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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
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Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Aboriginal Rights, Pages 1-5, M. Asch
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Absolutism, History of, Pages 5-9, R. Vierhaus
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Academic Achievement Motivation, Development of, Pages 14-20, J.S. Eccles, A.
Wigfield
Abstract PDF (114 K)

Academic Achievement: Cultural and Social Influences, Pages 9-14, H.W.
Stevenson
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Academy and Society in the United States: Cultural Concerns, Pages 20-27, J.R.
Cole
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Acceptance and Change, Psychology of, Pages 27-30, S.C. Hayes
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Access: Geographical, Pages 30-33, E. Talen
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Accidents, Normal, Pages 33-38, C. Perrow
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Accountability: Political, Pages 38-41, J.M. Bessette
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Action Planning, Psychology of, Pages 41-45, M. von Cranach, F. Tschan
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Action Theory: Psychological, Pages 45-49, L.H. Eckensberger
Abstract PDF (71 K)

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10/5/2014 International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences - ScienceDirect
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Action, Collective, Pages 49-54, A.R. Oberschall
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Action, Theories of Social, Pages 54-58, R. Boudon
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Activity Theory: Psychological, Pages 58-62, W. Hacker
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Actor Network Theory, Pages 62-66, M. Callon
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Adaptation, Fitness, and Evolution, Pages 66-72, W.B. Watt
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Adaptive Preferences: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 72-77, R.E. Goodin
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Additive Factor Models, Pages 77-81, R. Schweickert
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Administration in Organizations, Pages 81-85, J.-C. Thoenig
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Administrative Law, Pages 85-88, C. Coglianese
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Adolescence, Psychiatry of, Pages 88-94, D. Offer, D. Albert
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Adolescence, Sociology of, Pages 94-97, F.F. Furstenberg
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Adolescent Behavior: Demographic, Pages 98-101, J. de Jong Gierveld
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Adolescent Development, Theories of, Pages 102-105, L. Steinberg
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Adolescent Health and Health Behaviors, Pages 105-112, T.A. Wills
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Adolescent Injuries and Violence, Pages 112-116, L. Barrios, D. Sleet
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Adolescent Vulnerability and Psychological Interventions, Pages 116-119, B.
Fischhoff
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Adolescent Work and Unemployment, Pages 119-122, J.T. Mortimer
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Adolescents: Leisure-time Activities, Pages 122-125, R.K. Silbereisen
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Adoption and Foster Care: United States, Pages 125-127, I.M. Schwartz, S. Kinnevy, T.
White
Abstract PDF (141 K)

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Adorno, Theodor W (1903–69), Pages 127-132, H. Dubiel
Abstract PDF (142 K)

Adult Cognitive Development: Post-Piagetian Perspectives, Pages 132-135, F.
Blanchard-Fields
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Adult Development, Psychology of, Pages 135-139, M.E. Lachman
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Adult Education and Training: Cognitive Aspects, Pages 139-142, A. Kruse, E.
Schmitt
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Adult Mortality in the Less Developed World, Pages 142-147, I. Timæus
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Adult Psychological Development: Attachment, Pages 147-151, M. Mikulincer
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Adulthood: Dependency and Autonomy, Pages 151-153, H.-W. Wahl
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Adulthood: Developmental Tasks and Critical Life Events, Pages 153-156, S.-H.
Filipp
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Adulthood: Emotional Development, Pages 156-159, C. Magai
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Adulthood: Prosocial Behavior and Empathy, Pages 159-162, J. Dovidio
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Adverbial Clauses, Pages 162-167, B. Kortmann
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Advertising Agencies, Pages 167-172, B. Moeran
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Advertising and Advertisements, Pages 172-178, L. Scott
Abstract PDF (348 K)

Advertising, Control of, Pages 178-183, J. Boddewyn
PDF (76 K)

Advertising, Psychology of, Pages 193-199, L. von Rosenstiel, P. Neumann
Abstract PDF (666 K)

Advertising: Effects, Pages 183-188, T.C. O'Guinn
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Advertising: General, Pages 188-193, J. Sinclair
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Advocacy and Equity Planning, Pages 199-204, N. Krumholz
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Advocacy in Anthropology, Pages 204-206, L.E. Sponsel
Abstract PDF (53 K)

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Aesthetic Education, Pages 206-210, R.A. Smith
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Affirmative Action Programs (India): Cultural Concerns, Pages 218-222, P.C.
Chatterji
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Affirmative Action Programs (United States): Cultural Concerns, Pages 222-226, A.
Thernstrom, S. Thernstrom
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Affirmative Action, Sociology of, Pages 226-229, C.M. Swain
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Affirmative Action: Comparative Policies and Controversies, Pages 210-214, C.D.
Cunningham
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Affirmative Action: Empirical Work on its Effectiveness, Pages 214-218, J.S. Leonard
Abstract PDF (68 K)

African Legal Systems, Pages 229-233, G.R. Woodman
Abstract PDF (67 K)

African Studies: Culture, Pages 233-236, J.I. Guyer
Abstract PDF (62 K)

African Studies: Environment, Pages 236-240, P.D. Little
Abstract PDF (70 K)

African Studies: Geography, Pages 240-244, E. Kalipeni
Abstract PDF (67 K)

African Studies: Health, Pages 244-250, J.C. Caldwell
Abstract PDF (82 K)

African Studies: History, Pages 250-255, F. Cooper
Abstract PDF (77 K)

African Studies: Politics, Pages 255-259, M.C. Young
Abstract PDF (67 K)

African Studies: Religion, Pages 259-263, J.D.Y. Peel
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Age Policy, Pages 267-271, A.-M. Guillemard
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Age Stratification, Pages 278-283, D. Dannefer
Abstract PDF (100 K)

Age Structure, Pages 283-285, G.C. Myers
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Age, Race, and Gender in Organizations, Pages 271-275, F.J. Landy
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Age, Sociology of, Pages 275-278, A. Foner, M.W. Riley
Abstract PDF (62 K)

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Age: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 263-267, P. Spencer
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Agenda-setting, Pages 285-288, M. McCombs
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Agendas: Political, Pages 288-291, F.R. Baumgartner
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Aggregation: Methodology, Pages 291-295, S.M. Değirmencioğlu
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Aggression in Adulthood, Psychology of, Pages 295-299, L. Berkowitz
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Aging and Education, Pages 299-304, S.L. Willis, J.A. Margrett
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Aging and Health in Old Age, Pages 304-310, K.G. Manton
Abstract PDF (119 K)

Aging Mind: Facets and Levels of Analysis, Pages 310-317, S.-C. Li
Abstract PDF (475 K)

Aging, Theories of, Pages 317-322, K.W. Schaie
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Agnosia, Pages 322-326, D. Tranel, A.R. Damasio
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Agonistic Behavior, Pages 326-329, E.S. Barratt
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Agricultural Change Theory, Pages 329-333, G.D. Stone
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Pages 333-337, L. Busch
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Agriculture, Economics of, Pages 337-344, B.L. Gardner
Abstract PDF (101 K)

AIDS (Acquired Immune-deficiency Syndrome), Pages 344-350, L.S. Zegans
Abstract PDF (87 K)

AIDS, Geography of, Pages 350-355, R.W. Thomas
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Air Pollution, Pages 355-359, V. Smil
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Alcohol Use Among Young People, Pages 365-368, R.K. Silbereisen
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Alcohol-related Disorders, Pages 359-365, M. Soyka
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Alcoholics Anonymous, Pages 368-371, B.S. McCrady
Abstract PDF (63 K)

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Alcoholism: Genetic Aspects, Pages 371-378, K.E. Browman, J.C. Crabbe
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Algorithmic Complexity, Pages 378-382, M. Li, P. Vitányi
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Algorithms, Pages 382-385, L. Martignon
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Alienation, Sociology of, Pages 388-392, F. Geyer
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Alienation: Psychosociological Tradition, Pages 385-388, M. Seeman
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Alliances and Joint Ventures: Organizational, Pages 392-397, J. Gillespie, R. Gulati
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Alliances: Political, Pages 397-401, O.R. Holsti
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Allport, Gordon W (1897–1967), Pages 401-404, T.F. Pettigrew
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Alternative and Complementary Healing Practices, Pages 404-407, A.F. Furnham
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Alternative Media, Pages 407-411, J.D.H. Downing
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Altruism and Prosocial Behavior, Sociology of, Pages 411-415, J.A. Piliavin
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Altruism and Self-interest, Pages 415-418, K.R. Monroe
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Alzheimer's Disease, Neural Basis of, Pages 425-430, H. Braak
Abstract PDF (149 K)

Alzheimer's Disease: Antidementive Drugs, Pages 418-423, M. Hofmann, C. Hock
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Alzheimer's Disease: Behavioral and Social Aspects, Pages 423-425, E. Miller
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American Revolution, The, Pages 430-434, W.P. Adams
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American Studies: Culture, Pages 434-439, J. Karaganis
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American Studies: Education, Pages 439-444, S. Brint
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American Studies: Environment, Pages 444-447, A. Schnaiberg
Abstract PDF (62 K)

American Studies: History, Pages 1-11, Takeshi Matsuda
Abstract PDF (122 K)

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American Studies: Politics, Pages 447-451, A.W. Dzur, M.J. Burbank
Abstract PDF (68 K)

American Studies: Religion, Pages 451-454, M.E. Marty
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American Studies: Society, Pages 454-461, W.M. Verhoeven
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Amnesia, Pages 1-10, M. Moscovitch
Abstract PDF (852 K)

Amnesia: Transient and Psychogenic, Pages 467-471, H.J. Markowitsch
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Amygdala (Amygdaloid Complex), Pages 471-473, G.D. Petrovich
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Analysis of Variance and Generalized Linear Models, Pages 473-480, R. Christensen
Abstract PDF (146 K)

Analytic Induction, Pages 480-484, J. Katz
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Analytical Marxism, Pages 484-486, P. van Parijs
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Anaphora, Pages 486-490, Y. Huang
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Anaphora Resolution, Pages 490-494, S. Garrod
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Ancestors, Anthropology of, Pages 494-496, J. Middleton
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Androgyny, Pages 496-500, E.P. Cook
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Animal Cognition, Pages 500-505, W.A. Roberts
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Animal Rights in Research and Research Application, Pages 505-510, F. Borchard
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Anomie, Pages 510-513, P. Besnard
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Anthropology, Pages 513-519, U. Hannerz
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Anthropology and History, Pages 519-523, J.D. Faubion
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Anthropology, History of, Pages 523-529, T.H. Eriksen
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Anti-Semitism, Pages 542-549, S. Volkov
Abstract PDF (92 K)

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Antidepressant Drugs, Pages 529-535, O. Benkert, A. Szegedi, M.J. Müller
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Antiquity, History of, Pages 535-542, W. Nippel
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence, Pages 549-553, L. Pulkkinen
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Antitrust Policy, Pages 553-560, D.L. Rubinfeld
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, Pages 560-567, K. Wiedemann
Abstract PDF (95 K)

Anxiety and Fear, Neural Basis of, Pages 567-570, J. Radulovic, J. Spiess
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Anxiety Disorder in Children, Pages 570-576, C.L. Donovan, S.H. Spence
Abstract PDF (140 K)

Apartheid, Pages 576-579, A. Levine, J.J. Stremlau
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Apathy, Pages 579-581, S.E. Bennett
Abstract PDF (54 K)

Aphasia, Pages 581-585, D. Caplan
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Appeals: Legal, Pages 585-589, P. Carrington
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Appeasement: Political, Pages 589-592, D.W. Larson
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Appetite Regulation, Pages 592-594, T.L. Davidson
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Applied Geography, Pages 594-598, J. Frazier
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Apportionment: Political, Pages 598-601, B. Grofman
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Apprenticeship and School Learning, Pages 601-604, H. Gruber, H. Mandl
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Apprenticeship: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 604-607, R.M. Dilley
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Apraxia, Pages 607-611, G. Goldenberg
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Archaeology and Cultural/National Memory, Pages 611-614, C. Holtorf
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Archaeology and Philosophy of Science, Pages 614-617, A. Wylie
Abstract PDF (61 K)

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Archaeology and the History of Languages, Pages 617-622, P. Bellwood
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Archaeology, Politics of, Pages 623-626, L. Goldstein
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Archaeometry, Pages 626-629, A. Watchman
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Architectural Psychology, Pages 629-633, D. Philip
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Architecture, Pages 633-637, M.S. Larson
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Archival Methods, Pages 637-642, J. Markoff
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Archives and Historical Databases, Pages 643-646, O. Dascher
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Archiving: Ethical Aspects, Pages 646-649, J.J. Card
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Arctic: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 649-652, P.P. Schweitzer
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Area and International Studies in the United States: Institutional Arrangements,
Pages 686-692, R.D. Lambert
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Area and International Studies in the United States: Intellectual Trends, Pages
692-699, D.L. Szanton
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Area and International Studies in the United States: Stakeholders, Pages 699-707,
G.W. Merkx
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Area and International Studies: Archaeology, Pages 653-657, K.L. Hutterer
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Area and International Studies: Cultural Studies, Pages 657-662, B. Lee
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Area and International Studies: Development in Eastern Europe, Pages 662-667,
J. Kopstein
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Area and International Studies: Development in Europe, Pages 667-671, R.
Kastoryano
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Area and International Studies: Development in South Asia, Pages 671-677, D.
Ludden
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Area and International Studies: Development in Southeast Asia, Pages 677-682, A.
Kaur
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Area and International Studies: Economics, Pages 682-686, C.D. Goodwin
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Area and International Studies: International Relations, Pages 707-711, T. Inoguchi
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Area and International Studies: Law, Pages 711-715, W.P. Alford
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Area and International Studies: Linguistics, Pages 715-719, L.A. Janda
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Area and International Studies: Political Economy, Pages 719-723, I. Robinson
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Area and International Studies: Sociology, Pages 723-729, P.G. Steinhoff
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Areal Linguistics, Pages 729-733, L. Campbell
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Arendt, Hannah (1906–75), Pages 733-737, A. Grunenberg
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Aristocracy/Nobility/Gentry, History of, Pages 737-742, A. Mączak
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Aristotelian Social Thought, Pages 742-744, B. Yack
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Aristotle (384–322 BC), Pages 744-748, M. Wörner
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Arms Control, Pages 748-751, C.D. Blacker
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Aron, Raymond (1905–83), Pages 751-754, N. Baverez
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Arousal, Neural Basis of, Pages 754-758, B.S. Kapp, M.E. Cain
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Art and Culture, Economics of, Pages 758-764, V.A. Ginsburgh
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Art History, Pages 768-773, H. Bredekamp
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Art, Sociology of, Pages 773-777, L. Deroche-Gurcel
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Art: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 764-768, N. Graburn
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Artificial and Natural Computation, Pages 777-783, A. Hoffmann
Abstract PDF (109 K)

Artificial Intelligence in Cognitive Science, Pages 792-796, J. Feldman
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Artificial Intelligence: Connectionist and Symbolic Approaches, Pages 783-789, R.
Sun
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Artificial Intelligence: Genetic Programming, Pages 789-792, W. Banzhaf
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Artificial Intelligence: Search, Pages 796-798, R.E. Korf
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Artificial Intelligence: Uncertainty, Pages 799-805, K.B. Laskey, T.S. Levitt
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Artificial Neural Networks: Neurocomputation, Pages 806-811, R.M. Golden
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Artificial Social Agents, Pages 811-816, K.M. Carley
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Artisans and Guilds, History of, Pages 816-821, J. Ehmer
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Arts Funding, Pages 821-826, M. Bakke
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Asceticism, Pages 826-829, S. Abbruzzese
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Assessment and Application of Therapeutic Effectiveness, Ethical Implications
of, Pages 829-833, H. Helmchen
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Asset Pricing: Derivative Assets, Pages 833-840, S.M. Schaefer
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Asset Pricing: Emerging Markets, Pages 840-845, C.R. Harvey
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Assimilation of Immigrants, Pages 845-849, R.G. Rumbaut
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Associative Modifications of Individual Neurons, Pages 849-853, F.D. Lorenzetti, J.H.
Byrne
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Asymmetry of Body and Brain: Embryological and Twin Studies, Pages 853-859,
M. Levin
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Atomism and Holism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 859-864, M. Esfeld
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Attachment Theory: Psychological, Pages 864-868, M.H. van IJzendoorn
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Attention and Action, Pages 868-871, A.H.C. van der Heijden
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Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Pages 871-875, C.K. Whalen
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Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Neural Basis of, Pages 875-878, H.M.
Feldman
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Attention, Neural Basis of, Pages 888-894, G. di Pellegrino
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Attention: Models, Pages 878-884, C. Bundesen
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Attention: Multiple Resources, Pages 884-888, E. Siéroff
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Attitude Change: Psychological, Pages 894-899, R.E. Petty
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Attitude Formation: Function and Structure, Pages 899-905, S. Chaiken
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Attitude Measurement, Pages 905-908, N. Schwarz
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Attitudes and Behavior, Pages 909-913, A.S.R. Manstead
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Attributional Processes: Psychological, Pages 913-917, B.F. Malle
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Auctions, Pages 917-923, S. Müller
Abstract PDF (103 K)

Audience Measurement, Pages 923-926, J.G. Webster
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Audiences, Pages 926-931, A.L. Press
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Audition and Hearing, Pages 931-936, W.A. Yost
Abstract PDF (99 K)

Auditory Models, Pages 936-940, W.A. Yost
Abstract PDF (369 K)

Auditory Scene Analysis, Pages 940-942, A.S. Bregman
Abstract PDF (112 K)

Auditory Scene Analysis: Computational Models, Pages 943-946, G.J. Brown
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Auditory System, Pages 946-952, R.L. Jenison
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Australia and New Guinea, Archaeology of, Pages 952-956, J. Allen
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Australian Aborigines: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 956-960, G. Cowlishaw
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Australian Settler Society: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 960-963, A. Peace
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Authenticity, Anthropology of, Pages 963-967, R. Handler
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Authoritarian Personality: History of the Concept, Pages 967-970, F. Samelson
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Authoritarianism, Pages 970-972, S. Feldman
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Authority, Social Theories of, Pages 978-982, E. Zambrano
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Authority: Delegation, Pages 972-978, P.J. Wolf
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Autism, Neural Basis of, Pages 983-987, R.T. Schultz
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Autistic Disorder: Psychological, Pages 987-991, F. Happé
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Automaticity of Action, Psychology of, Pages 991-993, T. Wheatley, D.M. Wegner
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Automation: Organizational Studies, Pages 993-998, F. Butera
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Autonomic Classical and Operant Conditioning, Pages 998-1002, R.W. Winters, N.
Schneiderman
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Autonomous Agents, Pages 1002-1006, T. Bösser
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Autonomy at Work, Pages 1006-1009, J.M. Jermier, C.E. Michaels
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Autonomy, Philosophy of, Pages 1009-1015, N. Stoljar
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Avant-garde Art and Artists, Pages 1015-1019, D. Crane
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Aviation Safety, Psychology of, Pages 1019-1023, D.A. Wiegmann
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Avoidance Learning and Escape Learning, Pages 1023-1026, F.R. Brush
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Axiomatic Theories, Pages 1026-1032, P. Suppes
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Baby Booms and Baby Busts in the Twentieth Century, Pages 1033-1036, D.J.
Macunovich
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Balance of Power, History of, Pages 1036-1039, G. van Benthem van den Bergh
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Balance of Power: Political, Pages 1039-1042, R. Jervis
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Bankruptcy, Pages 1042-1044, W.C. Whitford
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Basal Ganglia, Pages 1044-1048, M.G. Packard
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Bayesian Graphical Models and Networks, Pages 1048-1052, D. Heckerman
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Bayesian Statistics, Pages 1052-1056, H.S. Stern
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Bayesian Theory: History of Applications, Pages 1056-1060, D.A. Schum
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Beauvoir, Simone de (1908–86), Pages 1060-1064, E. Fallaize
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Behavior Analysis, Applied, Pages 1064-1069, R. Ardila
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Behavior Psychotherapy: Rational and Emotive, Pages 1072-1076, A. Ellis
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Behavior Therapy with Children, Pages 1086-1090, D. DiLillo, L. Peterson
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Behavior Therapy: Psychiatric Aspects, Pages 1076-1081, L.M. Drummond
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Behavior Therapy: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 1081-1086, G.C. Davison
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Behavior, Hierarchical Organization of, Pages 1069-1072, C.R. Gallistel
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Behavioral Assessment, Pages 1090-1094, R. Fernández-Ballesteros
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Behavioral Economics, Pages 1094-1100, S. Mullainathan, R.H. Thaler
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Behavioral Genetics: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 1100-1105, R. Plomin
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Behavioral Geography, Pages 1105-1111, R.G. Golledge
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Behavioral Medicine, Pages 1111-1118, B.N. Henderson, A. Baum
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Behavioral Neuroscience, Pages 1118-1125, R.F. Thompson
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Behavioralism: Political, Pages 1125-1128, J.W. Falter
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Behaviorism, Pages 1128-1131, G.A. Kimble
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Behaviorism, History of, Pages 1131-1137, F. Parot
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Belief, Anthropology of, Pages 1137-1141, B.J. Good
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Benedict, Ruth (1887–1948), Pages 1141-1145, J.S. Modell
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Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), Pages 1145-1151, W.L. Twining
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Bereavement, Pages 1151-1155, K. Boerner, C.B. Wortman
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Bernard, Jessie (1903–96), Pages 1155-1160, J. Lipman-Blumen
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Bernoulli, Jacob I (1654–1705), Pages 1160-1162, K. Mainzer
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Big Man, Anthropology of, Pages 1162-1165, R. Lederman
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Bilingual Education: International Perspectives, Pages 1165-1167, R. Tracy
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Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Pages 1167-1171, J. Edwards
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Bilingualism: Cognitive Aspects, Pages 1171-1175, U. Schönpflug
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Bill of Rights, Pages 1175-1178, S. Krislov
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Binding Problem, Neural Basis of, Pages 1178-1180, C. von der Malsburg
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Binet, Alfred (1857–1911), Pages 1180-1184, R.J. Sternberg, L. Jarvin
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Binocular Space Perception Models, Pages 1184-1187, J. Heller
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Bioarchaeology, Pages 1187-1190, C.S. Larsen
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Bioethics: Examples from the Life Sciences, Pages 1190-1195, F. Thiele
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Bioethics: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 1195-1201, U. Schüklenk, J. Kerin
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Biogeography, Pages 1201-1206, K. Muller-Hohenstein
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Biographical Methodology: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 1206-1210, W. Nasby
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Biography and Society, Pages 1210-1213, D. Bertaux
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Biography: Historical, Pages 1213-1217, B. Possing
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Biology's Influence on Sociology: Human Sociobiology, Pages 1217-1222, J.
Lopreato
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Biomedical Sciences and Technology: History and Sociology, Pages 1222-1226, A.
Cambrosio, P. Keating
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Biopsychology and Health, Pages 1226-1231, P. Netter
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Biosphere Reserves, Pages 1231-1235, J.D. Nations
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Biotechnology, Pages 1235-1240, S. Hilgartner
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Bipolar Disorder (Including Hypomania and Mania), Pages 1240-1245, R.J.
Baldessarini, L. Tondo
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Birdsong and Vocal Learning during Development, Pages 1245-1252, S.W. Bottjer
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Birth, Anthropology of, Pages 1252-1255, L.F. Newman
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Bleuler, Eugen (1857–1939), Pages 1255-1258, P. Hoff
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Bloch, Marc Léopold Benjamin (1886–1944), Pages 1258-1260, P. Schöttler
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Blocking, Neural Basis of, Pages 1260-1262, I. Ordun¯a, M. Gluck
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Bloomfield, Léonard (1887–1949), Pages 1262-1266, M. Bierwisch
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Boas, Franz (1858–1942), Pages 1266-1270, G. Elwert
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Body Image and Gender, Pages 1282-1285, T.F. Heatherton
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Body, Evolution of, Pages 1274-1277, C. Ruff
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Body, History of, Pages 1277-1282, J. Tanner
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Body: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 1270-1274, T.J. Csordas
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Borderline Personality Disorder, Pages 1285-1290, O.F. Kernberg
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Borders, Anthropology of, Pages 1290-1293, H. Donnan
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Boserup, Ester (1910–99), Pages 1293-1295, G. Summerfield
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Boundaries and New Organization Forms, Pages 1296-1298, W.W. Powell
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Bounded and Costly Rationality, Pages 1298-1303, R. Radner
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Bounded Rationality, Pages 1303-1307, J. Bendor
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Bourgeoisie/Middle Classes, History of, Pages 1307-1314, H. Siegrist
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Bowlby, John (1907–90), Pages 1314-1318, J. Stevenson-Hinde, R.A. Hinde
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Brain Aging (Normal): Behavioral, Cognitive, and Personality Consequences,
Pages 1318-1321, W.J. Hoyer
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Brain Asymmetry, Pages 1321-1329, E. Zaidel
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Brain Damage: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, Pages 1329-1332, I.H. Robertson
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Brain Development, Ontogenetic Neurobiology of, Pages 1332-1338, M.I. Posner,
M.K. Rothbart
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Brain Implants and Transplants, Pages 1345-1352, B.Z. Roitberg, J.H. Kordower
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Brain Stimulation Reward, Pages 1358-1362, P. Shizgal
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Brain, Evolution of, Pages 1338-1345, R. Holloway
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Brain: Response to Enrichment, Pages 1352-1358, M.C. Diamond
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Braudel, Fernand (1902–1985), Pages 1-5, M. Aymard
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British Cultural Studies, Pages 1362-1365, G. Turner
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Broadbent, Donald Eric (1926–93), Pages 1365-1368, P. Rabbitt
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Broadcasting: General, Pages 1368-1373, P. Scannell
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Broadcasting: Regulation, Pages 1373-1378, E. Skogerbø
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Buddhism, Pages 1378-1386, D.N. Gellner
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Buddhism and Gender, Pages 1386-1390, R.M. Gross
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Budgeting and Anticipatory Management, Pages 1390-1397, M. Lebas
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Budgeting: Political Science Aspects, Pages 1397-1400, J.D. Savage
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Burckhardt, Jacob (1818–97), Pages 1400-1402, W. Hardtwig
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Bureaucracy and Bureaucratization, Pages 1402-1406, M. Meyer
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Bureaucracy, Sociology of, Pages 1406-1410, M. Crozier
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Bureaucratization and Bureaucracy, History of, Pages 1410-1415, R. Torstendahl
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Burnout, Psychology of, Pages 1415-1418, C. Maslach
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Business and Society: Social Accounting, Pages 1418-1421, E.I. Marshall
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Business History, Pages 1421-1426, H. Berghoff
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Business Law, Pages 1426-1432, C.E. Bagley
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Campaigning: Political, Pages 1433-1435, L.S. Maisel
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Campbell, Donald Thomas (1916–96), Pages 1435-1439, A.C. Gordon
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Cancer Screening, Pages 1449-1452, A.R. Aro
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Cancer-prone Personality, Type C, Pages 1439-1443, R. Fernández-Ballesteros
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Cancer: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 1443-1449, M.I. Hasenbring
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Cannibalism, Pages 1452-1454, D. Tuzin
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Capitalism, Pages 1454-1459, I.T. Berend
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Capitalism: Global, Pages 1459-1463, L. Sklair
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Cardiovascular Conditioning: Neural Substrates, Pages 1463-1466, B. Kapp
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Care and Gender, Pages 1466-1471, J. Tronto
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Career Development, Psychology of, Pages 1471-1476, A.B. Weinert
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Caregiver Burden, Pages 1476-1479, R. Schulz
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Caregiving in Old Age, Pages 1479-1481, N.L. Chappell
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Cargo Cults, Pages 1481-1484, K. Burridge
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Caribbean: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 1484-1488, M.R. Trouillot
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Cartographic Visualization, Pages 1488-1495, M.J. Kraak
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Cartography, Pages 1495-1501, J.M. Olson
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Cartography, History of, Pages 1501-1509, G.M. Lewis
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Case Study: Logic, Pages 1509-1513, A.M. Orum
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Case Study: Methods and Analysis, Pages 1513-1519, A. Bennett
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Case-oriented Research, Pages 1519-1525, C.C. Ragin
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Cassandra/Cornucopian Debate, Pages 1525-1529, B. O'Neill
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Caste, Pages 1529-1532, V. Das
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Categorization and Similarity Models, Pages 1532-1535, J.K. Kruschke
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Categorization and Similarity Models: Neuroscience Applications, Pages 1535-
1538, F.G. Ashby
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Catholicism, Pages 1538-1542, A. Hastings
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Catholicism and Gender, Pages 1542-1545, R.R. Ruether
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Cattell, Raymond Bernard (1905–98), Pages 1546-1550, J.R. Nesselroade
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Causal Counterfactuals in Social Science Research, Pages 1550-1554, P.W. Holland
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Causal Inference and Statistical Fallacies, Pages 1554-1561, D.R. Cox, N. Wermuth
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Causation (Theories and Models): Conceptions in the Social Sciences, Pages
1561-1567, V. Gadenne
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Causation: Physical, Mental, and Social, Pages 1567-1572, D. Stoljar
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Causes and Laws: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 1572-1578, H. Beebee
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Celebrity, Pages 1578-1581, J. Gamson
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Censorship and Secrecy: Legal Perspectives, Pages 1581-1588, G.T. Marx
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Censorship and Transgressive Art, Pages 1588-1592, S.C. Dubin
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Censorship in Research and Scholarship, Pages 1592-1595, R.M. Rosenzweig
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Censuses: Comparative International Aspects, Pages 1595-1599, B.A. Bailar
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Censuses: Demographic Issues, Pages 1599-1605, J.S. Passel
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Censuses: History and Methods, Pages 1605-1610, M. Anderson
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Center–Periphery Relationships, Pages 1610-1613, U. Hannerz
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Centers for Advanced Study: International/Interdisciplinary, Pages 1613-1615, P.E.
Converse
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Central Africa: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 1615-1619, R. Devisch
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Central America: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 1619-1623, C.A. Smith
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Ceramics in Archaeology, Pages 1623-1627, P.V. Kirch
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Cerebellum: Associative Learning, Pages 1627-1631, J.E. Steinmetz
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Cerebellum: Cognitive Functions, Pages 1631-1634, B. Suchan, I. Daum
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Cerebral Cortex: Organization and Function, Pages 1634-1640, A. Schüz, V.
Braitenberg
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Change: Methods of Studying, Pages 1640-1643, B. Schmitz
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Chaos Theory, Pages 1643-1646, W.A. Brock
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Characterization Theorems in Random Utility Theory, Pages 1646-1651, M. Koppen
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Charisma and Charismatic, Pages 1651-1653, B.S. Turner
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Charisma: Social Aspects of, Pages 1653-1659, S. Abbruzzese
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Chemical Sciences: History and Sociology, Pages 1659-1663, D. Knight
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Chess Expertise, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 1663-1667, F. Gobet
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Chiefdoms, Archaeology of, Pages 1667-1672, L.L. Junker
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Child Abuse, Pages 1672-1676, G. Deegener
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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Principles of, Pages 1676-1682, M.H. Schmidt, A.
Maras
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Child Care and Child Development, Pages 1682-1686, A.C. Huston
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Childbearing, Externalities of, Pages 1686-1689, R.D. Lee
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Childhood and Adolescence: Developmental Assets, Pages 1690-1697, P.L. Benson,
N. Leffert
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Childhood Cancer: Psychological Aspects, Pages 1701-1705, F. Petermann, M. Noeker
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Childhood Depression, Pages 1705-1709, J.F. Curry
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Childhood Health, Pages 1709-1712, C. Eiser
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Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Adult Psychopathology, Pages 1712-1716,
N.D. Vogeltanz-Holm
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Childhood: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 1697-1701, T.S. Weisner
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Children and the Law, Pages 1716-1720, J. Roche
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Children, Rights of: Cultural Concerns, Pages 1720-1725, M.S. Wald
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Children, Value of, Pages 1725-1729, E. Thomson
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Children's Play: Educational Function, Pages 1729-1733, K.H. Rubin
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China: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 1733-1738, P.S. Sangren
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Chinese Law, Pages 1739-1743, S.B. Lubman
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Chinese Revolutions: Twentieth Century, Pages 1743-1747, J.N. Wasserstrom
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Christian Liturgy, Pages 1747-1750, C. Pickstock
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Christian Parties: European, Pages 1750-1752, S.N. Kalyvas
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Christianity in Anglo-America and Australasia, Pages 1756-1761, W.C. Roof
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Christianity in Asia, Pages 1761-1764, M. Northcott
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Christianity in Central and South America, Pages 1764-1767, G. Benavides
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Christianity Origins: Primitive and ‘Western’ History, Pages 1770-1773, L. Woodhead
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Christianity: Evangelical, Revivalist, and Pentecostal, Pages 1752-1756, M.
Hutchinson
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Christianity: Liberal, Pages 1768-1770, L. Woodhead
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Chronic Illness, Psychosocial Coping with, Pages 1773-1779, S. Manne
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Chronic Illness: Quality of Life, Pages 1779-1782, H.M. McGee
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Chronic Pain: Models and Treatment Approaches, Pages 1782-1789, D.C. Turk
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Chronology, Stratigraphy, and Dating Methods in Archaeology, Pages 1789-1796,
S. Shackley
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Church and State: Political Science Aspects, Pages 1796-1798, J.T.S. Madeley
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Cingulate Cortex, Pages 1799-1805, L. Burhans, A. Talk, M. Gabriel
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Circadian Rhythms, Pages 1805-1808, E. Satinoff
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Cities, Images of, Pages 1822-1825, J.L. Nasar
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Cities, Internal Organization of, Pages 1825-1829, S. Wong
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Cities: Capital, Global, and World, Pages 1808-1816, S. Sassen
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Cities: Cultural Types, Pages 1817-1821, B. Hofmeister
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Cities: Internal Structure, Pages 1829-1835, E. Lichtenberger
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Cities: Post-socialist, Pages 1835-1840, G. Andrusz
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Citizen Participation, Pages 1840-1846, H.S. Baum
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Citizenship and Public Policy, Pages 1846-1852, B.S. Turner
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Citizenship, Historical Development of, Pages 1852-1857, D. Gosewinkel
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Citizenship: Political, Pages 1857-1860, R.M. Smith
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Citizenship: Sociological Aspects, Pages 1860-1862, P. Birnbaum
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Civic Culture, Pages 1862-1865, G.A. Almond
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Civil Law, Pages 1865-1869, P. Hay
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Civil Liberties and Human Rights, Pages 1869-1874, D.A. Downs
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Civil Religion, Pages 1874-1878, R.K. Fenn
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Civil Rights, Pages 1878-1883, D. Kairys
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Civil Rights Movement, The, Pages 1883-1886, A. Morris
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Civil Service, Pages 1886-1891, I. Galnoor
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Civil Society, Concept and History of, Pages 1891-1897, H. Islamoglu
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Civil Society/Public Sphere: History of the Concept, Pages 1897-1903, C. Calhoun
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Civilization, Concept and History of, Pages 1903-1909, A. Al-Azmeh
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Civilizational Analysis, History of, Pages 1909-1915, J.P. Arnason
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Civilizations, Pages 1915-1921, S.N. Eisenstadt
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Clan, Pages 1921-1924, P. Burnham
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Class Actions: Legal, Pages 1924-1927, G.C. Hazard Jr.
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Class and Law, Pages 1927-1931, H. Rottleuthner
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Class Consciousness, Pages 1931-1933, P. Ansart
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Class: Social, Pages 1933-1938, P. Saunders
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Classical (Psychometric) Test Theory, Pages 1955-1962, R. Steyer
Abstract PDF (134 K)

