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# INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD

)

1. Design Process and Role of CAD

According to Shingly, the design process is an iterative procedure involving the
following six phases:
1. Recognition of need
2. Definition of problem
3. Synthesis
4. Analysis and optimization
5. Evaluation
6. Presentation
Phase 3 (synthesis) includes defining the design problem, design conceptualization,
Phase 4 (analysis and optimization) may include parameter study, finite element
analysis, etc. Although computers are being utilized more and more in the design process,
their use is still limited to the last four steps in the design and they are mainly used as a
tool that helps the designer, rather than as a replacement for the designer.

(1) Increasing productivity
(2) Improving quality of design
(3) Improving communications
(4) Creating data-base for manufacturing

Geometric Modeling
The term geometric modeling (or representation) means a method of describing
commonly used curves and surfaces in terms of values of a few parameters.

Three types of Geometric Models
Wireframe Model : connect 3D vertex points, sometimes ambiguous.
Surface Model : define surface to form an object.
Solid Model : various representation schemes are used to describe a solid object

2. Solid Modeling
A solid modeling system is usually an interactive computer graphics system that is
intended to create true three-dimensional components and assemblies. Recent advances in
CAD software, computers, and graphical displays have made it possible to use solid
representations of components being considered in the design process. These solid models
can be employed innumerous ways.

A realistic visual display: By producing a shaded visible surface image of the solid,
solid modeling allows a designer to see exactly what has been created.
Easy to deal with different views: Once a part has been created, we have the ability
to rotate, shade, section, or produce almost any view required by a designer.
Single associated model database: The solid modeler provides the only database
suitable for all CAD operations. Almost all information needed for part generation is
contained in the solid model.

The algorithm should be able to ensure that it represents physically possible shape
that is complete and unambiguous Applications. e.g., automatic generation of a mesh for a
finite element analysis.

2. Requirements For Modeling Assembling

I. Part modeling and analysis
The part analysis includes the material type, mass and inertial properties,
functional properties of the faces, etc.
II. Hierarchical relationships
An assemble tree and assemble sequence must be given.
III. Mating conditions
There are two methods for specifying mating conditions: Specify the
location and orientation of each part in the assembly, together with the
representation of the part itself, by providing a 4 x 4 homogeneous transformation
matrix. (i.e., transformation from MCS to WCS)Specify the spatial relationships
between its individual parts as mating conditions. For example, a mating condition
can consist of planar faces butting up against one another or requiring centerlines of
individual parts to be collinear (―fitsǁ condition).

Computer databases are now replacing paper blueprints in defining product
geometry and non-geometry for all phases of product design, analysis, and manufacturing.
It becomes increasingly important to find effective procedures for transferring data among

The need to exchange modeling data is directly motivated by the need to integrate
and automate the design and manufacturing process to obtain the maximum benefits from

Four Types of Modeling Data to be transferred:
(1) Shape
(2) Non shape
(3) Design
(4) Manufacturing

(1) Shape data consists of both geometrical and topological information as well as part
features. Entity attributes such as font, color, and layer as well as annotation are considered
part of the entity geometrical information. Topological information applies only to
products described via solid modeling. Features allow high-level concept communication
about parts. Examples are hole, flange, web, pocket, chamfer, etc.
(2) Non shape data includes graphics data such as shaded images, and model global data
as measuring units of the database and the resolution of storing the database numerical
values.
(3) Design data has to do with the information that designers generate from geometric
models for analysis purposes. e.g., mass property and finite element mesh data.
(4) Manufacturing data consists of information such as tooling, NC tool paths, tolerance,
process planning, tool design, and bill of materials.

Commonly Used CAD Data Exchange Format IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange
Specification)PDES (Product Data Exchange Using STEP)IGES is focused on CAD-to-
CAD exchange where primarily shape and non-shape data were to be transferred from one
system to another. PDES is previous called Product Data Exchange Standard.
It is for the exchange of complete product descriptions which covers the four types
of modeling data (i.e., shape, non-shape, design and manufacturing).Other data exchange
interfaces include: STL, Neutral, SET, ECAD, VDA, STEP, PDGS,CATIA, Render,
CGM, VRML, PATRAN, TIFF, etc.

