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TIMP / TENSE

A: Affirmative
N: Negative
Q: Question
USE / UTILIZARE
PRESENT
SIMPLE
A: He speaks.
N: He doesn't speak.
Q: Does he speak?
1. actiuni obisnuite, ce se intampla in mod regulat: He goes to work by bus.
2. adevaruri sau realitati consacrate: Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
Love makes the world go round.
3. exprimarea opiniilor: I think Spain is beautiful.
4. exprimarea preferintelor:Jane likes cats.
5.expresii care semnaleaza actiuni (programate) pentru viitor: We leave at 10 next
Friday.
PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
A: He is speaking.
N: He isn't speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?
1. actiuni care se afla in plina desfasurare: I am reading now.
2. actiuni temporare: My brother is studying.
3. actiuni planificate: I'm meeting my friends tonight.
4.actiuni enervante: She's always complaining about everything!
PAST SIMPLE
A: He spoke.
N: He didn't speak.
Q: Did he speak?
1. actiuni care s-au desfasurat intr-un moment bine definit din trecut,
care s-a incheiat.
2. se foloseste si cand este clar ca o actiune s-a incheiat desi nu este
mentionat un moment anume:
We bought a car in Italy.
PAST
CONTINUOUS
A: He was speaking.
N: He wasn't speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
1. activitati in desfasurare din trecut: What were you doing at 10:30? I was
writing letters.
2. actiuni in desfasurare in acelasi timp in trecut: While I was knitting, my children
were playing Scrable.
3. o desfasurare graduala: It was getting colder and colder.
PRESENT PERFECT
SIMPLE
A: He has spoken.
N: He hasn't spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
1. actiuni incepute in trecut si continuate in prezent: He has written three
novels so far.
2. actiuni ce s-au intamplat la un moment din trecut: I have read the intructions but
I don't understand them.
3. cu referire la actiuni recente (just, recently) : They have just arrived.
4. actiuni petrecute in momente nespecificate din trecut dar au efecte in prezent: I
have forgotten my book.
PRESENT PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
A: He has been
speaking.
N: He hasn't been
speaking.
Q: Has he been
speaking?
1. subliniaza faptul ca ceva s-a desfasurat de-a lungul unei perioade de
timp: He has been swimming all morning.
2. actiuni care au inceput la un moment dat din trecut, au continuat si inca se
desfasoara: She has been working as a shop assistant for six months.
PAST PERFECT
SIMPLE
A: He had spoken.
N: He hadn't spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
1. se foloseste cand ne referim la o intentie, speranta nerealizata:
We had hoped to start our own business, but we never had enough money.
2. accentueaza terminarea unei actiuni inainte de un moment din trecut.
By that time he had left the house. Pana atunci el plecase acasa.
PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
A: He had been
speaking.
N: He hadn't been
speaking.
Q: Had he been
speaking?
1. exprima o actiune neintrerupta inainte de un moment din trecut,
in timp ce o actiune repetata este exprimata prin Past Perfect Simple:
Past Perfect Continuous: I had been trying all morning to contact him. Incercasem
toata dimineata sa il contactez.
Past Perfect Simple: I had tried many times to contact him. Incercasem de multe ori
sa ajung la el / sa il contactez.
FUTURE SIMPLE
A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?
1. exprima o actiune care se va desfasura intr-un moment din viitor.
2. cand redam o parere: He's afraid that he will not pass his exams.
3. de regula il folosim cu verbele care nu au forma continua: You will feel
better after a cup of tea.
FUTURE
CONTINUOUS
A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be
speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
1. exprima actiuni care se intampla gradual, se desfasoara la un moment dat
din viitor.
2. exprima o actiune care sigur se va intampla la un moment dat, in viitorul
apropiat.
"GOING TO"
FUTURE
A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to
speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
1. exprima o intentie clara sau un plan clar al vorbitorului. Se traduce prin:
"a avea intentia", "a planui" sau " a avea de gand".
2. se foloseste si pentru a exprima siguranta sau convingerea vorbitorului:
That isn't going to work. Chestia asta/ asta nu o sa mearga.
SIGNAL WORDS /
INDICATORI DE TIMP
ALWAYS, EVERY……., NEVER,
NORMALLY,
OFTEN, SELDOM, SOMETIMES,
USUALLY,
MOST OF THE TIME, RARELY,
ON MONDAYS, ETC.
AT THE MOMENT, JUST, JUST NOW,
LISTEN! LOOK!, NOW, RIGHT NOW,
WHILE.
YESTERDAY, TWO MINUTES AGO, IN
1990,
THE OTHER DAY, LAST FRIDAY, LAST
MONTH.
WHEN, WHILE, AS LONG AS.
EVER, NEVER, OFTEN, SELDOM,
RARELY,
ALWAYS, BEFORE, SO FAR, UP TILL
NOW,
ALREADY, NOT YET, UP TO NOW,
SINCE, FOR.
ALL DAY, FOR 4 YEARS, SINCE 1993,
HOW LONG?,
THE WHOLE WEEK/MONTH/YEAR
BY THAT TIME, UNTIL THEN, THAT
TIME, ALREADY,
JUST, NOT YET, UNTIL THAT DAY,
ONCE.
FOR, SINCE, THE WHOLE DAY,
ALL DAY.
TOMORROW, IN A YEAR, NEXT…..,
(ASSUMPTION:
I THINK, PROBABLY, PERHAPS,
HOPE, BELIEVE,
SUPPOSE).
IN ONE YEAR, NEXT WEEK,
TOMORROW.
IN ONE YEAR, NEXT WEEK,
TOMORROW, TONIGHT, THIS YEAR.