Classical Archaeology, Pages 1938-1942, A. Schnapp
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Classical Conditioning and Clinical Psychology, Pages 1942-1945, M.E. Bouton
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Classical Conditioning, Neural Basis of, Pages 1946-1951, J.J. Kim
Abstract PDF (430 K)

Classical Mechanics and Motor Control, Pages 1951-1955, S. Mussa-Ivaldi
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Classification and Typology (Archaeological Systematics), Pages 1962-1966, W.Y.
Adams
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Classification: Conceptions in the Social Sciences, Pages 1966-1973, H. Feger
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Classifiers, Linguistics of, Pages 1973-1978, C. Grinevald
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Classroom Assessment, Pages 1978-1983, P.W. Airasian
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Classroom Climate, Pages 1983-1987, B.J. Fraser
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Cleavages: Political, Pages 1987-1990, S. Fabbrini
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Climate Change and Health, Pages 1990-1995, A. Haines
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Climate Change, Economics of, Pages 1995-1999, G.W. Yohe
Abstract PDF (106 K)

Climate Impacts, Pages 2003-2010, C. Rosenzweig
Abstract PDF (106 K)

Climate Policy: International, Pages 2011-2016, H.K. Jacobson
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Climate, History of, Pages 2000-2003, C. Pfister
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Clinical Assessment: Interview Methods, Pages 2016-2020, T.A. Widiger
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Clinical Psychology in Europe, History of, Pages 2025-2029, I. Lunt
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Clinical Psychology in North America, History of, Pages 2029-2036, K. Routh
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Clinical Psychology: Animal Models, Pages 2020-2025, S. Mineka
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Clinical Psychology: Manual-based Treatment, Pages 2036-2040, D.H. Barlow, K.A.I.
Greene
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Clinical Psychology: Validity of Judgment, Pages 2040-2043, H.N. Garb
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Clinical Treatment Outcome Research: Control and Comparison Groups, Pages
2043-2048, K.M. Carroll
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Clinical versus Actuarial Prediction, Pages 2048-2051, R.M. Dawes
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Clitics, Linguistics of, Pages 2051-2055, J.A. Nevis
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Closed and Open Systems: Organizational, Pages 2055-2058, T.G. Cummings
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Co-constructivism in Educational Theory and Practice, Pages 2058-2062, K. Reusser
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Code switching: Linguistic, Pages 2062-2065, S. Poplack
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Coeducation and Single-sex Schooling, Pages 2065-2067, H. Faulstich-Wieland
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Cognition, Distributed, Pages 2068-2072, E. Hutchins
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Cognitive Aging, Pages 2072-2075, K.W. Schaie
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Abstract PDF (60 K)
Cognitive and Interpersonal Therapy: Psychiatric Aspects, Pages 2075-2080, C.J.
Mace
Abstract PDF (110 K)

Cognitive Anthropology, Pages 2080-2085, J. Wassmann
Abstract PDF (181 K)

Cognitive Archaeology, Pages 2085-2089, D.S. Whitley
PDF (91 K)

Cognitive Control (Executive Functions): Role of Prefrontal Cortex, Pages 2089-
2094, J.D. Cohen
Abstract PDF (289 K)

Cognitive Development in Childhood and Adolescence, Pages 2098-2103, P.J.
Bauer, M.M. Burch
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Cognitive Development in Infancy: Neural Mechanisms, Pages 2103-2108, M.H.
Johnson
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Cognitive Development: Child Education, Pages 2094-2098, M. Bullock
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Cognitive Development: Learning and Instruction, Pages 2108-2112, F.E. Weinert
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Cognitive Dissonance, Pages 2112-2114, J. Cooper, K.M. Carlsmith
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Cognitive Functions (Normal) and Neuropsychological Deficits, Models of, Pages
2114-2120, D.C. Plaut
Abstract PDF (185 K)

Cognitive Maps, Pages 2120-2124, R. Kitchin
Abstract PDF (407 K)

Cognitive Modeling: Research Logic in Cognitive Science, Pages 2124-2128, G.
Strube
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Cognitive Neuropsychology, Methodology of, Pages 2128-2133, T. Shallice
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Cognitive Neuroscience, Pages 2133-2140, J.L. McClelland
Abstract PDF (194 K)

Cognitive Psychology: History, Pages 2140-2147, E.E. Smith
Abstract PDF (108 K)

Cognitive Psychology: Overview, Pages 2147-2154, P.A. Frensch
Abstract PDF (192 K)

Cognitive Science: History, Pages 2154-2158, W. Bechtel, A. Abrahamsen, G. Graham
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Cognitive Science: Overview, Pages 2158-2166, G. Strube
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Cognitive Science: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 2166-2171, B. Loewer
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Cognitive Styles and Learning Styles, Pages 2171-2175, S.G. Rayner
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Cognitive Theory: ACT, Pages 2175-2178, M.C. Lovett
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Cognitive Theory: SOAR, Pages 2178-2183, R.L. Lewis
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Cognitive Therapy, Pages 2183-2187, K.S. Dobson
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Cohort Analysis, Pages 2189-2194, W.M. Mason, N.H. Wolfinger
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Cold War, The, Pages 2194-2200, G. Schmidt
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Coleman, James Samuel (1926–95), Pages 2200-2204, A.B. Sørensen
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Collective Behavior, Sociology of, Pages 2204-2208, J.L. Wood
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Collective Beliefs: Sociological Explanation, Pages 2209-2212, M. Dubois
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Collective Identity and Expressive Forms, Pages 2212-2219, D.A. Snow
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Collective Memory, Anthropology of, Pages 2219-2223, U. Linke
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Collective Memory, Psychology of, Pages 2223-2227, J. Prager
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Collectivism: Cultural Concerns, Pages 2227-2232, H.C. Triandis
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Colonialism, Anthropology of, Pages 2232-2237, D. Scott
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Colonialism: Political Aspects, Pages 2237-2240, R. Hodder-Williams
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Colonization and Colonialism, History of, Pages 2240-2245, W. Reinhard
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Color Classification and Symbolism, Pages 2245-2248, A. Jacobson-Widding
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Color Terms, Linguistics of, Pages 2248-2252, P. Kay
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Color Vision, Pages 2252-2256, K.K. De Valois, R.L. De Valois
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Color Vision Theory, Pages 2256-2263, D.H. Brainard
Abstract PDF (125 K)

Combinatorial Data Analysis, Pages 2263-2267, L.J. Hubert, P. Arabie
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Commemorative Objects, Pages 2267-2272, B. Schwartz
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Commercial Banking, Pages 2272-2276, M.S. Mizruchi
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Commodity Chains, Pages 2276-2279, E.R. Hartwick
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Common Law, Pages 2279-2283, S. Roberts
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Common Sense, Anthropology of, Pages 2283-2286, M. Herzfeld
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Communalism, Pages 2286-2288, P. van der Veer
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Communes, Anthropology of, Pages 2288-2293, T.M.S. Evens
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Communication and Democracy, Pages 2293-2296, Y. Ito
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Communication and Social Psychology, Pages 2296-2299, E.T. Higgins, G.R. Semin
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Communication and Transportation, History of, Pages 2299-2304, F. Baltzarek
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Communication, Two-step Flow of, Pages 2316-2319, G. Weimann
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Communication: Electronic Networks and Publications, Pages 2304-2308, D.D.
Rusch-Feja
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Communication: Geographic Aspects, Pages 2308-2311, S.D. Brunn
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Communication: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 2311-2316, S. Schiffer
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Communicative Competence: Linguistic Aspects, Pages 2319-2323, S.H. Foster-
Cohen
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Communism, Pages 2323-2326, A. Brown
Abstract PDF (59 K)

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Communism, History of, Pages 2326-2331, J. Holzer
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Communist Parties, Pages 2331-2334, R. Anderson
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Communitarianism, Sociology of, Pages 2336-2339, A. Etzioni
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Communitarianism: Political Theory, Pages 2334-2336, W. Reese-Schäfer
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Communities of Practice, Pages 2339-2342, E. Wenger
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Community Aesthetics, Pages 2342-2346, M. Maffesoli
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Community Economic Development, Pages 2346-2351, E.J. Blakely, R.J. Milano
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Community Environmental Psychology, Pages 2351-2355, C.J. Holahan, R.H. Moos
Abstract PDF (95 K)

Community Genetics, Pages 2359-2361, L.P. ten Kate
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Community Health, Pages 2361-2367, A.V. Diez Roux
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Community Organization and the Life Course, Pages 2367-2371, R.A. Settersten Jr.
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Community Power Structure, Pages 2371-2374, S.S. Fainstein
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Community Sociology, Pages 2383-2387, B.D. Jacobs
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Community Studies: Anthropological, Pages 2387-2389, D. Rabinowitz
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Community, Expression of, Pages 2355-2359, N.W. Townsend, K.V. Hansen
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Community, Social Contexts of, Pages 2374-2378, T.N. Clark
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Community/Society: History of the Concept, Pages 2378-2383, B. Stråth
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Comorbidity, Pages 2389-2393, R.C. Kessler
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Comparable Worth in Gender Studies, Pages 2393-2397, R.J. Steinberg
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Comparative History, Pages 2397-2403, H.-G. Haupt
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Comparative Method, in Evolutionary Studies, Pages 2403-2411, M. Pagel
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Comparative Neuroscience, Pages 2411-2414, T.H. Bullock
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Comparative Psychology, Pages 2414-2421, G. Gottlieb
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Comparative Research in Education: IEA Studies, Pages 2421-2427, J.P. Keeves
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Comparative Studies: Method and Design, Pages 2427-2433, D. Berg-Schlosser
Abstract PDF (100 K)

Competencies and Key Competencies: Educational Perspective, Pages 2433-
2436, F.E. Weinert
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Competitive Strategies: Organizational, Pages 2436-2440, U. Bertelè, V. Chiesa
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Compliance and Obedience: Legal, Pages 2440-2445, T.R. Tyler
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Comprehension, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 2445-2449, G. Hatano
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Compression of Morbidity, Pages 2449-2453, J.F. Fries
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Computational Approaches to Model Evaluation, Pages 2453-2457, I.J. Myung
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Computational Imagery, Pages 2457-2460, J.I. Glasgow
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Computational Neuroscience, Pages 2460-2465, T.J. Sejnowski
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Computational Psycholinguistics, Pages 2465-2470, R. Klabunde
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Computer Networking for Education, Pages 2470-2473, H. Mandl, F. Fischer
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Computer-assisted Instruction, Pages 2473-2477, J. Voogt, J. van den Akker
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Computerized Test Construction, Pages 2477-2480, W.J. van der Linden
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Computers and Society, Pages 2480-2487, W.H. Dutton
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Comte, Auguste (1798–1857), Pages 2487-2491, M. Pickering
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Concept Learning and Representation: Models, Pages 2491-2495, D.R. Shanks
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Conceptual Blending, Pages 2495-2498, G. Fauconnier
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Conceptual Change, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 2498-2501, K. Inagaki
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Conditioning and Habit Formation, Psychology of, Pages 2501-2511, D.T. Cerutti
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Conduct Disorder, Pages 2511-2516, A.E. Kazdin
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Confessions: Psychological and Forensic Aspects, Pages 2516-2521, S. Kassin
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Confidentiality and Statistical Disclosure Limitation, Pages 2521-2525, G.T. Duncan
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Configurational Analysis, Pages 2525-2531, A. von Eye
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Conflict and Conflict Resolution, Social Psychology of, Pages 2531-2534, D.G. Pruitt
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Conflict and Socioemotional Development, Pages 2535-2537, B. Laursen
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Conflict and War, Archaeology of, Pages 2537-2542, L. Keeley
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Conflict Sociology, Pages 2554-2559, C.J. Crouch
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Conflict/Consensus, Pages 2547-2550, J. Citrin
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Conflict: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 2542-2547, G. Elwert
Abstract PDF (107 K)

Conflict: Organizational, Pages 2550-2554, S. Clegg
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Conformity: Sociological Aspects, Pages 2559-2562, P. Demeulenaere
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Congress: United States, Pages 2562-2565, J.B. Gilmour
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Conjoint Analysis Applications, Pages 2565-2568, J.J. Louviere
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Connectionist Approaches, Pages 2568-2573, B.J. MacLennan
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Connectionist Models of Concept Learning, Pages 2573-2577, K. Lamberts
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Connectionist Models of Development, Pages 2577-2580, T.R. Shultz
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Connectionist Models of Language Processing, Pages 2580-2584, F. Pulvermüller
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Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Cognition, Pages 2584-2589, A.
Cleeremans
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Consciousness and Sensation: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 2589-2596, D.M.
Rosenthal
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Consciousness, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 2596-2600, N. Block
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Consciousness, Neural Basis of, Pages 2600-2604, C. Koch, F. Crick
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Conscription, Policy of, Pages 2604-2608, M. Levi
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Consensus Panels: Methodology, Pages 2609-2613, P.M. Wortman
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Consequentialism Including Utilitarianism, Pages 2613-2618, P. Pettit
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Conservation: Waterways, Pages 2618-2621, K.J. Gregory
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Conservation: Wetlands, Pages 2621-2624, M. Williams
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Conservatism: Historical Aspects, Pages 2624-2628, J.Z. Muller
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Conservatism: Theory and Contemporary Political Ideology, Pages 2628-2631, P.E.
Sigmund
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Consociationalism, Pages 2631-2633, R.B. Andeweg
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Constituent Structure: Syntactic, Pages 2633-2637, M.R. Baltin
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Constitutional Courts, Pages 2637-2641, B.-O. Bryde
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Constitutionalism, Pages 2641-2643, W.F. Murphy
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Constitutionalism, Comparative, Pages 2643-2648, H. Klug
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Constraint Satisfaction Models, Pages 2648-2651, T.R. Shultz
Abstract
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Dance, Anthropology of, Pages 3209-3212, H. Wulff
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82), Pages 3212-3218, M.T. Ghiselin
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Darwinism, Pages 3218-3222, M. Ruse
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Darwinism: Social, Pages 3222-3225, A. Drouard
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Data Archives: International, Pages 3225-3230, R.C. Rockwell
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Data Collection: Interviewing, Pages 3230-3236, A. Hunter
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Database, Core: Linguistics and CHILDES, Pages 3236-3238, C.E. Snow
Abstract PDF (56 K)

Databases, Core: Anthropology and Human Relations Area Files (HRAF), Pages
3238-3240, M. Ember
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Databases, Core: Anthropology and Museums, Pages 3240-3243, A.W. Barker
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Databases, Core: Demography and Genealogies, Pages 3243-3246, Z. Zhao
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Databases, Core: Demography and Registers, Pages 3246-3248, C. Campbell
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Databases, Core: Linguistics, Online Grammars, and Dictionaries, Pages 3248-
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3251, P. Kahrel
Abstract PDF (64 K)
Databases, Core: Political Science and Political Behavior, Pages 3251-3255, M.
Kaase
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Databases, Core: Sociology, Pages 3255-3260, R.T. Campbell
Abstract PDF (84 K)

De Finetti, Bruno (1906–85), Pages 3260-3263, B.M. Hill
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Death and Dying, Psychology of, Pages 3263-3267, A. Kruse, E. Schmitt
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Death and Dying, Sociology of, Pages 3267-3270, H. Abramovitch
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Death Penalty, Pages 3273-3278, A. Sarat
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Death, Anthropology of, Pages 3270-3273, H. Abramovitch
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Deception, Psychology of, Pages 3278-3281, A. Vrij
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Deceptive Methods: Ethical Aspects, Pages 3281-3284, J.E. Sieber
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Decision and Choice: Economic Psychology, Pages 3284-3286, S.E.G. Lea
Abstract PDF (54 K)

Decision and Choice: Paradoxes of Choice, Pages 3286-3291, M.H. Birnbaum
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Decision and Choice: Random Utility Models of Choice and Response Time,
Pages 3291-3296, H. Colonius
Abstract PDF (102 K)

Decision Biases, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 3296-3300, E. Shafir
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Decision Making (Naturalistic), Psychology of, Pages 3300-3304, J.M. Orasanu
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Decision Making, Psychology of, Pages 3309-3315, J. van der Pligt
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Decision Making: Nonrational Theories, Pages 3304-3309, G. Gigerenzer
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Decision Research: Behavioral, Pages 3318-3323, B.A. Mellers
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Decision Support Systems, Pages 3323-3327, J. Fox
Abstract PDF (69 K)

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Decision Theory: Bayesian, Pages 3327-3334, G. Parmigiani
Abstract PDF (123 K)

Decision Theory: Classical, Pages 3334-3340, L.D. Brown
Abstract PDF (258 K)

Decision-making Systems: Personal and Collective, Pages 3315-3318, D.
Braybrooke
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Declarative Memory, Neural Basis of, Pages 3340-3343, S.M. Zola, L.R. Squire
Abstract PDF (172 K)

Deconstruction: Cultural Concerns, Pages 3343-3346, J. Culler
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Deductive Reasoning Systems, Pages 3346-3349, W. Bibel
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Defense Mechanisms, Pages 3355-3359, G.E. Vaillant
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Defense, Economics of, Pages 3349-3355, D.L. Brito, M.D. Intriligator
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Deforestation–Forestation, Pages 3359-3364, A. Angelsen
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Deindividuation, Psychology of, Pages 3364-3366, T. Postmes
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Deinstitutionalization, Psychiatry of, Pages 3366-3371, J. Leff
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Deixis, Pages 3371-3375, J. Bohnemeyer
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Delegation of Power: Agency Theory, Pages 3375-3377, A. Lupia
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Deliberation: Political Aspects, Pages 3377-3380, J.M. Bessette
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Delinquency, Sociology of, Pages 3380-3384, R.J. Sampson
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Demand for Labor, Pages 3384-3389, D.S. Hamermesh
Abstract PDF (109 K)

Dementia, Semantic, Pages 3401-3405, K. Patterson, J.R. Hodges
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Dementia: Overview, Pages 3389-3396, B. Reisberg
Abstract PDF (122 K)

Dementia: Psychiatric Aspects, Pages 3396-3401, F.M. Reischies
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Democracy, Pages 3405-3408, R.A. Dahl
Abstract PDF (59 K)

