This booklet is dedicated to
our science and technology martyrs;
the scientists who sacrificed their lives
for the progress of our country.
Majid Shahriari
Born: 1966
Assassinated: 2010
Masoud Alimohammadi
Born: 1959
Assassinated: 2010
Mostafa AhmadiRoshan
Born: 1980
Assassinated: 2012
Daryoush Rezaeinejad
Born: 1976
Assassinated: 2011
2
3
Iranian Team Members in 53
rd
IMO (Mar Del PlataArgentina) (from left to right):
Mina Dalirrooyfard
Goodarz Mehr
Alek Bedroya
Pedram Safaei
Alireza Fallah
Amir Ali Moinfar
This booklet is prepared by Ali Khezeli, Hesam Rajabzadeh,
Morteza Saghafian and Masoud Shafaei.
With special thanks to Javad Abedi, Shayan Aziznejad, Ali Babaei, Atieh Khoshnevis, Omid
Naghshineh Arjmand and Sina Rezaie.
Copyright © Young Scholars Club 20112012. All rights reserved.
4
5
29
th
Iranian Mathematical Olympiad
20112012
Contents
Problems
First Round.…………………………………..………………………………………..........8
Second Round....……….…………………..…………………..……………………….……9
Third Round.…...……………………………..……………………..……………………..11
Solutions
First Round..………………..………….………………..…………….…….……………..16
Second Round..…………….……………………………..……………………...…………20
Third Round…………………………………...……………..……………….……………27
6
7
Problems
8
First Round
1. (Mohsen Jamali) 1390 ants are near a straight line such that
the distance between the head of each ant and the line is less
than 1 centimeter and the distance between the head of each
two ants is more than 2 centimeters. Prove that there exist
two ants which their heads are at least 10 meters far.
(Assume that the head of each ant is a point!) (→p. 16)
2. (MirSaleh Bahavarnia) In triangle ABC we have 60 BAC . = ° . The perpendicular
line to AB at B intersects the bisector of BAC . at D and the perpendicular line
to BC
at C meets the bisector of ABC . at E . Prove that 30 BED . _ ° . (→p. 16)
3. (Mohsen Jamali) Determine all increasing sequence
2 1 3
, , , a a a . of positive integers
such that for every , i j ¸ N , the number of positive divisors of i j ÷ and
i j
a a ÷ are
equal (A sequence
1 2 3
, , , a a a . is increasing if i j _ implies
j i
a a _ ). (→p. 17)
4. (Mohammad Mansouri, Shayan Dashmiz) Find the smallest positive integer n such
that there exist n real numbers in the interval ( 1,1) ÷ such that their sum is zero
and the sum of their squares equals 20. (→p. 17)
5. (Mohsen Jamali) A beautiful rare bird called n colored Rainbow
can be seen in one of n different colors each day and its color is
always different from the previous day. Recently, scientists have
discovered a new fact about this bird’s life: “there does not exist
four days like , , , i j k l in its life such that i j k l < < < with
colors namely , , , a b c d respectively, such that a b c d = = = ”. Find the maximum
possible age of an n colored Rainbow as a function of n . (→p. 18)
6. (Ali Khezeli) We have extended the sides AB and AC of triangle ABC from B
and C respectively to intersects a given line l at D and E respectively. Suppose
the reflection of l with respect to perpendicular bisector of BC
intersects mentioned
extensions at D´ and E´ respectively. If BD CE DE ÷ = , show that
BD CE D E ´ ´ = ´ ÷ ´ . (→p. 18)
9
Second Round
1. (Kasra Alishahi) A regular dodecahedron is a convex
polyhedron such that its faces are regular pentagons. It has 20
vertices and 3 edges connected to each vertex. (As you see in
the picture.)
Suppose that we have marked 10 vertices of a regular
dodecahedron.
a) Prove that we can rotate the dodecahedron in such a way
that the dodecahedron is mapped to itself and at most four marked vertices are
mapped to a marked vertex.
b) Prove that number 4 cannot be replaced with number 3 in the previous part.
(→p. 20)
2. (Mohammad Mansouri) Prove that for every positive integers k
and n
there exist k
monic polynomials
1 2
( ), ( ), , ( )
k
x P x P P x . of degree n with integer coefficient such
that each two of them have no common factor and the sum of each arbitrary number
of them has all its roots real. (→p. 20)
3. (Erfan Salavati) Four metal pieces are joined to
each other to form a quadrilateral in the space.
The angle between them can vary freely. In a case
that the quadrilateral is not planar, we mark one
point of each piece such that the points lie in a
plane. Prove that these four points are always
coplanar as the quadrilateral varies. (→p. 21)
4. (Mohammad Ghiasi) The escalator of “Champion Butcher”
metro station has this property that if m persons are on it,
its speed is m
÷
where is a positive constant number.
Suppose that n persons want to go upstairs by the escalator.
If the length of the escalator is l , what is the least time
required for these persons to go to upstairs? (Suppose the
persons can use the escalator simultaneously at any time). (→p. 21)
10
5. (Mahyar Sefidgaran, Mostafa Eynollahzadeh) Let be a real number and
1 2 3
, , , a a a . a strictly increasing sequence of positive integers such that for every
n ¸ N, .
n
a n
_ A prime number q is called golden if there is a positive integer m
such that
m
q a . Suppose that
1 2 3
q q q < < < are all golden prime numbers.
a) Prove that if 1.5 = , then 1390
n
n
q _ .
b) Prove that if 2.4 = , then
2
1390
n
n
q _ . (→p. 22)
6. (Ali Khezeli) Two circles in the space are called
linking if they intersect at two points or they are
interlocked. Find a necessary and sufficient
condition for four distinct points , , , A B A B ´ ´ in the
space such that every two different circles passing
through , A B and the other passing through , A B ´ ´ respectively are linking. (→p. 23)
7. (Sepehr GhaziNezami) For a function : ( ) f ÷ N N and a subset A _ N, we say f
is A

predictor if the set {  , ( { }) } x x A f A x x y ' = ¸ N is finite. Prove that there
exists a function that for every subset A of natural numbers is Apredictor. (→p. 24)
8. (Ali Khezeli) A sequence
1
, ,
n
d d . of not necessarily distinct natural numbers is called
a covering sequence if there exist arithmetic progressions of the form
{ : } 0,1, 2,
i i
a kd k ÷ = . such that every natural number comes in at least one of
them. We call this sequence minimal if we cannot delete any of
1
, ,
n
d d . such that
the resulting sequence is still covering.
a) Suppose
1
, ,
n
d d . is a minimal covering sequence and suppose we've covered all the
natural numbers with arithmetic progressions { : } 0,1,2,
i i
a kd k ÷ = . . Suppose that
p is a prime number that divides
1
, ,
k
d d . but does not divide
1
, ,
k n
d d
÷
. . Prove that
the remainders of
1
, ,
k
a a . modulo p contain all the numbers 1 0,1, , p . ÷ .
b) Write anything you can about covering sequences and minimal covering sequences
in the case that each of
1
, ,
n
d d . has only one prime divisor. (→p. 24)
11
Third Round
1. (Mahdi E’tesamiFard) Find all natural numbers 2 n _ such that for every pair of
integers [ , 0, ] i j n ¸ , i j ÷ and
n n
i j
÷
í 1 í 1
· ·
· ·
· ·
· ·
( ) ( )
have the same parity. (→. 27)
2. (Mahdi E’tesamiFard) Let be the circumcircle of an acute triangle ABC . Let D
be the midpoint of arc
´
BAC in
and I be the incenter of triangle ABC . Suppose
DI intersects BC at E and
at F for the second time. Suppose the parallel line
to AI from E meets AF at P . Prove that PE is the bisector of BPC . . (→p. 28)
3. (Erfan Salavati) Let n be a natural number. A subset S of points in the plane has
following properties:
i) There are not n lines in the plane such that each element of S lies on at least one
of them.
ii) For every X S ¸ there exist n
lines in the plane such that each point of { } S X ÷
lies on at least one of them.
Find the maximum possible number of points in S . (→p. 28)
4. (Ali Khezeli) There are 1 m ÷ horizontal and 1 n ÷ vertical lines ( , 4) m n _ that
make a m n table. Consider a closed path that does not intersect itself and passes
through all ( 1)( 1) m n ÷ ÷
interior vertices and none of
the outer vertices. (Each vertex is the intersection
point of two lines!) A is the number of interior
vertices that the path passes through them straight
forward, B is the number of squares in the table that
only two opposite sides of them are used in the path
and C is the number of squares that none of its sides
are used in the path. Prove that 1. A B C m n = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(→p. 29)
5. (Masoud Shafaei) Let
0 0
: f
_ _
÷ R R be a function such that for all
0
, a b
_
¸ R :
i) ( ) 0 0 f a a = = = .
ii) ( ) ( ) ( ) f ab f a f b = .
iii) ( ) 2 max{ ( ), ( )} f a b f a f b ÷ _ .
12
Prove that for every
0
, a b
_
¸ R , ( ( ) ( ) ) f b a a b f f _ ÷ ÷ . (→p. 31)
6. (Morteza Saghafian, Ali Khezeli) Let ABCDE be a cyclic pentagon with
circumcircle . Suppose that , , , ,
a b c d e
are the reflections of with respect to
AB , BC , CD , DE and EA
respectively. A´ is the second intersection of
a
and
e
. , , , C D B E ´ ´ ´ ´ are defined similarly. Prove that
3
( )
2
( )
,
S A
S ABCDE
BC D E ´ ´ ´ ´ ´
_ _
where ( ) S X denotes the area of figure X . (→p. 32)
7. (Morteza Saghafian) Is it possible to write
2
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
consecutive natural numbers on the
edges of a complete graph with n vertices such that for every path (or cycle) of
length 3 with edges , , a b c (b lies between , a c ) the greatest common divisor of the
numbers of edges a and c divides the number of edge b ? (→p. 33)
8. (Mohammad Ja’fari) Let g be a polynomial of degree at least 2 with nonnegative
coefficients. Find all functions : f
÷ ÷
÷ R R such that for every , x y
÷
¸ R
( ( ) ( ) 2 ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ). f f x g x y f x g x f y ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷
(→p. 34)
9. (Ali Khezeli) Let ABCD be a parallelogram. Consider circles
1
and
2
such that
1
is tangent to segments , AB AD and
2
is tangent to segments , BC CD . Suppose
that there exist a circle tangent to lines , AD DC
and externally tangent to
1 2
, .
