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FRANCISCO, Ma.

Francesca DL
2ASN2
SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS :
CHAPTER 18 : LABOR UTILIZATION OUTSIDE THE TRADITIONAL
CULTURE

Colonial period
o the non-agricultural sector of the South Asian economy was
deeply affected same with the agricultural sector.
o The Europeans brought with them their own types of light
manufacturing and their agricultural processing industries
o they did tend to put some pressures on the traditional urban
handicrafts
o decrease in the support for national crafts
o TRADITIONAL MANUFACTURING
 The dominant form of manufacturing industry in all
South Asian countries
o CRAFT INDUSTRY
 Tended to take on many of the latter-day characteristics
of indigenous culture
o WAGES were often so low that men were forced to leave their
families behind
o Managerial practices in South Asia also failed to create an
environment conducive to high labor efficiency
o The large scale entrepreneur tended to take some advantage
on some of the attributes of the big absentee landowner
EFFECTS OF GROWTH AND EXPANSION
o The difficult bargaining position of workers when they are so
far moved economically and socially from their employers and
there are so many jobless
o The strategic position of the jobber also frustrates the
formation of a solidly based labor organization
o Modern enterprises governed the utilization of labor and
affecting its performance
o There was the emergence of a third group of economic
activities
o Most of the forms of economic activity outside the traditional
agriculture lack the institutional checks on the duration and
efficiency of work
o Large scale manufacturing
SOUTH ASIANS

religious and ethnic stratification impose artificial rigidities on occupational mobility in urban areas as well as in tradition-bound villages o The occupational distribution of workers help explain the low average levels of productivity achieved by those who are economically active  CROWDING OF THE SERVICES AND THE COMMERCIAL TRADES o Constant demand that the governments take on more employees especially to those who would otherwise remain in the ranks of the educated unemployed THE EDUCATED CLASS o Have preserved a singular position in the labor market o Have displayed a remarkable ability to sustain themselves even without gainful work  By relying on family assistance and support o Demonstrates a high degree of geographical mobility ANALYSIS .   o Those who are dismissed from jobs in the organized segment of the economy simply cannot afford the luxury of unemployment o The mounting size of urban population  The strongest influence on the availability of nonagricultural jobs o MIGRATION  Caused by the decline in peasant ownership of land and the recession in traditional rural crafts  Official attitudes that presuppose the rural-urban migration is a normal healthy by-product of industrialization BASIC REASONS FOR THE EXISTENCE AND PERSISTENCE OF LOW LABOR EFFICIENCY IN SOUTH ASIA : o The bulk labor force is accustomed to the rhythm of sustained and diligent work o Management has often been lax in instilling discipline o Employers frequently tolerate slack performance on the ground that it provides a form of social insurance o As long as wage scales remain low employers have no strong inducement to economize DETERMINANTS OF EFFICIENCY IN THE SOUTH ASIAN REGION : o Fear or substitution of machines for labor has generally been acute and has had an impact on official policy o Caste.

In our future work life we need our connections to get us somewhere. After reading the chapter I realized how discriminating the vision is no matter how wonderful and easy that life would be. That is exactly the same thing that I see myself doing in the near future. . That the educated people would just be ordering around the uneducated class.The educated class including us college students visualizes out future as people who work in large offices ordering their subordinates and people under them.