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Democracy, History of, Pages 3408-3413, J.J. Sheehan
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Democracy: Normative Theory, Pages 3413-3419, T.D. Christiano
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Democratic Party, Pages 3419-3422, H.F. Bass Jr.
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Democratic Theory, Pages 3422-3425, S. Fishkin
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Democratic Transitions, Pages 3425-3428, G.L. Munck
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Demographic Analysis: Probabilistic Approach, Pages 3428-3432, J.M. Hoem
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Demographic Data Regimes, Pages 3432-3435, M.R. Haines
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Demographic Measurement: General Issues and Measures of Fertility, Pages
3435-3442, M. Ní Bhrolcháin
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Demographic Measurement: Nuptiality, Mortality, Migration, and Growth, Pages
3442-3449, M. Ní Bhrolcháin
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Demographic Models, Pages 3449-3452, Y. Xie
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Demographic Techniques: Data Adjustment and Correction, Pages 3452-3456, H.
Booth
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Demographic Techniques: Family Reconstitution, Pages 3456-3461, E.A. Hammel
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Demographic Techniques: Indirect Estimation, Pages 3461-3464, K. Hill
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Demographic Techniques: Inverse Projection, Pages 3464-3471, R. McCaa
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Demographic Techniques: LEXIS Diagram, Pages 3472-3480, G. Calot
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Demographic Techniques: Rates of the First and Second Kind, Pages 3480-3483,
G. Calot
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Demographic Techniques: Small-area Estimates and Projections, Pages 3483-
3486, J.M. Alho
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Demographic Transition, Second, Pages 3486-3488, D.J. van de Kaa
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Demography, History of, Pages 3488-3493, S. Szreter
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Demography: Twentieth-century History, Pages 3493-3498, D. Hodgson
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Dental Health: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 3498-3501, G. Kent
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Dependency Theory, Pages 3501-3505, H.R. Sonntag
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Depression, Pages 3505-3511, F. Holsboer
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Depression, Clinical Psychology of, Pages 3511-3516, I.H. Gotlib, J. Rottenberg
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Depression, Hopelessness, Optimism, and Health, Pages 3516-3522, C.S. Carver
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Deprivation: Relative, Pages 3522-3526, M. Cherkaoui
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Desertification, Pages 3526-3529, S. Batterbury, A. Warren
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Deserts, Philosophical Concept of, Pages 3529-3535, J. Kleinig
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Design and Form: Organizational, Pages 3535-3538, I. Palmer, R. Dunford
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Determinism: Social and Economic, Pages 3538-3541, W. Schmaus
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Deterrence, Pages 3542-3544, L.V. Sigal
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Deterrence Theory: Crime, Pages 3550-3553, M.C. Stafford, S.D. Goodrum
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Deterrence: Legal Perspectives, Pages 3544-3550, D.S. Nagin
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Deutsch, Karl W (1912–92), Pages 3553-3555, M. Dogan
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Development and the State, Pages 3557-3560, P.B. Evans
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Development and Urbanization, Pages 3560-3566, D.E. Davis
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Development Theory in Geography, Pages 3599-3604, J. Glassman
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Development, Economics of, Pages 3566-3574, J.R. Behrman
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Development: Organizational, Pages 3574-3578, G. Schreyögg
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Development: Rural Development Strategies, Pages 3578-3583, A. Bebbington
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Development: Social, Pages 3583-3587, C.H. Filgueira, F. Filgueira
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Development: Social-anthropological Aspects, Pages 3587-3592, D. Brokensha
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Development: Socioeconomic Aspects, Pages 3592-3597, E. Hershberg
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Development: Sustainable Agriculture, Pages 3597-3599, D. Barkin
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Developmental Behavioral Genetics and Education, Pages 3604-3607, P. Borkenau
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Developmental Psychology, Pages 3607-3612, R.A. Dixon
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Developmental Psychopathology: Child Psychology Aspects, Pages 3612-3615, M.
Lewis
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Developmental Sciences, History of, Pages 3615-3620, R.M. Lerner
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Developmental Sport Psychology, Pages 3620-3624, M.R. Weiss
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Dewey, John (1859–1952), Pages 3624-3628, H. Schreier
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Diabetes: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 3628-3631, K. Chamberlain
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Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Pages 3631-3634, M.M. Linehan
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Dialectical Thinking, Psychology of, Pages 3634-3637, K. Peng, D. Ames
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Dialectology, Pages 3637-3642, J.K. Chambers
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Diaspora, Pages 3642-3645, R. Cohen
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Dictatorship, Pages 3645-3647, A.J. Gregor
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Dictatorship in History, Pages 3647-3654, E. Gentile
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Differential Aging, Pages 3654-3658, S. Whitbourne
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Differential Diagnosis in Psychiatry, Pages 3658-3663, R.E. Kendell
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Differentiation: Social, Pages 3663-3668, U. Schimank
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Diffusion and Random Walk Processes, Pages 3668-3673, R. Ratcliff
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Diffusion, Sociology of, Pages 3681-3684, N. Alter
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Diffusion: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 3673-3676, R. Stade
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Diffusion: Geographical Aspects, Pages 3676-3681, L.A. Brown
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Digital Computer: Impact on the Social Sciences, Pages 3684-3688, G. Gigerenzer
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Diglossia, Pages 3688-3691, A.S. Kaye
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Dimensionality of Tests: Methodology, Pages 3691-3695, J. Hattie
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Diplomacy, Pages 3695-3697, S. Brown
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Disability, Demography of, Pages 3697-3700, S. Allen, D. Hogan
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Disability, Geography of, Pages 3701-3704, V. Chouinard
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Disability: Psychological and Social Aspects, Pages 3704-3710, M. Johnston, D.
Bonetti
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Disability: Sociological Aspects, Pages 3710-3713, G.L. Albrecht
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Disasters, Coping with, Pages 3713-3718, T.Y. Schooler
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Disasters, Sociology of, Pages 3718-3721, G.A. Kreps
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Disciplines, History of, in the Social Sciences, Pages 3721-3728, B. Wittrock
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Discourse and Identity, Pages 3728-3732, F. Yus
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Discourse, Anthropology of, Pages 3732-3736, C.L. Briggs
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Discovery Learning, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 3736-3739, M. Eisenberg
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Discovery: Legal Aspects, Pages 3739-3743, S. Bundy
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Discrete Mathematics, Pages 3743-3746, F.S. Roberts
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Discrete State Models of Information Processing, Pages 3747-3751, W.H. Batchelder
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Discrimination, Pages 3751-3756, D. Malamud
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Discrimination, Economics of, Pages 3756-3762, R. Oaxaca
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Discrimination: Racial, Pages 3762-3766, T.F. Pettigrew, M.C. Taylor
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Disgust, Psychology of, Pages 3766-3769, P. Rozin
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Dispute Resolution in Economics, Pages 3769-3772, H.S. Farber
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Disputes, Social Construction and Transformation of, Pages 3772-3776, L. Mather
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Dissolution of Family in Western Nations: Cultural Concerns, Pages 3856-3861,
F.F. Furstenberg
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Distance Education, Pages 3781-3784, H. Fritsch
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Distributions, Statistical: Approximations, Pages 3784-3787, J.P. Lehoczky
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Distributions, Statistical: Special and Continuous, Pages 3787-3793, J.P. Lehoczky
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Distributions, Statistical: Special and Discrete, Pages 3793-3797, C.D. Kemp
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Diversification and Economies of Scope, Pages 3574-3578, R.A. Lowe, D.J. Teece
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Diversity and Disagreement, Pages 3801-3807, M.M. Moody-Adams
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Divorce and Children's Social Development, Pages 3807-3810, E.R. Anderson, S.
Wolchik
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Divorce and Gender, Pages 3810-3814, D. Kurz
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Divorce, Sociology of, Pages 3814-3816, J.S. Wallerstein
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Doctor–Patient Interaction: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 3816-3821, J. Weinman
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Documentary and Ethnographic Film, Pages 3821-3826, K.P. Jayasankar, A. Monteiro
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Domestic Life and Material Culture, Pages 3826-3830, T.J. Schlereth
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Domestic Violence: Sociological Perspectives, Pages 3830-3834, R.E. Dobash, R.P.
Dobash
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Dramaturgical Analysis: Sociological, Pages 3834-3836, A.P. Hare
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Dreaming, Neural Basis of, Pages 3836-3841, J.A. Hobson
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Dress and Fashion, Pages 3841-3846, R.P. Rubinstein
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Drinking, Anthropology of, Pages 3846-3849, G. Johansson
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Drug Addiction, Pages 3849-3852, A.I. Leshner
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Drug Addiction: Sociological Aspects, Pages 3852-3856, H. Bergeron
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Drug Use and Abuse: Cultural Concerns, Pages 3856-3861, G. Heyman
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Drug Use and Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 3861-3866, L.D. Johnston, P.M.
O'Malley
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Drugs and Behavior, Psychiatry of, Pages 3866-3873, R.M. Julien
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Drugs, Decriminalization of: Cultural Concerns, Pages 3797-3801, S.J. Morse
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Drugs: Illicit Use and Prevention, Pages 3877-3881, A. Uutela
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Drugs: International Aspects, Pages 3881-3885, R. Room
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Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt (1868–1963), Pages 3885-3888, P. Gilroy
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Dual Task Performance, Pages 3888-3892, A.F. Sanders
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Dubos, René Jules (1901–82), Pages 3892-3894, J. Cooper
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Due Process in Law, Pages 3894-3897, S. Issacharoff
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Durkheim, Emile (1858–1917), Pages 3897-3903, S. Lukes
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Dynamic Decision Making, Pages 3903-3908, J.R. Busemeyer
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Dynamic Mapping in Geography, Pages 3908-3911, D. Dransch
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Dysexecutive Syndromes, Pages 3911-3913, A.P. Shimamura
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Dyslexia (Acquired) and Agraphia, Pages 3913-3918, M. Coltheart
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Dyslexia, Developmental, Pages 3918-3921, U. Goswami
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Dyslexia, Genetics of, Pages 3924-3927, B.F. Pennington
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Dyslexia: Diagnosis and Training, Pages 3921-3924, M.J. Snowling
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Early Childhood: Socioemotional Risks, Pages 3929-3932, D.M. Teti
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Early Concept Learning in Children, Pages 3932-3934, J.M. Mandler
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Early Education and Care in the World Regions, Pages 3934-3939, J. Bennett
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East Africa: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 3939-3943, W. Arens
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East Asia, Religions of, Pages 3947-3953, I. Reader
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East Asia: Environmental Issues, Pages 3943-3947, K. Tominaga
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East Asian Studies: Culture, Pages 3954-3957, E. Ohnuki-Tierney
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East Asian Studies: Economics, Pages 3957-3962, V. Chibber, D. Guthrie
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East Asian Studies: Gender, Pages 3962-3967, T.E. Barlow
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East Asian Studies: Geography, Pages 3967-3970, C.W. Pannell
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East Asian Studies: Politics, Pages 3970-3975, H. Fukui
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East Asian Studies: Society, Pages 3975-3979, G. Rozman
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Eastern European Studies: Culture, Pages 3979-3984, M.D. Kennedy
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Eastern European Studies: Economics, Pages 3984-3990, J. McHale
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Eastern European Studies: History, Pages 3990-3991, W.L. Blackwood
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Eastern European Studies: Politics, Pages 3991-3995, B. Heyns
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Eastern European Studies: Society, Pages 3995-4002, J. Szalai
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Eating Disorders, Determinants of: Genetic Aspects, Pages 4008-4013, C. Bulik, M.
Strober
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Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating
Disorder, Pages 4002-4008, M.M. Fichter
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Eclectic Psychotherapy: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 4013-4016, S.L. Garfield
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Ecological Economics, Pages 4016-4023, J. Martinez-Alier
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Ecological Fallacy, Statistics of, Pages 4023-4026, G. Firebaugh
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Ecological Imperialism, Pages 4026-4027, K.S. Zimmerer
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Ecological Inference, Pages 4027-4030, D.A. Freedman
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Ecology and Health, Pages 4030-4035, D. Stokols
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Ecology of Aging, Pages 4045-4048, H.-W. Wahl
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Ecology, Cultural, Pages 4035-4041, P.W. Porter
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Ecology, Deep, Pages 4041-4045, H. Glasser
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Ecology, Political, Pages 4053-4058, S.C. Stonich
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Ecology: Organizations, Pages 4048-4053, J.A.C. Baum
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Econometric Software, Pages 4058-4065, W.H. Greene
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Econometrics, History of, Pages 4065-4069, M.S. Morgan, D. Qin
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Economic Anthropology, Pages 4069-4073, S. Narotzky
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Economic Development and Women, Pages 4073-4078, I. Tinker
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Economic Education, Pages 4078-4084, W.E. Becker
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Economic Geography, Pages 4084-4089, E.J. Malecki
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Economic Globalization and Gender, Pages 4089-4093, J.L. Pyle
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Economic Growth: Measurement, Pages 4093-4098, D. Quah
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Economic Growth: Theory, Pages 4098-4101, B. Jovanovic
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Economic History, Pages 4102-4108, E. Aerts, H. Van der Wee
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Economic History, Quantitative: United States, Pages 4108-4114, G. Wright
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Economic Panel Data, Pages 4114-4121, C. Hsiao
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Economic Restructuring: Geographic Aspects, Pages 4122-4128, S. Pinch
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Economic Sociology, Pages 4128-4132, V.A. Zelizer
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Economic Status, Inheritance of: Education, Class, and Genetics, Pages 4132-
4141, S. Bowles, H. Gintis
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Economic Transformation: From Central Planning to Market Economy, Pages
4141-4146, Z. Cséfalvay
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Economics and Ethics, Pages 4146-4152, J. Broome
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Economics, History of, Pages 4152-4158, M. Schabas
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Economics, Philosophy of, Pages 4159-4165, D.M. Hausman
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Economics: Overview, Pages 4158-4159, O. Ashenfelter
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Ecotourism, Pages 4165-4168, E. Cater
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Ecumene, Pages 4168-4170, I. Kopytoff
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Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro (1845–1926), Pages 4170-4175, P. Newman
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Education (Higher) and Gender, Pages 4213-4217, J.A. Jacobs
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Education (Primary and Secondary Schools) and Gender, Pages 4239-4243, B.
Schneider
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Education and Economic Growth, Pages 4175-4178, D.W. Cheek
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Education and Employment, Pages 4178-4182, U. Teichler
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Education and Gender: Historical Perspectives, Pages 4183-4186, P.B. Walters
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Education and Income Distribution, Pages 4186-4189, T. Tachibanaki
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Education and Learning: Lifespan Perspectives, Pages 4189-4192, M.J.A. Howe
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Education for Gifted and Talented Children, Pages 4208-4213, J.F. Feldhusen
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Education in Old Age, Psychology of, Pages 4223-4227, A. Kruse, E. Schmitt
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Education in Psychiatry, Pages 4227-4234, H.J. Walton
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Education, Economics of, Pages 4201-4208, E.A. Hanushek
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Education, History of, Pages 4217-4223, J. Schriewer, A. Nóvoa
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Education: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 4192-4196, R. Goodman
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Education: Cultural and Religious Concepts, Pages 4197-4200, R.M. Thomas
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Education: Phenomena, Concepts, and Theories, Pages 4234-4239, J. Oelkers
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Education: Skill Training, Pages 4243-4249, R. LaLonde
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Educational (School) Counseling: United States, Pages 4323-4326, D. Brown
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Educational Assessment: Major Developments, Pages 4249-4255, F. Dochy
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Educational Evaluation: Overview, Pages 4255-4259, H. Wottawa, D. Pult
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Educational Innovation, Management of, Pages 4259-4261, R.I. Lander
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Educational Institutions and Society, Pages 4262-4266, H. Fend
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Educational Institutions, History of, Pages 4266-4272, P.M. Roeder
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Educational Leadership, Pages 4272-4276, W.L. Boyd
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Educational Learning Theory, Pages 4276-4279, A. Collins, J.G. Greeno, L.B. Resnick
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Educational Media, Pages 4279-4283, R.E. Clark
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Educational Philosophy: Contemporary Views, Pages 4283-4286, P. Smeyers
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Educational Philosophy: Historical Perspectives, Pages 4286-4292, D.C. Phillips
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Educational Planning Worldwide, Pages 4292-4296, J. Hallak, M. Poisson
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Educational Policy, Mechanisms for the Development of, Pages 4302-4306, L.M.
McDonnell
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Educational Policy: Comparative Perspective, Pages 4296-4302, A.J. Heidenheimer
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Educational Productivity, Pages 4306-4310, H.J. Walberg
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Educational Research and School Reform, Pages 4310-4316, T.N. Postlethwaite
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Educational Research for Educational Practice, Pages 4316-4323, F.E. Weinert, E. De
Corte
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Educational Sociology, Pages 4327-4333, L.J. Saha
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Educational Systems: Asia, Pages 4333-4338, K.-M. Cheng
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Educational Systems: Australia, Pages 4338-4342, J. Ainley
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Educational Systems: Europe, Pages 4342-4347, T. Husén
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Educational Systems: North America, Pages 4347-4351, G.K. LeTendre
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Efficacy: Political, Pages 4353-4356, J.L. Sullivan, E. Riedel
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Egalitarianism, Sociology of, Pages 4359-4361, R. Hardin
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Egalitarianism: Political, Pages 4356-4359, D. Miller
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Ego Development in Adulthood, Pages 4361-4365, G. Labouvie-Vief
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Ego Psychology and Psychoanalysis, Pages 4365-4369, S. Hauser
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Elaboration in Memory, Pages 4369-4374, E. Hirshman
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Electoral Geography, Pages 4374-4378, R. Johnston
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Electoral Systems, Pages 4378-4382, A. Ware
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Electrical Stimulation of the Brain, Pages 4382-4385, P.G. Shinkman
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Electroencephalography: Basic Principles and Applications, Pages 4385-4391, E.R.
John, N.S. Kline
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Electroencephalography: Clinical Applications, Pages 4391-4397, E.R. John
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Electronic Democracy, Pages 4397-4399, J. Street
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Electronic Economy: Governance Issues, Pages 4399-4405, J. Zysman, S. Weber
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Eliade, Mircea (1907–86), Pages 4406-4409, R.A. Segal
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Elias, Norbert (1897–1990), Pages 4409-4412, W. Ludwig-Mayerhofer
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Elicitation of Probabilities and Probability Distributions, Pages 4413-4417, L.J.
Wolfson
Abstract PDF (148 K)

Elites, Anthropology of, Pages 4417-4420, H. Gusterson
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Elites: Sociological Aspects, Pages 4420-4424, E. Etzioni-Halevy
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Emergent Properties, Pages 4424-4428, M. Buchmann
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Emigration: Consequences for Social Structure in the Sending Population, Pages
4428-4433, D. Lindstrom
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Emotion and Expression, Pages 4433-4437, P.E. Griffiths
Abstract PDF (238 K)

Emotion in Cognition, Pages 4440-4444, K. Oatley
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Emotion, Neural Basis of, Pages 4444-4449, E.T. Rolls
Abstract PDF (113 K)

Emotion: History of the Concept, Pages 4437-4440, G. Mandler
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Emotional Inhibition and Health, Pages 4449-4454, H.C. Traue
Abstract PDF (105 K)

Emotions and Health, Pages 4454-4459, G.D. Bishop
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Emotions, Children's Understanding of, Pages 4459-4463, C. Saarni
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Emotions, Evolution of, Pages 4463-4466, P.E. Griffiths
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Emotions, History of, Pages 4466-4472, P.N. Stearns
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Emotions, Psychological Structure of, Pages 4472-4477, K.R. Scherer
Abstract PDF (164 K)

Emotions, Sociology of, Pages 4477-4481, D.D. Franks
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Empiricism, History of, Pages 4481-4485, P. Lipton
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Employers' Associations, Pages 4485-4489, A. Martinelli
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Employment and Labor, Regulation of, Pages 4489-4493, K.V.W. Stone
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Encoding Specificity in Memory, Pages 4493-4497, M. Watkins
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Encyclopedias, Handbooks, and Dictionaries, Pages 4497-4504, A. Sica
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Endocrinology and Psychiatry, Pages 4504-4510, F. Holsboer
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Endogeneity: Methodology, Pages 4511-4513, T. Petersen
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Energy Economics, Pages 4513-4520, J.L. Sweeney
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Energy Policy: International, Pages 4524-4527, J. Goldemberg
Abstract PDF (319 K)

Energy, Geography of, Pages 4520-4523, W. Brücher
Abstract PDF (141 K)

Engineering Psychology, Pages 4527-4531, W.C. Howell
Abstract PDF (68 K)

English Revolution, The, Pages 4531-4534, P. Wende
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Enlightenment, Pages 4535-4540, G. Ricuperati
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Entertainment, Pages 4540-4545, M. Zerlang
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Entrepreneurship, Pages 4545-4552, A. Martinelli
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Entrepreneurship, Psychology of, Pages 4552-4556, M. Frese, A. Rauch
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Environment and Anthropology, Pages 4556-4560, R. Ellen
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Environment and Common Property Institutions, Pages 4560-4566, E. Ostrom
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Environment and Development, Pages 4566-4572, C.J. Barrow
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Environment Regulation: Legal Aspects, Pages 4572-4576, G. Winter
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Environmental Adaptation and Adjustments, Pages 4576-4580, S.L. Cutter, J.T.
Mitchell
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Environmental and Resource Management, Pages 4580-4585, P. Nijkamp, J.C.J.M.
van den Bergh
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Environmental Archaeology, Pages 4585-4589, S.E. van der Leeuw
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Environmental Challenges in Organizations, Pages 4590-4592, R.J. Orssatto
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Environmental Change and State Response, Pages 4592-4596, R.E. Kasperson
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Environmental Cognition, Perceptions, and Attitudes, Pages 4596-4602, B. Fischhoff
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Environmental Conservation: Ethical Concerns, Pages 4602-4607, A.K. Gupta, R.
Sinha
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Environmental Determinism, Pages 4607-4611, G.R. Lewthwaite
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Environmental Economics, Pages 4611-4617, V.K. Smith
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Environmental Health and Safety: Social Aspects, Pages 4617-4621, P. Brown
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Environmental History, Pages 4621-4627, F.-J. Brüggemeier
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Environmental Justice, Pages 4627-4633, R. Bullard
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Environmental Planning, Pages 4633-4638, J.C. Keene
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Environmental Policy, Pages 4638-4644, R. Dolzer
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Environmental Policy: Protection and Regulation, Pages 4644-4651, A. Jordan
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Environmental Psychology: Overview, Pages 4651-4655, T. Gärling
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Environmental Risk and Hazards, Pages 4655-4659, D. Liverman
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Environmental Sciences, Pages 4659-4663, C.L. Kwa
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Environmental Security, Pages 4663-4667, A.V. Whyte
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Environmental Stress and Health, Pages 4667-4671, R. Guski
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Environmental Surprise, Pages 4671-4675, S.H. Schneider
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Environmental Vulnerability, Pages 4675-4679, C. Vogel
Abstract PDF (199 K)

Environmentalism, Politics of, Pages 4685-4687, R.E. Goodin
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Environmentalism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 4679-4685, J. Thompson
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Environmentalism: Preservation and Conservation, Pages 4687-4693, A.G. Mertig,
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R.E. Dunlap
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Environments for Education, Pages 4693-4697, K. Marjoribanks
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Environments for Learning, Pages 4697-4701, H. Mandl, G. Reinmann-Rothmeier
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Epidemiology, Social, Pages 4701-4706, S.L. Syme
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Epigenetic Inheritance, Pages 4706-4710, E. Jablonka, M.J. Lamb
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Epilepsy, Pages 4710-4714, P.A. Schwartzkroin
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Episodic and Autobiographical Memory: Psychological and Neural Aspects,
Pages 4714-4717, M. Wheeler
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Equality and Inequality: Legal Aspects, Pages 4717-4722, S. Sturm
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Equality of Opportunity, Pages 4722-4724, A.F. Heath
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Equality: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 4724-4729, R.J. Arneson
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Equity, Pages 4729-4734, A.-J. Arnaud
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Ergonomics, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 4734-4736, H. Heuer
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Erikson, Erik Homburger (1902–94), Pages 4736-4739, J.E. Marcia
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Errors in Statistical Assumptions, Effects of, Pages 4739-4744, M.J. Schervish
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Estimation: Point and Interval, Pages 4744-4749, G. Casella, R.L. Berger
Abstract PDF (104 K)

Ethical Behavior, Evolution of, Pages 4749-4753, D.V. Nitecki, M.H. Nitecki
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Ethical Codes, Professional: Business Codes, Pages 4753-4756, J. Wieland
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Ethical Codes, Professional: Engineering Codes, Pages 4756-4759, C. Hubig
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Ethical Dilemmas: Research and Treatment Priorities, Pages 4759-4762, M. Betzler
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Ethical Issues in the ‘New’ Genetics, Pages 4762-4770, H.T. Greely
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Ethical Practices, Institutional Oversight, and Enforcement: United States
Perspectives, Pages 4770-4774, R.J. Levine
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Ethics and Psychiatry, Pages 4774-4779, M.N. Miller, A.R. Dyer
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Ethics and Values, Pages 4779-4786, P. Railton
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Ethics Committees in Science: European Perspectives, Pages 4786-4788, E.
Doppelfeld
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Ethics for Biomedical Research Involving Humans: International Codes, Pages
4788-4792, R.J. Levine
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Ethics in Organizations, Psychology of, Pages 4792-4796, G. Blickle
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Ethnic and Racial Social Movements, Pages 4796-4799, S. Olzak
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Ethnic Cleansing, History of, Pages 4799-4802, N.M. Naimark
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Ethnic Conflict, Geography of, Pages 4802-4806, F.W. Boal
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Ethnic Conflicts, Pages 4806-4810, R.M. Williams
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Ethnic Conflicts and Ancient Hatreds: Cultural Concerns, Pages 4810-4813, A.
Varshney
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Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity: Historical Aspects, Pages 4813-4817, W. Sollors
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Ethnic Identity, Psychology of, Pages 4821-4824, J.S. Phinney
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Ethnic Identity/Ethnicity and Archaeology, Pages 4817-4821, M. Dìaz-Andreu
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Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration, Pages 4828-4831, J.-P. Brodeur
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Ethnicity, Race, and Health, Pages 4831-4838, D.R. Williams
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Ethnicity, Sociology of, Pages 4838-4842, E. Ben-Rafael
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Ethnicity: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 4824-4828, R. Jenkins
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Ethnoarchaeology, Pages 4842-4846, W.A. Longacre
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Ethnobiology, Pages 4846-4852, P.S. Ramakrishnan
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Ethnocentrism, Pages 4852-4854, R.A. LeVine
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Ethnogenesis in Anthropology, Pages 4854-4857, M. Matsuda
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Ethnography, Pages 4857-4862, M.H. Agar
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Ethnology, Pages 4862-4865, G. Welz
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Ethnomethodology: General, Pages 4865-4870, S.E. Clayman
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Ethnonationalism: Cultural Concerns, Pages 4870-4874, C. Calhoun
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Etymology, Pages 4874-4877, W.P. Lehmann
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Eudaemonism, Pages 4877-4882, H. Friese
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Eugenics as an International Movement, Pages 4882-4889, G.E. Allen
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Eugenics as the Basis of Population Policy, Pages 4889-4896, G.E. Allen
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Eugenics in Asia, Pages 4901-4905, F. Dikötter
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Eugenics in Europe, Pages 4905-4912, C. Krimbas
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Eugenics, History of, Pages 4896-4901, D. Paul
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Europe, Archaeology of, Pages 4913-4917, P.F. Biehl
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Europe: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 4917-4923, C. Giordano
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European Integration, Pages 4923-4925, J. Peterson
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European Religion, Pages 4925-4929, G. Davie
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European Union Law, Pages 4929-4933, J. Basedow
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Euthanasia, Pages 4933-4937, D. Birnbacher
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Evans-Pritchard, Sir Edward E (1902–73), Pages 4937-4941, W. James
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Event History Analysis: Applications, Pages 4941-4946, H.-P. Blossfeld
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Event Sequence Analysis: Methods, Pages 4966-4969, A. Abbott
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Event-history Analysis in Continuous Time, Pages 4946-4956, P.K. Andersen, N.
Keiding
Abstract PDF (168 K)