Prove that there exists a circle tangent to lines AB and BC and externally tangent
to
1 2
, . (→p. 35)
10. (Morteza Saghafian) Let , , a b c be positive real numbers such that 1. ab bc ca ÷ ÷ =
Show that
( ) · 3
a a b b c c
bc c b
a c
a a
b _ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(→p. 35)
11. (Mahdi E’tesamiFard, Ali Khezeli) Let , A B be two different points on a circle
with center O such that 60 120 AOB ° _ . _ ° . Let C be the circumcenter of . AOB ¡
l is a line passing through C such that the angle between l and OC
is 60 . °
Tangent lines to at , A B meets l at , M N respectively. Suppose the circumcircle
13
of triangles CAM and CBN intersect
for the second time at Q and R
respectively and meets each other in P (different from C ). Prove that OP QR l .
(→p. 36)
12. (Javad Abedi) A subset B of natural numbers is called loyal if there exist positive
integers i j _ such that { , 1, , } B i i j = ÷ . . Q is the collection of loyal subsets of
natural numbers. For every subset
1 2
{ }
k
a a a A < < = < of {1, 2, , } n . we define:
,
( ) max
B A B Q
g A B
¸ ¸
= and
1
1 1
( ) max .
i
i
i
k
f A a a
_ _ ÷
÷
= ÷
Also, Define
{1,2, , }
( ) ( )
n A
G n g A
_
=
_
.
and
{1,2, , }
( ) ( ).
n A
F n f A
_
=
_
.
Prove there exists m ¸ N such that for every positive integer n
greater than m
we
have ( ) ( ). F n G n ( A denotes the number of elements of a set A and if 1 A _ we
set ( ) 0 f A = ). (→p. 37)
13. (Hesam Rajabzadeh) Consider a regular 2
k
gon with center O in the plane and let
1 2
2
, , ,
k
l l l . be its sides with the clockwise order. Reflect O with respect to
1
l , reflect
the resulting point with respect to
2
l and continue this process until the last side.
Prove that the distance between final point and O is less than the perimeter of the
mentioned 2
k
gon. (→p. 38)
14. (Morteza Saghafian) Are there 2000 real numbers (not necessarily distinct), not all
zero, such that if we put any 1000 of these numbers as roots of a monic polynomial
of degree 1000, its coefficients (except the coefficient of
1000
x ) are a permutation of
the 1000 remaining numbers? (→p. 40)
15. (Mahyar Sefidgaran) Determine all integers , x y satisfying the equation
3 2 3 2
( )( ) ( 1 1)( ). xy x y xy y y x x x y ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
(→p. 41)
16. (Mohyeddin Motevassel) Let p be an odd prime number. We say a polynomial
0
( )
j
n
j
j
x f x a
=
=
_
is i
residue
if
1 , 0
(mod )
p j j
j
i a p
÷
=
_
.
14
Show that ¦ ¦ (1),..., ( 1) f f p ÷
is a complete residue system modulo p if and only if
polynomials ( ) f x ,…,
2
( )
p
f x
÷
are 0residue and
1
( ( ))
p
f x
÷
is 1residue. (→p. 42)
17. (Ali Khezeli) n is a positive integer. Let , A B be two sets of n points in the plane
such that no three points of them are collinear. Denote by ( ) T A the number of non
selfintersecting broken lines containing 1 n ÷ segments such that its vertices in A.
Define ( ) T B similarly. If the elements of B are the vertices of a convex n gon but
the elements of A are not, prove that ( ) ( ) T B T A < . (→p. 43)
18. (Mahdi E’tesamiFard) Let O be the circumcenter of triangle ABC . Points , , A B C ´ ´ ´
lie on the segments , , BC CA AB respectively such that the cicumcircles of triangles
ABC ´ ´ , BC A ´ ´ and CAB ´ ´ pass through O . Denote by
a
l the radical axis of the
circle with center B´ and radius BC ´ and circle with center C´ and radius C B ´ .
Define
b
l and
c
l similarly. Prove that the lines , ,
a b c
l l l form a triangle such that its
orthocenter coincides with the orthocenter of triangle ABC . (→p. 44)
15
Solutions
16
First Round
1. Consider the line in the problem as the x ÷axis in the coordinate plane and assume
that the y ÷axis is an arbitrary line perpendicular to the x ÷axis.
Let ( , )
i i i
A x y = , 1 1390 i _ _ be the coordinates of the head of ants. We can
assume that
0 1 39 2 1
x x x _ _ _ .
Denote by
i
C , 1 1390 i _ _ the circle with center
i
A and radius 1. According to the
problem’s condition, we have 2
i j
AA for all 1 9 1 3 0 i j _ < _ . So the circles are
pairwise disjoint and all of them are in the rectangle
1 1390
{( , ) : 1 1, 139 2 2 . 0 ; 1 } A x y x x x y i = ÷ < < ÷ ÷ < < _ _
Thus the sum of the areas of the circles is less than the area of the rectangle.
Therefore
139 1 0
139 4( 2 0 ). x x _ ÷ ÷
So
1 1
1
3 4( 2) 1042.5 2
1000( ) 10
3
.
1 90
n n
n
x x x x
x x cm m
< ÷ ÷ < = = ÷ ÷
÷ = =
Finally by Pythagorean Theorem we have
1 1
10
n n
x A A x m ÷ . ¯
2. Denote by I the intersection point of AD and BE , so I is the incenter of triangle
ABC . Suppose that
2
BAC
.
= . We have
90 90 30 60 ,
90 90 30
90
2
9 6 0
2
0 .
CBA
IBD IBA
CBA
CEB CBE
.
. = ° ÷. = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
.
. = ° ÷. = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = = °
=
Thus in triangles BEC and BED we have 60 CEB EBD . = . = ° and BE is side
of both of them. Since 30 BEC . = ° it suffices to prove BD CE < but we have
tan
BD
AB
= and tan30
EC
BC
= ° , So
. tan
sin(120
tan
)
tan (La
tan3
w of Sines)
0 tan30
2
tan30
sin
sin(2 )
AB
BD AB
BC
CE BC
_ _ ° _ °
° ÷
°
=
_
= =
=
sin(120 2
sin
)
cos
2
° ÷
2
sin(120
tan 30
. cos
2 ) 2cos . tan30
_
° ÷ _ =
°
°
17
. cos(2 ) sin120 .sin(2 ) (1 cos(2 ))tan30
tan30 ) cos120 .sin(2 ) tan
sin120
(sin120 ). cos(2 30 .
° ÷ ° _ ÷ °
° ÷ ° ÷ ° _ = °
=
We know by CauchySchwarz inequality that
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) (cos120 ) (2 ) sin (2 ) ((sin120 tan30 ) )(cos )
1 3 1 1
( ) (tan 30 .
3 3
( ) )
2 36
( )
2 3 4 3
LHS
RHS
_ ° ÷ ° °
= ÷ ° =
÷ ÷
÷
÷ = ÷ = = ¯
3. First it is easy to show that the sequence is strictly increasing. Assume that
1 i i
a a
÷
= for some i . Let j p i = ÷ for a large prime p . Now i j ÷ is a prime
number. So
j i
a a ÷ is prime too. But from
1 i i
a a
÷
= we get
1 i j
a a
÷
÷ and 1 i j ÷ ÷
are prime numbers. So i j ÷ and 1 i j ÷ ÷ are two consecutive large prime numbers,
contradiction.
Now put
2
2
p
i j
÷
= = for a large prime p. So the number of divisors of
1
2 2
p
i
a
÷
=
equals p. Hence 2
i
a is of the form
1 p
q
÷
for a prime q . Obviously q should be 2 and
therefore we have
2
2
2
2
p
p
a
÷
÷
= .
Now we have a strictly increasing sequence of integers with infinitely many fixed
points. So, for each n ,
n
a n = . ¯
4. Suppose that
1 2
, , ,
n
a a a . satisfies the conditions. First, we have
2 2 2
1 2
times
20 1 1 1 .
n
n
a n a a ÷ ÷ ÷ = = < ÷ ÷ ÷
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
So 21 n _ . We want to show that 22 n = is the answer. So we prove that there are
not 21 numbers
1 2 21
, , , a a a . in the interval ( 1,1) ÷ such that
1 2 21
0 a a a ÷ ÷.÷ =
and
2 2 2
1 2 21
20 a a a ÷ ÷ ÷ = . Assume that sequence
i
a
is in increasing order so
1 2 21
1 21
21
a
a
a a
a
÷ ÷ ÷
_ _
. Thus
1 21
0 a a _ _ . But because of minimality of
number 21, we have 0
i
a = for 1 21 i _ _ . So there exist a unique number
1 21 k _ < such that
1 2 1 21
0 1 1.
k k
a a a a a
÷
_ _ _ < < _ _ ÷ < <
We know that numbers
1 2 21
, , , a a a ÷ ÷ . ÷ satisfies the problem condition, too.
Thereby we can assume that
21
2
k _ and since k ¸ Z we have 10 k _ .
Now for every 21 1 k i ÷ _ _ . We have 0 1
i
a < < , so
2
0
i i
a a < < .
18
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 21 1 1 21
2 2
1 1 21
2 2
1 1 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) (
2
20
)
20.
k k
k k
k k
a a a a
a a
a a a
a a a
a a
a a
k
÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
< ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
< ÷ ÷ ÷
< _
This contradiction shows that 22 n _ . The following numbers are an example for
22 n = and so the answer is 22.
11
11 11
(1 ) and (12 ).
10 10
22
i i
a a i i = _ _ = ÷ _ _
¯
5. We prove by induction that the maximum number of days it can live is 2 1 n ÷ . The
construction is easy, like , 1, , 1, , 2, 1, 1 2, n n n . ÷ ÷ . (These are the labels of colors).
For 1 n = the result is evident. Suppose that it is true for numbers smaller than n .
Let its color in the first day be R , and this colors appear k times, at days
1 2
, , ,
k
R R R . .
Consider the interval of days
1 2 2 3 1
, ),( , ), ,( , ),( , ( )
k k k
R R R R R R R
÷
. . . If some color
appears in two intervals it contradicts the problem statement. So each color appears
in exactly one interval. Suppose that there are
i
C colors in the interval
1
) ( ,
i i
R R
÷
, so
1
1
k
i
i
C n
=
= ÷
_
. By the induction hypothesis, the interval
1
) ( ,
i i
R R
÷
consists of at
most 2 1
i
C ÷ days. Only the last interval can be empty. If it is empty then the
number of days is at most
1
1
1 2 1 ) ( 2
k
i
i
k C n
÷
=
÷ = ÷ ÷
_
. Otherwise, the number of days
is at most
1
) (2 2 2 1
k
i
i
k C n
=
÷ = ÷ ÷
_
and we’re done. ¯
6. Suppose that M is the midpoint of side BC and a its perpendicular bisector. X is
the intersection point of lines a and l . Put , MXE ABC . = . = and
ACB . = . Let Y be a point on segment DE such that EY CE = and Z the
reflection of Y with respect to a , So Z lies on l ´ . It is obvious that BCYZ is a
trapezoid and hence cyclic. Denote by K , the intersection point of l ´ and
circumcircle of BCYZ (The solution is similar when the circle is tangent to l ´ ). Now
we want to prove that D B D K ´ = ´ .