4. Details about Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing
Theory of Projection:
Geometric figures are in two dimensions, hence they may be drawn to their sizes
and shapes on a sheet of paper as it is also in two dimensions.
A solid is a three dimensional objects, hence will not be possible to illustrate a solid
in its three dimensional true form on a paper. However, solids may be depicted on a paper
pictorially in its three dimensional form, but of course not in its true shape and sizes. Since
pictorial drawings do not show the true shape of the solid, while reading a pictorial
drawing it will be difficult to understand the shape of the interior and exterior of the solid.
Hence they cannot be used more effectively in engineering practice for construction work.
The drawings of objects for using in engineering practice have to be in their true shapes
and sizes. This has been made possible by principle of projection. The word “projection”,
is of Latin origin, meaning “to throw forward”.

In the projection method, all the faces of solid, both visible and invisible, are
shown forward to a plane which is held normal to the direction of sight of the observer
who is viewing the object the manner exactly similar to that of a motion picture projection,
where a image of a film is projected on a screen.
Orthographic Projection:
If the projectors are perpendicular to the plane, then the projections is called
orthographic or orthogonal. The word orthographic means to write or to draw at right
angles. Orthographic projection is the method of representing the exact shape of an object
in two or more views on planes generally at right angles to each other by extending
perpendiculars from the object to the planes. Ti is universally used in Machine Drawing.
Principle Planes:
Horizontal planes
Vertical planes
Profile plane:
The Plane which is all Perpendicular to both HP and VP is known as the profile
plane. Intersection of the Principle planes results in four Quadrants. Depending upon
object placed in First, Second, Third, and Fourth Quadrant we Get the projections are,
First Angle projection
Second angle projection
Third angle projection
Fourth angle projection

For all angle of projection after getting the views we have to rotate the Horizontal
Plane to 90 Degree. Hence in Second and Fourth Angle the Views will coincide each other,
so that these Projection types are not used.

Conversion of Pictorial Views into Orthographic Views:
Having understood the principles of orthographic projection, we can proceed to
deal with the application of the same to conversion of pictorial views into the orthographic
views.
Orthographic views can be drawn by two methods.
1. First Angle Projection method
2. Third angle projection method

1.First Angle Projection:

In the first angle system of projection the object is assumed to be placed in the first
quadrant (i.e. in front of V.P and above H.P) and the observer looks from outside. In other
words, the object is between the observer and the plane of projection.
The projections are made as follows:
Elevation of Front view – Projected on V.P.
Plan or Top View – Projected on H.P
End View or Side View- Projected on Auxiliary plan (right or left)
Having drawn the three views, we have to rotate the H.P and V.P. so that they
come in the plane of V.P. Now, all the three views are in one plane and can be drawn on
the drawing sheet.

2.Third Angle Projection:
In the third-angle projection system the object is assumed to be situated in the third
quadrant i.e. behind V.P and below the H.P. the planes of projection are assumed to be
transparent. They lie between the object and the observer. When the observer views the
object from the front the rays of sight intersect the V.P.

Auxiliary projection:
Auxiliary projection is obtained by projecting object on an Auxiliary Plane.
There are two types of Auxiliary Planes
AVP [Auxiliary Vertical Plane] plane parallel to HP and inclined to VP
AHP [Auxiliary Horizontal Plane] plane parallel to VP and inclined to
HP
Isometric projection:
3D Representation on a 2D plane and three equally inclined axes with included
angle of 120 degrees.
To imagine object from 2D orthographic views to 3D object is difficult. To
overcome this we use isometric which workers can easily visualize
ISO – equal
Perspective projection:
Normal human eyes view
Photographic views:
For more introductions refer machine drawing and machine design to
Update/refresh before getting into the software.
Classification of software:
a. System software
b. Application software
a)System software:
It is the operating system of the computer. Systems software act as a link between
application software and Hardware resource.
b)Application software:
It is the software developed for specific application.