Event-history Analysis: Selectivity, Pages 4956-4962, J.K. Vermunt
Abstract PDF (102 K)

Event-related/Evoked Potentials, Pages 4962-4966, M.D. Rugg
Abstract PDF (219 K)

Everyday Life, Anthropology of, Pages 4969-4972, O. Löfgren
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Evidentials in Linguistics, Pages 4972-4975, Z. Guentchéva
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Evolution and Language: Overview, Pages 4975-4982, J.H. Greenberg
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Evolution of Cognition: An Adaptationist Perspective, Pages 4996-5000, L. Fiddick,
H.C. Barrett
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Evolution, History of, Pages 4986-4992, P.J. Bowler
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Evolution, Natural and Social: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 4992-4996, B. Skyrms
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Evolution: Diffusion of Innovations, Pages 4982-4986, M. Rogers
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Evolution: Optimization, Pages 5000-5003, S.H. Orzack
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Evolution: Self-organization Theory, Pages 5003-5007, B. Goodwin
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Evolutionary Approaches in Archaeology, Pages 5007-5012, H. Neff
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Evolutionary Epistemology, Pages 5012-5017, D.L. Hull
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Evolutionary Selection, Levels of: Group versus Individual, Pages 5017-5022, D.S.
Wilson
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Evolutionary Social Psychology, Pages 5022-5024, D.T. Kenrick
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Evolutionary Theory and Education, Pages 5024-5028, D.C. Geary
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Evolutionary Theory, Structure of, Pages 5028-5033, E. Lloyd
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Evolutionism, Including Social Darwinism, Pages 5033-5038, R.C. Bannister
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Exchange in Anthropology, Pages 5039-5042, C. Gregory
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Exchange: Social, Pages 5042-5048, K.S. Cook
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Executive Branch, Government, Pages 5048-5051, W.C. Müller
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Exhaustible Resources, Economics of, Pages 5051-5058, E. Balsdon, R.T. Deacon
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Existential Social Theory, Pages 5058-5060, H. Ferguson
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Expectations, Economics of, Pages 5060-5067, G.W. Evans, S. Honkapohja
Abstract PDF (108 K)

Experiential Psychotherapy, Pages 5067-5070, L. Greenberg
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Experiment, in Science and Technology Studies, Pages 5070-5075, P. Dear
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Experimental Design: Bayesian Designs, Pages 5075-5081, M.A. Clyde
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Experimental Design: Compliance, Pages 5081-5086, A.I. Gitelman
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Experimental Design: Large-scale Social Experimentation, Pages 5086-5090, C.N.
Morris, C.W.F. Chiu
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Experimental Design: Overview, Pages 5090-5096, A.M. Dean
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Experimental Design: Randomization and Social Experiments, Pages 5096-5100,
R.F. Boruch
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Experimental Economics, Pages 5100-5108, V.L. Smith
Abstract PDF (548 K)

Experimental Laboratories: Biobehavioral, Pages 5109-5113, W. Schönpflug
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Experimental Laboratories: Social/Psychological, Pages 5113-5115, R. Gonzalez
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Experimentation in Psychology, History of, Pages 5115-5120, G.C.G.T. Dehue
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Experimenter and Subject Artifacts: Methodology, Pages 5120-5124, R.L. Rosnow
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Expert Memory, Psychology of, Pages 5124-5128, P.J. Feltovich
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Expert Systems in Cognitive Science, Pages 5128-5135, F. Schmalhofer
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Expert Systems in Medicine, Pages 5135-5139, M.W. Kattan
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Expert Testimony, Pages 5139-5141, M. Kovera
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Expert Witness and the Legal System: Psychological Aspects, Pages 5141-5145,
K.V. Heard, D. Faust
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Expertise, Acquisition of, Pages 5145-5150, H. Gruber
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Explanation-based Learning, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 5159-5162, T. de Jong
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Explanation, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 5150-5154, D.S. Krull, C.A. Anderson
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Explanation: Conceptions in the Social Sciences, Pages 5154-5159, H. Westmeyer
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Explanatory Style and Health, Pages 5162-5164, C. Peterson
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Exploratory Data Analysis: Multivariate Approaches (Nonparametric
Regression), Pages 5164-5169, D.L. Banks
Abstract PDF (106 K)

Exploratory Data Analysis: Univariate Methods, Pages 5169-5174, D.C. Hoaglin
Abstract PDF (101 K)

Expression and Interaction: Microfoundations of Expressive Forms, Pages 5174-
5180, Y. Ogasawara
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Expressive Forms and the Evolution of Consciousness, Pages 5180-5186, M.
Csikszentmihalyi
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Expressive Forms as Generators, Transmitters, and Transformers of Social
Power, Pages 5186-5192, F. Engelstad
Abstract PDF (88 K)

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External Memory, Psychology of, Pages 5192-5195, W. Schönpflug
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External Validity, Pages 5195-5200, L.C. Leviton
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Extinction of Species, Pages 5200-5202, N. Myers
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Extraversion, Pages 5202-5205, R.E. Lucas, E. Diener
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Eye Movement, Control of (Oculomotor Control), Pages 5205-5208, P.W. Glimcher
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Eye Movements and Perception, Pages 5208-5210, D.E. Irwin
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Eye Movements in Reading, Pages 5210-5214, K. Rayner
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Eyelid Classical Conditioning, Pages 5214-5217, D. Lavond
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Eyewitness Memory: Psychological Aspects, Pages 5217-5221, J.D. Read
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Face Recognition Models, Pages 5223-5226, A.J. O'Toole, H. Abdi
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Face Recognition: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 5226-5230, A. Puce
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Facial Expressions, Pages 5230-5234, M.G. Frank
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Faction: Political, Pages 5234-5236, J.M. Hansen
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Factionalism, Pages 5236-5239, J. Boissevain
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Factor Analysis and Latent Structure, Confirmatory, Pages 5239-5244, R.O. Mueller,
G.R. Hancock
Abstract PDF (109 K)

Factor Analysis and Latent Structure: IRT and Rasch Models, Pages 5244-5249,
B.W. Junker
Abstract PDF (111 K)

Factor Analysis and Latent Structure: Overview, Pages 5249-5254, D.J. Bartholomew
Abstract PDF (98 K)

False Memories, Psychology of, Pages 5254-5259, M.K. Johnson
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Familial Studies: Genetic Inferences, Pages 5259-5265, A. Vetta, C. Capron
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Families and Households, Behavioral Demography of, Pages 5265-5271, T.K. Burch
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Families and Households, Formal Demography of, Pages 5271-5275, E. van Imhoff
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Families as Educational Settings, Pages 5275-5279, B. Kurtz-Costes
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Family and Consumer Sciences: United States, Pages 5279-5286, S.Y. Nickols
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Family and Gender, Pages 5286-5290, M. Bittman
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Family and Kinship, History of, Pages 5290-5298, T.K. Hareven
Abstract PDF (110 K)

Family and Psychiatric Illness/Family Therapy, Pages 5298-5303, J. Leff
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Family and Schooling, Pages 5303-5307, T. Kellaghan
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Family as Institution, Pages 5311-5314, L.J. Waite
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Family Bargaining, Pages 5314-5319, N. Kabeer
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Family Business, Pages 5319-5324, G. Corbetta
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Family Health, Pages 5324-5328, J. Weiss
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Family Law, Pages 5328-5332, M. Maclean
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Family Planning Programs: Development and Outcomes, Pages 5332-5336, M.
Potts
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Family Planning Programs: Feminist Perspectives, Pages 5336-5340, C. Barroso
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Family Planning Programs: Quality of Care, Pages 5340-5343, A.K. Jain
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Family Processes, Pages 5343-5347, J. Kellerhals
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Family Size Preferences, Pages 5347-5350, E. Thomson
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Family Systems and the Preferred Sex of Children, Pages 5350-5357, A. Basu, M.
Das Gupta
Abstract PDF (564 K)

Family Systems in Europe, Pages 5357-5361, D.I. Kertzer
Abstract PDF (70 K)

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Family Theory and the Realities of Childbearing Behavior, Pages 5361-5367, M.
Murphy
Abstract PDF (111 K)

Family Theory: Competing Perspectives in Social Demography, Pages 5367-5373,
V.K. Oppenheimer
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Family Theory: Complementarity of Economic and Social Explanations, Pages
5373-5378, R. Lesthaeghe
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Family Theory: Economics of Childbearing, Pages 5378-5383, J. Ermisch
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Family Theory: Economics of Intergenerational Relations, Pages 5383-5387, A.
Cigno
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Family Theory: Economics of Marriage and Divorce, Pages 5387-5392, Y. Weiss
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Family Theory: Feminist–Economist Critique, Pages 5392-5397, H. Hartmann
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Family Theory: Role of Changing Values, Pages 5397-5401, G. Moors
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Family Therapy, Clinical Psychology of, Pages 5401-5406, D. le Grange
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Family, Anthropology of, Pages 5307-5311, J.S. La Fontaine
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Farmland Preservation, Pages 5406-5411, R. Alterman
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Fashion, Sociology of, Pages 5411-5415, M. Sellerberg
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Fast Food Enterprises, Pages 5415-5418, Y. Gabriel
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Fatherhood, Pages 5418-5422, S. Coltrane
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Fear Conditioning, Pages 5422-5425, H. Flor, N. Birbaumer
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Fear: Potentiation of Startle, Pages 5425-5428, M. Davis
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Fear: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 5428-5433, J.J. Kim, K.M. Myers
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Feature Representations in Cognitive Psychology, Pages 5433-5437, E. Wisniewski
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Fechnerian Psychophysics, Pages 5437-5440, E.N. Dzhafarov
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Federalism, Pages 5440-5442, A. Burris
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Female Excision: Cultural Concerns, Pages 5442-5447, L.A. Obiora
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Female Genital Mutilation, Pages 5447-5451, A. Talle
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Feminist Economics, Pages 5451-5457, D. Meulders
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Feminist Epistemology, Pages 5457-5461, H. Rose
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Feminist Ethics, Pages 5461-5464, K. Addelson
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Feminist Legal Theory, Pages 5464-5469, L. Obiora, R. Perry
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Feminist Movements, Pages 5469-5472, L.J. Rupp
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Feminist Political Ecology, Pages 5472-5475, L. Jarosz
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Feminist Political Theory and Political Science, Pages 5475-5478, J. Lovenduski
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Feminist Psychotherapy, Pages 5478-5480, M.A. Katzman
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Feminist Theology, Pages 5480-5484, S.V. Betcher
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Feminist Theory, Pages 5484-5491, R. Tong
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Feminist Theory and Women of Color, Pages 5491-5495, A. Brah
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Feminist Theory: Ecofeminist and Cultural Feminist, Pages 5495-5499, K.J. Warren
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Feminist Theory: Liberal, Pages 5499-5502, B.A. Ackerly
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Feminist Theory: Marxist and Socialist, Pages 5502-5506, S. Walby
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Feminist Theory: Postmodern, Pages 5506-5510, S. Hekman
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Feminist Theory: Psychoanalytic, Pages 5510-5513, C. Williams
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Feminist Theory: Radical Lesbian, Pages 5513-5517, W.L. Lee
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Fertility and Culture: Anthropological Insights, Pages 5517-5522, C. Bledsoe
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Fertility Change: Quantum and Tempo, Pages 5522-5525, J. Bongaarts
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Fertility Control: Eastern Europe, Pages 5525-5528, W.W. Kingkade
Abstract PDF (159 K)

Fertility Control: Overview, Pages 5528-5535, B.S. Okun
Abstract PDF (136 K)

Fertility Control: Prevalence and Consequences of Breastfeeding, Pages 5535-
5538, R.E. Jones
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Fertility of Single and Cohabiting Women, Pages 5543-5547, L.L. Wu
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Fertility Theory: Caldwell's Theory of Intergenerational Wealth Flows, Pages
5557-5561, H.S. Kaplan, J. Bock
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Fertility Theory: Embodied-capital Theory of Life History Evolution, Pages 5561-
5568, H.S. Kaplan, J. Bock
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Fertility Transition: China, Pages 5568-5572, F. Wang
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Fertility Transition: Cultural Explanations, Pages 5572-5575, S. Cotts Watkins
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Fertility Transition: East Asia, Pages 5575-5578, N.O. Tsuya
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Fertility Transition: Economic Explanations, Pages 5578-5584, T.P. Schultz
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Fertility Transition: Latin America and the Caribbean, Pages 5584-5588, G.
Rodríguez
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Fertility Transition: Middle East and North Africa, Pages 5588-5593, H.M. Yousif
Abstract PDF (776 K)

Fertility Transition: South Asia, Pages 5593-5597, J. Cleland
Abstract PDF (224 K)

Fertility Transition: Southeast Asia, Pages 5597-5602, C. Hirschman
Abstract PDF (103 K)

Fertility Trends in the Formerly Socialist Countries of Europe, Pages 5602-5605, A.
Avdeev
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Fertility: Institutional and Political Approaches, Pages 5538-5543, G. McNicoll
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Fertility: Political and Political–Economic Perspectives, Pages 5547-5554, S.
Greenhalgh
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Fertility: Proximate Determinants, Pages 5554-5557, T. Frejka
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Feud and Internal War: Legal Aspects, Pages 5605-5608, M. Cooney
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Feudalism, Pages 5608-5616, K. Schreiner
Abstract PDF (106 K)

Fiducial and Structural Statistical Inference, Pages 5616-5620, D.A.S. Fraser
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Field Observational Research in Anthropology and Sociology, Pages 5620-5625, R.
Sanjek
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Fieldwork in Social and Cultural Anthropology, Pages 5628-5632, M. Shokeid
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Fieldwork: Ethical Aspects, Pages 5625-5628, P. Marshall
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Figurative Thought and Figurative Language, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages
5632-5637, C. Cacciari
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Film and Video Industry, Pages 5637-5640, D. Gomery
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Film: Genres and Genre Theory, Pages 5640-5646, I. Bondebjerg
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Film: History, Pages 5646-5652, C. O'Brien
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Finalization in Science, Pages 5652-5655, W. van den Daele
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Finance, Geography of, Pages 5655-5657, N. Thrift
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Financial Accounting and Auditing, Pages 5657-5661, B. Colasse
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Financial Institutions in Economic Development, Pages 5661-5666, H.M. Makler
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Fine Arts, Pages 5666-5672, V.L. Zolberg
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Fire, Human Use, and Consequences, Pages 5672-5676, J. Goudsblom
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Firm Behavior, Pages 5676-5681, F.M. Scherer
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First Language Acquisition: Cross-linguistic, Pages 5681-5686, R.A. Berman
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First Past the Post, in Politics, Pages 5686-5688, G.D. Adams, W.R. Keech
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First World War, The, Pages 5688-5694, J. Winter
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Fisher, Irving (1867–1947), Pages 5694-5698, W.J. Barber
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Fisher, Ronald A (1890–1962), Pages 5698-5701, A.W.F. Edwards
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Fishing Societies, Pages 5701-5705, G. Pálsson
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Folk Religion, Pages 5708-5711, M.A. Taylor
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Folk, Indigenous, and Customary Law, Pages 5705-5708, K. von Benda-Beckmann
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Folklore, Pages 5711-5715, B. Klein
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Food in Anthropology, Pages 5715-5719, C.M. Counihan
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Food Preference, Pages 5719-5722, P. Rozin
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Food Production, Origins of, Pages 5722-5728, P.J. Watson
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Food Security, Pages 5728-5730, H.-G. Bohle
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Foreign Investment: Direct, Pages 5731-5733, S. Bagchi-Sen
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Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, Pages 5733-5737, A.K. Moeller, E. Koubek
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Foreign Policy Analysis, Pages 5737-5740, P. Trubowitz
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Forensic Psychiatry, Pages 5740-5745, J. Bradford, G. Glancy
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Forensic Psychology, Pages 5745-5750, D. Louw
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Foucault, Michel (1926–84), Pages 5750-5754, A. Szakolczai
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Fourier Analysis, Pages 5754-5760, R. Picard
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Fourth World, Pages 5760-5763, J. Beckett
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Free Will and Action, Pages 5763-5768, M.A. Smith
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Freedom of the Press, Pages 5774-5779, K.H. Youm
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Freedom/Liberty: Impact on the Social Sciences, Pages 5768-5774, P. Wagner
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Freedom: Political, Pages 5779-5785, T. O'Hagan
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French Revolution, The, Pages 5785-5789, L. Hunt
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Frequentist Inference, Pages 5789-5796, P.J. Bickel, E.L. Lehmann
Abstract PDF (114 K)

Frequentist Interpretation of Probability, Pages 5796-5798, P.J. Bickel, E.L. Lehmann
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939), Pages 5798-5805, C. Yorke
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Friendship, Anthropology of, Pages 5805-5808, B. Beer
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Friendship: Development in Childhood and Adolescence, Pages 5809-5812, W.W.
Hartup
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Frontiers in History, Pages 5812-5818, A.J. Rieber
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Functional Brain Imaging, Pages 5818-5822, M.E. Raichle
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Functional Data Analysis, Pages 5822-5828, J.O. Ramsay, B.W. Silverman
Abstract PDF (213 K)

Functional Equations in Behavioral and Social Sciences, Pages 5828-5833, J. Aczél,
R.D. Luce
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Functional Explanation: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 5833-5838, G. Macdonald
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Functionalism in Anthropology, Pages 5844-5847, J. Vincent
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Functionalism in Sociology, Pages 5847-5852, H. Wenzel
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Functionalism, History of, Pages 5838-5844, R. Münch
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Fundamental Rights and Constitutional Guarantees, Pages 5852-5856, M. Tushnet
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Fundamentalism (New Christian Right), Pages 5856-5858, S. Bruce
Abstract PDF (51 K)

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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Gaia, Pages 5859-5860, R. Serafin
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Galton, Sir Francis (1822–1911), Pages 5860-5863, J.C.W. Waller
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Game Theory, Pages 5863-5868, G. Owen
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Game Theory and its Relation to Bayesian Theory, Pages 5868-5873, T. Seidenfeld
Abstract PDF (98 K)

Game Theory: Noncooperative Games, Pages 5873-5880, E. van Damme
Abstract PDF (104 K)

Gangs, Sociology of, Pages 5880-5883, J.F. Short Jr.
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Garbage Can Model of Behavior, Pages 5883-5886, C.K. Ansell
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Gastrointestinal Diseases: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 5886-5888, B. Toner
Abstract PDF (56 K)

Gauss, Carl Friedrich (1777–1855), Pages 5888-5892, R.W. Farebrother
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth, Pages 5892-5895, R.C. Savin-Williams, L.M.
Diamond
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Gay/Lesbian Movements, Pages 5895-5899, D. Altman
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Gellner, Ernest (1925–95), Pages 5899-5901, C.M. Hann
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Abstract PDF (53 K)
Gender and Cancer, Pages 5901-5904, B.E. Meyerowitz
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Gender and Cardiovascular Health, Pages 5904-5907, G. Weidner
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Gender and Environment, Pages 5907-5910, S. Buckingham-Hatfield
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Gender and Feminist Studies, Pages 5910-5915, P. England
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Gender and Feminist Studies in Anthropology, Pages 5915-5920, B. Aretxaga
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Gender and Feminist Studies in Economics, Pages 5920-5924, J.A. Nelson
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Gender and Feminist Studies in Geography, Pages 5924-5929, J. Monk
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Gender and Feminist Studies in History, Pages 5929-5933, N. Hewitt
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Gender and Feminist Studies in Political Science, Pages 5933-5938, C. Johnson
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Gender and Feminist Studies in Psychology, Pages 5938-5942, M. Crawford
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Gender and Feminist Studies in Sociology, Pages 5942-5948, J. Sprague
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Gender and Health Care, Pages 5948-5954, R.R. Anspach
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Gender and Language: Cultural Concerns, Pages 5954-5960, R. Wodak
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Gender and Physical Health, Pages 5960-5965, S. Arber
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Gender and Place, Pages 5965-5969, D. Spain
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Gender and Reproductive Health, Pages 5969-5972, M. Sieverding
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Gender and School Learning: Mathematics and Science, Pages 5972-5976, R.
Ambrose, E. Fennema
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Gender and Technology, Pages 5976-5979, J. Wajcman
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Gender and the Law, Pages 5980-5984, K. Plett
Abstract PDF (71 K)

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Gender Differences in Personality and Social Behavior, Pages 5989-5994, J.S. Hyde
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Gender History, Pages 6006-6011, K. Canning
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Gender Identity Disorders, Pages 6011-6016, S.J. Bradley, K.J. Zucker
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Gender Ideology: Cross-cultural Aspects, Pages 6016-6020, S.U. Philips
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Gender Role Stress and Health, Pages 6027-6029, E.R. Greenglass
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Gender-related Development, Pages 6020-6027, C.L. Martin, L. Dinella
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Gender, Class, Race, and Ethnicity, Social Construction of, Pages 5984-5989, G.
Lerner
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Gender, Economics of, Pages 5995-6002, F.D. Blau
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Gender, Feminism, and Sexuality in Archaeological Studies, Pages 6002-6006, E.
Engelstad
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Genealogy in Anthropology, Pages 6029-6032, M. Bouquet
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Generalizability Theory, Pages 6032-6037, G.E. Matt
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Generalization: Conceptions in the Social Sciences, Pages 6037-6043, T.D. Cook
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Generation in Anthropology, Pages 6043-6046, S. Lamb
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Generations in History, Pages 6046-6050, A. Esler
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Generations, Relations Between, Pages 6053-6055, Y. Schütze
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Generations, Sociology of, Pages 6055-6061, S.N. Eisenstadt
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Generations: Political, Pages 6050-6053, P.R. Abramson
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Generative Grammar, Pages 6061-6067, M. Bierwisch
Abstract PDF (93 K)

Generative Syntax, Pages 6067-6073, R. Borsley
Abstract PDF (92 K)

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Genes and Behavior: Animal Models, Pages 6073-6084, R.J. Greenspan
Abstract PDF (375 K)

Genes and Culture, Coevolution of, Pages 6084-6087, K. Aoki
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Genes and Languages, Pages 6087-6092, A. Piazza
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Genetic Counseling: Historical, Ethical, and Practical Aspects, Pages 6092-6097, J.
Schmidtke, I. Nippert, G. Wolff
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Genetic Engineering, Pages 6097-6101, D.J. Harris
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Genetic Factors in Cognition/Intelligence, Pages 6101-6104, S.A. Petrill
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Genetic Screening for Disease-related Characteristics, Pages 6104-6108, L.P. ten
Kate, D.R.M. Timmermans
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Genetic Studies of Behavior: Methodology, Pages 6108-6116, J.J. McArdle, D.B.
Allison
Abstract PDF (148 K)

Genetic Studies of Personality, Pages 6116-6118, N.L. Pedersen
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Genetic Testing and Counseling: Educational and Professional Aspects, Pages
6119-6121, R.T. Croyle
Abstract PDF (50 K)

Genetics and Development, Pages 6121-6127, G. Gottlieb
Abstract PDF (119 K)

Genetics and Mate Choice, Pages 6127-6130, K. Aoki
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Genetics and the Media, Pages 6130-6135, D. Nelkin
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Genetics in Anthropology, Pages 6135-6141, J.H. Moore
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Genetics of Complex Traits Through the Life Cycle, Pages 6141-6148, G.E. McClearn
Abstract PDF (253 K)

Genocide: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 6148-6153, M. Stewart
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Genocide: Historical Aspects, Pages 6153-6159, G. Heinsohn
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Genotype and Phenotype, Pages 6159-6162, R.C. Lewontin
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Geoarchaeology, Pages 6162-6166, M.I. Weisler
Abstract PDF (64 K)

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Geodemographics, Pages 6166-6169, J. Goss
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Geographic Education, Pages 6169-6175, R.M. Downs
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Geographic Information Systems, Pages 6175-6182, M.F. Goodchild
Abstract PDF (121 K)

Geographic Information Systems: Critical Approaches, Pages 6182-6185, E.
Sheppard
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Geographic Learning in Children, Pages 6185-6188, D. Stea
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Geographic Thought, History of, Pages 6188-6194, P. Claval
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Geography, Pages 6194-6199, R.J. Johnston
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Geopolitics, Pages 6199-6205, S.B. Cohen
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Geriatric Psychiatry, Pages 6205-6210, S. Henderson
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Gerontological Clinical Psychology, Pages 6210-6215, A.M. Zeiss
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Gesture in Linguistics, Pages 6215-6218, S. Kita
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Ghetto, Pages 1-7, Loïc Wacquant
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Gifted and Talented Individuals: Developmental and Educational Overview,
Pages 6218-6222, F. Gagné
Abstract PDF (394 K)

Giftedness, Psychology of, Pages 6222-6227, K.A. Heller
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Global Environmental Change: Human Dimensions, Pages 6227-6232, J. Jäger
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Global Governance, Pages 6232-6237, K. Benedict
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Global History: Universal and World, Pages 6237-6244, P.K. O'Brien
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Global Population Trends, Pages 6244-6250, T. Frejka
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Global Positioning System, Pages 6250-6254, M. Salvemini
Abstract PDF (68 K)

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Globality, Pages 6254-6258, R. Robertson
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Globalization and Health, Pages 6258-6261, B.E. Chalmers
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Globalization and World Culture, Pages 6261-6266, J. Boli, F.J. Lechner
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Globalization, Anthropology of, Pages 6266-6271, A. Appadurai
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Globalization, Subsuming Pluralism, Transnational Organizations, Diaspora,
and Postmodernity, Pages 6287-6292, P. Beyer
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Globalization: Geographical Aspects, Pages 6271-6277, A. Amin
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Globalization: Legal Aspects, Pages 6277-6284, B. de Sousa Santos
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Globalization: Political Aspects, Pages 6284-6287, J. Kurth
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Goddess Worship (Old and New): Cultural Concerns, Pages 6292-6297, R.F.
McDermott
Abstract PDF (222 K)

Goffman, Erving (1921–82), Pages 6297-6301, H. Willems
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Goodness of Fit: Overview, Pages 6301-6305, S.E. Fienberg, J.B. Kadane
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Goodness-of-fit Tests and Diagnostics, Pages 6305-6310, J.C.W. Rayner, D.J. Best
Abstract PDF (104 K)