19
360 ( )
360 (180 90 ) 90
180 180 90
45 . (1)
2 2 2 2
CED MCE CMX MXE
CED
CYE
. = ° ÷ . ÷. ÷.
= ° ÷ ° ÷ ÷ ° ÷ = ° ÷ ÷
° ÷. ° ÷ ° ÷ ÷
= . = = = ° ÷ ÷
Obviously,
triangle ZXY is isosceles, so 90 90 . (2) XYZ MXE . = ° ÷. = ° ÷
180 (90 ) (45 (1 ) 45
2 2
),(2 .
2 2
) CYZ
. = ° ÷ ° ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ÷ = ° ÷ ÷ =
CYKZ is cyclic, so 45
2 2
CKZ CYZ
. = . = ° ÷ ÷ . Therefore
180 135 .
2 2
(3) CKE CKZ
. ´ = ° ÷. = ° ÷ ÷
360 ( )
360 (180 90 180 ) 90 . (4)
CE K MCE XMC MXE
. ´ = ° ÷ . ´ ÷. ÷. ´
= ° ÷ ° ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° ÷ = ÷ ÷ °
So
(3),(4)
180 ( )
180 ( 90 135 )
2 2
135 .
2 2
KCE CE K CKE
KCE
CKE
. ´ = ° ÷ . ´ ÷ . ´
= . ´ = ° ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° ÷ ÷
= ° ÷ ÷ = . ´
Thereby triangle CE K ´ is isosceles and hence CE KE ´ = ´ . Similarly, we have
BD KD ´ = ´ and so E K KE D BD CE D ´ ´ = ´ ÷ ´ = ´ ÷ ´ and this is desired assertion.
¯
20
Second Round
1. a) First we count the number of rotations of a dodecahedron. In 12 ways we can
change a face of the dodecahedron with the down face. Although we can put this face
in 5 distinct ways but one of this 12 5 60 = states is the original state, so we have
59 states for rotating the dodecahedron.
Now consider one of the marked vertices named A. We have 10 marked vertices and
each of them can lie on its locations in 3 distinct ways, so in 3 10 1 29 ÷ =
rotations (other than the original state) a special vertex lie on the location of A in
original state, therefore totally 29 10 290 = times a marked vertex lie on a marked
vertex of the original state.
Now by the Pigeonhole principle less than
290
5
59
< of this coincidences is in one of
the states and so we’re done. ¯
b) It suffices to give an example that in each rotation at least 4 marked vertices lie
on a marked vertex of original state.
Mark the vertices of two opposite faces. Suppose that there exists a rotation with at
most 3 coincidences. Consider this state is .
So one of the marked faces in has at most one marked vertex of the original state,
but each face has at least two marked vertices, contradiction. ¯
2. For each 1 i k _ _ we define
( ) ( )( ( ) ( (( 1) ) ) ).
i
P x n k i x x i x k i ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷
We claim that these polynomials satisfy the problem condition.
For each 1 i k _ _ and each 0 1 j n _ _ ÷ , ( )
i
P x has exactly one simple root in the
interval
1 1
( ,( 1) )
2 2
jk j k ÷ ÷ ÷ so invoking the mean value theorem we deduce that
1
( )
2
i
jk P ÷ and (( 1
1
) )
2
i
j k P ÷ ÷ have different signs. Note that
2
( )
1
0
i
nk P ÷
because
i
P is monic and so is positive for large positive values and does not have any
root greater than n . Thus for each 1 i k _ _ ,
1
( ) 0
2
i
jk P ÷ if (mod2) n j = and
1
( ) 0
2
i
jk P ÷ < if (mod2) n j =¸ .
21
Now let
1 2
( ) ( ( ) ) ( )
t
i i i
x x x Q x P P P = ÷ ÷ ÷ where
1 2
, , , {1, 2, , }
t
i i i k . ¸ . are
distinct. Obviously ( ) [ ] Q x x ¸ Z is a polynomial of degree n .
For each 0 1 j n _ _ ÷ , numbers
1
( )
2
Q jk ÷ and
1
(( 1) )
2
Q j k ÷ ÷ have different signs
because
1 2
, , ,
t
i i i
P P P . have this property. So again according to mean value theorem
we deduce that Q has a root in the interval
1 1
( ,( 1) )
2 2
jk j k ÷ ÷ ÷ and ( ) Q x has at
most n real roots so all its roots are real, hence the claim is proved. ¯
3. Let quadrilateral that this four pieces form in the space
be ABCD and we marked points , , M N P and Q on
sides , , AB BC CD and DA respectively, So that the
marked points are on a plane named . Let , , a b c and
d be the distances from , , A B C and D to
respectively. So we have
, , , 1.
AM a BN b CP c DQ d AM BN CP DQ
MB b NC c PD d QA a MB NC PD QA
= = = = = =
Now ABCD varies, let ´ be the plane passing through , , M N P . Suppose that
, , a b c ´ ´ ´ and d´ are the distances of , , A B C and D to ´ respectively. Thus
, , .
AM BN b CP c DQ d
MB
a
NC c PD d A a b Q
= = =
´ ´ ´ ´
´ ´
= =
´ ´
So Q must be on ´ too. ¯
4. In every moment consider the number of persons that are on the escalator at that
time. Now consider the intervals such that in every time of such intervals the
number of persons on the escalator is equal to a fixed integer. Suppose that we have
k intervals
1 2
, , ,
k
I I I . and for 1 i k _ _ ,
i
a and
i
l denotes the length and number
of persons on the escalator in every moment of
i
I . We claim that
1
1
k
i
i
i
a t nl
÷
=
=
_
.
Since every person have moved a distance equal l so the sum of travelled distance of
people is nl . On the other hand travelled distance of a person who is on the
escalator on the interval
i
I equals
i i
a t
÷
. So the sum of travelled distance in the
interval
i
I equals
1
.
i i i i i
a t a t a
÷ ÷
= , hence the total travelled distance is
1
1
i
k
i
i
a t
÷
=
_
.
So the claim is proved.
22
Now consider the following cases.
Case 1. 1 _ . If 1
i
a _ since 1 _ we have
1
1
i
a
÷
_ , hence
1
1
i
a
÷
_ . If 0
i
a =
also
1
0 1
i
a
÷
= _ . So
1
1 1
k
i i i
k
i i
nl a t t
=
÷
=
_ =
_ _
. So the required time is at least nl . If
each person goes on the escalator when the previous one reached the top of the
escalator the required time equals nl . Hence in this case the required time is at least
nl .
Case 2. 1 < . Since
i
a n < and 1 0 ÷ we have
1 1
i
a n
÷ ÷
< so
1 1 1
1 1
1
1
k k k k
i
i i
i
i i
i i i
nl a t n t n t n l t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = =
= = = _ _
_ _ _ _
So the required time is at least n l
. If all n people go on the escalator together the
velocity equals n
÷
and so the required time equals
l
n l
n
÷
= . Hence in this case
the required time is at least n l
. ¯
5. a) Denote by t the number of golden prime numbers less than or equal to 1390
n
.
We want to show that t n _ . Suppose that S is collection of all natural numbers
less than or equal to 1390
n
with prime factors from the set ¦ ¦
1 2
, , ,
t
q q q . . Obviously
each element of S can be written in the form
2
a b where , a b ¸ N and b is out of
square. So
2
1390 1390
n
n
a = _ and
1 2
1 2
t
t
b q q q
= . such that
¦ ¦ 0,1
i
¸ .
Therefore a and b have
2
1390
n
and 2
t
states respectively, and so
2
13 2 90
t
n
S _ .
On the other hand for each integer
2
3
1 1390
n
i k _ _ = we have
1.5
2
1.5
1.5
3
1390 139 . 0
n
n
i
i k a
_ = = _
And all prime divisors of
i
a are in the set
¦ ¦
1 2
, , ,
t
q q q . , so
2
3
1 ( 1390 )
n
i
a S i ¸ _ _ .
Therefore S has at least k
l
l
elements. So
2
2
3
1390 1 1390 2 ,
n
t
n
k S
l
÷ < _ _
l
But
it is easy to check that
1
2
2
3
2 13 1 13 0 90 9 _ ÷ and this implies , t n _ because
2 2
2 3 3 2
1
2
2 1390 (2 (1390 1) 1 1390 390 2 1 90 ) 1 3 .
n n
n
n n t n
= _ ÷ _ ÷ <
¯
b) The proof of this part is very similar to part a. Denote by t the number of golden
prime numbers less than or equal to
2
1390
n
. We want to show that t n _ . Suppose
23
that S is collection of all natural numbers less than or equal to
2
1390
n
with prime
factors from the set
1 2
, , , { }
t
q q q . . Then every element of S can be written in the
form
4 2
a b c where , , a b c ¸ N and , b c are out of square. (In part a writing a as
2
x y
where , x y ¸ N and y is out of square implies this claim.). Now
4
2
2
1390 1390
n
n
a = _ ,
1 2
1 2
t
t
b q q q
= . and
1 2
1 2
t
t
c q q q
= . such that , {0,1}
i i
¸ .
Thus we have
2
1390 , 2
n
t
and 2
t
states for , a b and c respectively and so
2
2
2 1390
n
t
S _ .
In this case if
5
6
1390 1 ( )
n
i i k _ _ = ¸ N then
5
2.4
2
6
2.4 2.4
1390 1390
n
n
i
a i k
_ _ = =
. Although prime divisors of (1 )
i
k a i _ _ are in the set
1 2
, , , { }
t
q q q . so
i
a S ¸ ,
hence
5
2
6 2
1390 1 0 2 139
t
n
n
k S
l
÷ < _ _
l
. On the other hand
1 5
2 6
1390 1 4 390 1 _ ÷ and so
5 5
2
2 6
1
2
6 2 2
2 1390 1390 (1390 ) ( 1390 139 4 ) 1 1 0 2 ,
n
n n
n
n
n t
_ _ = ÷ ÷ <
which implies t n _ . ¯
6. The points should be on a circle (or line) and , A B should separate , A B ´ ´ on it. To
prove necessity, first suppose that the points are not coplanar. Then there exist two
parallel planes passing through , A B and , A B ´ ´ respectively. Any two circles in these
planes are not linking. So the points should be coplanar.
