(ld a-enge 'is fa!'erAs deposi!ion "'en
'e came of age. 1n *(ne ) >(+e $'arles (7(s!a-As
(ncle) "as proclaimed +ing (nder !'e !i!le of $'arles
DIII, af!er accep!ing a ne" li#eral cons!i!(!ion, "'ic'
"as ra!i:ed #& !'e die! !'e ne4! da&. In >ecem#er
7(s!a- and 'is famil& "ere !ranspor!ed !o 7erman&. In
1812 'e di-orced from 'is "ife.
In e4ile 7(s!a- (sed se-eral !i!les, $o(n! 7o!!orp,
>(+e of %ols!ein-5(!in, and :nall& se!!led a! 3!. 7allen
in 3"i!;erland "'ere 'e li-ed in a small 'o!el in grea!
loneliness and indigence, (nder !'e name of $olonel
7(s!afsson. I! "as !'ere !'a! 'e s(Mered a s!ro+e and
died. 2! !'e s(gges!ion of Ning 1scar II of 3"eden 'is
#od& "as :nall& #ro(g'! !o 3"eden and in!erred in !'e
+DECEMBER .8/ -01- 3 #UL* -292,
3elim III "as !'e 3(l!an of !'e 1!!oman 5mpire
from 1789P1807. 2 grea! lo-er of m(sic, 3(l!an 3elim III
"as a composer and performer of signi:can! !alen!. %e
crea!ed 14 ma+ams, melodic !&pes, !'ree of "'ic' are
in c(rren! (se !oda&. 3i4!&-fo(r composi!ions #elonging
!o 3elim III are +no"n, some of "'ic' are par! of !'e
reg(lar reper!or& of .(r+is' classical m(sic performers.
2side from composing m(sic, 3elim III also performed
on !'e ne& and !an#(r.
.'e !alen!s and energ& "i!' "'ic' 3elim III "as
endo"ed 'ad endeared 'im !o !'e people, and grea!
'opes "ere fo(nded on 'is accession. %e 'ad
associa!ed m(c' "i!' foreigners, and "as !'oro(g'l&
pers(aded of !'e necessi!& of reforming 'is s!a!e. (!
2(s!ria and ,(ssia ga-e 'im no !ime for an&!'ing #(!
defense, and i! "as no! (n!il !'e peace of Iasi (1792)
!'a! a #rea!'ing space "as allo"ed 'im in 5(rope,
"'ile NapoleonAs in-asion of 5g&p! and 3&ria soon
called for .(r+e&As s!ronges! eMor!s and for !'e !ime
s'a!!ered !'e old-s!anding Franco-1!!oman alliance.
3elim III pro:!ed #& !'e respi!e !o a#olis' !'e
mili!ar& !en(re of :efsG 'e in!rod(ced sal(!ar& reforms
in!o !'e adminis!ra!ion, especiall& in !'e :scal
depar!men!, so(g'! #& "ell-considered plans !o e4!end
!'e spread of ed(ca!ion, and engaged foreign oKcers
as ins!r(c!ors, #& "'om a small corps of ne" !roops
called ni;am-i-Jedid "ere collec!ed and drilled. 3o "ell
"ere !'ese !roops organi;ed !'a! !'e& "ere a#le !o 'old
!'eir o"n agains! re#ellio(s *anissaries in !'e 5(ropean
pro-inces, "'ere disaMec!ed go-ernors made no
scr(ple of a!!emp!ing !o ma+e (se of !'em agains! !'e
reforming s(l!an.
5m#oldened #& !'is s(ccess, 3elim III iss(ed an
order !'a! in f(!(re pic+ed men s'o(ld #e !a+en
ann(all& from !'e *anissaries !o ser-e in !'eir ran+s.
3elim III "as, 'o"e-er, !'oro(g'l& (nder !'e
in9(ence of 3e#as!iani, and !'e 9ee! "as compelled !o
re!ire "i!'o(! comple!ing i!s p(rpose. (! !'e anarc'&,
manifes! or la!en!, e4is!ing !'ro(g'o(! !'e pro-inces
pro-ed !oo grea! for 3elim III !o cope "i!'. .'e
*anissaries rose once more in re-ol!, ind(ced !'e
3'ei+'-(l-Islam !o gran! a fe!-a agains! !'e reforms,
de!'roned and imprisoned 3elim III, and placed 'is
co(sin 6(s!afa on !'e !'rone, as 6(s!afa IL (1807P08).
.'e pas'a of ,(s!c'(+, 6(s!afa a&ra+dar, a
s!rong par!isan of !'e reforms, collec!ed an arm& of
40,000 men and marc'ed on Is!an#(l "i!' !'e p(rpose
of reins!a!ing 3elim III, #(! 'e came !oo la!e. .'e ill-
fa!ed reforming 3(l!an 'ad #een s!a##ed in !'e seraglio
#& !'e $'ief lac+ 5(n(c' and 'is men, and aira+darAs
onl& reso(rce "as !o "rea+ 'is -engeance on 6(s!afa
IL and !o place on !'e !'rone 6a'm(d II (1808P/9), !'e
sole s(r-i-ing mem#er of !'e 'o(se of 1sman.
2no!'er -ersion of 'is m(rder s!a!es !'a! af!er 'is
deposi!ion, 3elim "as s!a&ing a! !'e %arem. .'e nig'!
of .'(rsda&, *(l& 28, 1808, 'e "as "i!' 'is fa-ori!e
lad&, ,efe! Nadin, and a sla-e girl or per'aps ano!'er
fa-ori!e 0a+i;e Nadin in a!!endance. 2lemdar 0as'a, a
lo&alis! of 3elim, "as approac'ing !'e ci!& "i!' 'is arm&
!o reins!a!e 3elim. .'erefore 6(s!afa IL ga-e orders !o
m(rder 'im and 'is #ro!'er 0rince 6a'm(d. .'e
assassins "ere apparen!l& a gro(p of men, incl(ding
!'e 6as!er of !'e =ardro#e called Fe!!a' !'e 7eorgian,
!'e .reas(r& s!e"ard 5#e 3elim, and #lac+ e(n(c'
named Ne;ir 2ga. 3elim apparen!l& +ne" 'is end "as
coming "'en 'e sa" !'eir s"ords dra"n. 0a+i;e Nadin
!'re" 'erself #e!"een !'em and 'er lord, s'e "as c(!
in 'er 'and. ,efe! Nadin s!ar!ed screaming in !error,
ano!'er sla-e girl "'o r(s'ed in fain!ed "'en s'e sa"
"'a! "as a#o(! !o 'appen. 2 s!r(ggle ens(ed and !'e
former s(l!an "as c(! do"n and m(rdered, 'is las!
"ords apparen!l& #eing OAllahu A!"arO (O7od is grea!O).
,efe! Nadin !'re" 'erself on !'e #od& #(! "as dragged
a"a&. .'e #od& "as ?(ic+l& "rapped in a ?(il!. .'e
assassins mo-ed on !o :nd 0rince 6a'm(d and a!!emp!
!o m(rder 'im !oo, 'e "as more for!(na!e !'o(g' and
'ad !'e assassins e4ec(!ed la!er. 3elim III "o(ld #e !'e
onl& 1!!oman s(l!an !o #e +illed #& !'e s"ord. %e died
in Is!an#(l.