Lower end
Micro station
Middle end
Mechanical desktop
Inventor
High end
CAD – Pro/Engineer, CATIA, solid works
IDEAS, Unigraphics
CAM –Solid CAM, CAPS turn, CAPS mill
CAE – Ansys, MSC-Nastran, Cosmos,LS-Dyna

6. Introduction to Pro/ENGINEER

Pro/ENGINEER is one of the most widely used CAD/CAM software program in
Today’s world. Pro/e is a product of PTC (Parametric Technology Corporation)
www.ptc.com. Pro/e is used in automobile industry, aeronautics, ship building, tool design
etc. Pro/E 2001 is software for flexible engineering solutions which span the product
development enterprise process, including conceptual design, styling, design and
engineering, simulation, planning, manufacturing, and in-service support.

Capabilities & Benefits:
• Complete 3D modeling capabilities enable you to exceed your product quality and
time-to-market goals
• Maximum production efficiency through automated generation of associative
tooling design, assembly instructions, and machine code
• Ability to simulate and analyze virtual prototypes to improve product performance
and optimize product design
• Ability to share digital product data seamlessly among all appropriate team
members
• Compatibility with myriad CAD tools — including associative data exchange —
and industry standard data formats
To start Pro/E 2001 selects the icon to get into Pro/E. when Pro/E is

About to start we will get the screen specified below before the main screen of Pro/E.

Gateway to Pro/ENGINEER screen layout

Main window

Pro/ENGINEER icons definition

A) Title bar:
Specifies the name of the current and the name of the software being used.
Menu bar is part of the main window and this contains menus to control the screen, control
viewing of entities, control the displays of datum features create, save files.
C) Toolbar:
Toolbars are an easy and fast way of accessing the necessary commands are macros.
D) Tool Tip:
A tip is available for every button existing in the toolbar when we place the mouse on the
button.

E) Message Area:
Message related to the task being performed is displayed in the message area. Message
area is also provided with a scroll bar to visualize the previous messages.
F) Status Bar:
It provides as a guide to the pull down items, toolbars, and menu bar items when the mouse
is moved on these items.
G) Graphical Area:
This is the area where the objects will be created.

File Management

New File Creation:
Toolbar:
Keyboard: Ctrl+N

To create a model in Pro/E firstly you have to create a new part. A part is build
from a list of features. Features in turn are created out of sketch and assembly is created
out of a list of parts.

Opening Files:
Toolbar:
Keyboard: Ctrl+O
Open all Pro/Engineer files specified by the name or by selecting from the dialog.
A) Open: opens the selected Pro/E file from the list in Pro/E.

B) Open Rep: Opens the selected Pro/E file in a type of representation.
Representation will be discussed in later sessions.
C) Cancel: Cancel the open command.
D) Preview: Displays the preview of the object in the selected file Pro/E file. This is
helpful to know what is to be opened before opening in Pro/E.
E) Up One Level: Useful to go back the previous Folder /Directory.
H) Working Directory: Displays the Pro/E files in the working directory.

Save:
Tool bar:
Keyboard: Ctrl+S
You can store file by specified name in the working directory by using save. Each
time you save a new version is created in the working directory.

CREATION OF BASIC SOLID FEATURES

EXTRUDE:

Insert (from menu bar) > Select Extrude > Click Sketcher icon (from dash board) >
Select alpine (from main window) > Click Sketch (from section dialogue box) > Select
References(check reference status fully placed) > Close (reference dialogue box) > Sketch
a figure (edit dimensions if required) > Click (blue color to continue) > Enter depth value

(at prompt in dash board) > click preview (at dash board) > click (green color on dash
board) > file > save >click (green color) Insert (from menu bar) > Select Extrude > Click
Sketcher icon (from dash board) > Select alpine (from main window) > Click Sketch (from
section dialogue box) > Select References(check reference status fully placed) > Close
(reference dialogue box) > Sketch a figure (edit dimensions if required) > Click (blue color
to continue) > Enter depth value (at prompt in dash board) > click preview (at dash board)
> click (green color on dash board) > file > save >click (green color)

REVOLVE:

Insert > Revolve > Select Sketcher (icon from dash board) > Select plane for
sketching >Click sketch > Select References > Close reference > Draw figure > Draw
Centre line as axis(along which it should revolve) > Click (blue color) > Specify angle (in
dash board up to which it should rotate) > preview > click (green color)

SWEEP :