Government Lawyers, Pages 6310-6314, C.W. Clayton
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Government Statistics, Pages 6314-6321, M. Straf
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Governments, Pages 6321-6323, J. Blondel
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Grammar: Functional Approaches, Pages 6323-6330, W. Croft
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Grammatical Agreement, Pages 6330-6334, D. Wunderlich
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Grammatical Gender, Pages 6335-6340, G.G. Corbett
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Grammatical Number, Pages 6340-6342, G.G. Corbett
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Grammatical Relations, Pages 6342-6348, A.E. Kibrik
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Grammatical Voice, Pages 6348-6353, M. Polinsky
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Grammaticalization, Pages 6353-6357, P. Ramat
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Gramsci, Antonio (1891–1937), Pages 6357-6360, L. Pellicani
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Graphical Methods: Analysis, Pages 6360-6368, A. Unwin
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Graphical Methods: Presentation, Pages 6368-6379, L. Wilkinson
Abstract PDF (807 K)

Graphical Models: Overview, Pages 6379-6386, N. Wermuth, D.R. Cox
Abstract PDF (129 K)

Green Parties, Pages 6386-6389, E. Bomberg
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Green Revolution, Pages 6389-6393, D.B. Grigg
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Greening of Technology and Ecotechnology, Pages 6393-6396, U. Jørgensen
PDF (60 K)

Grounded Theory: Methodology and Theory Construction, Pages 6396-6399, K.
Charmaz
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Group Decision Making, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 6399-6403, J.A. Sniezek
Abstract PDF (167 K)

Group Decision Making, Social Psychology of, Pages 6403-6407, M.A. Hogg
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Group Processes in Organizations, Pages 6407-6413, D. Frey, F. Brodbeck
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Group Processes in the Classroom, Pages 6413-6417, A.M. O'Donnell
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Group Processes, Social Psychology of, Pages 6417-6423, M.A. Hogg
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Group Productivity, Social Psychology of, Pages 6423-6426, K.D. Williams, S.J. Karau
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Group Psychotherapy, Clinical Psychology of, Pages 6426-6430, D.R. Forsyth
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Groups in Special Environments, Pages 6430-6434, P. Suedfeld
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Groups, Sociology of, Pages 6434-6439, S. Lindenberg
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Growth Curve Analysis, Pages 6439-6445, J.J. McArdle
Abstract PDF (313 K)

Guilt, Pages 6445-6448, N. Harris, J. Braithwaite
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Gynecological Health: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 6448-6451, C. Lee
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Gypsies and Travelers, Pages 6451-6454, S.B. Gmelch
Abstract PDF (59 K)

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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Habit: History of the Concept, Pages 6455-6458, C. Camic
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Habituation, Pages 6458-6462, R. Thompson
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Halévy, Élie (1870–1937), Pages 6462-6466, M. Hill
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Hall, Granville Stanley (1844–1924), Pages 6466-6469, L.F. Goodchild
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Hallucinations, Neural Basis of, Pages 6469-6473, R.E. Hoffman
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Harlow, Harry Frederick (1905–81), Pages 6473-6476, S.J. Suomi
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Hart, Herbert Lionel Adolphus(1907–92), Pages 6476-6479, N. Lacey
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Hate Crimes, Pages 6479-6482, E.M. Beck
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Hayek, Friedrich A von (1899–1992), Pages 6482-6486, V. Vanberg
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Healing, Pages 6486-6489, R. Homan
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Health and Illness: Mental Representations in Different Cultures, Pages 6489-
6491, G.D. Bishop
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Health and Mortality, Body Stature as a Measure of, Pages 6491-6495, S.E. Wilson
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Abstract PDF (66 K)
Health Behavior: Psychosocial Theories, Pages 6499-6506, S. Sutton
Abstract PDF (114 K)

Health Behaviors, Pages 6506-6512, M. Conner
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Health Behaviors, Assessment of, Pages 6512-6515, B. Renner
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Health Care Delivery Services, Pages 6515-6520, M.L. Fennell
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Health Care Markets: Theory and Practice, Pages 6523-6527, D.W. Light
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Health Care Organizations: For-profit and Nonprofit, Pages 6527-6534, B.H. Gray
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Health Care Systems: Comparative, Pages 6537-6544, M. Ruggie
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Health Care Technology, Pages 6544-6550, S. Timmermans
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Health Care, Rationing of, Pages 6534-6537, D. Mechanic
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Health Care: Legal Issues, Pages 6520-6523, P.D. Jacobson
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Health Economics, Pages 6551-6557, J.P. Newhouse
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Health Education and Health Promotion, Pages 6557-6563, G. Kok
Abstract PDF (134 K)

Health in Developing Countries: Cultural Concerns, Pages 6566-6570, S.R. Benatar
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Health Insurance: Economic and Risk Aspects, Pages 6570-6576, C.G. McLaughlin,
M.E. Chernew
Abstract PDF (95 K)

Health Interventions: Community-based, Pages 6576-6581, J.W. Farquhar
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Health Outcomes, Assessment of, Pages 6581-6586, R.M. Kaplan
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Health Policy, Pages 6586-6591, E.M. Immergut
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Health Professionals, Allied, Pages 6592-6598, L.H. Aiken
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Health Promotion in Schools, Pages 6598-6602, I. Seiffge-Krenke
Abstract PDF (68 K)

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Health Psychology, Pages 6602-6608, T.W. Smith
PDF (80 K)

Health Research, Qualitative, Pages 6608-6612, P. Conrad
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Health Risk Appraisal and Optimistic Bias, Pages 6612-6615, N.D. Weinstein
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Health Surveys, Pages 6619-6627, J.H. Madans
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Health, Global Budgets for, Pages 6563-6566, R. Klein
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Health: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 6495-6499, A. Kleinman, A. Petryna
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Health: Self-regulation, Pages 6615-6619, R. Schwarzer
Abstract PDF (127 K)

Hebb, Donald Olding (1904–85), Pages 6628-6630, P.M. Milner
Abstract PDF (54 K)

Hegel and the Social Sciences, Pages 6630-6636, T. Pinkard
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831), Pages 6636-6642, M. Wildenauer
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Hegemony and Cultural Resistance, Pages 6645-6650, S. Kim
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Hegemony: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 6642-6645, D.V. Kurtz
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Heider, Fritz (1896–1988), Pages 6650-6654, B. Weiner
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–94), Pages 6654-6657, D. Cahan
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Hempel, Carl Gustav (1905–97), Pages 6658-6660, G. Wolters
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Henry, Louis (1911–91), Pages 6660-6661, E. van de Walle
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Hermeneutics, History of, Pages 6661-6665, W. Outhwaite
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Hermeneutics, including Critical Theory, Pages 6665-6672, M. Dooley, R. Kearney
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Heterosexism and Homophobia, Pages 6672-6676, J. O'Brien
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Heuristics for Decision and Choice, Pages 6676-6679, P.M. Todd
Abstract PDF (63 K)

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Heuristics in Social Cognition, Pages 6679-6683, F. Strack
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Hidden Curriculum in the Classroom, Pages 6683-6685, B.G. Massialas
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Hierarchical Models: Random and Fixed Effects, Pages 6685-6690, D.V. Lindley
Abstract PDF (102 K)

Hierarchies and Markets, Pages 6690-6693, O.E. Williamson
Abstract PDF (60 K)

High Performance Computing, Pages 6693-6697, A. Strey
Abstract PDF (116 K)

High School Dropout, Pages 6697-6700, O. Köller
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Higher Education, Pages 6700-6705, U. Teichler
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Hindu Law, Pages 6705-6708, L. Rocher
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Hintze, Otto (1861–1940), Pages 6708-6711, W. Neugebauer
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Hippocampus and Related Structures, Pages 6711-6718, M.P. Witter
Abstract PDF (366 K)

Historical Archaeology, Pages 6718-6720, M. Hall
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Historical Change and Human Development, Pages 6720-6725, M.J. Shanahan
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Historical Demography, Pages 6725-6731, O. Saito
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Historical Explanation, Theories of: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 6731-6737, C.B.
McCullagh
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Historical Geography, Pages 6737-6743, B. Graham
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Historical Linguistics: Numerical Methods, Pages 6743-6747, S. Embleton
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Historical Linguistics: Overview, Pages 6748-6753, A. McMahon
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Historical Sociology, Pages 6753-6757, C. Tilly
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Historicism, Pages 6757-6762, P. Rossi
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Christian Tradition, Pages 6762-6766, C.
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Markschies
Abstract PDF (73 K)
Historiography and Historical Thought: Classical Period (especially Greece and
Rome), Pages 6766-6771, W. Nippel
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Current Trends, Pages 6771-6776, G.G.
Iggers
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: East Asia, Pages 6776-6782, M. Sato
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Indigenous Cultures in the Americas,
Pages 6782-6787, B. Riese
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Islamic Tradition, Pages 6787-6793, R.S.
Humphreys
Abstract PDF (95 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Jewish Tradition, Pages 6793-6798, M.
Brenner
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Modern History (Since the Eighteenth
Century), Pages 6798-6804, G.G. Iggers
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: South Asia, Pages 6804-6808, T.
Raychaudhuri
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Southeast Asia, Pages 6808-6813, A. Reid
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Historiography and Historical Thought: Sub-Saharan Africa, Pages 6813-6817, M.
Diawara
Abstract PDF (87 K)

History and Literature, Pages 6817-6822, P.M. Lützeler
Abstract PDF (76 K)

History and Memory, Pages 6822-6829, A. Assmann
Abstract PDF (91 K)

History and the Social Sciences, Pages 6829-6835, W. Spohn
Abstract PDF (93 K)

History of Science, Pages 6842-6848, L. Daston
Abstract PDF (89 K)

History of Science: Constructivist Perspectives, Pages 6848-6852, I.R. Morus
Abstract PDF (70 K)

History of Technology, Pages 6852-6857, T.P. Hughes
Abstract PDF (76 K)

History, Professionalization of, Pages 6864-6869, R. Torstendahl
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Abstract PDF (78 K)
History: Forms of Presentation, Discourses, and Functions, Pages 6836-6842, C.
Lorenz
Abstract PDF (97 K)

History: Overview, Pages 6857-6864, J. Rüsen
Abstract PDF (89 K)

History: Theories and Methods, Pages 6869-6876, C. Lorenz
Abstract PDF (90 K)

HIV and Fertility, Pages 6876-6880, B. Zaba, S. Gregson
Abstract PDF (79 K)

HIV Risk Interventions, Pages 6880-6882, S.C. Kalichman
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679), Pages 6882-6886, R. Ewin
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Holocaust, The, Pages 6887-6891, S. Friedländer
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Home in Anthropology, Pages 6891-6895, T. Hauschild
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Homelessness: United States, Pages 6895-6899, M.R. Burt
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Homosexuality and Psychiatry, Pages 6899-6904, T.S. Stein
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Honor and Shame, Pages 6904-6907, C. Stewart
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Hope and Hopelessness, Pages 6907-6909, C.R. Snyder
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Horticultural Societies, Pages 6909-6915, P. Sillitoe
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Hospitals and Health: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 6915-6921, J.A. Alexander, M.E.
Comfort
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Hotelling, Harold (1895–1973), Pages 6921-6925, I. Olkin, A.R. Sampson
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Household Archaeology, Pages 6925-6929, R. Tringham
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Household in Anthropology, Pages 6930-6934, S.J. Yanagisako
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Household Production, Pages 6934-6939, D. Ironmonger
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Housing Economics, Pages 6939-6946, R. Arnott
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Abstract PDF (103 K)
Human Behavioral Ecology, Pages 6946-6951, R. Hames
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Human Capital: Educational Aspects, Pages 6951-6955, M. Woodhall
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Human Cognition, Evolution of, Pages 6955-6959, M. Tomasello
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Human Development and Health, Pages 6959-6963, L.K. George
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Human Development, Bioecological Theory of, Pages 6963-6970, U. Bronfenbrenner
Abstract PDF (120 K)

Human Development, Successful: Psychological Conceptions, Pages 6970-6974,
W. Greve
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Human Ecology, Pages 6974-6978, L. Freese
Abstract PDF (964 K)

Human Ecology: Insights on Demographic Behavior, Pages 6978-6984, P. Frisbie
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Human Evolutionary Genetics, Pages 6984-6991, J.L. Mountain
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Human Genome Diversity and its Value, Pages 6991-6995, P.P. Majumder
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Human Genome Project: German Perspective, Pages 6995-6999, J. Maurer, H.
Lehrach
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Human Genome Project: Japanese Perspective, Pages 6999-7003, T. Gojobori
Abstract PDF (160 K)

Human Resource Management, Psychology of, Pages 7003-7007, W.F. Cascio
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Human Rights in Intercultural Discourse: Cultural Concerns, Pages 7018-7025, O.
Höffe
Abstract PDF (93 K)

Human Rights, Anthropology of, Pages 7007-7012, K. Hastrup
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Human Rights, History of, Pages 7012-7018, A.De Baets
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Human Rights: Political Aspects, Pages 7025-7027, J. Donnelly
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Human Sciences: History and Sociology, Pages 7027-7031, R. Smith
Abstract PDF (68 K)

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Human–Computer Interaction, Pages 7031-7035, J. May
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Human–Computer Interface, Pages 7035-7038, S. Turkle
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Human–Environment Relationship: Carrying Capacity, Pages 7038-7039, M.E.
Geores
Abstract PDF (46 K)

Human–Environment Relationship: Comparative Case Studies, Pages 7039-7045,
C.G. Knight
Abstract PDF (126 K)

Human–Environment Relationship: Indicators, Pages 7045-7050, K.N. Lee
PDF (120 K)

Human–Environment Relationship: Prehistoric, Pages 7050-7056, K.W. Butzer
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Human–Environment Relationships, Pages 7056-7062, W.B. Meyer
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Humanistic Geography, Pages 7062-7067, A. Buttimer
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1767–1835), Pages 7067-7071, J. Trabant
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Hume, David (1711–76), Pages 7071-7074, J.P. Wright
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Hunger and Eating, Neural Basis of, Pages 7074-7078, E.M. Stricker
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Hunter–Gatherer Societies, Archaeology of, Pages 7078-7082, H. Lourandos
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Hunting and Gathering Societies in Anthropology, Pages 7082-7086, N. Bird-David
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Hurst, James Willard (1910–97), Pages 7086-7088, A. Soifer
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Husserl, Edmund (1859–1938), Pages 7088-7092, C. Thiel
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Hutterite Demography, Pages 7092-7095, D.L. Anderton
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Hybridity, Pages 7095-7098, N. García-Canclini
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Hypertension: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 7098-7101, D. Shapiro
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Hypnosis, Neural Basis of, Pages 7101-7105, R.A. Karlin, E. Orne
Abstract PDF (68 K)

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Hypnosis, Psychiatry of, Pages 7105-7109, N.A. Covino
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis, Psychobiology of, Pages 7109-7113, S. Levine
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Hypothalamus, Pages 7113-7118, J. Hennig
Abstract PDF (142 K)

Hypothesis Testing in Statistics, Pages 7118-7121, G. Casella, R.L. Berger
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Hypothesis Testing: Methodology and Limitations, Pages 7121-7127, T.A.B. Snijders
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Hypothesis Tests, Multiplicity of, Pages 7127-7133, L.V. Jones, C. Lewis, J.W. Tukey
Abstract PDF (107 K)

Hysteria, Pages 7133-7138, R.E. Kendell
Abstract PDF (90 K)

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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Ideal Type: Conceptions in the Social Sciences, Pages 7139-7142, T. Burger
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Idealization, Abstraction, and Ideal Types, Pages 7142-7148, S. Clarke
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Identity and Identification: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 7148-7154, A. Bilgrami
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Identity in Anthropology, Pages 7154-7159, T.M. Luhrmann
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Identity in Childhood and Adolescence, Pages 7159-7163, J.E. Marcia
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Identity Movements, Pages 7163-7166, S. Langlois
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Identity: Social, Pages 7166-7170, R. Hardin
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Ideology, Sociology of, Pages 7177-7182, M. Dubois
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Ideology: History of the Concept, Pages 7170-7174, J.B. Thompson
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Ideology: Political Aspects, Pages 7174-7177, M. Freeden
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Illiteracy, Sociology of, Pages 7182-7185, R. Girod
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Illness Behavior and Care Seeking, Pages 7185-7190, H. Leventhal
Abstract PDF (75 K)

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Illness: Dyadic and Collective Coping, Pages 7190-7193, G. Bodenmann
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Imagery versus Propositional Reasoning, Pages 7193-7197, S.J. Stose, S.M. Kosslyn
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Imagination: History of the Concept, Pages 7197-7201, H. Friese
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Immigrant Fertility, Pages 7201-7205, C.G. Swicegood, F.D. Bean
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Immigrants: Economic Performance, Pages 7205-7208, J.P. Smith
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Immigration, Pages 7208-7211, C. Joppke
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Immigration and Migration: Cultural Concerns, Pages 7211-7217, M.M. Suárez-Orozco
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Immigration: Consequences for Fiscal Developments in the Receiving
Population, Pages 7217-7220, R.D. Lee
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Immigration: Public Policy, Pages 7221-7226, C. Hirschman
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Imperialism, History of, Pages 7226-7232, H.L. Wesseling
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Imperialism: Political Aspects, Pages 7232-7234, D.A. Lake
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Implementation: Political, Pages 7234-7237, E. Bardach
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Implicit Learning and Memory: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 7237-
7241, T. Curran, D.L. Schacter
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Implicit Memory, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 7241-7245, W.J. Perrig
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Impression Management, Psychology of, Pages 7245-7248, M.R. Leary
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Imprisonment: Sociological Aspects, Pages 7248-7251, N. Christie
Abstract PDF (127 K)

In Vitro Neurophysiology, Pages 7251-7254, T.J. Teyler
Abstract PDF (179 K)

Incest Prohibition, Origin and Evolution of, Pages 7259-7262, A.P. Wolf
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Incest, Inbreeding, and their Consequences, Pages 7254-7259, A.H. Bittles
Abstract PDF (86 K)

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Incidental versus Intentional Memory, Pages 7262-7265, T. Mäntylä
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Income Distribution, Pages 7265-7271, A.B. Atkinson, F. Bourguignon
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Income Distribution: Demographic Aspects, Pages 7271-7273, D. Lam
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Income Taxes, Pages 7273-7279, A. Sandmo
Abstract PDF (81 K)

India, Religions of, Pages 7279-7282, P. van der Veer
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Indicator: Methodology, Pages 7282-7287, K.A. Bollen
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Indigenous Conceptions of Aging, Pages 7287-7289, P. Dave
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Indigenous Knowledge and Technology, Pages 7289-7292, A. Bebbington
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Indigenous Knowledge: Science and Technology Studies, Pages 7292-7297, K.S.
Philip
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Indigenous View on Human Development: West African Perspective, Pages 7297-
7299, A.B. Nsamenang
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Individual Identities in Organizations, Pages 7299-7306, W.R. Nord
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Individual/Society: History of the Concept, Pages 7306-7310, R. Harré
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Individualism versus Collectivism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 7310-7316, P. Pettit
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Cross-cultural, Pages 7316-7320, H.C.
Triandis
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Industrial Ecology, Pages 7320-7326, F. den Hond
Abstract PDF (130 K)

Industrial Geography, Pages 7326-7331, A.K. Glasmeier
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Industrial Metabolism, Pages 7331-7333, K. Wernick
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Industrial Policy, Pages 7333-7338, M.J. Piore
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Industrial Relations and Collective Bargaining, Pages 7338-7344, P.K. Edwards
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Industrial Relations, History of, Pages 7344-7347, P. Fridenson
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Industrial Society/Post-industrial Society: History of the Concept, Pages 7347-
7351, C. Crouch
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Industrial Sociology, Pages 7351-7356, I. Berg
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Industrialization, Pages 7356-7360, R. Biernacki
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Industrialization, Typologies and History of, Pages 7360-7367, P.K. O'Brien
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Industrial–Organizational Psychology: Science and Practice, Pages 7367-7371, K.
Kraiger
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Inequality, Pages 7371-7377, L. Osberg
Abstract PDF (201 K)

Inequality: Comparative Aspects, Pages 7377-7382, G.D. Berreman
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Infancy and Childhood: Emotional Development, Pages 7382-7387, R.A. Thompson
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Infant and Child Development, Theories of, Pages 7387-7393, R.M. Lerner
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Infant and Child Mortality in Industrialized Countries, Pages 7398-7404, A. Monnier
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Infant and Child Mortality in the Less Developed World, Pages 7404-7410, M.
Barbieri
Abstract PDF (178 K)

Infant and Child Mortality: Central and Eastern Europe, Pages 7393-7398, J.
Rychtařková
Abstract PDF (190 K)

Infant Development: Physical and Social Cognition, Pages 7410-7414, T. Striano, M.
Tomasello
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Infant Education, Pages 7414-7419, K. Kreppner
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Infanticide and Induced Abortion, Pages 7419-7422, J.A. Klerman
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Infectious Diseases: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 7422-7427, A. Steptoe
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Inferences in Discourse, Psychology of, Pages 7427-7432, W. Vonk, L.G.M. Noordman
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Inferences, Psychology of, Pages 7432-7435, J.M. Keenan
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Infertility: Demographic Aspects, Pages 7435-7439, J. Menken, U. Larsen
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Influence: Social, Pages 7439-7441, Y. Ito
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Informal and Underground Economics, Pages 7441-7446, B.S. Frey, F. Schneider
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Informal Reasoning, Psychology of, Pages 7446-7450, J.F. Voss
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Informal Sector, Pages 7450-7453, K.T. Hansen
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Information and Knowledge: Organizational, Pages 7453-7456, W.H. Starbuck, P.
Porrini
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Information Processing and Psychopathology, Pages 7456-7460, I.H. Gotlib
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Information Processing Architectures: Fundamental Issues, Pages 7460-7464, J.T.
Townsend
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Information Society, Pages 7464-7468, F. Webster
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Information Society, Geography of, Pages 7469-7473, E. Sheppard
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Information Technology, Pages 7473-7476, M. Grauer
Abstract PDF (112 K)

Information Theory, Pages 7476-7480, L. Martignon
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Information, Economics of, Pages 7480-7486, S.S. Lippman, J.J. McCall
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Infrastructure Investment, Pages 7486-7489, D.C. Perry
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Infrastructure: Social/Behavioral Research (Japan and Korea), Pages 7489-7493,
T. Inoguchi
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Infrastructure: Social/Behavioral Research (Latin America), Pages 7493-7499, H.
Vessuri
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Infrastructure: Social/Behavioral Research (Russia), Pages 7499-7503, V.
Nemchinov
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Infrastructure: Social/Behavioral Research (United States), Pages 7503-7511, D.L.
Featherman

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Infrastructure: Social/Behavioral Research (Western Europe), Pages 7511-7517, F.
Neidhardt, G. Thurn
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Injuries and Accidents: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 7517-7521, M.C. Roberts
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Injustice: Legal Aspects, Pages 7521-7526, A. Sarat
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Innovation and Technological Change, Economics of, Pages 7530-7536, F.M.
Scherer
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Innovation, Theory of, Pages 7540-7543, E.M. Rogers
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Innovation: Organizational, Pages 7536-7540, T. Rura-Polley
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Institutional Economic Thought, Pages 7543-7550, G.M. Hodgson
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Institutional Investors, Pages 7550-7554, M. Lounsbury
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Institutionalism, Pages 7554-7558, S. Steinmo
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Institutionalization, Pages 7558-7561, D.W. Brady
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Institutions, Pages 7561-7566, T.R. Voss
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Instructional Design, Pages 7566-7569, F. Schott
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Instructional Psychology, Pages 7569-7573, E. De Corte
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Instructional Technology: Cognitive Science Perspectives, Pages 7573-7577, K.
Opwis
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Instrumental Variables in Statistics and Econometrics, Pages 7577-7582, J.H. Stock
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Insurance, Pages 7582-7587, C. Gollier
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Insurance and the Law, Pages 7587-7591, T. Baker
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Integration: Social, Pages 7591-7596, R. Münch
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Integrative Assessment in Environmental Studies, Pages 7596-7600, J. Rotmans
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Intellectual Functioning, Assessment of, Pages 7600-7605, L. Atkinson
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Intellectual History, Pages 7605-7612, F. Oz-Salzberger
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Intellectual Property Rights: Ethical Aspects, Pages 7621-7624, J. Straus
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Intellectual Property, Concepts of, Pages 7612-7615, A. Webster
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Intellectual Property: Legal Aspects, Pages 7615-7621, P.S. Menell
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Intellectual Transfer in the Social Sciences, Pages 7624-7627, C. Turner
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Intellectuals, Sociology of, Pages 7631-7635, R.J. Brym
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Intellectuals: History of the Concept, Pages 7627-7631, C. Charle
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Intelligence, Evolution of, Pages 7641-7645, H. Plotkin
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Intelligence, Genetics of: Cognitive Abilities, Pages 7645-7651, R. Plomin
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Intelligence, Genetics of: Heritability and Causation, Pages 7651-7658, S.P. Otto
Abstract PDF (159 K)