-025 3 #UL* -/ -24:,
.'e -i;ier !oo+ !'e ini!ia!i-e in res(ming reforms
!'a! 'ad #een !ermina!ed #& !'e conser-a!i-e co(p of
1807 !'a! 'ad #ro(g'! 6(s!afa IL !o po"er. %o"e-er,
soon !'e -i;ier "as +illed #& I#ra'imAs arm&, and
6a'm(d II !emporaril& a#andoned !'e reforms.
6a'm(d IIAs la!er reforma!ion eMor!s "ere more
>(ring !'e earl& &ears of 6a'm(d IIAs reign, 'is
5g&p!ian -icero& 6e'me! 2li 0asa s(ccessf(ll&
con?(ered !'e 'ol& ci!ies of 6edina (1812) and 6ecca
(181/) from !'e NeJdi re#els.
%is reign also mar+ed !'e :rs! #rea+a"a& from !'e
1!!oman 5mpire, "i!' 7reece gaining i!s independence
follo"ing a re#ellion !'a! s!ar!ed in 1821. In 1827 !'e
com#ined ri!is', Frenc' and ,(ssian na-ies defea!ed
!'e 1!!oman Na-& a! !'e a!!le of Na-arinoG in !'e
af!erma!', !'e 1!!oman 5mpire "as forced !o recogni;e
7reece "i!' !'e .rea!& of $ons!an!inople in *(l& 18/2.
.'is e-en!, !oge!'er "i!' !'e occ(pa!ion of !'e
1!!oman pro-ince of 2lgeria #& France in 18/0, mar+ed
!'e #eginning of !'e grad(al #rea+-(p of !'e 1!!oman
5mpire. Non-.(r+is' e!'nic gro(ps li-ing in !'e empireAs
!erri!ories, especiall& in 5(rope, s!ar!ed !'eir o"n
independence mo-emen!s.
2mong 6a'm(d IIAs mos! no!a#le ac!s d(ring 'is
reign "as, !'e *anissar& corps "as a#olis'ed in 1826,
permi!!ing !'e es!a#lis'men! of a .(r+is' domina!ed
1!!oman 2rm&G 6a'm(d "as also responsi#le for !'e
s(#J(ga!ion of !'e Ira?i 6aml(+s in 18/1 and !'e
prepara!ion of !'e .an;ima! reforms in 18/9. .'e
.an;ima! mar+ed !'e #eginning of moderni;a!ion in
.(r+e&, and 'ad immedia!e eMec!s on social and legal
aspec!s of life in !'e 5mpire, s(c' as 5(ropean s!&le
clo!'ing, arc'i!ec!(re, legisla!ion, ins!i!(!ional
organi;a!ion and land reform. %e is responsi#le for !'e
des!r(c!ion of 5li!e 6(slim 6ili!ar& 1rders.
%e "as concerned also for aspec!s of !radi!ion. %e
made grea! eMor!s !o re-i-e !'e spor! of arc'er&. %e
also ordered 'is arc'er& s!(den!, 6(s!afa Nani, !o "ri!e
a #oo+ a#o(! !'e 'is!or&, cons!r(c!ion, and (se of
.(r+is' #o"s, from "'ic' comes mos! of "'a! is no"
+no"n of .(r+is' #o"&er&.
6a'm(d II died of !(#erc(losis - some sa&
m(rdered - a! !'e 5sma 3(l!ana 0alace, $amlica, in
18/9. %is f(neral "as a!!ended #& cro"ds of people
"'o came !o #id !'e 3(l!an fare"ell. %is son
2#dRlmecid s(cceeded 'im.
#ANUAR* .:/ -2.9,
7eorge III "as Ning of 7rea! ri!ain and Ning of
Ireland from 1c!o#er 2), 1760 (n!il !'e (nion of !'ese
!"o co(n!ries on *an(ar& 1, 1801, af!er "'ic' 'e "as
Ning of !'e Qni!ed Ningdom of 7rea! ri!ain and Ireland
(n!il 'is dea!'. %e "as conc(rren!l& >(+e of r(ns"ic+-
<Rne#(rg and prince-elec!or of %ano-er in !'e %ol&
,oman 5mpire (n!il 'is promo!ion !o Ning of %ano-er
on 1c!o#er 12, 1814. %e "as !'e !'ird ri!is' monarc'
of !'e %o(se of %ano-er, #(! (nli+e 'is !"o
predecessors 'e "as #orn in ri!ain and spo+e 5nglis'
as 'is :rs! lang(age. >espi!e 'is long life, 'e ne-er
-isi!ed %ano-er.
7eorge IIIAs long reign "as mar+ed #& a series of
mili!ar& con9ic!s in-ol-ing 'is +ingdoms, m(c' of !'e
res! of 5(rope, and places far!'er a:eld in 2frica, !'e
2mericas and 2sia. 5arl& in 'is reign, 7rea! ri!ain
defea!ed France in !'e 3e-en CearsA =ar, #ecoming !'e
dominan! 5(ropean po"er in Nor!' 2merica and India.
%o"e-er, man& of i!s 2merican colonies "ere soon los!
in !'e 2merican ,e-ol(!ionar& =ar, "'ic' led !o !'e
es!a#lis'men! of !'e Qni!ed 3!a!es of 2merica. 2 series
of "ars agains! re-ol(!ionar& and Napoleonic France,
o-er a 20-&ear period, :nall& concl(ded in !'e defea! of
Napoleon in 181).
In !'e la!er par! of 'is life, 7eorge III s(Mered from
rec(rren! and, e-en!(all&, permanen! men!al illness.
6edical prac!i!ioners "ere #aXed #& !'is a! !'e !ime,
al!'o(g' i! 'as since #een s(gges!ed !'a! 'e s(Mered
from !'e #lood disease porp'&ria. 2f!er a :nal relapse
in 1810, a regenc& "as es!a#lis'ed, and 7eorge IIIAs
eldes! son, 7eorge, 0rince of =ales, r(led as 0rince
,egen!. 1n 7eorge IIIAs dea!', !'e 0rince ,egen!
s(cceeded 'is fa!'er as 7eorge IL. %is!orical anal&sis of
7eorge IIIAs life 'as gone !'ro(g' a O+aleidoscope of
c'anging -ie"sO "'ic' 'ad depended 'ea-il& on !'e
preJ(dices of 'is #iograp'ers and !'e so(rces a-aila#le
!o !'em.
+NO7EMBER -0/ -055 3 SEPTEMBER -1/ -2.8,
<o(is DLIII "as Ning of France and Na-arre from
1814 !o 1824, omi!!ing !'e %(ndred >a&s in 181). <o(is
DLIII spen! 2/ &ears in e4ile, from 1791 !o 1814, d(e !o
!'e Frenc' ,e-ol(!ion, and "as e4iled again in 181), for
100 da&s, (pon !'e re!(rn of Napoleon onapar!e from
5l#a. >(ring e4ile 'e li-ed in se-eral co(n!ries,
incl(ding 0r(ssia, !'e Qni!ed Ningdom and ,(ssia.
.'e Frenc' ,ep(#lic a#olis'ed !'e monarc'& and
deposed Ning <o(is DLI on 3ep!em#er 21, 1792.
2l!'o(g' !'e monarc'& 'ad #een dises!a#lis'ed, <o(is
DLIII s(cceeded 'is nep'e", <o(is DLII, as !i!(lar Ning,
"'en !'e la!!er died in prison in *(ne 179).