Now suppose B´
is not on the circumcircle of ABA´
(which can be a line). So we can
slightly change the circle to find a circle passing through , A B such that , A B ´ ´ are
both outside or both inside it. Now, this circle is not linking with the circle with
diameter A B ´ ´
orthogonal to the plane containing the points.
So the points should be on a circle (or line). Now, suppose , A B do not separate
, A B ´ ´ on the circle. If we change the circle slightly, still passing through , A B , then
, A B ´ ´ will be both inside or both outside the new circle and we arrive to a
contradiction like the previous case. So, the necessity of the condition is proved.
To prove sufficiency, Let , C C´ be two different circles passing through , A B and
, A B ´ ´ respectively. Let , P P´ be the planes containing , C C´ respectively. If the
points are collinear, then C P ´ ¨ is consisted of a point inside C and a point outside
C . So , C C´ are interlocked. So, suppose the points are on a circle. Let M be the
24
intersection of the segments AB and A B ´ ´ . We have . . AM M M M A B B = ´ ´ . Let
l P P = ´ ¨ which passes through M . M is inside C , so l intersects C at two
points like , X Y and M is between , X Y . Similarly, l intersects C´ at , X Y ´ ´
namely, and M is between , X Y ´ ´ . Suppose , X X´ are in one side of M. We have
. . . . . MA MX MY M MA X MB B M MY ´ ´ ´ ´ = = =
So if MX MX´ _ , then MY MY´ _ and vice versa. So the points of
¦ ¦ , C P X Y ´ ´ ´ ¨ = are in different sides of C or both are on C . So , C C´ are linking
and sufficiency of the condition is proved. ¯
7. Define ( ) max( ) f A A = when A is finite. Evidently, f is A predicator when A is
finite. We extend f to all subsets of N . We say two subsets , A B are equivalent if
B is derived from A by adding and deleting a finite number of elements; i.e. A B ^
is finite. This is an equivalence relation. By the Axiom of Choice, we can select an
element from each class of equivalency. For an arbitrary proper subset A, let
A
S be
the selected element from the class of A . So,
A
A S ^ is finite. Define
( ) max( )
A
f A A S ^ = when
A
A S = and define ) (
A
f S arbitrarily. We claim this
function is Apredicator for all subsets A _ N.
Let x be a natural number such that x A ¸¸ . A and
¦ ¦ A x ' are equivalent, so
{ } A A x
S S
'
= . So
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ( ) max(( ) ( ) max ) (( ) ).
A A
x f A x A x f A A S S x ' = ^ = ^ ^ ^ ^ =
For max( )
A
x A S ^ we have ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ) ( ( ) .
A A
S x A A S x ^ ^ = ^ ' Therefore
¦ ¦) ( f A x x ' = and the claim is proved. ¯
8. a) Let’s name the arithmetic progressions as
1
, ,
n
S S . . Suppose the remainders of
1
, ,
k
a a . modulo p don’t contain r . So no member of
1
, ,
k
S S . is r (mod p ).
Consider the arithmetic progression
¦ ¦ : 0,1, 2, S r ip i = ÷ = . which has empty
intersection with
1
, ,
k
S S . . So S is covered by
1
, ,
k n
S S
÷
. .
Lemma. If , d d´ are coprime natural numbers, then intersection of the arithmetic
progressions ¦ ¦ : 0,1, 2, a kd k ÷ = . and ¦ ¦ : 0,1,2, a kd k ´ ´ ÷ = . is an arithmetic
progression whose common difference is dd´
.
Proof. The sequences have a nonempty intersection by the Chinese remainder
theorem. The difference of two consecutive elements of the intersection is the least
common multiple of , d d´ which is dd´
. ¯
25
According to the lemma, the sets
1
, ,
k n
S S S S
÷
¨ . ¨ are arithmetic progressions
with common differences
1
, ,
k n
d pd p
÷
. . Consider the map
¦ ¦ 0,1 , : , 2 f S ÷ . with
formula ( )
r
f x
x
p
=
÷
. So, the sets
1
( ), , ( )
k n
S f S f S S
÷
¨ . ¨ are arithmetic
progressions with common differences
1
, ,
k n
d d
÷
. . These sets cover the natural
numbers, because S is covered by
1
, ,
k n
S S
÷
. . So
1
, ,
k n
d d
÷
. is also a covering
sequence which contradicts the minimality of
1
, ,
n
d d . . ¯
b) Let
1
, ,
k
p p . be the prime factors of
1
, ,
n
d d . and let
¦ ¦
: 
i i j
I j p d = (which can
contain multiplicities). Suppose the natural numbers are covered by arithmetic
progressions
¦ ¦ : 0,1, 2,
i i i
S a kd k = ÷ = . . We claim that at least one of the sets of
sequences
¦ ¦
:
j i i
I S j = ¸ S covers the natural numbers. As a result, one of the
sequences ¦ ¦ : 
j i j
d p d is a covering sequence.
Suppose for each i the sequences in
i
S doesn’t cover a number
i
r . Let

i j
p
i j
d
D d =
]
.
By the Chinese remainder theorem, there is a natural number r such that
i
r r =
mod
i
D for each i . So r is not covered by any of the arithmetic progressions, a
contradiction. So the claim is proved.
Now, it is enough to suppose
i
r
i
d p = . We claim it is a covering sequence if and only
if
1
1
i i
d
_
_
and it is minimal if and only if
1
1
i i
d
=
_
.
i) First, suppose we have covered the natural numbers by progressions
i
S as
above. For any natural number N ,
i
S covers at most
1
i
N
d
÷
members of
¦ ¦ 1, , N . . So we have
1
i i
N
N
d
÷
_
_
. So
1
1
i i
N
d N
_
÷
_
. So we should have
1
1
i i
d
_
_
.
ii) Second, suppose
1
1
i i
d
_
_
. We use induction on n to prove that this is a
covering sequence. If 1 n = it is evident. If not, let
i
n be the number of
i
p
.
’s
in
1
, ,
n
d d . . We can suppose
0
0 n = . There should exist i such that
i
n p _ ,
or else
2
1 1 1
( 1)( ) 1
i i
p
d p
p
< ÷ ÷ ÷ =
_
. Remove p ones of
i
p ’s and add a
1 i
p
÷
to
1
, ,
n
d d . . The sum doesn’t change. So, cover the natural numbers by
progressions according to the induction hypothesis. Now, split a progression
26
with common difference
1 i
p
÷
into p progressions with common difference
i
p .
The induction claim is proved.
iii) Moreover, suppose
1
1
i i
d
_
. Suppose
1 n
d d _ _ . We have
n
n
i i
d
d
d
_
and the summands are natural numbers. So
1
1
1
i i n
d d
_ ÷
_
. So, we can
remove
n
d and the sequence is not minimal. ¯
27
Third Round
1. Lemma. Suppose 2 n _ is an integer, then all of the numbers , , ,
0 1
n n n
n
í 1 í 1 í 1
· · ·
· · ·
· · ·
· · ·
.
( ) ( ) ( )
are odd
if and only if 2 1
k
n = ÷ for an integer 2 k _ .
Proof. For an integer t , let ( ) v t be the greatest integer u such that 2 
u
n . We
know that
“ If , p q ¸ N and 0 2
q
p _ _ then ) (2 ( ) ) (2
q q
p v p v v p ÷ = = ÷ ” (1)
Because if 2
a
p b = with , a b ¸ N and b an odd number then a q < and
2 (2 2 )
q a q a
p b
÷
± = ± where 2
q a
b
÷
± are odd numbers.
Now there is one and only one m ¸ N such that
1
2 2
m m
n
÷
_ < . Let 2
m
n s = ÷
with 0 2
m
s _ < . Now consider the number
2 1
m
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
÷
. We have
2 2 1) (2 1)(2 )
2 1 1 (1)( 1
(2 )(2
.
) 1 ( 1 ) 2
m m
m m m m
m m
n s s s s
s s s s
í 1 í 1 í 1
· · ·
· · ·
· · ·
· · · ÷ ·
( ) ( ) ( )
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
By (1) we have (2 ) ( )
m
i i v v = ÷ where 1 i s _ _ , therefore
((2 ) ( 1 2 )) ( !),
m m
s s v v ÷ = ÷
and by assumption
2 1
m
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
÷
is odd therefore (2 ) ( 1)
m
v v s = ÷ and consequently
2  1
m
s ÷ and 1 1 s ÷ _ . Hence we have 2 1
m
s ÷ _ and therefore 2 1
m
s = ÷ and
1
2 2 1
m m
n s
÷
= ÷ = ÷ .
Now if 2 1
k
n = ÷ for some natural number k , for each 1 c n _ _ we have
(2 )(2 ) (2 )
2
(1)(2
1
1
) ( )
2
k
k k k
c
c c
í 1
·
÷
·
·
·
÷ ÷ ÷
=
( )
and by (1) we know for 1 l c _ _
(2 ) ( )
k
l l v v = ÷ , so
2 1
k
c
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
÷
is odd for 0 c n _ _ . ¯
Now we return to main problem:
Positive integer n has the property of the problem if and only if all the numbers
n
i
i
í 1
·
·
·
·
)
÷
(
(0 ) i n _ _ have the same parity. It means that for every 0 1 i n _ _ ÷ ,
,
1
n n
i i ÷
í 1 í 1
· ·
· ·
· ·
· ·
( ) ( )
have different parities. So
1
1 1
n n n
i i i
í 1 í 1 í 1
· · ·
· · · =
· · ·
· · ·
( ) ( ( )
÷
÷ ÷
)
÷ 1 1 ) ( i n _ _ ÷ is odd
28
and as we know
0
1
1 n
í 1
·
· =
·
·
( )
÷
is also odd. Therefore by the lemma this is equivalence
to 2 1 1
k
n ÷ = ÷ for some integer 2 k _ so 2 2
k
n = ÷ where 2 k _ is an integer.
¯
2. Let T be the point of intersection of
perpendicular bisector of BC and circle , so
TD is a diagonal of and 90 DFT . = ° .
Since D is the midpoint of arc
´
BAC , FD is
the angle bisector of . BFC . Therefore
( ) 1 JEBC = ÷ where J is the intersection
point of line TF and extension of BC .
´
1 1 1
( ) ( )
2 2 2
EJF CT BF BT BF FT TAF EPF . = ÷ = ÷ = = . = .