Insert > Sweep > Protrusion > Click Sketch Trajectory (from sweep trajectory
menu manager) > Select a Plane > Okay (for direction) > Default (sketch view) > Select
References >Close (reference dialogue box) > Draw Trajectory > Click (blue color) >
Sketch Cross section(at the intersection of two yellow color axes) > Click (blue color) >
Preview > OK (to accept)

ASSEMBLY CONSTRAINTS:

Mate
Mate constraint two surfaces touch one another, coincident and facing each other.
Mate Offset
Mate offset constraint makes two planar surfaces parallel and facing each other.
The offset value determines the distance between two surfaces.
Align
Align constraint makes two planes coplanar, coincident and facing in the same
direction. It also aligns revolved surfaces or axes to make them coaxial.
Align Offset
This constraint aligns two planar surfaces at an offset, parallel and facing in the
same direction.
Insert
Insert constraint inserts a male revolved surface into a female revolved surface,
align axes.
Orient
The orient constraint orients two planar surfaces so that they are parallel and facing
in the same direction, offset is not specified.

EXERCISES IN 3D PART MODELING

AIM:
To model the 3D part modeling as per the dimensions given and also
convert the 3D model into different views with Bill of materials.
PROCEDURE:
1. Model different parts of a flange coupling using Extrude, Revolve etc., features.
2. Select the assembly in solid works main menu.
3. Using Insert component icon of property manager, insert base component
& next components to be assemble.
4. Assemble using MATE Feature.
5. Continue the inserting the component & mating until the entire
component are assembled.
6. Save the assembly.
7. From the main menu of solid works select the drawing option.
8. Select the drawing sheet format size as – A4 Landscape.
9. Using the model view manager browse the document to be open.
10. Click the view orientation from the model view manager & place the drawing
view in the proper place in the sheet as shown above.
11. Using the placed view as parent view project the other or needed views
12. Move cursor to any one view and right click the mouse button.
13. Select the Table – BOM.
14. Place the BOM in the proper place in the drawing sheet.
15. Save the drawing sheet.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Fig. 3 Fig.4

Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Fig. 7

Result:
Thus the 3D part modeling is modeled & different views are taken.

EXERCISES ON ASSEMBLY OF FLANGE COUPLING

AIM:
To model and assemble the flange coupling as per the dimensions given
and also convert the 3D model into different views with Bill of materials.
PROCEDURE:
1. Model different parts of a flange coupling using Extrude, Revolve etc., features.
2. Select the assembly in solid works main menu.
3. Using Insert component icon of property manager, insert base component
& next components to be assemble.
4. Assemble using MATE Feature.
5. Continue the inserting the component & mating until the entire
component are assembled.
6. Save the assembly.
7. From the main menu of solid works select the drawing option.
8. Select the drawing sheet format size as – A4 Landscape.
9. Using the model view manager browse the document to be open.
10. Click the view orientation from the model view manager & place the drawing
view in the proper place in the sheet as shown above.
11. Using the placed view as parent view project the other or needed views
12. Move cursor to any one view and right click the mouse button.
13. Select the Table – BOM.
14. Place the BOM in the proper place in the drawing sheet.
15. Save the drawing sheet

FLANGE COUPLING ASSEMBLY VIEW

Result:
Thus the given flange coupling is modeled, assembled & different views are taken.

EXERCISES ON ASSEMBLY OF PLUMMER BLOCK

AIM:
To model and assemble the Plummer block as per the dimensions given
and also convert the 3D model into different views with Bill of materials.
PROCEDURE:
1. Model different parts of a flange coupling using Extrude, Revolve etc., features.
2. Select the assembly in solid works main menu.
3. Using Insert component icon of property manager, insert base component
& next components to be assemble.
4. Assemble using MATE Feature.
5. Continue the inserting the component & mating until the entire
component are assembled.
6. Save the assembly.
7. From the main menu of solid works select the drawing option.
8. Select the drawing sheet format size as – A4 Landscape.
9. Using the model view manager browse the document to be open.
10. Click the view orientation from the model view manager & place the drawing
view in the proper place in the sheet as shown above.
11. Using the placed view as parent view project the other or needed views
12. Move cursor to any one view and right click the mouse button.
13. Select the Table – BOM.
14. Place the BOM in the proper place in the drawing sheet.
15. Save the drawing sheet

PLUMBER BLOCK ASSEMBLY VIEW

Result:
Thus the given Plummer block is modeled, assembled & different views are
taken.