For 2/ &ears, re-ol(!ion and "ar e4cl(ded !'e
o(r#on line from !'e !'rone of France (n!il 1814, "'en
coali!ion armies cap!(red 0aris from Napoleon
onapar!e. <o(is DLIII "as res!ored !o "'a! 'e and
o!'er ,o&alis!s considered 'is rig'!f(l place. <o(is DLIII
r(led as Ning for slig'!l& less !'an a decade, d(ring !'e
so-called o(r#on ,es!ora!ion period. .'e o(r#on
,es!ora!ion "as a cons!i!(!ional monarc'& ((nli+e !'e
Ancien #gime, "'ic' "as a#sol(!e). 2s a cons!i!(!ional
monarc'&, <o(is DLIIIAs ro&al preroga!i-e "as red(ced
s(#s!an!iall& #& !'e $'ar!er of 1814, FranceAs ne"
<o(is 'ad no c'ildrenG !'erefore, (pon 'is dea!',
!'e cro"n passed !o 'is &o(nger #ro!'er, $'arles,
com!e d82r!ois. <o(is DLIII "as !'e las! Frenc' monarc'
!o die "'ile reigning.
NAPOLEONIC WARS +-294 < -2-5,
.'e Napoleonic =ars "ere fo(g'! #& France af!er
Napoleon I #ecame emperor. 2f!er !'e .rea!& of 2miens,
"'ic' 'ad ended !'e Frenc' ,e-ol(!ionar& =ars, ri!ain
declared "ar on France on 180/, main!aining !'a! Napoleon
"as no! +eeping !'e !rea!&. Napoleon planned !o in-ade
ri!ain, #(! !'e ri!is' 9ee! pro-ed !oo s!rong for 'im,
especiall& af!er !'e a!!le of .rafalgar on 180). .'e ri!is',
3"edes, 2(s!rians and ,(ssians formed an alliance on *(l&
180). Napoleon defea!ed !'e 2(s!rians and ,(ssians a!
2(s!erli!; on >ecem#er 180), !'e 0r(ssians a! *ena on 1806,
and !'e ,(ssians a! Friedland on 1807. .'e .rea!& of .ilsi! on
1807 lef! 'im nearl& mas!er of 5(rope. 6ean"'ile, ri!ain
'ad sec(red s(premac& of !'e seas a! .rafalgar. .'e
$on!inen!al 3&s!em #eg(n af!er *ena "as Napoleon8s
a!!emp! !o #loc+ade ri!is' !rade, on !'e pre!e4! of enforcing
i! 'e in-aded 0or!(gal on 1807 and 3pain on 1808. >(ring
!'e defea! of 'is armies #& !'e ri!is' in !'e 0enins(lar =ar
on 1808-1814, 'e signed !'e 0eace of 3c'on#r(nn on 1809
"i!' !'e defea!ed 2(s!rians. In 1812 Napoleon in-aded
,(ssia "i!' an arm& of some )00,000. %e #arel& "on !'e
a!!le of orodino on 1812 and marc'ed !'e (nc'allenged !o
6osco", #(! 'is !roops s(Mered from lac+ of s(pplies and !'e
cold "ea!'er. .'eir re!rea! from 6osco" and ,(ssia "as
'orrif&ing onl& a#o(! /0,000 of Napoleon8s soldiers re!(rned.
.'e Frenc', #& no" drained of manpo"er and s(pplies, "ere
decisi-el& #ea!en a! <eip;ig on 181/. 0aris fell, and on 2pril
11, 1814, Napoleon a#dica!ed. .'e -ic!orio(s allies signed
!'e .rea!& of 0aris "i!' !'e o(r#ons. 2f!er Napoleon8s
escape from 5l#a and !'e %(ndred >a&s, !'e second .rea!&
of 0aris "as signed on 181).
efore !'e in-asion of 5ngland !'e Frenc'
es!a#lis'ed a ne" arm& !'e 2rmee des co!es de8 l8 1cean
(2rm& of !'e 1cean $oas!s) or !'e 2rmee de l8 2ngle!erre
(2rm& of 5ngland) an arm& of 200,000 men "as ga!'ered
and !rained a! camps a! o(logne, r(ges and 6on!re(il.
Napoleon also serio(sl& considered (sing a 9ee! of
!roop carr&ing #alloons as par! of 'is proposed in-asion
force and appoin!ed 6arie 6adeline 3op'ie lanc'ard as
an air ser-ice c'ief, !'o(g' s'e said !'e proposed aerial
in-asion "o(ld fail #eca(se of !'e "inds. .'o(g' an aerial
in-asion pro-ed a dead-end, !'e prospec! of one cap!(red
!'e minds of !'e ri!is' prin! media and p(#lic.
1nl& !'e .o(lon force e-en!(all& #ro+e o(! (on 6arc'
29, 180)) and, !'o(g' i! managed !o cross !'e 2!lan!ic, i!
did no! :nd !'e res! 9ee! a! !'e rende;-o(s and so sailed
#ac+ !o 5(rope alone, "'ere i! "as me! #& !'e force
#loc+ading ,oc'efor! and Ferrol ("'ere in-asion -essels
'ad #een prepared), defea!ed a! !'e a!!le of $ape
Finis!erre and forced #ac+ in!o por!. .'erefore, on 2(g(s!
27, 180) Napoleon (sed !'e in-asion arm& as !'e core of
!'e ne" 7rande 2rmBe and 'ad i! #rea+ camp and marc'
eas!"ards !o #egin !'e Qlm $ampaign. .'(s, #& !'e !ime
of !'e a!!le of .rafalgar on 1c!o#er 21, !'e in-asion 'ad
alread& #een called oM, and so !'is #a!!le merel& f(r!'er
g(aran!eed ri!is' con!rol of !'e $'annel ra!'er
pre-en!ing !'e in-asion.
.oda&, !'e o(logne campAs si!e is mar+ed #& a )/
me!er-'ig' $ol(mn of !'e 7rande 2rmBe (FranceAs !alles!
s(c' col(mn), #(il! in !'e 1840s, "i!' a s!a!(e of
Napoleon on !op, panels on !'e #ase s'o"ing 'im
presen!ing medals of !'e <Fgion dA%onne(r !o 'is !roops
and s(rro(nded #& railings decora!ed "i!' !'e golden
Frenc' Imperial eagle. .'e arsenal from !'e camp is
& 180), ri!ain 'ad con-inced 2(s!ria and ,(ssia !o
Join a .'ird $oali!ion agains! France. Napoleon +ne" !'e
Frenc' 9ee! co(ld no! defea! !'e ,o&al Na-& in a 'ead-!o-
'ead #a!!le and planned !o l(re i! a"a& from !'e 5nglis'
$'annel. .'e Frenc' Na-& "o(ld escape from !'e ri!is'
#loc+ades of .o(lon and res! and !'rea!en !o a!!ac+ !'e
=es! Indies, !'(s dra"ing oM !'e ri!is' defense of !'e
=es!ern 2pproac'es, in !'e 'ope a Franco-3panis' 9ee!
co(ld !a+e con!rol of !'e $'annel long eno(g' for Frenc'
armies !o cross from o(logne and in-ade 5ngland.