So quadrilateral PEFJ is cyclic and consequently 90 JPE . = ° . This fact and
( ) 1 JEBC = ÷ implies that PE is the angle bisector of BPC . and this is what we
wanted to prove. ¯
3. For each , ( )
p p
y S p x = ¸ suppose that
, , , ,
: 0 (1 )
i p i p i p i p
a x b y c i n L ÷ ÷ = _ _ are
n lines that cover { } S p ÷ . We know that
1, 2, , p p n p
p L L L ¸ ¸ ¸¸ . Let
, , ,
,
1
, , ,
, , ,
( ( ) ( 0) , )
i p i p i p
p i p i p p i p p i p
i p p
n
i p p i i p
x b y c
x y L x b y c
x b y c
a
P p a
a
=
÷ ÷
= ¸ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
]
p
P is a polynomial of degree n in two variables and we have
{ }
 0
S p p
P
÷
= and
( ) 1
p
P p = so { }
p p S
P
¸
are linearly independent in
n
F , where
n
F denotes the vector
space of polynomials in two variables of degree less than or equal to n , therefore
2
2
n
n
dimF S
í 1
·
·
·
·
)
÷
(
_ = .
29
Now we give an example of S with
2
2
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
÷
points.
Consider
n
U be
2
2
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
÷
points forming a triangular lattice (The left figure above
shows
8
U .) Then 1 2 ( )
2
1
2
n
U
n
n
÷
í 1
·
· = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
·
·
( )
. For every point
n
p U ¸ we
can cover { }
n
U p ÷ with n lines (Right figure above shows an example for 8 n = ).
Now we use induction on n to prove that we cannot cover
n
U with n lines. The
base 1 n = is obvious. Assume the statement to be true for 1 n k = ÷ and suppose
n
U is covered with 1 k ÷ lines. Now consider line L which points
1 2 2
, , ,
k
A A A
÷
. lie
on it. We must have L in our 1 k ÷ lines because if we do not have it then we must
cover
1 2 2
, , A ,
k
A A
÷
. with at least 2 k ÷ distinct lines. Now
1 k k
U U L
÷
= ÷ and
according to the induction hypothesis
k
U cannot be covered with k lines so the
statement was proved. ¯
Comment. The minimum possible number of elements of S is 2 1 n ÷ . Obviously we
have 2 1 S n _ ÷ . Also any 2 1 n ÷ points such that no three of them are collinear is
an example.
4. Solution 1. Let
i
N for 0 3 i _ _ be the set of squares with i sides in the cycle and
let
i
n be the number of such squares. There are a total number of mn squares, so
(1)
i
i
n mn =
_
Each vertex that is not on the boundary is adjacent to 2 edges and there are
( 1)( 1) m n ÷ ÷ such vertices. So
2( 1)( 1) (2)
i
i
in m n = ÷ ÷
_
For each 90 degree turn in the cycle, consider the square that contains its two
adjacent edges. This square has at least two adjacent edges in the cycle. If we let
2
N´
be the set of squares with only two opposite sides in the cycle, then each square in
2 2
\ N N´ is counted once, each square in
3
N is counted twice and no other squares is
counted. So
2 3
) ( 2 A n B n ÷ ÷ ´ =
Where A´
is the number of 90 degree turns. By subtracting equation (1) from
equation (2) we get
30
0
2( 1)( 1) B m n mn A n ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
´
=
and so
0
( 1)(
( 1)( 1)
1)
1.
B n mn
A m n
m n
B m n
A
C
= ÷ ´
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
¯
Solution 2.
Lemma 1. Let P be an arbitrary cycle in the graph with length more than 4 , such
that no vertex is inside . P Then the number of vertices of P with no 90degree turns
( ) A is 2 2 2 B C ÷ ÷ , where B is the number of squares inside P with only two
opposite sides in P and C is the number of squares inside P with no edge in P .
Proof. We use induction on k , the number of squares inside , P which is more than
one by assumption. For 2 k = the assertion is trivial. Suppose 2 k . Consider a
new graph whose nodes are the centers of the squares inside P and two nodes are
adjacent if and only if their corresponding squares have a common edge (not
necessarily in P ). This graph is trivially connected and has no cycles, because if it
has a cycle, then there is a vertex inside it which is also inside P . So the graph is a
tree and has a leaf. Consequently, there is a square Q inside P with three sides in
P . Consider the induction hypothesis for the cycle obtained by deleting these three
edges and adding the remaining side of Q :
2 2 2. B C A´ = ´ ÷ ´ ÷
Let xyzt be the path in P with the vertices of Q . Consider the following cases. The
claims can be easily proved.
There are
90
degree turns at both x and t . In
this case we have 2 A A´ = ÷ . Also
1, B C C B = ´ ÷ = ´
or , 1 C C B B´ = ´ ÷ =
depending on ’s Q adjacent square inside P .
There is a
90
degree turn at only one of , x t .
In this case we have A A = ´ , B B = ´ and
C C = ´ .
There is no
90
degree turn at x and t . In this
case we have 2 A A = ´ ÷ , 1 B B = ´ ÷ and
C C = ´
.
31
The induction claim follows trivially in each case. ¯
Using this lemma, we get
2 ) 2 2 , (3 C A B´ ÷ ´ ÷ =
where , B C ´ ´ are the number of squares inside P with the same properties as , B C .
Let R be the inner ( 2) ( 2) m n ÷ ÷ rectangles and draw its boundary together with
the edges of P . These edges partition the square into some regions. It is easily seen
that the boundary of each region, other than the inside of P and the outmost
region, is a cycle containing one edge in the boundary of R and a path in P . Use
the lemma for each region to get
2 2 2, 1 , (4)
i i i
B C i t A = ÷ ÷ _ _
where t is the number of mentioned regions. It is easily seen that
1,
),
4,
1
(
2
i
i
i
i
i
i
B B B
C C C t
A A A A
´ ÷
´ ÷
´ ÷
= ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ´´
_
_
_
where A´´ is the number of vertices without 90 degree turns that on the boundary of
. R Now the assertion follows easily by substituting equation (3) and (4) in
A B C ÷ ÷
.
¯
5. We claim that for every k ¸ N
and real numbers
1 2
2
, ,...,
k
a a a :
¦ ¦
1 2 1 2
2 2
( ) 2 max ( ), ( ), , ( )
k k
k
f a a a f a f a f a _ . ÷ ÷ ÷
Proof is done by induction on k .Basis is obviously the condition (iii). Suppose the
claim is true for k . For 1 k ÷ we have:
¦ ¦
1 1
1
1
1
1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2
1 2
2 2 1 2
1 2 2 2 1 2
1
1 2 2
( ) (( ) ( ))
2max{ ( ) ( )}
2max 2 max{ ( ), ( ), , ( )},2 max{ ( ), , ( )}
2 max{ ( ), ( ), , ( )}
k k k k
k k k
k k k
k
k k
k
f a a a f a a a a a
f a a a f a a
f a f a f a f a f a
f a f a f a
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
_ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
_ .
_
.
.
Now suppose that
1
2 2
k k
n
÷
< _ :
1 1
2
1
1 1
( ) ( 0 0 0)
2 max{ ( ), , ( ), (0), , (0)}
2 max{ ( ), , ( )} 2 max{ ( ), , ( )}
k
n n
k
n
k
n n
n
f a a f a a
f a f a f f
f a f a n f a f a
÷
_ .
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= _
.
. .
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
1
2
k
n
÷
< So 2 2
k
n < and this implies the last inequality.
32
If we put
1 2
1
n
a a a = = = = then ( ) (1 1 1) 2 (1)
n
f n f nf = ÷ ÷ ÷ _
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
. Therefore
0
0
0 0
( ( )) (( ) ) ( ) 2( 1) max{ ( )}
2( 1) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4( 1) (1) ( ) ( )
4( 1) (1)( ( ) ( ))
n
n n i n i i n i
i
i
n n
i
n
n i i n i
i i
n
n n
f a b f a b f a b n f a b
i i
n n
n f f a f b n f f a f b
i i
n f f a f b f
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
_ _
= =
í 1 í 1
· ·
· · ÷ = ÷ = _ ÷
· ·
· ·
( ) ( )
í 1 í 1
· ·
· · _ ÷ _ ÷
· ·
· ·
( ) ( )
= ÷ ÷ =
_
_ _
( ) 4( 1) (1)( ( ) ( ))
n
a b n f f a f b ÷ _ ÷ ÷
If n tends to infinity, we have 4( 1) (1) 1
n
n f ÷ ÷ and this implies the desired result.
¯
6. , ,
a e
are three equal circles and , , A B E ´ are other intersection points of these
circles. By some angle chasing it is easy to prove that , , , A A B E ´ form an
orthocentric system of points.(each one is the orthocenter of others.) so A´ is
orthocenter of triangle EAB . Similarly , , B C D ´ ´ ´ and E´ are orthocenter of triangles
, , ABC BCD CDE and DEA respectively. Note that AE ´ and BC ´ are both
perpendicular to AB so they are parallel. On the other hand AA BE ´ l so
E=
1
90
2
90 AA AEB AB . ´ ° ÷. = ° ÷ ,
Similarly
1
0 90
2
=9 B B B C CA AB . ´ ° ÷. = ° ÷ . Therefore AAE B BC . ´ = . ´ . Since
,
b e
have equal radius, AE BC ´ = ´ are of equal length and parallel, consequently
quadrilateral AB CE ´ ´ is parallelogram. Thereby segment AB ´ ´ is parallel to the
diagonal CE of pentagon and they have equal length. Similarly pairs of segments
, , ( ),( ), ( ) , C AD D B C BE CA D E ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ and ( ) , E A DB ´ ´ are parallel and have equal length.
So the sides of pentagon E ABC D ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ and diagonals of pentagon ABCDE are of
equal length and angle between sides equals to angle between corresponding
diagonals.
Now consider pentagon
1 1 1 1 1
BC A D E , similar to ABCDE such that
1 1
AB AB  and
1 1
2 AB AB = (and similar relations for other sides.). Let
2 2 2 2 2
, , , , B D A C E be
midpoints of sides
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
, , , C A E E A D D B and
1 1
BC respectively. By Thales’ theorem,
1 2 1 2
B A C E  and
2 2 1 1
1
2
A C B E = . Other sides have similar situation, so pentagons
ABCDE and
2 2 2 2 2
B C A D E are equal. Therefore we have
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
)
) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
(
( ) (
( ) ( )
4 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
S ABCDE S A
S A
S ABC
B C D E
BC D E S A B D
DE S CDE S DEA
S B C E S C D A S D E B
S EAB S ABC
S E AC
S BCD
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
33
Let S be area of pentagon ABCDE ,
1
S area of pentagon
1 1 1 1 1
BC A D E and by S´
sum of area of triangles , , , , ABC BCD CDE DEA EAB so the
assertion is equivalent to
2 . ( ) S S S _ ´ _ +
The right hand inequality in (*) is easy, because if we color
triangles , , , ABC BCD CDE DEA and EAB each region in
pentagon ABCDE is colored at most two times.