EXERCISES ON ASSEMBLY OF SCREW JACK

AIM:
To model and assemble the Screw Jack as per the dimensions given and
also convert the 3D model into different views with Bill of materials.
PROCEDURE:
1. Model different parts of a flange coupling using Extrude, Revolve etc., features.
2. Select the assembly in solid works main menu.
3. Using Insert component icon of property manager, insert base component
& next components to be assemble.
4. Assemble using MATE Feature.
5. Continue the inserting the component & mating until the entire
component are assembled.
6. Save the assembly.
7. From the main menu of solid works select the drawing option.
8. Select the drawing sheet format size as – A4 Landscape.
9. Using the model view manager browse the document to be open.
10. Click the view orientation from the model view manager & place the drawing
view in the proper place in the sheet as shown above.
11. Using the placed view as parent view project the other or needed views
12. Move cursor to any one view and right click the mouse button.
13. Select the Table – BOM.
14. Place the BOM in the proper place in the drawing sheet.
15. Save the drawing sheet

SCREW JACK ASSEMBLY VIEW

Result:
Thus the given Screw Jack is modeled, assembled & different views are taken.

EXERCISES ON ASSEMBLY OF UNIVERSAL COUPLING

AIM:
To model and assemble the Universal Coupling as per the dimensions
given and also convert the 3D model into different views with Bill of materials.
Procedure:
1. Model different parts of a flange coupling using Extrude, Revolve etc., features.
2. Select the assembly in solid works main menu.
3. Using Insert component icon of property manager, insert base component
& next components to be assemble.
4. Assemble using MATE Feature.
5. Continue the inserting the component & mating until the entire
component are assembled.
6. Save the assembly.
7. From the main menu of solid works select the drawing option.
8. Select the drawing sheet format size as – A4 Landscape.
9. Using the model view manager browse the document to be open.
10. Click the view orientation from the model view manager & place the drawing
view in the proper place in the sheet as shown above.
11. Using the placed view as parent view project the other or needed views
12. Move cursor to any one view and right click the mouse button.
13. Select the Table – BOM.
14. Place the BOM in the proper place in the drawing sheet.
15. Save the drawing sheet

UNIVERSAL COUPLING ASSEMBLY VIEW

Result:
Thus the given Universal Coupling is modeled, assembled & different views are
taken.

EXERCISES ON ASSEMBLY OF MACHINE VICE

AIM:
To model and assemble the Machine Vice as per the dimensions given
and also convert the 3D model into different views with Bill of materials.
PROCEDURE:
1. Model different parts of a flange coupling using Extrude, Revolve etc., features.
2. Select the assembly in solid works main menu.
3. Using Insert component icon of property manager, insert base component
& next components to be assemble.
4. Assemble using MATE Feature.
5. Continue the inserting the component & mating until the entire
component are assembled.
6. Save the assembly.
7. From the main menu of solid works select the drawing option.
8. Select the drawing sheet format size as – A4 Landscape.
9. Using the model view manager browse the document to be open.
10. Click the view orientation from the model view manager & place the drawing
view in the proper place in the sheet as shown above.
11. Using the placed view as parent view project the other or needed views
12. Move cursor to any one view and right click the mouse button.
13. Select the Table – BOM.
14. Place the BOM in the proper place in the drawing sheet.
15. Save the drawing sheet

Result:
Thus the given Machine Vice is modeled, assembled & different views are taken.

INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING
(CAM)

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer-based
software tools that assist engineers and machinists in manufacturing or prototyping
product components. Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and
components with more precise dimensions and material consistency, which in some
cases, uses only the required amount of raw material (thus minimizing waste), while
simultaneously reducing energy consumption. CAM is a programming tool that makes it
possible to manufacture physical models using computer-aided design (CAD) programs.
CAM creates real life versions of components designed within a software package
CNC Technology
Numerical Control (NC) is a software-based machine tool control technique
developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in early 1960s. It has now
evolved into a mature technology known as Computer Numerical Control (CNC).
Although major applications of CNC even today continue to be in machining, it finds
applications in other processes such as sheet metal working, non-traditional machining
and inspection. Robots and Rapid Prototyping machines are also CNC controlled. In
fact, any process that can be visualized as a sequence of motions and switching
functions can be controlled by CNC. CNC is the basis of flexible automation which
helps industries cut down time-to-market and enables launch of even low volume
products. Unlimited muscle power, unmanned operation, independent axes coordinated
through software, simplified generic tooling even for the most complex jobs and
accurate construction are some of the salient features of CNC.