Ins!ead, 'e ordered !'e arm& s!a!ioned a! o(logne,
'is 7rande 2rmBe, !o marc' !o 7erman& secre!l& in a
!(rning mo-emen! - !'e Qlm $ampaign. .'is encircled !'e
2(s!rian forces a#o(! !o a!!ac+ France and se-ered !'eir
lines of comm(nica!ion. 1n 1c!o#er 20, 180), !'e Frenc'
cap!(red /0,000 prisoners a! Qlm, !'o(g' !'e ne4! da&
ri!ainAs -ic!or& a! !'e a!!le of .rafalgar mean! !'e ,o&al
Na-& gained con!rol of !'e seas. 3i4 "ee+s la!er, on !'e
:rs! anni-ersar& of 'is corona!ion, Napoleon defea!ed
2(s!ria and ,(ssia a! 2(s!erli!;. .'is ended !'e .'ird
$oali!ion and 'e commissioned !'e 2rc de .riomp'e !o
commemora!e !'e -ic!or&. 2(s!ria 'ad !o concede
!erri!or&G !'e 0eace of 0ress#(rg led !o !'e dissol(!ion of
!'e %ol& ,oman 5mpire and crea!ion of !'e $onfedera!ion
of !'e ,'ine "i!' Napoleon named as i!s 0ro!ec!or.
.'e Fo(r!' $oali!ion "as assem#led in 1806, and
Napoleon defea!ed 0r(ssia a! !'e a!!le of *ena-2(ers!ed!
in 1c!o#er. %e marc'ed agains! ad-ancing ,(ssian armies
!'ro(g' 0oland, and "as in-ol-ed in !'e #lood& s!alema!e
of !'e a!!le of 5&la( on Fe#r(ar& 6, 1807.
2f!er a decisi-e -ic!or& a! Friedland, 'e signed !'e
.rea!ies of .ilsi!G one "i!' .sar 2le4ander I of ,(ssia "'ic'
di-ided !'e con!inen! #e!"een !'e !"o po"ersG !'e o!'er
"i!' 0r(ssia "'ic' s!ripped !'a! co(n!r& of 'alf i!s
!erri!or&. Napoleon placed p(ppe! r(lers on !'e !'rones of
7erman s!a!es, incl(ding 'is #ro!'er *BrYme as +ing of !'e
ne" Ningdom of =es!p'alia. In !'e Frenc'-con!rolled par!
of 0oland, 'e es!a#lis'ed !'e >(c'& of =arsa" "i!' Ning
Frederic+ 2(g(s!(s I of 3a4on& as r(ler.
=i!' 'is 6ilan and erlin >ecrees, Napoleon
a!!emp!ed !o enforce a 5(rope-"ide commercial #o&co!!
of ri!ain called !'e $on!inen!al 3&s!em. .'is ac! of
economic "arfare did no! s(cceed, as i! enco(raged
ri!is' merc'an!s !o sm(ggle in!o con!inen!al 5(rope and
NapoleonAs e4cl(si-el& land-#ased c(s!oms enforcers
co(ld no! s!op !'em.
D=(UNBOAT WAR+-290 < -2-8,
.'e 7(n#oa! =ar (1807P1814) "as !'e na-al con9ic!
#e!"een >enmar+PNor"a& and !'e ri!is' Na-& d(ring
!'e Napoleonic =ars. .'e "arAs name is deri-ed from !'e
>anis' !ac!ic of emplo&ing small g(n#oa!s agains! !'e
con-en!ional ,o&al Na-&. In 3candina-ia i! is seen as !'e
la!!er s!age of !'e 5nglis' =ars, "'ose commencemen! is
acco(n!ed as !'e Firs! a!!le of $open'agen in 1801.
In !'e :rs! !'ree &ears of !'e 7(n#oa! =ar, !'ese
#oa!s "ere on se-eral occasions a#le !o cap!(re cargo
s'ips from !'e con-o&s and !o defea! Bri%i!" na-al #rigs,
!'o(g' !'e& "ere no! s!rong eno(g' !o o-ercome larger
ri?a%e! and !"ip! o %"e &ine. .'e ri!is' 'ad con!rol of
>anis' "a!ers d(ring !'e "'ole of !'e -290P-2-8 "ar,
and "'en !'e season "as s(i!ed !o na-iga!ion !'e& "ere
reg(larl& a#le !o escor! large merc'an! con-o&s o(!
!'ro(g' %"e Soun' and !'e (rea% Be&%. 1n 6arc' 22,
1808, !'e las! >anis' s'ip of !'e line Prin! C"ri!%ian
Fre'eri@, commanded #& $ap!ain C=W= #e!!en, "as
des!ro&ed #& !"o ri!is' s'ips of !'e line in !'e Aa%%&e o
Bea&an' Poin%.
1n Fe#r(ar& 27, 1811, >anis' g(n#oa!s, manned #&
nearl& 1,000 men incl(ding infan!r& forces, a!!emp!ed !o
recap!(re !'e island of 2n'ol! in !'e a!!le of 2n'ol!, #(!
'ad !o "i!'dra" !o *(!land "i!' 'ea-& losses. .'e las!
maJor :g'! #e!"een >anis' and ri!is' men of "ar !oo+
place on *(l& 6, 1812, "'en ri!is' "ars'ips des!ro&ed !'e
>anis' friga!e NaJaden a! !'e a!!le of <&ngVr on !'e
Nor"egian coas!.
.'e .rea!& of Niel ended !'e "ar on *an(ar& 1),
1814. >enmar+-Nor"a& 'ad !o cede !'e small island of
%eligoland !o ri!ain and all of Nor"a& !o !'e +ing of
E= PENINSULAR WAR +-292 < -2-8,
0enins(lar =ar "as par! of !'e Napoleonic =ars, in
"'ic' !'e Frenc' :g'!ing agains! !'e ri!is', 0or!(gese
and 3panis', "ere dri-en o(! of !'e I#erian 0enins(la. .o
increase 'is sec(ri!& in 5(rope, Napoleon sen! 7eneral
2ndoc'e *(no! !o occ(p& 0or!(gal on 1807, and in 1808
dispa!c'ed *oac'im 6(ra! !o occ(p& 'is all&, 3pain. .'e
3panis' and !'e 0or!(gese soon re#elled, and, "i!' !'e
aid of !'e ri!is' (nder 2r!'(r =ellesel&, la!er d(+e of
=elling!on. .'e Frenc' "ere dri-en o(! of 0or!(gal in
1809. In !'e long s!r(ggle !'a! follo"ed, !'e ri!is', aided
#& 0or!(gese and 3panis' g(erillas, grad(all& gained !'e
(pper 'and, despi!e man& re-erses. & 181/ !'e Frenc'
forces in 3pain 'ad #een defea!ed, and =ellesel& in-aded
3o(!'ern France. .'e "ar ended on Napoleon8s
In 2pril 1809, 2(s!ria a#r(p!l& #ro+e i!s alliance "i!'
France and Napoleon "as forced !o ass(me command of
forces on !'e >an(#e and 7erman fron!s. 2f!er earl&
s(ccesses, !'e Frenc' faced diKc(l!ies in crossing !'e
>an(#e and s(Mered a defea! in 6a& a! !'e a!!le of
2spern-5ssling near Lienna. .'e 2(s!rians failed !o
capi!ali;e on !'e si!(a!ion and allo"ed NapoleonAs forces
!o regro(p. %e defea!ed !'e 2(s!rians again a! =agram
and a ne" peace, !'e .rea!& of 3c'Wn#r(nn, "as signed
#e!"een 2(s!ria and France.
ri!ain "as !'e o!'er mem#er of !'e coali!ion. In
addi!ion !o !'e I#erian 0enins(la, !'e ri!is' planned !o
open ano!'er fron! in mainland 5(rope. %o"e-er,
Napoleon "as a#le !o r(s' reinforcemen!s !o 2n!"erp,
o"ing !o ri!ainAs inade?(a!el& organi;ed =alc'eren
$ampaign. %e conc(rren!l& anne4ed !'e 0apal 3!a!es
#eca(se of !'e $'(rc'As ref(sal !o s(ppor! !'e $on!inen!al
3&s!em, 0ope 0i(s LII responded #& e4comm(nica!ing !'e
emperor. .'e 0ope "as !'en a#d(c!ed #& NapoleonAs
oKcers, and !'o(g' Napoleon 'ad no! ordered 'is
a#d(c!ion, 'e did no! order 0i(sA release. .'e 0ope "as
mo-ed !'ro(g'o(! NapoleonAs !erri!ories, some!imes "'ile
ill, and Napoleon sen! delega!ions !o press(re 'im on
iss(es incl(ding agreemen! !o a ne" concorda! "i!'