We claim that in every convex pentagon the sum of area of corner triangles is more
than or equal to area of pentagon.
Consider a convex pentagon . ABCDE
Obviously, There exist two adjacent angles
with some more than 180° . Suppose that
these two angles are D . and E . . Now fix
points , , B C D and E in the plane and move
point A. Since ABCDE is convex, place of
point A must be in the shaded region (Look
at the figure) which is convex itself.
Let ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f A S ABC S BCD S CDE S DEA S BCDE = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ . We must prove
( ) 0 f A _ for every point A in mentioned convex region. f is a linear function of A
defined in a convex region, so f takes its minimum at corner points B , E or ·.
( )
( ) 0 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 (
0,
0,
0. )
f
f B S BCD S CDE S DEB S BCDE
f E S EBC S BCD S CDE S BCDE
= ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
÷ ÷
·
_
_ ÷
·
So f is nonnegative in this region and the assertion is proved. ¯
7. First we claim that for every positive integer k , the edges which their numbers are
divisible by k form a cluster. Indeed, suppose on the contrary that S is the largest
cluster such that the number of its edges is divisible by k and v S ¸¸
is another such
edge. Applying problem statement on edge v and edges of cluster we get there exists
a larger cluster with number on edges divisible by k .
Now suppose that
2
p
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
where p is a prime number. Therefore the edges with
numbers divisible by
1
2 p
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
form a cluster and the number of such edges is p. So
34
2 ( 1)
 1  2 2 or 3 3, 3
 1  2 1 or
2
2 !
p p t t
p t t t t t p
p t t t t Contradicti
t
on
í 1
·
· = = = ÷
·
·
( )
'
= ÷ = = = = = = 1
1
=
!
1 ÷ = = = = =
1
+
Thereby the only prime divisor of
2
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
is three, so 3
2
a
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
= where a ¸ N. If 1 a =
and so 3 n = and numbers 1, 2, 3 satisfies problem statement. If 1 a there exist 9
multiple of
1
9 2
n
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
among numbers, but 9 cannot be written in the form
2
t
í 1
·
·
·
·
( )
so for
3 n such numbers do not exist. ¯
8. Let ( ) ( ) h x f x x = ÷ , So we have
( ( ) ( ) 2 ) 2 ( ). (1) h h x g x x y h y ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Hence For every , , x y z
÷
¸ R we have
( ( ) ( ) 2 ) 2 ( ) ( ( ) ( ) 2 ). (2) h h x g x x y h y h h z g z z y ÷ ÷ ÷ = = ÷ ÷ ÷
There exist some , x z
÷
¸ R such that ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) T h x g x x h z g z z = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ is
positive. Otherwise ( ) ( ) h x g x x ÷ ÷ must be constant. So
( ) ( ) (1) (1) 1 ( ) ( ) , h x g x x h g h x g x x C ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = = ÷ ÷ ÷
where (1) (1) 1 C h g = ÷ ÷ (constant). By definition of ( ) h x we get
( ) ( ) . f x g x C = ÷ ÷
But coefficients of ( ) g x all are positive, therefore ( ) g x ÷ ÷· as x ÷ ÷· so
( ) g x C for large values x , Which contradicts the assumption that ( ) f x
÷
¸ R for
every x
÷
¸ R . Therefore function ( ) h x is periodic because according to equation (2)
for each , , x z
÷
¸ R ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) T h x g x x h z g z z = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ is a period for h . (We can
choose , x z
÷
¸ R such that 0 T .) Therefore
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . S x h x T g x T x T h x g x x g x T g x T = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( ) S x is a period for h for every x
÷
¸ R . Since ( ) g x is a polynomial of degree at
least two, ( ) S x is not constant and is a function of x such that its image contains all
numbers greater than a fixed positive real number A and this implies that ( ) h x is
constant for every x
÷
¸ R and so ( ) h x K = for some constant K . Now we replace
function h by K in (1)
( ( ) ( ) 2 ) 2 ( ) 2 0
( ) 0 ( ) .
h h x g x x y h y K K K
h x x f x x x
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = = = = =
= = \ = = \ ¸ ¸ R R
¯
35
9. Suppose
1
is tangent to , AB AD at
1 1
, P Q respectively and
2
is tangent to
, CD BC at
2 2
, P Q respectively.
Lemma. Let a circle be tangent to the halflines , BA BC at , P Q respectively. is
tangent to
1
if and only if
1
BP AB AP ± = for some choice of the sign.
Proof.
1
PP is the common external tangent of and
1
. So
1
, are tangent if
and only if
1 1
2 PP rr = , where
1
, r r are the radii of
1
, respectively. If we let
2 ABC . = , then . tan r BP = and
1
. cot AP r = . So
1 1
2 . 2 rr BP AP = . So
1
, are tangent if and only if
1 1
2 . AB AP BP BP AP = ± ÷ ÷ and the claim
follows. ¯
By assumption, there is a circle tangent to the lines , DA DC at , Q P respectively
and externally tangent to
1 2
, . It is easily seen that should be inside the angel
ADC . . So, by the lemma we have:
1
2
DQ AD AQ
DP CD CP
= ±
= ±
for some choice of the signs. We have DP DQ = ,
1 1
AQ AP = ,
2 2
CP CQ = ,
AD BC = and CD AB = . So by the above equations we get
1 2 2 1
. BC AP AB CQ BC CQ AB AP ± ± ± ± = = =
Let ´ be a circle tangent to the halflines , BA BC at , P Q ´ ´ respectively, such that
both sides of this equation are equal to BP´ (note that the value is positive). So ´
is tangent to
1 2
, by the lemma and the assertion is proved. ¯
10. Solution 1. By Holder Inequality we have
36
3 3
1
( )( )( 1) ( ) ( ) .
3
cyc cyc cyc cyc cyc cyc
a a a a
bc a a
bc bc
_ _ =
_ _ _ _ _ _
So it suffices to have
2 4 3
1
( ) 3( ) ( ) 3 7
3
3 2
cyc cyc cyc cyc
a a a a _ = _ = _
_ _ _ _
Now suppose that
4
27
cyc
a <
_
. It suffices to prove that
4
3. 27
cyc
a a
bc
_
_
, but
we have
1
3
6
3 3( ) ( )
cyc
a a
abc
bc
a a
bc
÷
_ = +
] _
by AMGM inequality
2 2 1
4
3 3 6
1 5 1 3 ( )
4 4
6 4 2 4
1
3
3( ) ( ) 3 ( ) 3
3( ) 3 3 3 .3 3. 27.
cyc
cyc
ab
a
a
a
bc
bc abc abc
abc
÷ ÷
+
÷
_ = _ = _
= _ =
=
_ = =
_
_
¯
Solution 2. First by CauchySchwarz inequality we have
2
2
( ) ( )( ) .
cyc c cyc yc
a
bc a
bc a
a _
_ _ _
So it suffices to prove that
2
( ) 3 ( )( ).
cyc cyc cyc cyc
a ab abc bc a _
_ _ _ _
Since 1
cyc
ab =
_
.
But by AMGM and CauchySchwarz we have
2
1
6
1
3
1
Cauchy–Schwarz
3
1
( Cauchy–Schwarz
3
3.( ) ( ) (3)
3.( )
(
( )
) (1)
) ( ) (2)
(4)
cyc cyc
cyc cyc
cyc
cyc
abc AM GM
a
ab ab
a
bc A GM
a
a
M a
_
_
_ ÷
_ ÷
_ _
_ _
_
_
Multiplying (1), (2),(3) and (4) finishes the proof. ¯
11. We can suppose the 60° angle between l and halfline CO is in the same side of
CO as B . We take all angles with a plus or minus sign according to their
37
orientations and consider them modulo 180° . It can be seen that points , , , X Y Z T
are on a circle (or line) if and only if T XYZ X Z . = . .
Let B AOC CO . = . = . We have
(90 120 360 30
(60 ) 9
) 150
0 30 30
2 .
CMA APC
NB CPB
APB AO
C
B
. = ° ° ÷ ° ° = . = ÷ °
. = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° =
÷ ÷
. = ÷ °
= . = = .
= ÷
÷ =
Thus, point P is on the circumcircle of AOB
and so CP CA CO = = .
So 30 AP APC C . = . = ÷ ° . Since
C CAO AO . = . = then 30 OAP . = °
Now
2 60 CP OP AP O O . = = . = ° . So,
triangle OCP is equilateral and so OC OP = .
So, and the circumcircles of triangles CAM
and CBN are symmetric with respect to the
perpendicular bisector of CP . By considering
their intersections, we get PQ CA = and PR CB = . So, PQ PR = and OP is the
perpendicular bisector of QR (If D is the intersection of AM and CN , the
condition on
ˆ
AOB only ensures that B is between , D N to have similar figures). ¯
12. We divide subgroups into three groups
1) Subset such that ( ( ) ) 0 g f = = .
2) One element subsets. Of course we know that for an arbitrary element of this
group like X , ) ( 0 f X = and ( ) 1 g X = .
So for one element subsets we have
1
( ( ) ( ))
A
f A g A n
=
÷ = ÷
_
.
3) Subsets with at least two elements.
For subsets in group 3. For integers 1 i j n _ _ _ Let
ij
A be the collection of such
binary strings of length n that the first 1 lies in the i ‘s place and the last 1 lies in
the j ’s place. Hence, if i j < and
1 2 n
a A X a a = ¸ then
1
, ,
j i
a a
÷
. can be 0 or 1
so
1
2
j i
ij
A
÷ ÷
= . For {0,1} a ¸ let 1 a = if 0 a = and 0 a = if 1 a = .
For every
1 2 n ij
X a a a A ¸ = we define
1 1 1 i i j j n
X a a a a a a
÷ ÷
= . (We change
the numbers between first and last 1.) Now we compare ( ) f X and ( ) g X . (There is
bijection between binary strings of length n and subsets of {1, 2, } , n . so we can
define f and g on binary strings.)
For the largest block of 1’s in X we have three cases:
38
Case 1. The largest block contains places i and j . So
1
1
i i j
a a a
÷
= = = = ,
hence ( ) f X j i = ÷ and ( ) 1 g X j i = ÷ ÷ . Thus ( ) ( ) 1 f X g X ÷ = ÷ .
Case 2. The largest block contains exactly one of places i or j . So for example for
some ) ( k i k j _ < ,
1
1
i k i
a a a
÷
= = = = and
1
0
k
a
÷
= . Therefore we deduce
that ( ) 1 g X k i = ÷ ÷ and ( ) 1 k i f X _ ÷ ÷ . Hence ( ) ( ) 0 f X g X _ ÷
Case 3. The largest block contains none of i and j . So for example for some k and
l i l k j < _ < we have
1 1
1 0,
k k l
a a a
÷ ÷
= = = = and 0
l
a = . Thus
( ) 1 g X l k = ÷ ÷ and ( ) f X l k _ ÷ . Hence ( ) ( ) 1 f X g X _ ÷ .