CNC Machining
Automats and Special Purpose Machines (SPMs) require special cams/
templates and clutch settings for each part. Manufacture of these cams/ templates is
costly and slow. Furthermore, changing over from one part to the other on these
machines also consumes considerable time. The high cost and long time of these hard
automated machines to produce parts can be justified only in mass production. With the
advent of fast, rigid and accurate CNC machines and sophisticated CAM packages,
generation of NC programs and change over from one product to the other are easy and
fast as it does not require any mechanical change. These in conjunction with advanced
cutting tools have made High Speed Cutting (HSC) of hard materials a reality.
Therefore, CNC machining has become a standard means to produce dies and molds;
tool makers today require EDM only for producing inaccessible regions, sharp corners,
tiny features and desired surface quality. Intricate aerospace parts are realized through 5
axis CNC machining. Internet technology in a global village enables designing in one
place, NC programming and verification in another place and actual machining in yet
another place.

Flexibility
Accuracy
Speed
Simplified fixturing and generic cutting tools
Storage of machining skill in NC programs
Less skilled operators will do

G-codes
G-Code, or preparatory code or function, are functions in the Numerical control
programming language. The G-codes are the codes that position the tool and do the
actual work, as opposed to M-codes, that manages the machine; T for tool-related codes.
S and F are tool-Speed and tool-Feed, and finally D-codes for tool compensation. The
programming language of Numerical Control (NC) is sometimes informally called G-
code. But in actuality, G-codes are only a part of the NC-programming language that
controls NC and CNC machine tools.
A basic list of `G' operation codes is given below. These direct motion of the tool.

Preparatory Functions

G00 – Rapid Traverse
G01 – Linear Interpolation (Cutting feed)
G02 – Circular Interpolation (Clockwise)
G03 – Circular Interpolation (Counter Clockwise)
G04 – Dwell
G40 – Tool nose radius compensation cancel
G41 – Tool nose radius compensation left
G42 – Tool nose radius compensation right
G50 – Maximum spindle speed setting / Coordinate system setting
G70 – Finishing cycle
G71 – Turning cycle (Rough)
G72 – Facing cycle
G73 – Pattern repeating cycle
G74 – End face peck drilling
G75 – Outer diameter / Internal diameter drilling
G96 – Constant surface speed

G97 – Constant surface speed cancel (constant rpm)
G98 – Feed per minute
G99 – Feed per revolution

Miscellaneous functions

M00 – Program stop
M01 – Optional stop
M03 – Spindle clockwise
M04 – Spindle counter clockwise
M05 – Spindle halt
M08 – Coolant on
M09 – Coolant off
M10 – Chuck or collet close
M11 – Chuck or collet open
M30 – Program End
M40 – Chuck outer clamping
M41 – Chuck inner clamping

CNC–Lathe Programme
G–codes

G00–RapidTraverse
G01–Linearinterpolation
G02–Circularinterpolation–clockwise
G03–Circularinterpolation–counterclockwise
G21–Dimensionsareinmm
G28–Homeposition
G40–CompensationCancel
G50–Spindlespeedclamp

G70–Finishing cycle
G71–Multipleturningcycle
G75–Multiplegroovingcycle
G90–Boxturningcycle
G98–Feedinmm/min
M-codes
M03–SpindleONinclockwisedirection
M05– Spindlestop
M06– Toolchange
M10– Chuckopen M11–Chuckclose
M30–Programstopandrewind
M38–Dooropen
M39–Doorclose

BOX TURNING CYCLE

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Lathe.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Diameter 25 mm Length 50 mm
Program:

[BULLET X25 Z45]
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T01
M03 S1200
G00 X25 Z2
G90 X24.5 Z-30 F60
X24
X23.5
X23
X22.5
X22
X21.5
X21
X20.5
X20
G90 X19.5 Z-15 F60
X19
X18
X17
X16
X15
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

NOTE:
G21–Dimensionsareinmm
G28–Homeposition
M03–SpindleONinclockwisedirection
M05– Spindle stop
M06– Tool change
M30–Programstop
G90 - Box Turning
G 98 – Feed in mm/min

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Lathe.