France, "'ic' 0i(s ref(sed.
.'e $ongress of 5rf(r! so(g'! !o preser-e !'e ,(sso-
Frenc' alliance and !'e leaders 'ad a friendl& personal
rela!ions'ip af!er !'eir :rs! mee!ing a! .ilsi! in 1807. &
1811, 'o"e-er, !ensions #e!"een !'e !"o na!ions 'ad
increased and 2le4ander "as (nder press(re from !'e
,(ssian no#ili!& !o #rea+ oM !'e alliance. .'e :rs! clear
sign !'e alliance 'ad de!eriora!ed "as !'e rela4a!ion of
!'e $on!inen!al 3&s!em in ,(ssia, "'ic' angered
Napoleon. & 1812, ad-isers !o 2le4ander s(gges!ed !'e
possi#ili!& of an in-asion of !'e Frenc' 5mpire and !'e
recap!(re of 0oland. 1n receip! of in!elligence repor!s on
,(ssiaAs "ar prepara!ions, Napoleon e4panded 'is $rande
Arme !o more !'an 4)0,000 men. %e ignored repea!ed
ad-ice agains! an in-asion of !'e -as! ,(ssian 'ear!land
and prepared for an oMensi-e campaignG on *(ne 2/,
1812, 'is in-asion of ,(ssia commenced.
In an a!!emp! !o gain increased s(ppor! from 0olis'
na!ionalis!s and pa!rio!s, Napoleon !ermed !'e "ar !'e
Second %olish &ar@!'e First %olish &ar 'ad #een !'e ar
$onfedera!ion (prising #& 0olis' no#les agains! ,(ssia in
1768. 0olis' pa!rio!s "an!ed !'e ,(ssian par! of 0oland !o
#e Joined "i!' !'e >(c'& of =arsa" and an independen!
0oland crea!ed. .'is "as reJec!ed #& Napoleon, "'o
s!a!ed 'e 'ad promised 'is all& 2(s!ria !'is "o(ld no!
'appen. Napoleon ref(sed !o man(mi! !'e ,(ssian serfs,
#eca(se of concerns !'is mig'! pro-o+e a reac!ion in 'is
arm&As rear. .'e serfs "o(ld la!er commi! a!roci!ies
agains! Frenc' soldiers d(ring FranceAs re!rea!.
.'e ,(ssians a-oided NapoleonAs o#Jec!i-e of a
decisi-e engagemen! and ins!ead re!rea!ed deeper in!o
,(ssia. 2 #rief a!!emp! a! resis!ance "as made a!
3molens+ in 2(g(s!G !'e ,(ssians "ere defea!ed in a
series of #a!!les and Napoleon res(med 'is ad-ance. .'e
,(ssians again a-oided #a!!le, al!'o(g' in a fe" cases
!'is "as onl& ac'ie-ed #eca(se Napoleon
(nc'arac!eris!icall& 'esi!a!ed !o a!!ac+ "'en !'e
oppor!(ni!& arose. 1"ing !o !'e ,(ssian arm&As scorc'ed
ear!' !ac!ics, !'e Frenc' fo(nd i! increasingl& diKc(l! !o
forage food for !'emsel-es and !'eir 'orses.
.'e ,(ssians e-en!(all& oMered #a!!le o(!side
6osco" on 3ep!em#er 7E !'e a!!le of orodino res(l!ed
in appro4ima!el& 44,000 ,(ssian and /),000 Frenc', dead,
"o(nded or cap!(red, and ma& 'a-e #een !'e #loodies!
da& of #a!!le in 'is!or& (p !o !'a! poin!. 2l!'o(g' !'e
Frenc' 'ad "on, !'e ,(ssian arm& 'ad accep!ed, and
"i!'s!ood, !'e maJor #a!!le Napoleon 'ad 'oped "o(ld #e
decisi-e. NapoleonAs o"n acco(n! "asE O.'e mos! !erri#le
of all m& #a!!les "as !'e one #efore 6osco". .'e Frenc'
s'o"ed !'emsel-es !o #e "or!'& of -ic!or&, #(! !'e
,(ssians s'o"ed !'emsel-es "or!'& of #eing in-inci#le.O
.'e ,(ssian arm& "i!'dre" and re!rea!ed pas!
6osco". Napoleon en!ered !'e ci!&, ass(ming i!s fall
"o(ld end !'e "ar and 2le4ander "o(ld nego!ia!e peace.
%o"e-er, on orders of !'e ci!&As go-ernor F&odor
,os!opc'in, ra!'er !'an capi!(la!ion, 6osco" "as ordered
#(rned. 2f!er a mon!', concerned a#o(! loss of con!rol
#ac+ in France, Napoleon and 'is arm& lef!.
.'e Frenc' s(Mered grea!l& in !'e co(rse of a r(ino(s
re!rea!, incl(ding from !'e 'ars'ness of !'e ,(ssian
=in!er. .'e 2rmBe 'ad #eg(n as o-er 400,000 fron!line
!roops, #(! in !'e end fe"er !'an 40,000 crossed !'e
ere;ina ,i-er in No-em#er 1812, !o escape. .'e ,(ssians
'ad los! 1)0,000 in #a!!le and '(ndreds of !'o(sands of

%ear!ened #& FranceAs loss in ,(ssia, 0r(ssia Joined
"i!' 2(s!ria, 3"eden, ,(ssia, 7rea! ri!ain, 3pain, and
0or!(gal in a ne" coali!ion. Napoleon ass(med command
in 7erman& and in9ic!ed a series of defea!s on !'e
$oali!ion c(lmina!ing in !'e a!!le of >resden in 2(g(s!
181/. >espi!e !'ese s(ccesses, !'e n(m#ers con!in(ed !o
mo(n! agains! Napoleon and !'e Frenc' arm& "as pinned
do"n #& a force !"ice i!s si;e and los! a! !'e a!!le of
<eip;ig. .'is "as #& far !'e larges! #a!!le of !'e
Napoleonic =ars and cos! more !'an 90,000 cas(al!ies in
Napoleon "i!'dre" #ac+ in!o France, 'is arm&
red(ced !o 70,000 soldiers and 40,000 s!ragglers, agains!
more !'an !'ree !imes as man& 2llied !roops. .'e Frenc'
"ere s(rro(ndedE ri!is' armies pressed from !'e so(!',
and o!'er $oali!ion forces posi!ioned !o a!!ac+ from !'e
7erman s!a!es. Napoleon "on a series of -ic!ories in !'e
3i4 >a&s $ampaign, !'o(g' !'ese "ere no! signi:can!
eno(g' !o !(rn !'e !ide and 0aris "as cap!(red #& !'e
$oali!ion in 6arc' 1814.