Note that for each 1 i j n _ < _ one of elements of
ij
A satisfies the condition of
case1 and there are
4
2 1
n÷
÷ binary strings
1 2
a
n
a X a = such that
1
0
n
a a = =
and
2 1
0
n
a a
÷
= =
also they have another 1.
4
1
( ( ) ( )) ( 1) ( 1)(2 1).
2
ij
n
X A
i j n
n
f X g X
÷
¸
_ < _
í 1
·
· ÷
·
·
( )
_ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
_
Our conclusions are summed up in the following result.
4
2 1 ( ( .
2
) ( ))
X
n
n
f X g X n
÷
í 1
·
· _ ÷ ÷
·
÷
·
)
÷
(
_
But it is very easy to prove by induction that for 10 n _ we have
4
2
2 1
n
n
n
÷
í 1
·
· ÷ ÷
·
·
( )
and this implies the assertion. ¯
13. Lemma 1. Suppose that
1
l and
2
l are two lines which intersect at O and the angle
between them is . Then the composition of reflections with respect to
1
l and
2
l is
rotation with center O and angle 2. ¯
Lemma 2. Suppose that
1
R and
2
R are two rotations with centers
1
O and
2
O and
directed angles and respectively. Then if 2 ( ) k k ÷ =¸ ¸ Z the composition
of
2
R and
1
R is a rotation with center O and directed angle ÷ where O is a
point such that
1 2
1
2
OOO . = and
2 1
1
2
OOO . = else if 2k ÷ = for some
integer k then this composition is a translation. ¯
Lemma 3. Consider a 2
k
gon with center O and radius of circumcircle r . Let
1 2
2
, , ,
k
A A A . be its vertices clockwise and
i
R be the rotation with center
i
A and angle
39
2
2
k
clockwise. Then
1
2
2
sin( )
k
k
OO r
÷
´ = where
1
2 2 1
( R )
k k
O R R O
÷
´ = · · · . (Note
that
1
sin( ) 2
2
k
k
r
÷
is the perimeter of 2
k
gon.)
Proof. Proof is by induction on k . For the base case 2 k = it is easy to verify that
2 1
4 2 2 sin( )
4
O r r O
÷
= = ´ . Now suppose that
1
1 2
2
k
A A A
÷
. is a
1
2
k ÷
gon with
radius of circumcircle r and let
i
R be the rotation with center
i
A and angle
1
2
2
k
÷
clockwise (1 2
k
i _ _ ). According to the lemma 2 composition
2 2 1
R
i i i
S R
÷
= · is a
rotation of angle
1
2
2 2
2 2
k k
÷
= clockwise and center
i
B . Where
i
B is a point such
that
2 2 1 2 1 2
2
2
2
i i i i i i
k
A A B A A B
÷ ÷
÷
= . . = . By definition of
i
B we have
2
2 2 1
2 2
.
cos( ) cos(
2 2 2
2 2
)
i
i i i i i
k k
A O r
B A O B A O B O
÷
÷ ÷
. = . = = = =
And also
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2
2 2 2 2
.
2 2 2 2
i i i i i i i i
k k k k
OB OA A OA A O B B B
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
. . . ÷ ÷ ÷ = . = = ÷
So
1 2
2
k
B B B is a regular 2
k
gon with center O and radius of circumcircle
2
2
cos( )
2
.
k
r
÷
Therefore according to the induction hypothesis we have
1 2
1
1
2 sin( ) 2 sin( ) .
2
c
2
os
2
( )
k k
k k
k
r
OO r
÷ ÷
÷
÷
´ = =
Where
1
2 2 1
( )
k k
O S S S O
÷
´ = · · · , but by definition
2 2 1
R
i i i
S R
÷
= · and so
1 1
1 1
2 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ( )
k k k k
O R O S S R R O S
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
´ = = · · · · · ·
This completes the proof of the lemma. ¯
We proceed the proof in two different ways.
Solution 1. Let
1 2
2
, , ,
k
A A A . be the vertices of 2
k
gon such that
1 i i i
A l A
÷
= where
1
2 1
k
A A
÷
= and
i
L be the reflection with respect to
i
l (1 ) 2
k
i _ _ . Invoking the
lemma1 the composition
2 2 1 i i i
L R L
÷
= ·
1
2 (1 )
k
i
÷
_ _ is a rotation with center
2i
A
and angle
1
2
2
k
÷
.
2 4
2
A
k
A A are vertices of a
1
2
k÷
gon with center O. So by lemma3
if
1 1
1
2 2 1
( )
k k
R O R O R
÷ ÷
÷
´ = · · · , We have
1
sin( 2
2
)
k
k
OO r
÷
´ = . Since
40
2 2 1 i i i
L R L
÷
= · then
1
2 2 1
( )
k k
L L O L O
÷
´ = · · · so it suffices to prove that
1
sin( ) 2
2
k
k
r
÷
is less than the perimeter of 2
k
gon which equals
1
sin( ) 2
2
k
k
r
÷
.
1
1
1
sin( )cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
sin( )
sin( ) sin( )
2 2
k k k k k
k k
k k
r r
÷
÷
÷
= < <
<
=
=
And this finishes our proof. ¯
Solution 2. We prove the assertion of problem for regular polygon with even number
of sides. Denote by
1 2 2
, , ,
k
A A A . the vertices of this polygon clockwise and let
1 i i i
A l A
÷
= for 1 2 i k _ _ where
2 1 1 k
A A
÷
= .
Now suppose that
i
L is the reflection with respect to
i
l . Invoking the lemma 1 we
deduce
2 2 1
(1 )
i i i
i R L k L
÷
_ _ = · is a rotation with center
2i
A and angle
2 ( 1) k
k
÷
in triangular direction, but we have
(
)
2 )
( 1 2
1
k
k
k
k
=
÷
÷ so the composition
1 1 k k
R R R
÷
· · · is a translation by lemma2. So it suffices to prove that the length
of the vector of translation is not greater than the perimeter of 2k ÷gon.
Let
1 1 1 2 2 1 1
( ), ( ), , ( )
k k k
R A R B B R B B B
÷
= = . = and l be the length of sides of
polygon. We must prove that
1
2
k
B A kl _ . We have
2 1 2 1 1 2
4
4 1 4 3 3 2 2
2 2
1
4
6 2 6 5 5 4 4 2
2 1 1 2 2
is a rotation with center
is a rotat
( )
3
3 ( )
5
ion
(2 1) (
with center
2 1) 2
k k k k k k
A B l R
A B A A A A A B l
B l R
A B A A A A A B l
A B k l AB AA A B l k l k
A l A A
A
l
A
=
= _ ÷ ÷ _
= _
= _ ÷ ÷ _
= _ ÷ = _ ÷ ÷
=
÷ =
=
_
.
So it finishes the proof. ¯
Comment. Another proof can be given by complex numbers and think of rotations as
multiplying by a complex number.
14. First suppose the case that none of the numbers are zero. Note that there exist at
least 1000 positive numbers or at least 1000 negative numbers among these 2000
numbers. If there exist at least 1000 negative numbers and we put these 1000
numbers as roots of a degree 1000 polynomial all its coefficients are positive. So in
every case we have 1000 positive numbers.
41
Now take 1000 positive numbers and put the 1000 remaining numbers as roots of a
polynomial, all of its coefficients are positive, so the numbers must be negative.
Therefore there is 1000 positive and 1000 negative numbers. If we put 1000
positive numbers as roots of a polynomial its coefficients are alternating positive and
negative. This is a contradiction because remaining 1000 numbers all are negative.
The contradiction shows that there at least one number equal to zero among
numbers.
Denote by k the number of zeros among numbers so 0 k . If 1000 k < , then put
these k numbers zero and arbitrary 1000 k ÷ numbers among others as roots of a
polynomial. The product of roots is zero so there exists another number equal to zero
and this contradicts the definition of k , thereby 1000 k . Now put 1000 numbers
equal to zero as roots of a polynomial this polynomial is
1000
x , so other numbers are
equal to zero. So there do not exist 2000 numbers with mentioned property. ¯
15. We have
3 3 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1 1 1
.
1
(
1
)
x y x y
x y
xy xy
x y x y
x y
x y x y x y x y
x y y
x y
x y x
= = ÷ = ÷
= ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
= +
Now we have three cases:
Case1.
2
2
2 0 ( , ) (0, 0),(1,1),( 1, 1)
1
1 or 0
x
x y x x y x
x
= = = = = ÷ = = = ÷
÷
Case2. x y . Let 0 k x y = ÷ so by ( ) + we have
2 2
2 2
1 1
k
x
k
y
k
x y
÷ ÷
= ÷
÷ ÷
. If 1 x _
or 1 y _ by using main equation we get ( , ) ( 1, 0),(1, 2),(0, 1),( 2, 1) x y = ÷ ÷ ÷ . Now we
can assume , 1 x y
2
2 2
2
1
1 0 1
x
x k x
x k
÷
÷ < = < <
÷
÷ and similarly
2
2
0 1
1 y
y k
÷
÷
< < , therefore
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0 2 1
1 1
. (
1
)
1 1
1
1
x y x y
k k
x y x y k k
< = ÷ < = = = = ÷ ++
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
On the other hand 1 x so
2
3 x and
2 2
1 2 2 x x ÷ ÷ , consequently
2
2
1 1
1
2
x
x
÷
÷
, similarly
2
2
1 1
1
2
y
y
÷
÷
, therefore
2 2
2 2
1
1
1
1
1
x y
x y
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
. Contradicts ( ) ++
42
Case3. x y < . Let 0 t y x = ÷ so by ( ) + we have
2 2
2 2
1 1 x y
t
t x t y
÷ ÷
= ÷
÷ ÷
and by
adding
2 2
2 2
2
t x t y
t x t y
÷ ÷
= ÷
÷ ÷
to both sides we get
2 2
1
2
1
t
t x t
t t
y
÷ ÷
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
.
We claim that
2
t x ÷ and
2
t y ÷ are not positive, simultaneously. Assume by
contrary
2 2
0, 0 t x t y ÷ ÷ then
2 2 2 2 2 2
2( ) 2 ( 1) , ( 1) 2 t x y x t x t y y x y ÷ ÷ = ÷ = = ÷ ÷ < .