Intelligence, Prior Knowledge, and Learning, Pages 7670-7674, E. Stern
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Intelligence: Central Conceptions and Psychometric Models, Pages 7635-7641, S.-
C. Li, F. Schmiedek
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Intelligence: Historical and Conceptual Perspectives, Pages 7658-7663, E. Hunt
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Intelligence: History of the Concept, Pages 7663-7665, J. Carson
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Intelligence: Organizational, Pages 7665-7670, S.R. Clegg, T.F. Clarke
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Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Pages 7674-7678, P. Sedlmeier
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Intensification and Specialization, Archaeology of, Pages 7678-7681, K.D. Morrison
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Intentionality and Rationality: A Continental-European Perspective, Pages 7681-
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7685, H. Schnädelbach
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Intentionality and Rationality: An Analytic Perspective, Pages 7685-7691, D.
Braddon-Mitchell
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Interactionism and Personality, Pages 7691-7695, D. Magnusson
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Interactionism: Symbolic, Pages 7695-7698, D.A. Snow
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Interdependence: Political, Pages 7698-7700, E.D. Mansfield
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Interest Groups, Pages 7700-7703, K.L. Schlozman
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Interest Groups, History of, Pages 7703-7708, H.-J. Puhle
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Interest, Psychology of, Pages 7712-7715, S. Hidi
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Interest: History of the Concept, Pages 7708-7712, J. Heilbron
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Interests, Sociological Analysis of, Pages 7715-7718, P. Demeulenaere
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Interference and Inhibition, Psychology of, Pages 7718-7722, O. Houdé
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Intergenerational Justice, Pages 7722-7727, P.J. Kelly
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Intergroup Relations, Social Psychology of, Pages 7728-7733, M.B. Brewer
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Internal Migration (Further Types): Industrialized Countries, Pages 7737-7741, M.J.
Greenwood
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Internal Migration (Rural–Urban): Industrialized Countries, Pages 7741-7749, P.
Rees
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Internal Migration: Developing Countries, Pages 7733-7737, D.J. Hogan, J.M. Pinto da
Cunha
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Internal Validity, Pages 7749-7752, M.M. Mark, C.S. Reichardt
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Internal Warfare: Civil War, Insurgency, and Regional Conflict, Pages 7752-7755,
P.M. Regan
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International Advertising, Pages 7755-7759, S.P. Douglas, C.S. Craig
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International and Transboundary Accords, Environmental, Pages 7759-7765, M.J.
Peterson
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International Arbitration, Pages 7765-7768, B. Garth
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International Business, Pages 7768-7771, M.F. Guillén
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International Communication: History, Pages 7771-7775, D.R. Headrick
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International Communication: Regulation, Pages 7775-7780, M. Raboy
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International Justice: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 7780-7786, R.W. Miller
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International Law and Treaties, Pages 7786-7790, M.W. Janis
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International Marketing, Pages 7790-7794, J.-C. Usunier
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International Migration by Ethnic Chinese, Pages 7794-7799, E. Ma Mung
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International Migration by Ethnic Germans, Pages 7799-7804, R. Münz
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International Migration by Ethnic Russians, Pages 7804-7807, Z.A. Zaionchkovskaya,
J.R. Azrael
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International Migration by Ethnic South and Southeast Asians, Pages 7807-7814,
G. Hugo
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International Migration: Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East, Pages 7814-
7819, N.M. Shah
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International Organization, Pages 7819-7824, E. Haas
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International Relations, History of, Pages 7824-7829, A.L. Cervo
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International Relations: Theories, Pages 7829-7832, P. Gourevitch
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International Research: Programs and Databases, Pages 7832-7834, R.B. Miller
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International Science: Organizations and Associations, Pages 7834-7837, H.K.
Jacobson
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International Trade: Commercial Policy and Trade Negotiations, Pages 7837-7843,
J.P. Neary
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International Trade: Economic Integration, Pages 7843-7848, A. Venables
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International Trade: Geographic Aspects, Pages 7848-7852, J.E. McConnell
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Internet: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 7852-7855, E.H. Shortliffe, V.L. Patel
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Interorganizational Relationships and Networks, Pages 7855-7860, M. Ebers
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Interpersonal Attraction, Psychology of, Pages 7860-7862, A. Aron, G. Lewandowski
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Interpersonal Psychotherapy, Pages 7863-7866, D.E. Wilfley
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Interpersonal Trust across the Lifespan, Pages 7866-7868, K.J. Rotenberg
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Interpretation and Translation: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 7868-7874, C. Hookway
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Interpretation in Anthropology, Pages 7874-7878, J. Fabian
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Interpretive Methods: Macromethods, Pages 7878-7881, R. Stryker
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Interpretive Methods: Micromethods, Pages 7881-7885, N.K. Denzin
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Intrinsic Motivation, Psychology of, Pages 7886-7888, E.L. Deci, R.M. Ryan
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Introspection: History of the Concept, Pages 7888-7891, K. Danziger
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Invariance in Statistics, Pages 7893-7897, M.L. Eaton
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Ion Channels and Molecular Events in Neuronal Activity, Pages 7897-7903, J.P.
Walsh
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IPAT (Impact, Population, Affluence, and Technology), Pages 7903-7906, G.
McNicoll
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Irrationality: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 7906-7910, R. Samuels, S. Stich
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Irrigation Societies, Pages 7910-7913, J.S. Lansing
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Islam and Gender, Pages 7913-7916, F.M. Göçek
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Islam: Asia, Pages 7916-7920, M.R. Woodward
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Islam: Middle East, Pages 7920-7927, C. Lindholm
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Islam: Sub-Saharan Africa, Pages 7927-7931, P.B. Clarke
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Islamic Fundamentalism, Pages 7931-7934, A. Al-Azmeh
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Issue Constraint in Political Science, Pages 7934-7937, S. Ansolabehere
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Issue Evolution in Political Science, Pages 7937-7940, E.G. Carmines
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Issue Networks: Iron Triangles, Subgovernments, and Policy Communities,
Pages 7940-7942, M. Thatcher
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About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Jackson, John Hughlings (1835–1911), Pages 7943-7945, W.I. McDonald, H.-J. Freund
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Jakobson, Roman (1896–1982), Pages 7945-7949, L.R. Waugh
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James, William (1842–1910), Pages 7949-7954, M.B. Smith
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Janet, Pierre (1859–1947), Pages 7954-7956, J.I. Brooks III
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Japan: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 7956-7960, E. Ohnuki-Tierney
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Jeffreys, Sir Harold (1891–1989), Pages 7960-7963, A. Zellner
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Jewish Diaspora, Pages 7963-7969, S. DellaPergola
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Jewish Law, Pages 7969-7973, H. Ben-Menahem
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Job Analysis and Work Roles, Psychology of, Pages 7973-7977, H. Dunckel
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Job Design and Evaluation: Organizational Aspects, Pages 7977-7980, A.J. Arthurs
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Job Design, Psychology of, Pages 7980-7983, T.D. Wall, S. Parker
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Job Stress, Coping with, Pages 7984-7987, W.B. Schaufeli
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Joint Action, Pages 7987-7992, M. Gilbert
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Jokes and Joking, Pages 7992-7995, H. Driessen
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Journalism, Pages 7995-8000, D.C. Hallin
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Journalism and Journalists, Pages 8000-8004, S. Splichal
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Judaism, Pages 8004-8010, J. Neusner
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Judaism and Gender, Pages 8011-8014, L. Levitt
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Judges, Pages 8014-8020, J.J. Toharia
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Judicial Review in Law, Pages 8020-8024, J.B. Grossman
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Judicial Selection, Pages 8024-8027, S. Goldman
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Jung, Carl Gustav (1875–1961), Pages 8027-8031, A. Graf-Nold
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Juries, Pages 8031-8037, S.S. Diamond
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Justice and its Many Faces: Cultural Concerns, Pages 8037-8042, L. Montada
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Justice and Law, Pages 8042-8048, D.J. Luban
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Justice, Access to: Legal Representation of the Poor, Pages 8048-8055, E. Johnson
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Justice: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 8055-8061, T. Pogge
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Justice: Political, Pages 8061-8063, B. Yack
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Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives, Pages 8063-8067, G. Mikula
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Juvenile Justice: International Law Perspectives, Pages 8067-8069, G. Van Bueren
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
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ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804), Pages 8071-8075, V. Gerhardt
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Kantian Ethics and Politics, Pages 8075-8080, M. Kaufmann
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Key, Valdimir Orlando (1908–63), Pages 8080-8082, W.D. Burnham
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Keynes, John Maynard (1883–1946), Pages 8082-8089, R. Skidelsky
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Keynesianism and State Interventionism, Pages 8089-8092, R. Salais
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Kimura, Motoo (1924–94), Pages 8092-8094, J.F. Crow
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Kindling, Neural Basis of, Pages 8094-8098, S. Schreiber
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Kinship in Anthropology, Pages 8098-8105, J. Overing
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Kinship Terminology, Pages 8105-8111, N. Evans
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Klein, Melanie (1882–1960), Pages 8111-8113, N.J. Chodorow
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Knowledge (Explicit and Implicit): Philosophical Aspects, Pages 8126-8132, M.
Davies
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Knowledge Activation in Text Comprehension and Problem Solving, Psychology
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of, Pages 8114-8117, E.J. O'Brien, A.E. Cook, K.A. Derepentigny
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Knowledge Representation, Pages 8132-8139, E. Davis
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Knowledge Societies, Pages 8139-8143, W. Krohn
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Knowledge Spaces, Pages 8148-8151, J.P. Doignon
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Knowledge, Anthropology of, Pages 8117-8120, D.F. Eickelman
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Knowledge, Education, and Skills, Geography of, Pages 8120-8126, P. Meusburger
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Knowledge, Sociology of, Pages 8143-8148, C. Camic
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Kohlberg, Lawrence (1927–87), Pages 8151-8155, G. Nunner-Winkler
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Köhler, Wolfgang (1887–1967), Pages 8155-8159, V. Sarris
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Korea: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 8159-8162, N. Abelmann
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Korsakoff's Syndrome, Pages 8162-8166, A. Mayes
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Kraepelin, Emil (1856–1926), Pages 8166-8171, P. Hoff
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Kuhn, Thomas S. (1922–96), Pages 8171-8176, P. Hoyningen-Huene
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Kula Ring, Anthropology of, Pages 8176-8179, N.D. Munn
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
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Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Labor History, Pages 8181-8185, M. van der Linden
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Labor Markets, Labor Movements, and Gender in Developing Nations, Pages
8185-8191, R. Jhabvala
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Labor Movements and Gender, Pages 8191-8194, R. Milkman
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Labor Movements, History of, Pages 8194-8199, L. Olsson
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Labor Organizations: International, Pages 8199-8205, S.M. Rosen
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Labor Supply, Pages 8205-8214, J. Pencavel
Abstract PDF (113 K)

Labor Unions, Pages 8214-8220, W. Streeck
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Labor, Division of, Pages 8220-8226, W. Littek
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Laboratory Experiment: Methodology, Pages 8226-8232, J. Bredenkamp
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Laboratory Studies: Historical Perspectives, Pages 8232-8238, K. Knorr Cetina
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Laicization, History of, Pages 8238-8242, J. Baubérot
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Land Degradation, Pages 8242-8247, M.A. Stocking
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Abstract PDF (328 K)
Land Information System, Pages 1-6, J.R. Quintero
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Land Reclamation, Pages 8247-8251, A.S. Goudie
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Land Rights and Gender, Pages 8251-8256, B. Agarwal
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Land Tenure, Pages 8256-8261, P. Shipton
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Land Use and Cover Change, Pages 8262-8265, W.J. McConnell
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Landsat Imagery in Geography, Pages 8265-8270, J. Townshend
Abstract PDF (1302 K)

Landscape Architecture, Pages 8270-8275, F. Steiner
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Language Acquisition, Pages 8275-8280, B.J. MacWhinney
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Language and Animal Competencies, Pages 8281-8285, D.M. Rumbaugh, E.S. Savage-
Rumbaugh
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Language and Ethnicity, Pages 8285-8288, G. Schlee
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Language and Gender, Pages 8288-8292, J. Coates
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Language and Literature, Pages 8292-8297, N. Fabb
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Language and Philosophy, Pages 8297-8303, P.A.M. Seuren
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Language and Poetic Structure, Pages 8303-8308, K. Hanson
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Language and Social Class, Pages 8308-8312, S. Romaine
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Language and Social Inferences, Pages 8312-8315, G.R. Semin
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Language and Society: Cultural Concerns, Pages 8315-8320, C. Goddard, A.
Wierzbicka
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Language and Thought: The Modern Whorfian Hypothesis, Pages 8320-8325, E.
Hunt
Abstract PDF (85 K)

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Language Contact, Pages 8325-8329, S.G. Thomason
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Language Development, Neural Basis of, Pages 8344-8349, H.M. Feldman
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Language Endangerment, Pages 8349-8353, T. Tsunoda
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Language Learning Impairment, Pages 8353-8357, P. Tallal
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Language Obsolescence, Pages 8357-8361, N.C. Dorian
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Language Policy: Linguistic Perspectives, Pages 8361-8365, J.A. Fishman
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Language Policy: Public Policy Perspectives, Pages 8365-8373, A.R. Zolberg
Abstract PDF (99 K)

Language, Continental Philosophy of, Pages 8329-8336, C. Lafont
Abstract PDF (105 K)

Language: Dependency, Pages 8336-8344, I. Mel'čuk
Abstract PDF (231 K)

Languages: Genetic Classification, Pages 8373-8378, M. Ruhlen
Abstract PDF (182 K)

Laplace, Pierre-Simon, Marquis de (1749–1827), Pages 8378-8382, B. Bru
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Large Data Sets in Statistical Computing, Pages 8382-8386, W.F. Eddy
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Large-scale Social Survey, Analysis of, Pages 8386-8392, E. Zanutto, A. Gelman
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Lashley, Karl Spencer (1890–1958), Pages 8392-8394, R.F. Thompson
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Latent Structure and Causal Variables, Pages 8395-8400, P. Spirtes
Abstract PDF (151 K)

Latin American Studies: Economics, Pages 8400-8405, V. Bulmer-Thomas
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Latin American Studies: Education, Pages 8405-8409, D. Post, D. Levy
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Latin American Studies: Gender, Pages 8409-8413, K.A. Staudt
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Latin American Studies: Geography, Pages 8413-8417, G.W. Knapp
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Latin American Studies: Health, Pages 8417-8421, K. Macintyre
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Latin American Studies: Politics, Pages 8421-8425, P.W. Drake, L. Hilbink
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Latin American Studies: Religion, Pages 8426-8430, H.W. Stewart-Gambino
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Latin American Studies: Society, Pages 8430-8436, F. Filgueira
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Law and Aging, Pages 8436-8439, L.A. Frolik
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Law and Democracy, Pages 8439-8443, G. Skąpska
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Law and Development, Pages 8443-8446, D.M. Trubek
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Law and Economics, Pages 8446-8452, S. Shavell
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Law and Economics: Empirical Dimensions, Pages 8452-8457, K. Dau-Schmidt
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Law and Everyday Life, Pages 8457-8461, P. Ewick
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Law and Geography, Pages 8461-8465, N. Blomley
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Law and Morality: A Continental-European Perspective, Pages 8465-8469, R. Alexy
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Law and Morality: An Analytic Perspective, Pages 8469-8475, T. Campbell
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Law and People with Disabilities, Pages 8475-8480, M. Jones, L.A.B. Marks
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Law and Risk, Pages 8480-8484, A. Bora
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Law and Society: Sociolegal Studies, Pages 8484-8489, B. Garth
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Law as an Instrument of Social Change, Pages 8492-8496, V. Gessner
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Law as Constitutive, Pages 8497-8500, R. Cotterrell
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Law Firms, Pages 8517-8521, D.B. Wilkins
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Law in Latin America, Pages 8526-8527, R. Pérez-Perdomo
Abstract PDF (47 K)

Law, Autopoiesis in, Pages 8500-8502, R. Rogowski
Abstract PDF (55 K)

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Law, Diffusion of, Pages 1-7, R.M. Buxbaum
PDF (91 K)

Law, Mobilization of, Pages 8530-8534, E. Blankenburg
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Law, Sociology of, Pages 8544-8548, G. Rocher
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Law: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 8489-8492, S.E. Merry
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Law: Change and Evolution, Pages 8503-8507, L.M. Friedman
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Law: Defense of Insanity, Pages 8507-8510, R.J. Simon
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Law: Economics of its Public Enforcement, Pages 8510-8517, A.M. Polinsky, S. Shavell
Abstract PDF (93 K)

Law: History of its Relation to the Social Sciences, Pages 8521-8526, T. Murphy
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Law: Imposition, Reception, and Colonial, Pages 8527-8530, P. Fitzpatrick
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Law: New Institutionalism, Pages 8534-8538, C.A. Heimer
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Law: Overview, Pages 8538-8544, L.B. Edelman, M. Galanter
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Laws, Conflict of, Pages 8548-8553, S. Symeonides
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Lawyers, Pages 8553-8559, R. Abel
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Lawyers, Regulation of, Pages 8559-8564, E. Chambliss
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix (1901–76), Pages 8564-8568, A.R. Oberschall
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Leadership in Organizations, Psychology of, Pages 8569-8573, F. Brodbeck
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Leadership in Organizations, Sociology of, Pages 8573-8578, M.F.R. Kets de Vries
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Leadership, Psychology of, Pages 8580-8583, M.M. Chemers
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Leadership: Political, Pages 8578-8580, R. Elgie
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Learned Helplessness, Pages 8583-8586, M.E.P. Seligman, C. Peterson
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Learning and Instruction, Social-cognitive Perspectives, Pages 8586-8588, A.-N.
Perret-Clermont, F. Carugati
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Learning and Memory, Neural Basis of, Pages 8593-8599, H.J. Markowitsch
Abstract PDF (255 K)

Learning and Memory: Computational Models, Pages 8588-8593, M.T. Allen
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Learning by Occasion Setting, Pages 8599-8602, N.A. Schmajuk
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Learning Curve, The, Pages 8602-8605, F.E. Ritter, L.J. Schooler
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Learning from Text, Pages 8605-8609, E.C. Ferstl
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Learning Theories and Educational Paradigms, Pages 8613-8620, T.J. Shuell
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Learning to Learn, Pages 8620-8623, C.E. Weinstein
Abstract PDF (105 K)

Learning: Organizational, Pages 8609-8613, S. Gherardi
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Legal Culture and Legal Consciousness, Pages 8623-8629, S.S. Silbey
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Legal Education, Pages 8629-8634, K. Economides
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Legal Formalism, Pages 8634-8638, D. Kennedy
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Legal Insurance, Pages 8638-8641, T. Raiser
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Legal Issues: Public Opinion, Pages 8641-8646, R. MacCoun
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Legal Personality, Pages 8646-8650, G.A. Mark
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Legal Pluralism, Pages 8650-8654, J. Griffiths
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Legal Positivism, Pages 8654-8660, B.Z. Tamanaha
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Legal Process and Social Science: United States, Pages 8660-8663, J. Monahan
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Legal Professionalism, Pages 8663-8667, T.J. Schneyer
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Legal Realism, Pages 8667-8670, J.H. Schlegel
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Legal Reasoning and Argumentation, Pages 8670-8675, W.L. Twining
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Legal Reasoning Models, Pages 8675-8677, C.D. Hafner
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Legal Scholarship, Pages 8677-8684, E. Rubin
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Legal Systems, Classification of, Pages 8684-8689, D.S. Clark
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Legal Systems: Private, Pages 8689-8693, S. Henry
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Legalization, Pages 8693-8697, J.K. Lieberman
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Legislatures: United States, Pages 8697-8700, A. Rosenthal
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Legitimacy, Pages 8700-8704, R. Stryber
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Legitimacy, Sociology of, Pages 8706-8709, B. Badie
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Legitimacy: Political, Pages 8704-8706, C.K. Ansell
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Leisure and Cultural Consumption, Pages 8709-8714, J.P. Robinson
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Leisure, Psychology of, Pages 8714-8717, E.H. Hoff
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Leisure, Sociology of, Pages 8717-8720, N. Woolsey Biggart
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Lesbians: Historical Perspectives, Pages 8720-8725, L.D. Meyer
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Lesbians: Social and Economic Situation, Pages 8725-8729, M.V.L. Badgett
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Lesion and Behavior Approaches in Neuroscience, Pages 8729-8732, L.E. Jarrard
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Letter and Character Recognition, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 8732-8737, H.-
C. Chen
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Lewin, Kurt (1890–1947), Pages 8737-8740, C.F. Graumann
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Lex Mercatoria, Pages 8740-8743, C. Windbichler
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Lexical Access, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 8743-8748, M. Taft
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Lexical Functional Grammar, Pages 8748-8754, P.K. Austin
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Lexical Processes (Word Knowledge): Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages
8754-8758, M.A. Lambon Ralph
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Lexical Semantics, Pages 8758-8764, D.A. Cruse
Abstract PDF (93 K)

Lexicology and Lexicography, Pages 8764-8768, W. Klein
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Lexicon, Pages 8768-8774, J. Pustejovsky
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Liability: Legal, Pages 8774-8779, P.H. Schuck
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Liaison and Consultation Psychiatry, Pages 8779-8784, A. Diefenbacher
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Liberalism, Pages 8784-8787, A. Gutmann
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Liberalism and War, Pages 8787-8792, R. Latham
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Liberalism: Historical Aspects, Pages 8792-8797, D. Langewiesche
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Liberalism: Impact on Social Science, Pages 8797-8801, R.P. Bellamy
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Libertarianism, Pages 8801-8807, C. Kukathas
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Libraries, Pages 8807-8810, C. Pawley
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Libraries: Digital, Electronic, and Hybrid, Pages 8810-8814, D.D. Rusch-Feja
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Life Course in History, Pages 8814-8817, J.R. Gillis
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Life Course: Sociological Aspects, Pages 8817-8821, G.H. Elder Jr.
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Life Expectancy and Adult Mortality in Industrialized Countries, Pages 8822-8827,
T. Valkonen
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Life Management, Developmental Psychology of, Pages 8827-8832, A.M. Freund
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Life Table, Pages 8832-8836, J.M. Hoem
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Lifelong Learning and its Support with New Media: Cultural Concerns, Pages
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8836-8840, G. Fischer
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Lifespan Development, Theory of, Pages 8844-8848, U.M. Staudinger
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Lifespan Development: Evolutionary Perspectives, Pages 8840-8844, H. Keller
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Lifespan Theories of Cognitive Development, Pages 8848-8854, U. Lindenberger
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Likelihood in Statistics, Pages 8854-8858, A.W.F. Edwards
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Limbic System, Pages 8858-8862, R.L. Isaacson
Abstract PDF (112 K)

Liminality, Pages 8862-8864, B.A. Babcock
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Linear Algebra for Neural Networks, Pages 8864-8868, H. Abdi
Abstract PDF (98 K)

Linear and Nonlinear Programming, Pages 8868-8874, A.N. Iusem
Abstract PDF (107 K)

Linear Hypothesis, Pages 8874-8881, R. Christensen
Abstract PDF (112 K)

Linear Hypothesis: Fallacies and Interpretive Problems (Simpson's Paradox),
Pages 8881-8884, D.V. Lindley
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Linear Hypothesis: Regression (Basics), Pages 8884-8888, S. Weisberg
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Linear Hypothesis: Regression (Graphics), Pages 8888-8893, R.D. Cook
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Linear Hypothesis: Regression (Quantile), Pages 8893-8899, R. Koenker
Abstract PDF (140 K)

Linguistic Anthropology, Pages 8899-8906, A. Duranti
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Linguistic Fieldwork, Pages 8906-8910, U. Mosel
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Linguistic Presupposition, Pages 8910-8913, R.A. van der Sandt
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Linguistic Turn, Pages 8913-8916, C. Fynsk
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Linguistic Turn and Discourse Analysis in History, Pages 8916-8922, J.E. Toews
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Linguistic Typology, Pages 8922-8929, M. Shibatani
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Abstract PDF (97 K)
Linguistics: Comparative Method, Pages 8929-8932, L. Campbell
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Linguistics: Iconicity, Pages 8932-8935, J. Haiman
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Linguistics: Incorporation, Pages 8935-8939, E. Nowak
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Linguistics: Information Structure, Pages 8939-8942, P. Sgall
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Linguistics: Internal Reconstruction, Pages 8942-8945, A. Fox
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Linguistics: Markedness, Pages 8945-8948, E. Battistella
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Linguistics: Overview, Pages 8948-8954, D. Crystal
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Linguistics: Prototype Theory, Pages 8954-8957, J.R. Taylor
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Linguistics: Theory of Principles and Parameters, Pages 8957-8961, L. Haegeman
Abstract PDF (79 K)

‘Inner City,’ The: Cultural Concerns, Pages 7526-7530, W.J. Wilson, B.H. Rankin, J.M.
Quane
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Literacy and Illiteracy, History of, Pages 8961-8967, I.G. Tóth
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Literacy and Orality, Pages 8967-8971, W. Raible
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Literacy Education, Pages 8975-8981, C.A. Perfetti, R. Sandak
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Literacy, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 8971-8975, A.M. Jacobs
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Literary Texts: Comprehension and Memory, Pages 8981-8984, R.J. Kreuz
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Lithics and Archaeology, Pages 8984-8989, J. Pelegrin
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Litigation, Pages 8989-8995, H.M. Kritzer
Abstract PDF (105 K)

Litigation: Effects on Medical Research, Pages 8995-8999, K. Liddell
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Llewellyn, Karl Nickerson (1893–1962), Pages 8999-9001, B. Leiter
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‘New’ Eugenics, The: Role in Society, Pages 10625-10631, D.J. Galton
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Lobbying, Pages 9001-9004, J.M. Berry
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Local Economic Development, Pages 9004-9008, N. Ettlinger
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Local–Global Linkages, Environmental Aspects, Pages 9008-9011, T.J. Wilbanks
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Location Theory, Pages 9013-9019, C. Gorter, P. Nijkamp
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Location: Absolute/Relative, Pages 9011-9013, J.D. Nystuen
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Locational Conflict (NIMBY), Pages 9019-9024, R.W. Lake
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Locke, John (1632–1704), Pages 9024-9027, P. Laslett
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Logic and Cognition, Psychology of, Pages 9027-9031, R. Revlin
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Logic and Linguistics, Pages 9031-9036, T. Zimmermann
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Logical Positivism and Logical Empiricism, Pages 9036-9038, K. Mulligan
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Logics for Knowledge Representation, Pages 9039-9041, B. Nebel
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Lone Mothers in Affluent Nations, Pages 9041-9046, J. Lewis
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Lone Mothers in Nations of the South, Pages 9046-9052, S. Chant
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Long-term Depression (Cerebellum), Pages 9071-9074, M. Ito
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Long-term Depression (Hippocampus), Pages 9074-9078, M.R. Foy
Abstract PDF (483 K)

Long-term Potentiation (Hippocampus), Pages 9081-9083, M. Baudry
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Long-term Potentiation and Depression (Cortex), Pages 9078-9081, T.J. Teyler
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Longevity, Genetics of, Pages 9052-9057, J.R. Carey
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Longitudinal Data, Pages 9058-9063, B.H. Singer
Abstract PDF (75 K)

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Longitudinal Data: Event–History Analysis in Discrete Time, Pages 9063-9067, E.
Arjas
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Longitudinal Research: Panel Retention, Pages 9067-9071, R.B. Warnecke, J.A.
Parsons
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Lorenz, Konrad (1903–89), Pages 9083-9089, W.M. Schleidt
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Lotka, Alfred James (1880–1949), Pages 9089-9091, N. Keyfitz
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Love and Intimacy, Psychology of, Pages 9091-9094, H.T. Reis
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Luce's Choice Axiom, Pages 9094-9097, J.I. Yellott Jr.
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Luhmann, Niklas (1927–98), Pages 9097-9102, R. Stichweh
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Luria, Aleksander Romanovich (1902–77), Pages 9102-9105, M. Cole
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527), Pages 9107-9111, H. Münkler
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Macroeconomic Data, Pages 9111-9117, T.P. Hill
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Macrosociology–Microsociology, Pages 9117-9122, M. Cherkaoui
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Macrostructure in Discourse Comprehension, Psychology of, Pages 9122-9125,
R.F. Lorch Jr.
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Mafia, Pages 9125-9128, A. Blok
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Magic, Anthropology of, Pages 9128-9131, V. Argyrou
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Magnetoencephalography, Pages 9131-9137, R.J. Ilmoniemi, R.J. Näätänen
Abstract PDF (147 K)

Majoritarianism and Majority Rule, Pages 9137-9139, D. Rae
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Majorization and Stochastic Orders, Pages 9139-9143, H. Joe
Abstract PDF (101 K)