='en Napoleon proposed !'e arm& marc' on !'e
capi!al, 'is mars'als decided !o m(!in&. 1n 2pril 4, led #&
Ne&, !'e& confron!ed Napoleon. Napoleon asser!ed !'e
arm& "o(ld follo" 'im and Ne& replied !'e arm& "o(ld
follo" i!s generals. Napoleon 'ad no c'oice #(! !o
a#dica!e. %e did so in fa-or of 'is sonG 'o"e-er, !'e 2llies
ref(sed !o accep! !'is and Napoleon "as forced !o
a#dica!e (ncondi!ionall& on 2pril 11.
.'e 2llied 0o"ers 'a-ing declared !'a! 5mperor
Napoleon "as !'e sole o#s!acle !o !'e res!ora!ion of peace
in 5(rope, 5mperor Napoleon, fai!'f(l !o 'is oa!', declares
!'a! 'e reno(nces, for 'imself and 'is 'eirs, !'e !'rones of
France and I!al&, and !'a! !'ere is no personal sacri:ce,
e-en !'a! of 'is life, "'ic' 'e is no! read& !o do in !'e
in!eres!s of France.
In !'e .rea!& of Fon!aine#lea( !'e -ic!ors e4iled 'im
!o 5l#a, an island of 12,000 in'a#i!an!s in !'e
6edi!erranean, 20 +m oM !'e .(scan coas!. .'e& ga-e 'im
so-ereign!& o-er !'e island and allo"ed 'im !o re!ain 'is
!i!le of 5mperor. Napoleon a!!emp!ed s(icide "i!' a pill 'e
'ad carried since a near-cap!(re #& ,(ssians on !'e
re!rea! from 6osco". I!s po!enc& 'ad "ea+ened "i!' age
and 'e s(r-i-ed !o #e e4iled, "'ile 'is "ife and son !oo+
ref(ge in Lienna. In !'e :rs! fe" mon!'s on 5l#a 'e
crea!ed a small na-& and arm&, de-eloped !'e iron mines,
and iss(ed decrees on modern agric(l!(ral me!'ods.
I= HUNDRED DA*S +-2-5,
1n 6arc' 1/, !'e po"ers a! !'e $ongress of Lienna
declared Napoleon an o(!la" and fo(r da&s la!er 7rea!
ri!ain, !'e Ne!'erlands, ,(ssia, 2(s!ria and 0r(ssia #o(nd
!'emsel-es !o p(! 1)0,000 men in!o !'e :eld !o end 'is
Napoleon arri-ed in 0aris on 20 6arc' and go-erned
for a period no" called !'e %(ndred >a&s. & !'e s!ar! of
*(ne !'e armed forces a-aila#le !o 'im 'ad reac'ed
200,000 and 'e decided !o go on !'e oMensi-e !o a!!emp!
!o dri-e a "edge #e!"een !'e oncoming ri!is' and
0r(ssian armies. .'e Frenc' 2rm& of !'e Nor!' crossed !'e
fron!ier in!o !'e Qni!ed Ningdom of !'e Ne!'erlands, in
modern-da& elgi(m.
NapoleonAs forces fo(g'! !'e allies, led #& =elling!on
and 7e#'ard <e#erec'! -on lRc'er, a! !'e a!!le of
=a!erloo on 18 *(ne 181). =elling!onAs arm& "i!'s!ood
repea!ed a!!ac+s #& !'e Frenc' and dro-e !'em from !'e
:eld "'ile !'e 0r(ssians arri-ed in force and #ro+e
!'ro(g' NapoleonAs rig'! 9an+. .'e Frenc' arm& lef! !'e
#a!!le:eld in disorder, "'ic' allo"ed $oali!ion forces !o
en!er France and res!ore <o(is DLIII !o !'e Frenc' !'rone.
1M !'e por! of ,oc'efor!, $'aren!e-6ari!ime, af!er
considera!ion of an escape !o !'e Qni!ed 3!a!es, Napoleon
formall& demanded poli!ical as&l(m from !'e ri!is'
$ap!ain Frederic+ 6ai!land on %63 ellerop'on on *(l& 1),
#= WAR OF THE -2-. +-2-. < -2-5,
.'e =ar of !'e 1812 is !'e con9ic! #e!"een !'e
Qni!ed 3!a!es and 7rea! ri!ain from 1812-181). >(e !o
!'e mari!ime policies of ri!ain and France d(ring !'e
Frenc' ,e-ol(!ionar& =ars and !'e Napoleonic =ars, Q3
!rade sl(mped. 2! !'e same !ime, !'e ri!is' "ere
con:sca!ing Q3 s'ips and impressing Q3 cre"men, !o
"'ic' !'e Qni!ed 3!a!es responded "i!' !'e 5m#argo 2c!
in 1807 and !'e Nonin!erfence 2c! in 1809, #anning !rade
"i!' !'e #elligeren!s. 2n!i-ri!is' feeling, fed #& "ar
'a"+s and #& !'e con-ic!ion !'a! ri!is' s(ppor! of !'e
Na!i-e 2mericans in !'e =es! "as 'indering Q.3.
e4pansion, led !o declara!ion of "ar on *(ne 18, 1812.
%o"e-er, !'e Qni!ed 3!a!es "as (nprepared for s(c' a
con9ic!, and i!s a!!emp!ed in-asion in 1812 of $anada in
ri!ain8s main Nor!' 2merican possession "as a fail(re.
5arl& Q.3. na-al s(ccesses, "'ic' led !o a re!alia!or&
ri!is' #loc+ade, incl(de $ap!ain 1li-er 0err&8s -ic!or& in
181/ a! !'e #a!!le on <a+e 5rie. In 1814 Q3 !roops 'eld
!'eir o"n a! $'ipe"a and <(nd&8s <ane, and !'e -ic!or& of
!'e a!!le of !'e .'ames a! 0la!!s#(rg' 'al!ed a ri!is'
ad-ance on !'e %(dson Lalle&. In $'esapea+e a& a
ri!is' force !'a! 'ad cap!(red and sac+ed =as'ing!on
>$, "as repelled in i!s a!!emp! !o !a+e al!imore. .'ere
"as a mili!ar& s!alema!e, and peace nego!ia!ions "ere
#eg(n in *(ne 1814. .'e 0eace of 7'en!, signed on
>ecem#er 22, 1814, "as essen!iall& a re!(rn !o !'e
si!(a!ion #efore !'e "ar. ."o "ee+s la!er, 2ndre" *ac+son
defea!ed !'e ri!is' a! !'e a!!le of !'e Ne" 1rleans,
"'ic' !oo+ place #efore "ord of !'e !rea!& reac'ed !'e
Qni!ed 3!a!es. .'e "ar 'ad se-eral far reac'ing eMec!s on
!'e Qni!ed 3!a!esE .'e mili!ar& -ic!ories promo!ed na!ional
con:dence and enco(raged e4pansionism, "'ile !'e !rade
em#argo enco(raged 'ome man(fac!(rers.
.'e a!!le of <eip;ig or a!!le of !'e Na!ions,
fo(g'! on 1c!o#er 16P19, 181/, "as one of !'e mos!
decisi-e defea!s s(Mered #& Napoleon onapar!e. .'e
#a!!le "as fo(g'! on 7erman soil and in-ol-ed 7erman
!roops on #o!' sides, as a large propor!ion of
NapoleonAs !roops ac!(all& came from !'e 7erman
$onfedera!ion of !'e ,'ine. .'e #a!!le in-ol-ed o-er
600,000 soldiers, ma+ing i! !'e larges! #a!!le in 5(rope
prior !o =orld =ar I.