This contradicts because , 1 x y . Therefore at least one of fractions
2
1 t
t x
÷
÷
and
2
1 t
t y
÷
÷
is less than or equal to 0 and the other less than or equal to 1 t ÷ . So
2 2
1 1
0 ( 1) . 2 t
t x t
t
t t
y
t ÷
÷ = ÷ _ ÷
÷
÷
<
÷
÷
This contradiction shows that case3 does not have a new solution and these are all
the solutions: (0, 0),(1,1),( 1, 1),( 1, 0),(1,2),(0,1),( 2, 1). ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¯
16. Lemma. Let p be an odd prime number and k a positive integer then we have
1
0
0 1 
(mod ).
1 1 
p
i
k
p k
i p
p k
÷
=
'
÷ ¸ 1
1
=
!
1÷ ÷
1
+
_
Proof. If 1  p k ÷ the statement is obvious by Fermat Little Theorem. For 1  p k ÷ ¸
consider g a primitive root modulo p then
1 1 1
( 1)
0 1 1
0 (mod ) ( 1  1).
1
1
k k i
p p p
k p
i i
k
k
i
k
g
i i g
g
p p k g
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= = =
= = = = ÷ ¸ = =¸
÷
÷
_ _ _
¯
Now for every polynomial [ ] f x ¸ Z with
0
( )
n
m
n
n
x f x a
=
=
_
, we have
1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 , 0
( ) (mod ).
p p m m p
i i n n i p n
n n
n n n
n
f i a a i i a p
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = = ÷
= ÷ = =
_ __ _ _ _
Therefore if (0), (1), , ( 1) f f f p . ÷ are a complete system of residues modulo p then
we have
1
0
0 ( ) (mod )
p
i
s
f i p
÷
=
=
_
for 1 2 s p _ _ ÷ so
2 2
, ( ) , ,( ( )) ( ) ( )
p
f x x f x f
÷
. are all
0residue and
1
1
0
1 ( ) (mod )
i
p
p
f i p
÷
=
÷
÷ =
_
so
1
( ( ))
p
f x
÷
is 1residue.
Now for reverse by (1) it suffices to prove that if for p numbers
0 1 1
, , ,
p
a a a
÷
. ¸ Z
we have
43
0 1 1
0
1
1 1
1 1
( mod ) (1 )
( mod
2
)
0
1
i i
p p
i
p
p
p
a a a p i p
a a a p
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ = _ _
= ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
Then
0 1 1
, , , { }
p
a a a
÷
. is a complete system of residues. Now Suppose that
1
0 1 1 1 1
( ) ( )( ( ) )
p p
p p p
g x x a x a x a x b b x x b
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷
and
0 1 1
i i i
i p
a S a a
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ for i ¸ N.
If for all 0 1 i p _ _ ÷ we have 0 (mod )
i
p a =¸ then invoking the Fermat little
theorem we have
t
1 1 1
0 0 0
imes
1 1 1 1 0 (mod )
p
p p p
a p a a
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Contradiction. So there exists a 0 1 j p _ _ ÷ such that (m ) 0 od
j
a p = and
therefore ( m ) 0 od
p
b p = . Now by Newton identities we have
1 1
2 1 1 2
3 1 2 2 1 3
1 1 2 2 1 1
0
2 0
3 0
b ( 1) 0
p p p p
b
S b S b
S b S b S b
S b S S p
S
b
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
'
1 ÷ =
1
1
1
÷ ÷ =
1
1
1
1
÷ ÷ ÷ =
!
1
1
1
1
1
1
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
1
1+
.
Hence
1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 1 2
2 1 3 3 1 2 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0, 0 (mod ) 0 (mod )
2 0, 0 (mod ) 2 0 (mod ) 0 (mod )
b ( 2) 0, 0 ( mod )
( 2) 0 (mod ) 0 (mod )
p p
p p p p p
b S p b p
S b S b S p b p b p
S b S S p b S S S p
p b b p
S
p
S
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ = = = =
÷ ÷ = = = = = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = = = =
= ÷ = = =
.
and
1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1
1 2 2 1
b ( 1) 0
0, 1 ( mod )
( 1) 1 (mod ) 1 (mod )
p
p p p p
p p
p
S b S S p b
S S S S p
p b p b p
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
'
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = 1
1
!
1 = = = = = ÷
1
+
= ÷ = = = ÷
So in [ ]
p
x Z , ( ) g x is ( 1) ( ( 1))
p
x x x x p x ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ and
p
Z is a field so [ ]
p
x Z is
UFD and therefore
0 1 1
, , , { }
p
a a a
÷
. is a complete system of residues and this finishes
our proof. ¯
17. We call such a broken line a good path.
Lemma. Let C be a set of 2 n _ points in the plane, no three of which are collinear
and let
0
x be a vertex of the convex hull of C . The number of good paths with
vertices of C starting at
0
x is at least
2
2
n÷
. Equality holds only when C is convex.
44
Proof. We use induction on n . For 2 n = it is trivial. Suppose the claim is true for
1 n ÷ . Let
0
x y be a line such that ¦ ¦
0
C x ÷ is entirely in one side of it. Sort the
vertices of
¦ ¦
0
C x ÷ as
1 2 1
, , ,
n
x x x
÷
. such that the angles
0 i
x x y . are increasing. So
¦ ¦
0 1
, C x x ÷ is entirely in one side of
0 1
x x and
¦ ¦
0 1
,
n
C x x
÷
÷ is entirely in one side
of
0 1 n
x x
÷
. There are at least
3
2 2
n÷
good paths with vertices of ¦ ¦
0
C x ÷ starting
at either
1
x or
1 n
x
÷
. By joining the segments
0 1
x x or
0 1 n
x x
÷
we obtain at least
2
2
n÷
good paths with the vertices of C starting at
0
x .
If C is convex, then in any good path starting at
0
x ,
0
x should be joined to
1
x or
1 n
x
÷
, because in other cases the vertices will be in both sides of the first segment and
the path will intersect the first segment. So equality for convex sets follows by the
induction hypothesis.
Now, suppose C is not convex. Let z be a vertex of C not on the convex hull.
Either z is in triangle
0 1 1 n
x x x
÷
or is inside the convex hull of
¦ ¦
0
C x ÷ (depending
on which side of
1 1 n
x x
÷
that z is in). In the first case, if z´ is the farthest vertex
from line in triangle
0 1 1 n
x x x
÷
(other than
0
x ), then the segment
0
x z ´ doesn’t
intersect the convex hull of ¦ ¦
0
C x ÷ and there is a good path starting with
0
x z ´ by
the induction hypothesis. In the second case, ¦ ¦
0
C x ÷ is not convex and the
number of good paths starting with
0 1
x x is more than
3
2
n÷
by the induction
hypothesis. So the lemma is proved. ¯
According to the lemma, we have
3
( ) 2
n
T B n
÷
= . We prove
3
( ) 2
n
T A n
÷
. Let
0
x be
a vertex on the convex hull of A and sort the other vertices of A as described in the
lemma. For any 1 2 i n _ _ ÷ , by joining any two good paths starting at
0
x with
vertices of ¦ ¦
0 1
, , ,
i
x x x . and ¦ ¦
0 1 1
, , ,
i n
x x x
÷ ÷
. , we get a good path with the vertices
of A, because the two sets can be divided by a line through
0
x . This way we get
2
1
1 3
2
2 ( 2)2 2
i n i
n
n
i
n
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
= ÷
_
good vertices not starting at
0
x . There are more than
2
2
n÷
good vertices starting at
0
x and so
3
( ) 2
n
T A n
÷
. So, the assertion is proved.
¯
18. Lemma 1. Triangle A B C ´ ´ ´
is similar to triangle ABC and O is its orthocenter.
Moreover, the corresponding sides make the same angle.
Proof. We have 90 B C OAC O C ´ ´ ´ . = . = ÷ ° . and
90 B A OCA O A ´ ´ ´ . = . = ° ÷. . So C B A B ´ ´ ´ . = . . Compute the other angles
similarly. This way it is proved that the triangles are similar and O is the
45
orthocenter of triangle A B C ´ ´ ´ . Now, the altitudes of triangle A B C ´ ´ ´ make the
same angle with the corresponding sides of triangle ABC (angles A OB´ . and so
on).So, the corresponding sides of the triangles also make the same angle. ¯
Lemma 2. Let , B C ´ ´ be points on , AC AB
respectively such that AB OC
´ ´
is cyclic. The
circle
1
w with center B
´
passing through C
intersects the circle
2
with center C
´
passing
through B at points namely , P Q such that P
is on the circumcircle of ABC and Q is on
. BC Moreover, PQ and the altitude of A
intersect on the circumcircle of ABC .
Proof. Let P be the second intersection of the
circumcircles of triangles ABC and AB C ´ ´
. We claim P is on both
1 2
, . We have
1 1
,
2 2
.
BA PCA PA POA
PC A PB A OA
P
P
. = . = = .
´ ´ . = . = .
So, triangles C PB ´
and B PC ´
are isosceles and P is on both
1 2
, . Also, these
triangles are similar. Let
1
2
POA = . .
Triangles PBC and PC B ´ ´ are similar (Consider the angles of P and the ratio of
the sides incident with P in these triangles). The ratio of similarity is 2cos and
the corresponding sides make angles equal to . So, if , D D´ are the orthogonal
projections of P on BC and C B ´ ´ respectively, then 2cos
PD
PD
=
´
and
D PD ´ . = . So triangles D PD ´
and C PB ´
are similar. So, D P D D ´ ´ = . Thus, if
PD´
intersects BC at Q , then D´
is the midpoint of the hypotenuse in the right
angled triangle PDQ . So, B C ´ ´
is the perpendicular bisector of PQ and Q is the
second intersection of
1 2
, .
Suppose PD and AH intersect the circumcircle of triangle ABC for the second
time at E and
1
A respectively. We have
´
1 1
1 1
.
2 2
PE D PD PA AE APE Q ´ . = . = = = = .
So, PQ passes through
1
A and the lemma is proved. ¯
According to the lemma 2, the angle between PQ and AH is equal to the angle
between B C ´ ´ and BC . So, by lemma 1 the radical axis’s in the problem are
46
obtained by rotating the altitudes of triangle ABC with a fixed angle (but with
different centers). The orientations of the rotations are the same, because all the
equations in the proof remain valid by considering orientations. So, the triangle
formed by the radical axis’s is similar to triangle . ABC Therefore, it suffices to
prove that the ratios of distances of H from the radical axis’s is the same as the
ratios of distances of H from sides of triangle ABC .
Let
2
, F A be the orthogonal projections of H on PQ and BC as in the lemma. We
have
2 1
2 2 sin
HF HF
HA HA
= = which is the same as the other ratios of distances of H
from the sides of the mentioned triangles. So the assertion is proved. ¯