Male Dominance, Pages 9143-9147, P.R. Sanday
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Malinowski, Bronislaw (1884–1942), Pages 9147-9151, M.W. Young
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Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834), Pages 9151-9156, J. Dupâquier
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Managed Care, Pages 9156-9162, H.S. Luft
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Managed Care and Psychotherapy in the United States, Pages 9162-9165, L.D.
Weaver, C.C. Marques
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Management Accounting, Pages 9166-9170, A. Bhimani
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Management: General, Pages 9170-9178, A. Martinelli
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Mania, Pages 9178-9183, D.L. Dunner
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Manifestoes, Party, Pages 9183-9187, I. Budge
Abstract PDF (146 K)

Mannheim, Karl (1893–1947), Pages 9187-9191, V. Meja
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Maoism, Pages 9191-9193, B. Womack
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Marital Interaction: Effects on Child Development, Pages 9195-9197, E.M. Cummings
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Market and Nonmarket Allocation, Pages 9197-9203, D. Satz
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Market Areas, Pages 9203-9207, J.-C. Thill
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Market Research, Pages 9207-9211, T.J. Steenburgh, D.R. Wittink
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Market Structure and Performance, Pages 9211-9216, J. Sutton
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Marketing Strategies, Pages 9217-9221, E. Valdani
Abstract PDF (238 K)

Markets and the Law, Pages 9221-9227, V. Vanberg
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Markets: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 9227-9231, T.C. Bestor
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Markets: Artistic and Cultural, Pages 9231-9236, V.D. Alexander
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods, Pages 9236-9240, P. Müller
Abstract PDF (186 K)

Markov Decision Processes, Pages 9240-9242, M.L. Littman
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Markov Models and Social Analysis, Pages 9242-9250, L. Billard
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Markov Processes for Knowledge Spaces, Pages 9251-9253, J.-C. Falmagne
Abstract PDF (98 K)

Maroons in Anthropology, Pages 9253-9256, R. Price
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Marr, David (1945–80), Pages 9256-9258, S. Edelman, L.M. Vaina
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Marriage, Pages 9258-9261, J. Bestard-Camps
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Marriage and the Dual-career Family: Cultural Concerns, Pages 9261-9265, L.J.
Waite
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Marriage: Psychological and Experimental Analyses, Pages 9265-9270, W.K. Halford
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Marshall, Alfred (1842–1924), Pages 9270-9276, J.K. Whitaker
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Marshall, Thomas Humphrey (1893–1981), Pages 9276-9279, Y. Soysal
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Marx, Karl (1818–83), Pages 9280-9286, T. Carver
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Marxian Economic Thought, Pages 9286-9292, R. Bellofiore
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Marxism and Law, Pages 9292-9295, M. Cain
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Marxism in Contemporary Sociology, Pages 9295-9298, M. Burawoy, E.O. Wright
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Marxism/Leninism, Pages 9298-9302, S.E. Hanson
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Marxist Archaeology, Pages 9302-9306, A. Gilman
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Marxist Geography, Pages 9306-9311, R. Peet
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Marxist Social Thought, History of, Pages 9311-9317, R. Fine
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Masculinities and Femininities, Pages 9318-9321, M. Kimmel
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Mass Communication: Empirical Research, Pages 9321-9328, S. Chaffee
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Mass Communication: Normative Frameworks, Pages 9328-9334, J.D. Peters
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Mass Communication: Technology, Pages 9334-9338, B. Winston
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Mass Killings and Genocide, Psychology of, Pages 9338-9341, E. Staub
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Mass Media and Cultural Identity, Pages 9341-9346, P. Schlesinger
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Mass Media and Sports, Pages 9346-9350, D. Rowe
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Mass Media, Political Economy of, Pages 9358-9363, G. Murdock
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Mass Media, Representations in, Pages 9363-9368, R.M. Entman
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Mass Media: Introduction and Schools of Thought, Pages 9350-9358, P. Dahlgren
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Mass Society: History of the Concept, Pages 9368-9372, S. Giner
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Mastery Learning, Pages 9372-9377, T.R. Guskey
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Mathematical and Logical Abilities, Neural Basis of, Pages 9377-9382, J. Whalen
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Mathematical Education, Pages 9382-9386, E. De Corte, L. Verschaffel
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Mathematical Learning Theory, Pages 9386-9391, J.K. Kruschke
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Mathematical Learning Theory, History of, Pages 9391-9393, W.K. Estes
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Mathematical Models in Geography, Pages 9393-9399, S.J. Rey
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Mathematical Models in Philosophy of Science, Pages 9399-9405, Z. Domotor
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Mathematical Psychology, Pages 9405-9412, J.-C. Falmagne
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Mathematical Psychology, History of, Pages 9412-9416, W.K. Estes
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Matrifocality, Pages 9416-9418, R.T. Smith
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Mauss, Marcel (1872–1950), Pages 9419-9421, V. Karaday
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McCarthyism, Pages 9422-9424, F.E. Rourke
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Mead, George Herbert (1863–1931), Pages 9424-9428, H. Joas
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Mead, Margaret (1901–78), Pages 9428-9431, M.M. Caffrey
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Meaning and Rule-following: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 9431-9435, R. Holton
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Measurement Error Models, Pages 9435-9442, A.L. Carriquiry
Abstract PDF (135 K)

Measurement Theory: Conjoint, Pages 9448-9451, P. Fishburn
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Measurement Theory: History and Philosophy, Pages 9451-9454, J. Michell
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Measurement Theory: Probabilistic, Pages 9454-9458, D. Heyer, R. Niederée
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Measurement, Representational Theory of, Pages 9442-9448, R. Suck
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Media and Child Development, Pages 9458-9463, J. Groebel
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Media and History: Cultural Concerns, Pages 9463-9468, M. Ferro
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Media and Social Movements, Pages 9468-9472, W.A. Gamson
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Media Effects, Pages 9472-9479, E. Katz
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Media Effects on Children, Pages 9479-9483, S.L. Calvert
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Media Ethics, Pages 9483-9487, A. Drozdek
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Media Events, Pages 9487-9489, E.W. Rothenbuhler
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Media Imperialism, Pages 9489-9494, A. Sreberny
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Media Literacy, Pages 9494-9497, A. Dorr
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Media, Uses of, Pages 9497-9503, J. Robinson, D. Davis
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Mediating Variable, Pages 9503-9507, D.P. MacKinnon
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Mediation, Arbitration, and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Pages 9507-
9512, C. Menkel-Meadow
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Medical Experiments: Ethical Aspects, Pages 9512-9515, R.E. Ashcroft
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Medical Expertise, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 9515-9518, V.L. Patel, D.R.
Kaufman
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Medical Geography, Pages 9518-9523, J.D. Mayer
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Medical Profession, The, Pages 9523-9530, D. Coburn
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Medical Sociology, Pages 9530-9534, D. Mechanic
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Medicalization: Cultural Concerns, Pages 9534-9539, M. Lock
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Medicine, History of, Pages 9539-9545, A. Labisch
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Meiji Revolution, The, Pages 9545-9549, M. Miyachi
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Melanesia: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 9549-9554, R.J. Foster
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Memes and Cultural Viruses, Pages 9554-9556, R. Pocklington
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Memory and Aging, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 9556-9560, R. Kliegl
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Memory and Aging, Neural Basis of, Pages 9560-9563, D.S. Woodruff-Pak, S.K.
Lemieux
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Memory Development in Children, Pages 9572-9576, W. Schneider
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Memory for Meaning and Surface Memory, Pages 9576-9579, C.R. Fletcher
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Memory for Text, Pages 9579-9582, H. Van Oostendorp
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Memory in the Bee, Pages 9586-9590, R. Menzel
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Memory in the Fly, Genetics of, Pages 9590-9593, R.L. Davis
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Memory Models: Quantitative, Pages 9597-9602, B. Murdock
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Memory Problems and Rehabilitation, Pages 9606-9610, A.M. Sherman, M. O'Connor
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Memory Psychophysics, Pages 9610-9613, D. Algom
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Memory Retrieval, Pages 9613-9618, R.S. Lockhart
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Memory, Consolidation of, Pages 9567-9570, P.E. Gold, J.L. McGaugh
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Memory: Autobiographical, Pages 9563-9567, M.A. Conway
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Memory: Collaborative, Pages 9570-9572, R.A. Dixon
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Memory: Genetic Approaches, Pages 9583-9586, A.J. Silva
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Memory: Levels of Processing, Pages 9593-9597, F.I.M. Craik
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Memory: Organization and Recall, Pages 9602-9606, L.-G. Nilsson
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Memory: Synaptic Mechanisms, Pages 9618-9625, E. Kandel
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Men's Health, Pages 9625-9628, E. Brähler, H. Maier
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Mental and Behavioral Disorders, Diagnosis and Classification of, Pages 9628-
9639, H.-U. Wittchen
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Mental Health and Normality, Pages 9639-9645, D. Offer, M. Sabshin, D. Albert
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Mental Health Programs: Children and Adolescents, Pages 9648-9654, W.G. Scarlett
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Mental Health: Community Interventions, Pages 9645-9648, E.J. Trickett
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Mental Illness, Epidemiology of, Pages 9654-9661, H.-U. Wittchen
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Mental Illness, Etiology of, Pages 9661-9665, P. Tyrer
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Mental Illness, Genetics of, Pages 9669-9675, W. Maier
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Mental Illness: Family and Patient Organizations, Pages 9665-9669, J.H. Henderson,
R. Ramsay
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Mental Imagery, Psychology of, Pages 9675-9681, M. Denis
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Mental Maps, Psychology of, Pages 9681-9683, H.L. Pick Jr.
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Mental Models, Psychology of, Pages 9683-9687, D. Gentner
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Mental Representation of Persons, Psychology of, Pages 9687-9691, E.R. Smith
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Mental Representations, Psychology of, Pages 9691-9695, C.R. Gallistel
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Mental Retardation: Clinical Aspects, Pages 9695-9700, M.E. Snell, R. Luckasson
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Mental Retardation: Cognitive Aspects, Pages 9700-9704, C.B. Mervis
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Mentally Ill: Public Attitudes, Pages 9704-9709, D. Bhugra, W. Cutter
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Mentoring: Supervision of Young Researchers, Pages 9709-9713, R. Hollander
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Meta-analysis in Practice, Pages 9713-9717, J.B. Greenhouse
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Meta-analysis: Overview, Pages 9717-9724, R.L. Tweedie
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Meta-analysis: Tools, Pages 9724-9730, L.V. Hedges, J.L. Vevea
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Metacognitive Development: Educational Implications, Pages 9730-9733, W.
Schneider
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Metamemory, Psychology of, Pages 9733-9738, T.O. Nelson
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Metaphor and its Role in Social Thought: History of the Concept, Pages 9738-
9743, D. Lambourn
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Method of Moments, Pages 9743-9751, L.P. Hansen
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Methodological Individualism in Sociology, Pages 9751-9755, E. Picavet
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Methodological Individualism:Philosophical Aspects, Pages 9755-9760, G. Currie
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Metropolitan Growth and Change: International Perspectives, Pages 9760-9765,
L.S. Bourne
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Mexican Revolution, The, Pages 9765-9770, A. Knight
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Microdatabases: Economic, Pages 9770-9777, F.T. Juster
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Microevolution, Pages 9777-9780, F.M. Salzano
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Microsimulation in Demographic Research, Pages 9780-9785, G. Santow
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Middle Ages, The, Pages 9785-9792, G. Klaniczay
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Middle East and North Africa: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 9792-9796, S. Shami
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Midlife Psychological Development, Pages 9796-9799, M.E. Lachman
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Migration and Health, Pages 9799-9803, K.S. Markides
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Migration History, Pages 9809-9815, K.J. Bade
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Migration into the Americas and between American Countries, Pages 9815-9821,
A. Pellegrino
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Migration out of Europe, Pages 9821-9824, T.J. Hatton
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Migration to the United States: Gender Aspects, Pages 9834-9839, S. Pedraza
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Migration, Economics of, Pages 9803-9809, G.J. Borjas
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Migration, Theory of, Pages 9828-9834, D.S. Massey
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Migration: Sociological Aspects, Pages 9824-9828, S. Castles
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Migrations, Colonizations, and Diasporas in Archaeology, Pages 9839-9850, M. Otte
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Military and Disaster Psychiatry, Pages 9850-9857, D.M. Benedek, R.J. Ursano
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Military and Politics, Pages 9857-9859, D. Chisholm
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Military Geography, Pages 9859-9863, J.B. Garver
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Military History, Pages 9863-9868, H.F.A. Strachan
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Military Psychology: United States, Pages 9868-9873, G.P. Krueger
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Military Sociology, Pages 9873-9876, C. Moskos
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Mill, John Stuart (1806–73), Pages 9876-9881, I. Hampsher-Monk
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Millennialism, Pages 9881-9885, B.R. Wilson
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Mind–Body Dualism, Pages 9885-9889, R. Harré
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Minimum Winning Coalition, in Politics, Pages 9889-9891, B. Bueno de Mesquita
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Pages 9891-9894, J.N. Butcher
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Minorities, Pages 9894-9898, Z. Layton-Henry
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Minority Access to Health Services: United States, Pages 9898-9901, L.R. Snowden
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Mission: Proselytization and Conversion, Pages 9903-9906, B. Stanley
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Mitochondria and Evolution, Pages 9906-9910, R.L. Cann
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Mixture Models in Statistics, Pages 9910-9915, U.E. Makov
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Mnemonics, Psychology of, Pages 9915-9918, K.L. Higbee
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Mobility: Social, Pages 9918-9924, W. Müller
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Mode of Production, Pages 9924-9927, D.L. Donham
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Model Testing and Selection, Theory of, Pages 9927-9931, K.C. Klauer
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Models: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 9931-9937, U. Mäki
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Moderator Variable: Methodology, Pages 9937-9939, C.M. Judd
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Modernity, Pages 9939-9944, B. Valade
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Modernity: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 9944-9949, A. Ong
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Modernity: History of the Concept, Pages 9949-9954, P. Wagner
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Modernization and Modernity in History, Pages 9954-9961, P. Nolte
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Modernization, Political: Alternate Paths, Pages 9961-9963, M.G. Schmidt
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Modernization, Political: Development of the Concept, Pages 9963-9965, L.S.
Graham
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Modernization, Sociological Theories of, Pages 9965-9971, R. Inglehart
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Modularity versus Interactive Processing, Psychology of, Pages 9971-9973, R.E.
Alterman
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Monasticism: West and East, Pages 9973-9976, W.J.F. Keenan
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Monetary Policy, Pages 9976-9984, B.M. Friedman
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Money and Finances, Psychology of, Pages 9984-9988, E. Jonas, S. Walper, D. Frey
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Money, Sociology of, Pages 9991-9995, V.A. Zelizer
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Money: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 9988-9991, J. Weatherford
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Montague Grammar, Pages 9995-9999, B.H. Partee
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Monte Carlo Methods and Bayesian Computation: Importance Sampling, Pages
10000-10004, R. Liesenfeld, J.-F. Richard
Abstract PDF (99 K)

Monte Carlo Methods and Bayesian Computation: Overview, Pages 10004-10009,
S. Chib
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Montesquieu, Charles, the Second Baron of (1689–1755), Pages 10009-10014, H.-
J. Lüsebrink
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Mood-dependent Memory, Pages 10014-10017, E. Eich
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Moral Development: Cross-cultural Perspectives, Pages 10017-10021, K. Setiono
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Moral Economy and Economy of Affection, Pages 10021-10024, G. Hyden
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Moral Education, Pages 10024-10029, F.K. Oser
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Moral Panics, Pages 10029-10033, J.M. Jasper
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Moral Reasoning in Psychology, Pages 10033-10035, E. Turiel
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Moral Sentiments in Society, Pages 10035-10039, E. Betton
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Morality (East and West): Cultural Concerns, Pages 10039-10043, K.-K. Hwang
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Morphological Case in Linguistics, Pages 10043-10047, J. Blake
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Morphology in Linguistics, Pages 10047-10053, A. Spencer
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Morphophonology, Pages 10053-10058, S.J. Hannahs
Abstract PDF (174 K)

Mortality and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic, Pages 10058-10061, A. Palloni
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Mortality Crossover, Pages 10065-10068, I.T. Elo
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Mortality Differentials: Selection and Causation, Pages 10068-10070, N. Goldman
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Mortality of the Oldest Old, Pages 10075-10079, J.W. Vaupel
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Mortality, Biodemography of, Pages 10061-10065, E.M. Crimmins
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Mortality, Epidemiological, and Health Transitions, Pages 10071-10075, G. Santow
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Mortality: The Great Historical Decline, Pages 10079-10085, T. Bengtsson
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Motherhood: Economic Aspects, Pages 10085-10088, H. Joshi
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Motherhood: Social and Cultural Aspects, Pages 10089-10093, M. McMahon
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Motion Perception Models, Pages 10093-10099, G. Sperling
Abstract PDF (396 K)

Motion Perception: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 10099-10105, D.C.
Bradley

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Abstract PDF (115 K)
Motivation and Actions, Psychology of, Pages 10105-10109, P.M. Gollwitzer, G.
Oettingen
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Motivation, Learning, and Instruction, Pages 10112-10117, M. Boekaerts
Abstract PDF (160 K)

Motivation, Neural Basis of, Pages 10117-10120, A.G. Watts
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Motivation: History of the Concept, Pages 10109-10112, P.M. Gollwitzer, G. Oettingen
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Motivational Development, Systems Theory of, Pages 10120-10125, M.E. Schneider
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Motor Control, Pages 10125-10131, J.C. Fentress
Abstract PDF (164 K)

Motor Control Models: Learning and Performance, Pages 10131-10137, P.G.
Morasso
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Motor Cortex, Pages 10137-10140, S.P. Wise
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Motor Skills, Psychology of, Pages 10140-10143, H. Heuer
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Movement Theory and Constraints in Syntax, Pages 10143-10148, C.-T.J. Huang
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MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in Psychiatry, Pages 10148-10155, R. Schlösser
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Muller, Hermann Joseph (1890–1967), Pages 10155-10157, E.A. Carlson
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Multi-attribute Decision Making in Urban Studies, Pages 10157-10160, L.D. Hopkins
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Multicultural Education, Pages 10160-10163, J.A. Banks
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Multicultural Feminism: Cultural Concerns, Pages 10163-10169, M.C. Lâm
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Multiculturalism, Pages 10169-10175, D. Ivison
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Multiculturalism and Identity Politics: Cultural Concerns, Pages 10175-10179, A.
Gutmann
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Multiculturalism, Anthropology of, Pages 10179-10184, D.A. Segal
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Multiculturalism: Sociological Aspects, Pages 10184-10189, F.-O. Radtke
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Multidimensional Scaling in Psychology, Pages 10189-10193, J.D. Carroll
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Multimodal Therapy in Clinical Psychology, Pages 10193-10197, A.A. Lazarus
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Multinational Corporations, Pages 10197-10204, B. Kogut
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Multiple Imputation, Pages 10204-10210, J. Barnard, N. Schenker, D.B. Rubin
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Multistate Transition Models in Demography, Pages 10210-10214, D. Courgeau
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Multivariate Analysis: Classification and Discrimination, Pages 10214-10218, G.
McLachlan
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Multivariate Analysis: Discrete Variables (Correspondence Models), Pages 10218-
10221, Z. Gilula, S.J. Haberman, P.G.M. van der Heijden
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Multivariate Analysis: Discrete Variables (Logistic Regression), Pages 10221-
10228, G.M. Fitzmaurice, N.M. Laird
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Multivariate Analysis: Discrete Variables (Loglinear Models), Pages 10228-10233,
S.J. Haberman
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Multivariate Analysis: Discrete Variables (Overview), Pages 10233-10240, A. Agresti
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Multivariate Analysis: Overview, Pages 10240-10247, I. Olkin, A.R. Sampson
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Mumford, Lewis (1895–1990), Pages 10247-10251, R. Wojtowicz
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Music as Expressive Form, Pages 10255-10259, T. DeNora
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Music Perception, Pages 10263-10267, W.J. Dowling
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Music, History of, Pages 10259-10263, A. Riethmüller
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Music: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 10251-10255, V. Erlmann
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Myrdal, Gunnar (1898–1987), Pages 10267-10270, R. Swedberg
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Mysticism, Pages 10270-10273, D. Merkur
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Myth in Religion, Pages 10273-10278, R.A. Segal
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Myths and Symbols: Organizational, Pages 10278-10281, P. Gagliardi
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About this Reference Work
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ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Narrative Comprehension, Psychology of, Pages 10281-10284, P.W. van den Broek
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Narrative, Sociology of, Pages 10284-10289, K. Aronsson
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Narratives and Accounts, in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Pages 10289-
10292, J.H. Harvey
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Nation-states, Nationalism, and Gender, Pages 10376-10380, A.M. Alonso
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Nation: Sociological Aspects, Pages 10292-10296, A.-P. Frognier
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National Character, Pages 10296-10299, F. Neiburg
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National Health Care and Insurance Systems, Pages 10299-10303, J. White
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National Innovation Systems, Pages 10303-10309, R.D. Whitley
Abstract PDF (78 K)

National Liberation Movements, Pages 10309-10314, S. Amin
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National Security Studies and War Potential of Nations, Pages 10314-10318, S.
Weber
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National Socialism and Fascism, Pages 10318-10323, H. Mommsen
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National Traditions in the Social Sciences, Pages 10323-10328, C. Crothers
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Nationalism and Expressive Forms, Pages 10328-10332, K.A. Cerulo
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Nationalism, Historical Aspects of: Africa, Pages 10340-10344, C. Coquery-Vidrovitch
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Nationalism, Historical Aspects of: Arab World, Pages 10344-10348, G. Krämer
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Nationalism, Historical Aspects of: East Asia, Pages 10348-10351, Y. Murata
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Nationalism, Historical Aspects of: South Asia, Pages 10351-10355, T. Raychaudhuri
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Nationalism, Historical Aspects of: The West, Pages 10355-10363, M. Hroch
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Nationalism, Sociology of, Pages 10363-10369, V. Vujacic
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Nationalism: Contemporary Issues, Pages 10332-10336, R. Merritt
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Nationalism: General, Pages 10336-10340, P. Chatterjee
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Nations and Nation-states in History, Pages 10369-10376, J. Breuilly
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Natural Concepts, Psychology of, Pages 10380-10384, B.H. Ross
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Natural Environmental Psychology, Pages 10384-10388, R. Gifford
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Natural Law, Pages 10388-10392, R.D. Schwarz
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Natural Selection, Pages 10392-10398, B. König
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Nature, Concepts of: Environmental and Ecological, Pages 10398-10404, J.D.
Proctor
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Nature–Society in Geography, Pages 10404-10410, B.L. Turner II
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Navigation, Pages 10410-10413, B. Finney
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Navigation in Spatial Environments, Neural Basis of, Pages 10413-10417, P.E. Sharp
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Navigation in Virtual Space: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 10417-
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10422, N. Burgess, J.A. King
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Nazi Law, Pages 10422-10426, H. Rottleuthner
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Near Middle East/North African Studies: Culture, Pages 10426-10431, M. Cooke
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Near Middle East/North African Studies: Economics, Pages 10431-10435, R. Assaad
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Near Middle East/North African Studies: Gender, Pages 10435-10439, N. Göle
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Near Middle East/North African Studies: Geography, Pages 10439-10442, P. Lindner
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Near Middle East/North African Studies: Politics, Pages 10442-10447, S. Heydemann
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Near Middle East/North African Studies: Religion, Pages 10447-10451, D.F.
Eickelman
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Near Middle East/North African Studies: Society and History, Pages 10451-10458,
M. Bamyeh
Abstract PDF (93 K)

Needham, Joseph (1900–95), Pages 10458-10462, H.U. Vogel
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Negation, Linguistics of, Pages 10462-10467, J. van der Auwera
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Neglect, Neural Basis of, Pages 10467-10473, M. Behrmann
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Negotiation and Bargaining: Organizational Aspects, Pages 10473-10477, V.K.
Aggarwal, C. Dupont
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Negotiation and Bargaining: Role of Lawyers, Pages 10477-10481, C. Guthrie
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Negotiations: Statistical Aspects, Pages 10481-10488, J. Sebenius
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Neighborhood Revitalization and Community Development, Pages 10494-10499,
W.D. Keating
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Neighborhood: General, Pages 10488-10494, N. Carmon
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Network Analysis, Pages 10499-10502, A.M. Chiesi
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Network Models of Tasks, Pages 10502-10505, R. Schweickert
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Networks and Linkages: Cultural Aspects, Pages 10505-10509, B.H. Erickson
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Networks: Social, Pages 10509-10514, F.N. Stokman
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Neumann, John von (1903–57), Pages 10514-10518, A. Rapoport
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Neural Circuits: Models of Emergent Functions, Pages 10518-10522, M. Tsodyks
Abstract PDF (118 K)

Neural Development: Mechanisms and Models, Pages 10522-10526, G.J. Goodhill
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Neural Networks and Related Statistical Latent Variable Models, Pages 10526-
10534, M.A. Tanner, R.A. Jacobs
Abstract PDF (156 K)

Neural Networks, Statistical Physics of, Pages 10537-10542, E. Aarts, H. ten Eikelder,
J. Korst
Abstract PDF (127 K)

Neural Networks: Biological Models and Applications, Pages 10534-10537, F.H.
Guenther
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Neural Plasticity, Pages 10542-10546, J.H. Kaas
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Neural Plasticity in Auditory Cortex, Pages 10546-10549, N.M. Weinberger
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Neural Plasticity in Visual Cortex, Pages 10549-10553, K.E. Schmidt
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Neural Plasticity of Spinal Reflexes, Pages 10553-10556, M.M. Patterson
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Neural Representations of Direction (Head Direction Cells), Pages 10556-10559,
J.S. Taube
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Neural Representations of Intended Movement in Motor Cortex, Pages 10559-
10563, J. Donoghue
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Neural Representations of Objects, Pages 10563-10567, M.J. Tarr, Q.C. Vuong
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Neural Systems and Behavior: Dynamical Systems Approaches, Pages 10571-
10575, G. Schöner
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Neural Systems: Models of Behavioral Functions, Pages 10575-10578, M.E.
Hasselmo
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Neuroanatomical Methods, Pages 10578-10584, K.S. Rockland, T. Hashikawa
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Neuroendocrinology, Pages 10584-10588, J.V. Martin
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Neurogenetics and Behavior, Pages 10589-10595, E. Balaban
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Neuromuscular System, Pages 10595-10600, C.-P. Ko
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Neuronal Synchrony as a Binding Mechanism, Pages 10567-10570, W. Singer
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Neurons and Dendrites: Integration of Information, Pages 10600-10605, B.W. Mel
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Neuropsychological Functioning, Assessment of, Pages 10605-10609, J. Uekermann,
I. Daum
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Neuroticism, Pages 10609-10612, D. Watson
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Neurotransmitters, Pages 10612-10619, J.R. Cooper
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Neutrality: Axiological, Pages 10619-10621, R. Fillieule
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New Religious Movements, Pages 10631-10634, E. Barker
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Newcomb's Problem, Pages 10634-10638, J. Collins
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News Interview, Pages 10642-10645, S.E. Clayman
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News: General, Pages 10638-10642, S. Høyer
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Neyman, Jerzy (1894–1981), Pages 10645-10648, S.L. Zabell
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Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900), Pages 10648-10650, V. Gerhardt
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Nomads/Nomadism in History, Pages 10650-10655, F. Scholz
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Nonequivalent Group Designs, Pages 10655-10660, C.S. Reichardt, M.M. Mark
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Nonparametric Statistics: Advanced Computational Methods, Pages 10660-10667,
M. Hollander, J. Sethuraman
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Nonparametric Statistics: Asymptotics, Pages 10667-10673, K. Takeuchi
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Nonparametric Statistics: Rank-based Methods, Pages 10673-10680, M. Hollander, J.
Sethuraman
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Nonparametric Statistics: Records, Pages 10681-10685, B.C. Arnold
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Nonpartisanship: Political, Pages 10685-10688, B. Ginsberg
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Nonprofit Sector, Geography of, Pages 10688-10691, W. Bielefeld
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Nonsampling Errors, Pages 10691-10696, E.A. Stasny
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Nonstandard Reasoning, Pages 10696-10699, J. van Benthem
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Nontraditional Families and Child Development, Pages 10699-10702, C.J. Patterson
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Nonverbal Communication, Social Psychology of, Pages 10702-10706, J.A. Hall
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Nonviolence: Protective Factors, Pages 10706-10711, F. Lösel
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Normative Aspects of Social and Behavioral Science, Pages 10711-10714, C. Thiel
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Norms, Pages 10714-10720, K.-D. Opp
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Norms in Science, Pages 10720-10723, P. Weingart
Abstract PDF (60 K)