Nnoc+ed #ac+ on 'is 'eels, Napoleon re!(rned !o
France, "'ile !'e 2llies +ep! !'eir momen!(m, in-ading
France earl& !'e ne4! &ear. Napoleon "as forced !o
a#dica!e, and "as e4iled !o 5l#a !'a! spring.
$as(al!ies on #o!' sides "ere as!o(ndingl& 'ig'G
es!ima!es range from 80,000 !o 110,000 +illed or
"o(nded. Napoleon los! a#o(! /8,000 +illed and
"o(nded. .'e 2llies cap!(red 1),000 a#le-#odied
Frenc'men, 21,000 "o(nded or sic+, /2) cannon and
28 eagles, s!andards or colors, and 'ad recei-ed !'e
men of !'e deser!ing 3a4on& di-isions. 2mong !'e dead
"as 6ars'al *Z;ef 2n!oni 0onia!o"s+i, a nep'e" !o !'e
las! +ing of 0oland, 3!anisla" 2(g(s! 0onia!o"s+i. .'e
0ole, "'o 'ad onl& recei-ed 'is mars'alAs #a!on !'e
pre-io(s da&, dro"ned !r&ing !o g(ard !'e Frenc'
re!rea!. $orps commanders <a(ris!on and ,e&nier "ere
cap!(red. Fif!een Frenc' generals "ere +illed and )1
1(! of a !o!al force of /62,000, !'e 2llies s(Mered
appro4ima!el& )4,000 cas(al!ies. 3c'"ar;en#ergAs
o'emian 2rm& los! /4,000, lRc'erAs 3ilesian 2rm&
los! 12,000, "'ile ernado!!eAs 2rm& of Nor!' and
ennigsenAs 2rm& of 0oland los! a#o(! 4,000 eac'.
.'e #a!!le ended !'e Firs! Frenc' 5mpireAs
presence eas! of !'e ,'ine and #ro(g'! !'e 7erman
s!a!es o-er !o !'e $oali!ion. .'e $oali!ion pressed i!s
ad-an!age and in-aded France in earl& 1814. Napoleon
"as forced from !'e !'rone of France and e4iled !o !'e
island of 5l#a.
In addi!ion !o !'e 91 m 'ig'
LWl+ersc'lac'!den+mal, !'e co(rse of !'e #a!!le in !'e
ci!& of <eip;ig is mar+ed #& n(mero(s mon(men!s and
!'e )0 2pel 3!ones !'a! mar+ impor!an! lines of !'e
Frenc' and allied !roops.
.'e a!!le of 3alamanca sa" an 2nglo-%ispano-
0or!(g(ese arm& (nder !'e >(+e of =elling!on defea!
6ars'al 2(g(s!e 6armon!As Frenc' forces among !'e
'ills aro(nd 2rapiles so(!' of 3alamanca, 3pain on *(l&
22, 1812 d(ring !'e 0enins(lar =ar.
.'e #a!!le "as a s(ccession of s!ro+es in o#li?(e
order, ini!ia!ed #& !'e 0or!(g(ese ca-alr& #rigade and
0a+en'amAs /rd di-ision, and con!in(ed #& !'e ri!is'
'ea-& ca-alr& and !'e 4!', )!' and 6!' di-isions. .'e
Frenc' lef! "ing "as ro(!ed.
.'e losses "ere /,129 ri!is', 6 3panis' and 2,0/8
0or!(g(ese agains! a#o(! 1/,000 Frenc'. 2s a
conse?(ence of =elling!onAs -ic!or&, 'is arm& "as a#le
!o ad-ance !o and li#era!e 6adrid for !"o mon!'s, #(!
!'en re!rea!ed #ac+ !o 0or!(gal. .'e Frenc' "ere forced
!o a#andon 2ndal(sia permanen!l&, and !'e loss of
6adrid irrepara#l& damaged Ning *osep'As pro-Frenc'
.'e #a!!le es!a#lis'ed =elling!on as an oMensi-e
general. I! "as said !'a! =elling!on Odefea!ed an arm&
of 40,000 men in 40 min(!es.O 3i4 da&s af!er !'e #a!!le,
Fo& "ro!e in 'is diar&,
[.'is #a!!le is !'e mos! cle-erl& fo(g'!, !'e larges! in
scale, !'e mos! impor!an! in res(l!s, of an& !'a! !'e
5nglis' 'a-e "on in recen! !imes. I! #rings (p <ord
=elling!onAs rep(!a!ion almos! !o !'e le-el of !'a! of
6arl#oro(g'. Qp !o !'is da& "e +ne" 'is pr(dence, 'is
e&e for c'oosing good posi!ions, and !'e s+ill "i!'
"'ic' 'e (sed !'em. (! a! 3alamanca 'e 'as s'o"n
'imself a grea! and a#le mas!er of mane(-ering. %e
+ep! 'is disposi!ions 'idden nearl& !'e "'ole da&E 'e
allo"ed (s !o de-elop o(r mo-emen! #efore 'e
prono(nced 'is o"nE 'e pla&ed a close gameG 'e
(!ili;ed !'e o#li?(e order in !'e s!&le of Frederic+ !'e
.'e a!!le of 3alamanca "as a damaging defea! !o
!'e Frenc'. 2s !'e Frenc' regro(ped, !'e 2nglo-
0or!(g(ese en!ered 6adrid on 2(g(s! 6 and #egan !'e
3iege of (rgos, #efore re!rea!ing all !'e "a& #ac+ !o
0or!(gal in !'e a(!(mn "'en rene"ed Frenc'
concen!ra!ions !'rea!ened !o !rap !'em.
.'e -ic!or& "as 9a"ed #& !'e fail(re of 3panis'
!roops !o g(ard a cr(cial escape ro(!e o-er !'e #ridge
a! 2l#a de .ormes, possi#l& #& a mis(nders!anding
#e!"een 3panis' and ri!is' commanders. .'e p(rs(i!
failed !o des!ro& or !o cap!(re !'e 9eeing Frenc'.
.'e follo"ing da&, =elling!onAs NingAs 7erman
<egion (N7<) 'ea-& dragoons performed !'e as!o(nding
fea! of O#rea+ing a s?(areO and o-err(nning a por!ion of
!'e Frenc' rear g(ard in !'e a!!le of 7arcia %ernande;.
6oreo-er, !'e& accomplis'ed !'is !"ice "i!'in a fe"
.'e Imperial 5agle of !'e Frenc' 62nd <ine
(.'omiFres) "as cap!(red #& <ie(!enan! 0earce of !'e
2]44!' 5as! 5sse4 ,egimen!, a par! of <ie(!enan!
7eneral <ei!'As )!' >i-ision. 2ddi!ionall&, !'e 5agle of
!'e 22nd <ine regimen! "as fo(nd among a pile of
Frenc' dead #& a 0or!(g(ese ca'ador.
.'e a!!le of .ala-era (*(l& 27P28 1809) "as a
#lood& &e! inconcl(si-e #a!!le fo(g'! some 120
+ilome!ers so(!'"es! of 6adrid, 3pain in !'e 0enins(lar
2! .ala-era an 2nglo-0or!(g(ese arm& (nder 3ir
2r!'(r =ellesle& com#ined "i!' a 3panis' arm& (nder
7eneral $(es!a in opera!ions agains! Frenc'-occ(pied
6adrid. .'e allies mean! !o isola!e and a!!ac+ 6ars'al
Lic!or, #(! Ning *osep' onapar!e reinforced !'e la!!er
and #l(n!ed !'eir oMensi-e !o"ards !'e capi!al. 2f!er
:erce :g'!ing !'e Frenc' arm& "i!'dre" from !'e :eld,
and for !'is narro" -ic!or& =ellesle& "as enno#led as
OLisco(n! =elling!on of .ala-era and of =elling!onO.
