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Abstract

:
Robotics is an interesting field where every engineer can showcase his
creative and technical skills. Pleasing aspect of robotics is that a robot can be
made indigenously by any one. In this competitive world there is need for
every enthusiastic, from amateur to professional, to make a simple robot
having innovated applications and with robust control.
Mobile phones today become an essential for one and all and so, for
any mobile based applications there is great reception. In this scenario
making a mobile phone operated Robotic Car with G! is good idea.
Conventionally, wireless"controlled robots use R# circuits, which
have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited fre$uency range and
limited control. se of a mobile phone for robotic control can overcome
these limitations. It provides the advantages of robust control, working range
as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with
other controllers. %lthough the appearance and capabilities of robots vary
vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under
some form of control.
&he control of robot involves three distinct phases'
(. Perception,
). Processing and
*. %ction.
Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot,
processing is done by the on"board microcontroller or processor, and the task
+action, is performed using motors or with some other actuators.
Project overview:
In this pro-ect, the G! is fitted on robot and it is controlled by a
mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the robot. In
the course of a call, if any button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the
button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. &his tone is called .dual"
tone multiple"fre$uency/ +0&M#, tone. &he robot perceives this 0&M# tone
with the help of the phone stacked in the robot. &he received tone is
processed by the Microcontroller with the help of 0&M# decoder M&1123.
&he decoder decodes the 0&M# tone into its e$uivalent binary digit and this
binary number is sent to the Microcontroller. &he Microcontroller is
preprogrammed to take a decision for any given input and outputs its
decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors for forward or
backward motion or a turn.
&he mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot
acts as a remote. 4o this simple robotic pro-ect does not re$uire the
construction of receiver and transmitter units. 0&M# signaling is used for
telephone signaling over the line in the voice"fre$uency band to the call
switching centre. &he version of 0&M# used for telephone tone dialing is
known as .&ouch"&one./ 0&M# assigns a specific fre$uency +consisting of
two separate tones, to each key so that it can easily be identified by the
electronic circuit. &he signal generated by the 0&M# encoder is a direct
algebraic summation, in real time, of the amplitudes of two sine +cosine,
waves of different fre$uencies, i.e., pressing .5/ will send a tone made by
adding (**6 78 and 223 78 to the other end of the line. &he tones and
assignments in a 0&M# system are shown below.
Project description:
#igure shows the simple block diagram of the microcontroller"based
mobile phone operated R9:9&IC C%R. &he important components of this
pro-ect are a
(. 0&M# decoder,
). Microcontroller and
*. Motor driver.
;. Relay and G!
G!
Relay
DTMF Decoder:
%n M&1123 series 0&M# decoder is used here. %ll types of the
M&1123 series use digital counting techni$ues to detect and decode all the
(6 0&M# tone pairs into a ;"bit code output. &he built"in dial tone re-ection
circuit eliminates the need for pre"filtering. <hen the input signal given at
pin ) +I!", in single"ended input configuration is recogni8ed to be effective,
the correct ;"bit decode signal of the 0&M# tone is transferred to =( +pin
((, through =; +pin (;, outputs.
03 through 0* outputs of the 0&M# decoder +IC(, are connected to
port pins of Microcontroller.
Microcontroller 89C51:
It is a low"power, high"performance CM94 1"bit microcomputer with
;> bytes of #lash Programmable and ?rasable Read 9nly Memory
P?R9M,. &he device is manufactured using %tmel/s high"density
nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the MC4"5(@
instruction set and pin out. &he on"chip #lash allows the program memory to
be reprogrammed in"system or by a con"ventional nonvolatile memory
programmer. :y combining a versatile 1"bit CP with #lash on a monolithic
chip, the %tmel micr"controller is a powerful microcomputer, which provides
a highly fleAible and cost effective solution so many embedded control
applications.
9utputs from port pins the microcontroller are fed to inputs I!(
through I!; and enable pins +?!( and ?!), of motor driver B)C*0,
respectively, to drive two geared 0C motors. &he microcontroller output is
not sufficient to drive the 0C motors, so current drivers are re$uired for
motor rotation.
Motor Driver:
&he B)C*0 is a $uad, high"current, half"7 driver designed to provide
bidirectional drive currents of up to 633 m% at voltages from ;.5D to *6D. It
makes it easier to drive the 0C motors. &he B)C*0 consists of four drivers.
Pins I!( through I!; and 9&( through 9&; are input and output pins,
respectively, of driver ( through driver ;. 0rivers ( and ), and drivers * and
; are enabled by enable pin ( +?!(, and pin C +?!),, respectively. <hen
enable input ?!( +pin (, is high, drivers ( and ) are enabled and the outputs
corresponding to their inputs are active. 4imilarly, enable input ?!) +pin C,
enables drivers * and ;.
Relay and !":
<e want to control the G!. &o operate the G! we are using rely
as switch. &o operate relay we are using transistor as switch. <hen transistor
is 9## relay is 9## therefore G! is also 9##.
<hen transistor is 9! then relay is 9! and G! is 9!.
#or$in%
In order to control the robot and G!, you need to make a call to the
cell phone attached to the robot +through head phone, from any phone,
which sends 0&M# tunes on pressing the numeric buttons. &he cell phone in
the robot is kept in .auto answer/ mode.
4o after a ring, the cell phone accepts the call. !ow you may press
any button on your mobile to perform actions. &he 0&M# tones thus
produced are received by the cell phone in the robot. &hese tones are fed to
the circuit by the headset of the cell phone. &he M&1123 decodes the
received tone and sends the e$uivalent binary number to the microcontroller.
%ccording to the program in the microcontroller, the robot starts operating.
<hen you press key .)/ on your mobile phone, the microcontroller
outputs for forward motion. <hen you press key .1/ on your mobile phone,
the microcontroller outputs for Reverse motion. <hen you press key .;/ on
your mobile phone, the microcontroller outputs for Beft direction motion.
<hen you press key .6/ on your mobile phone, the microcontroller outputs
for Right direction motion.
<hen you press key .(/ on your mobile phone, microcontroller
operates the relay to turn 9! the G!. %nd when you press key .*/ on your
mobile, microcontroller operates the relay to turn 9## the G!.
Constr&ction
<hen constructing any robot, one ma-or mechanical constraint is the
number of motors being used. Eou can have either a two"wheel drive or a
four"wheel drive. &hough four"wheel drive is more compleA than two"wheel
drive, it provides more tor$ue and good control. &wo"wheel drive, on the
other hand, is very easy to construct.
Motors are fiAed to the bottom of this sheet and the circuit is affiAed
firmly on top of the sheet. % cell phone is also mounted on the sheet. In the
four"wheel drive system, the two motors on a side are controlled in parallel.
4o a single B)C*0 driver IC can drive the Robotic Car.

F&rt'er applications
&his Robotic Car can be further improved to serve specific purposes.
It re$uires four controls to roam around. &he remaining eight controls can be
configured to serve other purposes, with some modifications in the source
program of the microcontroller.
<e can place the *G mobile on both sides, 4o that we can see the
image on the *G mobile.
Circ&it Dia%ra(:
1) &C *oard
+) Telep'one ,nter-acin% *oard
.) /&t p&t *oard 0Motor Driver 1