TAPER TURNING CYCLE

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Lathe.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Diameter 25 mm Length 50 mm
Program:
[BULLET X25 Z30]
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T02
M03 S1200
G00 X25 Z2
G90 X25 Z-15 R-0.5 F60
X25 R-1
X25 R-1.5
X25 R-2
X25 R-2.5
X25 R-3
X25 R-3.5
X25 R-4
X25 R-4.5
X25 R-5
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

NOTE:
R=
InìtìuI Ðìu-PìnìI Ðìu
2

R=
15-25
2

R=-5 mm

G21–Dimensionsareinmm
G28–Homeposition
M03–Spindle ON in clock wise
direction
M05– Spindle stop
M06– Tool change
M30–Programstop
G90 - Box Turning
G 98 – Feed in mm/min

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Lathe.

TAPER WITH STEP TURNING CYCLE

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Lathe.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Diameter 25 mm Length 50 mm
Program:

[BULLET X25 Z45]
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T03
M03 S1200
G00 X25 Z2
G90 X25 Z-15 F70
X24.5
X24
X23
X22
X21
X20
X19
X18
X16
X15.5
X15
G00 X25 Z-15
G90 X25 Z-30 R-0.5 F60

X25 R-1
X25 R-1.5
X25 R-2
X25 R-2.5
X25 R-3
X25 R-3.5
X25 R-4
X25 R-4.5
X25 R-5
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

NOTE:
R=
InìtìuI Ðìu-PìnìI Ðìu
2

R=
15-25
2

R=-5 mm
G21–Dimensionsareinmm
G28–Homeposition
M03–Spindle ON in clockwise direction
M05– Spindlestop
M06– Toolchange
M30–Programstop
G90 - Box Turning
G 98 – Feed in mm/min

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Lathe.

MILTIPLE TURNING CYCLE

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Lathe.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Diameter 25 mm Length 50 mm
Program:

[BULLET X25 Z45]
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T03
M03 S1200
G00 X25 Z2
G71 U0.5 R1
G71 P10 Q20 U0.1 W0.1 F70
N10 G01 X16
G01 Z0
G01 X18 Z-2
G01 Z-15
G02 X21 Z-18 R3
G01 Z-26
N20 G03 X25 Z-30 R4
M03 S1500
G70 P10 Q20 F50
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

NOTE:
G71U0.5R1
Where,
U0.5–depth of cut in mm

R1-reliefinmm
G71- Multiple turning cycle
G71P10Q20U0.1W0.1F45;
Where;
P10–starting block number
Q20–End block number
U0.1–finishing allowance in x-axis
W0.1–finishing allowance in z-
axis
G70–Finishing cycle between
first and last line number.
Conditions:
In the first line number only G01 and X
codes must only be written.
Z code for the first coordinate must be
written in the next line.
G71will not work for left downward
taper.
Between G71 cycle only G01,G02 and
G03 must be written.

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Lathe.

DRILLING CYCLE

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Lathe.

Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Diameter 25 mm Length 50 mm

Program:

[BULLET X25 Z45]
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T02
M03 S1200
G00 X0 Z2
G74 X0 Z-20 Q500 F60
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

NOTE:

G21–Dimensionsareinmm
G28–Homeposition
M03–Spindle ON in clockwise direction
M05– Spindlestop

M06– Tool change
M30–Programstop
G70 - Peak drilling
G 98 – Feed in mm/min

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Lathe.

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Lathe.

Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Diameter 20 mm Length 30 mm

Program:

[BULLET X20 Z30]
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T03
M03 S600
G00 X18 Z2
G76 P030060 Q50 R0.2
G76 X16.161 Z-14 P919 Q50 F1.5
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30
G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T04
M03 S600
G00 X18 Z2
G76 P031560 Q50 R0.2
G76 X16.161 Z-14 P919 Q50 F1.5
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

NOTE:

R - Retract
G76P031560Q50R0.1
Where,
P031560-
03–no.offinishingpasses
15–pulloutangle
Q50–depthofcutinmicrons
R0.1–finishingallowance
G76X16.16 Z-14P919Q50F2;
Where,
X16.16–corediameterforM30x2 fineseries
Q50–firstdepthofcut

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Lathe.
CNC-Milling Programme

G–codes
G00–Rapid Traverse
G01–Linear interpolation
G02–Circular interpolation–clockwise
G03–Circular interpolation–counter clockwise
G21–Dimensions are in mm
G28–Home position
G40–Compensation Cancel
G50–Spindle speed clamp
G83–Peck drilling cycle
G90–Absolute coordinate system
G91–Incremental coordinate system
G94–Feed in mm/min
G170,G171–Circular Pocketing
G172,G173–Rectangular Pocketing
M-codes
M03–Spindle ON in clockwise direction
M05– Spindle stop
M06– Tool change
M10– Chuck open

M11–Chuck close
M30–Program stop
M38–Door open
M39–Door close
M70–Mirroring ON in X-axis
M71- Mirroring ON in Y-axis
M80–Mirroring OFF in X-axis
M81–Mirroring OFF in Y-axis
M98–Sub program call statement
M99–Sub program terminate

LINEAR AND CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Milling.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Length 100mm, Width 100mm and Thickness 5mm
Program:

[BULLET X90 Y90 Z10]

G21 G94
G98 G91 X0 Y0 Z0
M03 S1200
M06 T 01
G00 G90 X0 Y0
G00 G90 Z5
G00 X-35 Y-25
G01 Z-1 F60
G01 X-35 Y25
G02 X-25 Y35 R10
G01 X25 Y35
G03 X35 Y25 R10
G01 X35 Y-25
G01 X25 Y-35
G01 X-25 Y-35
G01 X-25 Y-25
G01 X-35 Y-25
G00 G90 Z5
G28 G91 Z0
G28 G91 X0 Y0
M05
M30

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Milling.

PEAK DRILLING

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Milling.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Length 100mm, Width 100mm and Thickness 10mm
Program:

[BULLET X90 Y90 Z10]

G21 G94
G28 G91 X0. Y0. Z0.
M03 S1200
G00 G90 X0. Y0.
G00 G90 Z5.
G98 G83 X0. Y0. Z-7. P2 Q1 F60.
X-30. Y0.
X0. Y30.
X30. Y0.
X0. Y-30.
G80 G90 Z5.
G28 G91 Z0.
G28 G91 X0. Y0.
M05
M30

NOTE:

G83–Peck drilling cycle
G90–Absolute coordinate system
G91–Incremental coordinate system
G94–Feed in mm/min

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Milling.

MIRROR WITH SUBROUTINES

Aim:
To write the manual part program to given dimensions and execute in CNC Milling.
Material required:
Material: Aluminum
Size : Length 100mm, Width 100mm and Thickness 10mm
Program:
[BULLET X90 Y90 Z10]
G21 G94
G28 G91 X0 Y0 Z0
M03 S1500
G00 G90 X0 Y0 Z0
G00 G90 Z5
G00 X10 Y10
G01 Z0 F80
M98 P31111
G00 G90 Z25
M70
G00 X10 Y10
G01 Z0 F60
M98 P3 1111
G00 990 Z5
M71
G00 X10 Y10
G01 Z0 F80
M98 P3 1111
G00 G90 Z5
M80
G00 X10 Y10
G01 Z0 F80
M98 P3 1111
G00 G90 Z5
M81
G28 G91 Z0
G28 G91 X0 Y0
M05
M30

O1111
G01 G91 Z-1 F60
G01 G90 X35 Y10
G01 X10 Y35
G01 X10 Y10
M99

NOTE:
O1111-sub program call
M70 = X Mirror ON
M71 = -X Mirror ON
M80 = Y Mirror ON
M81 = Y Mirror ON

Result:
Thus the manual part program was written to the given dimensions and executed in
CNC Milling.