Ne-er!'eless, !'e s!ra!egic ad-an!age la& "i!' !'e
Frenc'G .ala-era remo-ed all !'rea! !o !'e capi!al and
#o(g'! precio(s !ime for !'e arri-al of Frenc'
reinforcemen!s !o !'e !'ea!re.
.'e main Frenc' a!!ac+ 'a-ing #een defea!ed,
Lic!or p(s'ed ,(KnAs men in!o !'e -alle& #e!"een !'e
6edellin and !'e 3eg(rilla. 2nsonAs ca-alr& #rigade "as
ordered !o dri-e !'em #ac+. ='ile !'e 1s! N7< <ig'!
>ragoons ad-anced a! a con!rolled pace, !'e 2/rd <ig'!
>ragoons soon #ro+e in!o a "ild gallop. .'e
(ndisciplined (ni! ran in!o a 'idden ra-ine, 'o##ling
man& 'orses. .'ose 'orsemen "'o cleared !'e
o#s!acle "ere easil& fended oM #& !'e Frenc' infan!r&,
formed in!o s?(ares. .'e 2/rd <ig'! >ragoons c'arged
pas! !'e s?(ares and plo(g'ed in!o ea(mon!As
ca-alr&, dra"n (p #e'ind ,(Kn. .'e ri!is' dragoons
los! 102 +illed and "o(nded and ano!'er 10) cap!(red
#efore !'e& c(! !'eir "a& o(!. 2f!er !'e #a!!le, !'e
ma(led regimen! 'ad !o #e sen! #ac+ !o 5ngland !o
re:!. %o"e-er, !'is ended !'e Frenc' a!!ac+s for !'e
da&. *osep' and *o(rdan failed !o emplo& !'eir reser-e,
for "'ic' !'e& "ere #i!!erl& cri!ici;ed #& Napoleon.
.'e Frenc' #ore mos! of !'e "eig'! of !'is 'ard-
fo(g'! se!-piece #a!!le, losing 7,/90 +illed or "o(nded.
.'e 3paniards los! a#o(! 1,200 and !'e ri!is' los!
),)00 men. .'is "as appro4ima!el& 2)^ of !'e ri!is'
force, compared !o onl& 18^ of !'e Frenc', reinforcing
!'e s!ra!egic -ic!or& of !'e Frenc'. 6an& of !'e
"o(nded on #o!' sides "ere #(rn! !o dea!' "'en !'e
dr& grass of !'e #a!!le:eld ca(g'! :re. .'e ne4! da&,
!'e /,000 infan!r& of !'e <ig'! >i-ision reinforced !'e
ri!is' arm& af!er comple!ing a famo(s marc' of
42 miles (68 +m) in 26 'o(rs.
6ean"'ile, 6ars'al 3o(l! ad-anced so(!',
!'rea!ening !o c(! =ellesle& oM from 0or!(gal. .'in+ing
!'a! !'e Frenc' force "as onl& 1),000 s!rong, =ellesle&
mo-ed eas! on 2(g(s! / !o #loc+ i!, lea-ing 1,)00
"o(nded in !'e care of !'e 3panis'. 3(ddenl& :nding
!'a! 3o(l! 'ad /0,000 men, !'e ri!is' commander sen!
!'e <ig'! rigade on a mad das' for !'e #ridge o-er !'e
.ag(s ,i-er a! 2lmara;. .'e lig'! infan!r& reac'ed !'ere
on 2(g(s! 6, J(s! a'ead of 3o(l!. No" enJo&ing sec(re
comm(nica!ions "i!' <is#on, =ellesle& considered
Joining "i!' $(es!a again. (! 'e fo(nd o(! !'a! 'is
3panis' all& 'ad a#andoned !'e ri!is' "o(nded !o !'e
Frenc' and remained !'oro(g'l& (ncoopera!i-e in o!'er
"a&s. 1-er !'e follo"ing mon!'s poorl& e4ec(!ed
ac!ions #& !'e 3panis' forces res(l!ed in =ellesle&As
s!ra!egic posi!ion #eing compromised. .'e 3panis' 'ad
also promised food !o !'e ri!is' if !'e& ad-anced in!o
3pain, #(! !'is "as no! pro-ided. .'e lac+ of s(pplies,
co(pled "i!' !'e !'rea! of Frenc' reinforcemen!
(incl(ding !'e possi#le incl(sion of Napolean 'imself) in
!'e spring, led !o !'e ri!is' deciding !o re!rea! in!o
2f!er !'is #a!!le =ellesle& "as crea!ed Lisco(n!
=elling!on of .ala-era.
.'e a!!le of =a!erloo "as fo(g'! on 3(nda& 18
*(ne 181) near =a!erloo in presen!-da& elgi(m. 2n
Imperial Frenc' arm& (nder !'e command of 5mperor
Napoleon "as defea!ed #& com#ined armies of !'e
3e-en!' $oali!ion, one an 2nglo-2llied arm& (nder !'e
command of !'e >(+e of =elling!on and !'e o!'er a
0r(ssian arm& (nder !'e command of 7e#'ard -on
lRc'er. I! "as !'e decisi-e #a!!le of !'e =a!erloo
$ampaign and Napoleon onapar!eAs las!. .'e defea! a!
=a!erloo p(! an end !o NapoleonAs am#i!ions !o r(le as
5mperor of !'e Frenc', and mar+ed !'e end of 'is
%(ndred >a&s of re!(rn from e4ile.
Qpon NapoleonAs re!(rn !o po"er in 181), man&
s!a!es !'a! 'ad opposed 'im formed !'e 3e-en!'
$oali!ion and #egan !o mo#ili;e armies. ."o large
forces (nder =elling!on and -on lRc'er assem#led
close !o !'e nor!'eas!ern #order of France. Napoleon
c'ose !o a!!ac+ in !'e 'ope of des!ro&ing !'em #efore
!'e& co(ld Join in a coordina!ed in-asion of France "i!'
o!'er mem#ers of !'e $oali!ion. .'e decisi-e
engagemen! of !'is !'ree-da& =a!erloo $ampaign (*(ne
16 P *(ne 19, 181)) occ(rred a! !'e a!!le of =a!erloo.
Napoleon dela&ed gi-ing #a!!le (n!il noon on 18
*(ne !o allo" !'e gro(nd !o dr&. =elling!onAs arm&,
posi!ioned across !'e r(ssels road on !'e 6on! 3! *ean
escarpmen!, "i!'s!ood repea!ed a!!ac+s #& !'e Frenc',
(n!il, in !'e e-ening, !'e 0r(ssians arri-ed in force and
#ro+e !'ro(g' NapoleonAs rig'! 9an+. 2! !'a! momen!,
=elling!onAs 2nglo-allied arm& co(n!er-a!!ac+ed and
dro-e !'e Frenc' arm& in disorder from !'e :eld.
0(rs(ing $oali!ion forces en!ered France and res!ored
<o(is DLIII !o !'e Frenc' !'rone. Napoleon a#dica!ed,
s(rrendered !o !'e ri!is', and "as e4iled !o 3ain!
%elena, "'ere 'e died in 1821.