North America and Native Americans: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 10723-10728,
R. Thornton
Abstract PDF (75 K)

North America, Archaeology of, Pages 10728-10732, K.G. Lightfoot
Abstract PDF (377 K)

North America: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 10732-10737, R. Sanjek
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Nosology in Psychiatry, Pages 10737-10744, R.E. Kendell
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Nostalgia, Anthropology of, Pages 10744-10747, M.R. Creighton
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Nostalgic Social Thought, Pages 10747-10749, A. Prete
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Notestein, Frank Wallace (1902–83), Pages 10749-10753, J.C. Caldwell
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Number Systems, Evolution of, Pages 10753-10756, P. Damerow
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Numeral Systems, Pages 10756-10761, J.R. Hurford
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Nursing Homes, Pages 10761-10764, S. Zank
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Obedience: Social Psychological Perspectives, Pages 10765-10768, T. Blass
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Obesity and Eating Disorders: Psychiatric, Pages 10768-10771, A.W. Logue
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Obesity, Behavioral Treatment of, Pages 10771-10775, T.A. Wadden
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Obesity, Determinants of: Genetic Aspects, Pages 10775-10781, G.A. Bray, C.
Bouchard
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Object Recognition: Theories, Pages 10781-10785, M.C. Mozer
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Objectivity of Research: Ethical Aspects, Pages 10789-10793, D.B. Resnik
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Objectivity, History of, Pages 10785-10789, S. Gaukroger
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Objectivity: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 10793-10797, B. Leiter
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Objects: Material, Pages 10797-10801, T. Habermas
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Observational Methods in Human Development Research, Pages 10801-10804, W.
Deutsch
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Observational Studies: Outcome-based Sampling, Pages 10804-10808, D. McFadden
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Observational Studies: Overview, Pages 10808-10815, P.R. Rosenbaum
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Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Pages 10815-10822, A. Broocks, F. Hohagen
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Occidentalism, Pages 10822-10826, F. Coronil
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Occipital Lobe (Visual Cortex): Functional Aspects, Pages 10826-10828, O. Braddick
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Occupational Health, Pages 10828-10835, T. Theorell
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Occupational Health and Safety, Regulation of, Pages 10835-10839, R. Johnstone,
W.G. Carson
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Offenses against the Laws of Humanity: International Action, Pages 10839-10843,
G.J. Andreopoulos
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Old Age and Centenarians, Pages 10843-10847, J. Smith
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Olfactory System, Pages 10847-10853, H. Scherer, A. Quast
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Oligarchy (Iron Law), Pages 10853-10855, C.K. Ansell
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Olson, Mancur (1932–98), Pages 10855-10859, M.C. McGuire
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Onomastics, Pages 10859-10863, W.F.H. Nicolaisen
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Open Classroom: Learning and Teaching, Pages 10863-10867, E.F. Thibadeau
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Operant Conditioning and Clinical Psychology, Pages 10867-10873, W.C. Follette
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Operations Research, Pages 10873-10876, M. Nacht
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Opinion Formation, Pages 10876-10879, S.W. Rosenberg
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Optimal Control Theory, Pages 10879-10882, N. Van Long
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Optimization in Evolution, Limitations of, Pages 10882-10887, H.G. Spencer
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Oral and Literate Culture, Pages 10887-10891, R. Finnegan
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Oral History, Pages 10891-10897, R.M. Levine, J.C. Sebe Bom Meihy
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Order Statistics, Pages 10897-10901, H.A. David
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Ordered Relational Structures, Pages 10901-10906, R. Suck
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Organization: Informal, Pages 10907-10910, T.J. Watson
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Organization: Overview, Pages 10910-10917, W.R. Scott
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Organizational Behavior, Psychology of, Pages 10917-10921, B. Wilpert
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Organizational Change, Pages 10921-10923, P. Dawson
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Organizational Climate, Pages 10923-10926, M.A. West
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Organizational Control, Pages 10926-10930, P. Thompson
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Organizational Culture, Pages 10930-10934, S.A. Linstead
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Organizational Culture, Anthropology of, Pages 10934-10938, W. Koot
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Organizational Decision Making, Pages 10938-10942, A. Grandori
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Organizational Errors: Catastrophic, Pages 10942-10946, K.H. Roberts
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Organizational Size, Pages 10946-10948, K. Azumi
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Organizations and the Law, Pages 10948-10954, M.C. Suchman
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Organizations, Metaphors and Paradigms in, Pages 10960-10965, D. Grant
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Organizations, Sociology of, Pages 10968-10973, E. Friedberg
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Organizations: Authority and Power, Pages 10954-10960, C. Hardy
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Organizations: Negotiated Orders, Pages 10965-10968, T.J. Watson
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Organizations: Unintended Consequences, Pages 10973-10976, H. Flap
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Orientalism, Pages 10976-10978, R.G. Fox
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Orienting Response, Pages 10978-10981, E.N. Sokolov
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Orthodoxy, Pages 10981-10985, S. Hackel
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Pacific Islands, Archaeology of, Pages 10987-10990, P.V. Kirch
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Pain, Health Psychology of, Pages 10990-10995, H. Flor
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Pain, Management of, Pages 10996-11000, D.C. Yeamans, C.E. Laurito, G.D. Pappas
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Pain, Neural Basis of, Pages 11000-11005, R.-D. Treede
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Paleodemography: Demographic Aspects, Pages 11005-11009, R.D. Hoppa
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Panel Surveys: Uses and Applications, Pages 11009-11015, G.J. Duncan
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Panic Disorder, Pages 11015-11020, M.M. Antony
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Panic, Sociology of, Pages 11020-11023, E.L. Quarantelli
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Para-lawyers: Other Legal Occupations, Pages 11027-11031, H.M. Kritzer
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Paradigms in the Social Sciences, Pages 11023-11027, M. Dogan
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Parapsychology, Pages 11031-11035, R. Hyman
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Parenthood and Adult Psychological Developments, Pages 11035-11038, P.A.
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Parenting in Ethnic Minority Families: United States, Pages 11042-11045, M.N.
Wilson, M. D'Amico
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Parenting: Attitudes and Beliefs, Pages 11038-11041, J.E. Grusec
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Parents and Teachers as Partners in Education, Pages 11045-11048, M.A. Payne
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Pareto, Vilfredo (1848–1923), Pages 11048-11051, G. Eisermann
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Parietal Lobe, Pages 11051-11054, M.E. Goldberg
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Parliamentary Government, Pages 11054-11058, K. von Beyme
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Parliaments, History of, Pages 11058-11063, E.C. de Rezende Martins
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Parsons, Talcott (1902–79), Pages 11063-11068, D. Sciulli
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Partial Orders, Pages 11068-11073, R. Suck
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Participant Observation, Pages 11073-11078, G.A. Fine
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Participation: Political, Pages 11078-11082, C.J. Uhlaner
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Parties/Movements: Extreme Right, Pages 11087-11090, C.T. Husbands
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Parties: Litigants and Claimants, Pages 11082-11086, K.A. Kinsey
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Partner Selection across Culture, Psychology of, Pages 11090-11092, S. Kapadia
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Partnership Formation and Dissolution in Western Societies, Pages 11092-11099,
K. Kiernan
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Party Identification, Pages 11099-11103, D. Sanders
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Party Responsibility, Pages 11103-11106, A. Ranney
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Party Systems, Pages 11106-11108, P. Mair
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Pastoralism in Anthropology, Pages 11108-11111, G. Dahl
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Patient Adherence to Health Care Regimens, Pages 11111-11115, M.R. DiMatteo
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Patriotism, Pages 11116-11118, G. Schochet
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Patron–Client Relationships, Anthropology of, Pages 11118-11120, L. Roniger
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Pattern Matching: Methodology, Pages 11121-11127, W.N. Dunn
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Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich (1849–1936), Pages 11127-11130, D.A. Powell
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Pay and Compensation, Psychology of, Pages 11130-11134, H. Thierry
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Peace, Pages 11134-11139, J. Galtung
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Peace and Nonviolence: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 11140-11144, R.K. Dentan
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Peace Movements, Pages 11144-11147, C. Chatfield
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Peace Movements, History of, Pages 11147-11151, K. Holl
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Peace Promotion, Psychology of, Pages 11151-11155, M. Wessells
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Peacemaking in History, Pages 11155-11159, J. Fisch
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Pearson, Karl (1857–1936), Pages 11159-11163, J. Aldrich
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Peasants and Rural Societies in History (Agricultural History), Pages 11163-11168,
J. Myrdal
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Peasants in Anthropology, Pages 11169-11171, M. Kearney
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Pecuniary Issues in Medical Services: Ethical Aspects, Pages 11171-11176, H. Kühn
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Pedagogical Reform Movement, History of, Pages 11176-11179, J. Oelkers
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Peer Review and Quality Control, Pages 11179-11183, S. Funtowicz
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People in Organizations, Pages 11183-11189, J.A. Chatman, J.A. Goncalo
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Peptides and Psychiatry, Pages 11189-11195, K.J. Ressler, C.B. Nemeroff
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Perception and Action, Pages 11195-11198, B. Hommel
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Perception and Cognition, Single-/Multi-neuronal Recording Studies of, Pages
11198-11202, R.E. Hampson, S.A. Deadwyler
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Perception of Extrapersonal Space: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages
11205-11209, C.L. Colby
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Perception without Awareness, Psychology of, Pages 11215-11218, R. Reber, W.
Perrig
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Perception: History of the Concept, Pages 11202-11205, G. Hatfield
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Perception: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11209-11215, I. Gold
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Perceptrons, Pages 11218-11221, L.N. Kanal
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Perceptual Constancy: Direct versus Constructivist Theories, Pages 11221-11224,
J. Norman
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Perceptual Learning, Pages 11224-11227, M. Fahle
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Perceptual Organization, Pages 11227-11231, W.H. Ehrenstein
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Performance Evaluation in Work Settings, Pages 11236-11240, W.C. Borman
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Performance: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 11231-11236, F. Hughes-Freeland
Abstract PDF (266 K)

Person and Self: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11240-11243, A. Ferrara
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Person Perception, Accuracy of, Pages 11243-11246, D.C. Funder
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Person-centered Psychotherapy, Pages 11330-11333, N.J. Raskin
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Person-centered Research, Pages 11333-11339, L.R. Bergman, D. Magnusson
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Personal Identity: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11247-11250, G. Nunner-Winkler
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Personal Privacy: Cultural Concerns, Pages 11250-11254, J.M. Smith
Abstract PDF (68 K)

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Personality and Adaptive Behaviors, Pages 11254-11256, G.V. Caprara
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Personality and Conceptions of the Self, Pages 11256-11260, M.R. Leary
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Personality and Crime, Pages 11260-11264, D.P. Farrington, D. Jolliffe
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Personality and Health, Pages 11264-11270, H.S. Friedman
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Personality and Marriage, Pages 11270-11274, B.R. Karney
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Personality and Risk Taking, Pages 11274-11276, E.U. Weber
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Personality and Social Behavior, Pages 11276-11281, R.F. Baumeister, J.M. Twenge
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Personality Assessment, Pages 11281-11287, D. Cervone, G.V. Caprara
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Personality Development and Temperament, Pages 11287-11290, J.S. Kagan
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Personality Development in Adulthood, Pages 11290-11295, L.L. Carstensen
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Personality Development in Childhood, Pages 11295-11300, W. Graziano
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Personality Disorders, Pages 11301-11308, H. Saß
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Personality Psychology, Pages 11308-11313, D.P. McAdams
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Personality Psychology: Methods, Pages 11313-11317, J.A. Johnson
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Personality Structure, Pages 11317-11320, J.S. Wiggins
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Personality Theories, Pages 11320-11326, W. Mischel, R. Mendoza-Denton
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Personality Theory and Psychopathology, Pages 11326-11330, S. Wonderlich
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Personhood, Anthropology of, Pages 11339-11343, N.J. Rapport
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Personnel Selection, Psychology of, Pages 11343-11348, H. Schuler
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Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich (1746–1827), Pages 11349-11353, P. Korte
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Phantom Limbs, Pages 11353-11357, J. Katz
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Phenomenology in Human Science, Pages 11357-11361, C.F. Graumann
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Phenomenology in Sociology, Pages 11361-11363, J. Williams
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Phenomenology: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11363-11369, K. Mulligan
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Philanthropy, Economics of, Pages 11369-11376, J. Andreoni
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Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, Pages 11376-11381, H.M. Emrich, W.
Paetzold
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Phonetics: Articulatory, Pages 11381-11386, P.A. Keating
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Phonology, Pages 11386-11392, S.R. Anderson
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Phonology, Nonlinear, Pages 11392-11395, J.J. McCarthy
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Photography as a Medium, Pages 11395-11402, K. Becker
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Photojournalism, Pages 11402-11405, H. Hardt
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Phylogeny and Systematics, Pages 11405-11411, P.H. Harvey
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Physical Activity and Health, Pages 11411-11415, R. Fuchs
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Physical Activity and Health Promotion, Pages 11415-11418, W. Schlicht
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Physical Sciences: History and Sociology, Pages 11418-11422, J. Krige
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Physicalism and Alternatives, Pages 11422-11427, B.P. McLaughlin
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Piaget, Jean (1896–1980), Pages 11427-11433, J. Montangero
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Piaget's Theory of Child Development, Pages 11434-11437, A. de Ribaupierre
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Piaget's Theory of Human Development and Education, Pages 11437-11440, J.J.
Vonèche
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Pidgin and Creole Languages, Pages 11440-11445, S. Mufwene
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Pilgrimage, Pages 11445-11448, S. Coleman
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Place in Geography, Pages 11448-11451, E. Relph
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Place, Power of, Pages 11451-11455, D. Hayden
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Placebo Studies (Double-blind Studies), Pages 11455-11460, E. Shapiro
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Placebos, Use of: Ethical Aspects, Pages 11460-11463, J.E. Sieber
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Plagues and Diseases in History, Pages 11463-11466, J.L. Peset
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Planetary Cartography, Pages 11466-11469, P. Stooke
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Planning Ethics, Pages 11474-11479, S. Hendler
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Planning Issues and Sustainable Development, Pages 11479-11482, P. Newman
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Planning Theory (North American), Pages 11491-11497, S.J. Mandelbaum
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Planning Theory: Interaction with Institutional Contexts, Pages 11485-11491, P.
Healey
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Planning, Administrative Organization of, Pages 11469-11474, R.E. Tustian
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Planning, Politics of, Pages 11483-11485, E.M. Patashnik
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Plasticity in Human Behavior across the Lifespan, Pages 11497-11501, J.
Heckhausen, T. Singer
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Play and Development in Children, Pages 11501-11503, A.D. Pellegrini, P.K. Smith
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Play, Anthropology of, Pages 11503-11507, D. Handelman
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Plea Bargaining, Pages 11507-11513, M. Heumann
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Plural Societies, Pages 11513-11516, J. Nagata
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Pluralism, Pages 11516-11520, R.J. Ellis
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Pluralism and Toleration, Pages 11520-11526, O. Hoffe
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Polanyi, Karl (1886–1964), Pages 11526-11529, G. Lengyel
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Police and Politics, Pages 11529-11532, M. Anderson
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Police, Sociology of, Pages 11532-11535, H.-J. Albrecht, D. Nogala
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Policing, Pages 11535-11541, J.H. Skolnick
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Policy History: Origins, Pages 11541-11547, I. Katznelson
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Policy History: Regimes, Pages 11547-11553, D. Waldner
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Policy History: State and Economy, Pages 11554-11559, F. Block
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Policy Information, Pages 11560-11563, M. Straf
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Policy Knowledge: Advocacy Organizations, Pages 11563-11568, P.A. Sabatier, M.A.
Zafonte
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Policy Knowledge: Census, Pages 11568-11573, K. Prewitt
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Policy Knowledge: Contract Research, Pages 11574-11578, H. Wollmann
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Policy Knowledge: Epistemic Communities, Pages 11578-11586, P.M. Haas
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Policy Knowledge: Foundations, Pages 11586-11591, K. Prewitt
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Policy Knowledge: New Liberalism, Pages 11591-11599, M.O. Furner
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Policy Knowledge: Nonprofit Institutions, Pages 11599-11605, D.T. Critchlow
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Policy Knowledge: Universities, Pages 11605-11608, D. Court
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Policy Networks, Pages 11608-11613, W.D. Coleman
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Policy Process: Business Participation, Pages 11613-11620, D. Vogel
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Politeness and Language, Pages 11620-11624, P. Brown
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Political Advertising, Pages 11624-11628, S. Ansolabehere
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Political Anthropology, Pages 11628-11631, J. Spencer
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Political Communication, Pages 11631-11640, P. Norris
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Political Culture, Pages 11640-11644, M.J. Aronoff
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Political Discourse, Pages 11644-11649, D.E. Apter
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Political Economy in Anthropology, Pages 11653-11656, J.S. Kahn
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Political Economy, History of, Pages 11649-11653, K. Tribe
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Political Elites: Recruitment and Careers, Pages 11656-11661, S. Rothman
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Political Geography, Pages 11661-11667, A.B. Murphy
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Political History (History of Politics), Pages 11667-11673, J.J. Sheehan
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Political Lawyering, Pages 11673-11678, T.C. Halliday, L. Karpik
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Political Machines, Pages 11678-11681, W.G. Mayer
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Political Money and Party Finance, Pages 11681-11684, T.E. Mann
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Political Parties, Pages 11684-11687, A. Ranney
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Political Parties, History of, Pages 11687-11693, E.C. de Rezende Martins
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Political Protest and Civil Disobedience, Pages 11693-11696, D. Chong
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Political Representation, Pages 11696-11698, D.F. Thompson
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Political Science: Overview, Pages 11698-11701, N.W. Polsby
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Political Sociology, Pages 11701-11706, E. Allardt
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Political Thought, History of, Pages 11706-11712, B. Wittrock
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Political Trials, Pages 11712-11717, L. Bilsky
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Politics, Formal Modeling of, Pages 11717-11719, J.S. Banks
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Polling, Pages 11719-11723, R.Y. Shapiro
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Polynesia and Micronesia: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 11723-11727, N. Besnier
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Popper, Karl Raimund (1902–94), Pages 11727-11733, P. Schroeder-Heister
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Popular Culture, Pages 11733-11737, P. Mankekar
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Population Aging: Economic and Social Consequences, Pages 11737-11741, J.
Légaré
Abstract PDF (111 K)

Population and Technological Change in Agriculture, Pages 11742-11744, P. Pingali
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Population Composition by Race and Ethnicity: North America, Pages 11745-
11749, M. Tienda, A. Morning
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Population Cycles and Demographic Behavior, Pages 11749-11755, R. Ohlsson
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Population Cycles, Formal Theory of, Pages 11755-11758, S. Tuljapurkar
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Population Dynamics: Classical Applications of Stable Population Theory, Pages
11758-11762, T.W. Pullum
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Population Dynamics: Mathematic Models of Population, Development, and
Natural Resources, Pages 11762-11766, A. Fürnkranz-Prskawetz
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Population Dynamics: Momentum of Population Growth, Pages 11766-11769, Y.J.
Kim
Abstract PDF (141 K)

Population Dynamics: Probabilistic Extinction, Stability, and Explosion
Theorems, Pages 11769-11771, P. Jagers
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Population Dynamics: Theory of Nonstable Populations, Pages 11771-11773, C.Y.
Cyrus Chu

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Population Dynamics: Theory of Stable Populations, Pages 11773-11777, J.H.
Pollard
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Population Dynamics: Two-sex Demographic Models, Pages 11777-11780, R.A.
Pollak
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Population Ecology, Pages 11780-11784, M.T. Hannan
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Population Forecasts, Pages 11789-11793, J.M. Alho
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Population Policies, Politics of, Pages 11793-11798, J.L. Finkle
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Population Policy: International, Pages 11798-11805, M. Catley-Carson
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Population Pressure, Resources, and the Environment: Industrialized World,
Pages 11805-11809, M.S. Teitelbaum
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Population Size Estimation and Capture–Recapture Methods, Pages 11809-11813,
R. Cormack
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Population, Economic Development, and Poverty, Pages 11784-11789, A.C. Kelley
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Populism, Pages 11813-11816, R.B. Collier
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Pornography, Pages 11816-11821, N.M. Malamuth
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Positivism, History of, Pages 11821-11827, S. Fuller
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Positivism: Sociological, Pages 11827-11831, J.H. Turner
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Possession (Linguistic), Pages 11831-11834, J. Broschart
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Post-Keynesian Thought, Pages 11849-11856, G.C. Harcourt
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Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Pages 11881-11885, M. Newman
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Postal Systems, Pages 11834-11838, R.R. John
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Postcolonial Geography, Pages 11838-11841, J.M. Jacobs
Abstract PDF (62 K)

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Postcolonial Law, Pages 11841-11844, E. Darian-Smith
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Postcoloniality, Pages 11844-11849, J.D. Kelly
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Postmodern Urbanism, Pages 11856-11860, M.J. Dear
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Postmodernism in Geography, Pages 11860-11865, E.W. Soja
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Postmodernism in Sociology, Pages 11865-11868, A. Preda
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Postmodernism: Methodology, Pages 11868-11872, P.V. Rosenau
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Postmodernism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11872-11877, P. Patton
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Postsocialist Societies, Pages 11877-11881, M. Grekova
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Potlatch in Anthropology, Pages 11885-11889, M.E. Harkin
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Poverty and Child Development, Pages 11889-11894, T. Leventhal, J. Brooks-Gunn
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Poverty and Gender in Affluent Nations, Pages 11894-11900, S.S. McLanahan, M.J.
Carlson
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Poverty and Gender in Developing Nations, Pages 11900-11904, I. Tinker
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Poverty in History, Pages 11907-11911, W. Fischer
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Poverty Law, Pages 11911-11917, J.F. Handler
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Poverty Policy, Pages 11924-11928, Z. Ferge
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Poverty, Culture of, Pages 11904-11907, P. Bourgois
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Poverty, Sociology of, Pages 11928-11932, T.M. Smeeding
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Poverty: Measurement and Analysis, Pages 11917-11924, R.H. Haveman
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Power in Society, Pages 11932-11936, S.R. Clegg
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Power: Political, Pages 11936-11939, A.S. McFarland
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Practical Reasoning: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11939-11945, R.J. Wallace
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Practice: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 11945-11948, S. Kemper
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Pragmatics: Linguistic, Pages 11948-11954, S.C. Levinson
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Pragmatism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 11954-11958, P. Godfrey-Smith
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Pragmatist Social Thought, History of, Pages 11958-11961, H. Joas
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Pre-motor Cortex, Pages 11989-11994, G. Rizzolatti, G. Luppino
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Precautionary Principle, Pages 11961-11963, D. Golding
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Prefectorial Government, Pages 11963-11965, B.G. Peters
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Preference Models with Latent Variables, Pages 11965-11969, U. Böckenholt
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Prefrontal Cortex, Pages 11969-11976, J.M. Fuster
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Prefrontal Cortex Development and Development of Cognitive Function, Pages
11976-11982, A. Diamond
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Prehistoric Art, Pages 11982-11986, M.W. Conkey
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Prejudice in Society, Pages 11986-11989, J.-P. Leyens
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Prenatal and Infant Development: Overview, Pages 11994-11997, L.P. Lipsitt, C.
Rovee-Collier
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Presidency: United States, Pages 11998-12000, J. Hart
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Presidential Government, Pages 12000-12006, J.J. Linz
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Presidential Personality, Pages 12006-12008, F.I. Greenstein
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Presidential Popularity, Pages 12008-12010, M.B. Grossman
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Primary Elections, Pages 12011-12014, W.G. Mayer
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Primary School Education, Pages 12014-12017, J. Brophy
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Primate Behavior: Significance for Understanding Humans, Pages 12017-12023,
E.A. Fox, J. Altmann
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Primate Families, Structure of, Pages 12023-12028, P. Gagneux
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Primate Socioecology, Pages 12028-12032, J.B. Silk
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Primates, Evolution of, Pages 12032-12038, R.D. Martin
Abstract PDF (418 K)

Primates, Social Behavior of, Pages 12038-12042, R.W. Sussman
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Priming, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 12042-12046, M.E.J. Masson
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Primitive Society, Pages 12046-12050, A.F. Robertson
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Printing as a Medium, Pages 12050-12055, A. Johns
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Prison Life, Sociology of, Pages 12055-12059, P. Rock
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Prisoners' Dilemma, One-shot and Iterated, Pages 12059-12062, F. Schick
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Prisons and Imprisonment, Pages 12062-12067, M. Tonry
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Privacy of Individuals in Social Research: Confidentiality, Pages 12070-12072, R.F.
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Privacy: Legal Aspects, Pages 12067-12070, R. Garison
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Privatization of the Economy, Pages 12072-12075, A.E. Goldstein
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Probabilistic Grammars and their Applications, Pages 12075-12082, S. Geman, M.
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Probabilistic Thinking, Pages 12082-12089, R.M. Dawes
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Probability and Chance: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 12089-12095, C. Hitchcock
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Probability Density Estimation, Pages 12095-12099, D.W. Scott
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Probability: Formal, Pages 12099-12104, J.M. Steele
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Probability: Interpretations, Pages 12104-12110, T. Seidenfeld
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Problem Selection in the Social Sciences: Methodology, Pages 12110-12117, W.C.
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Problem Solving (Everyday), Psychology of, Pages 12130-12133, S.J. Payne
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Problem Solving (Joint), Psychology of, Pages 12133-12136, N. Miyake
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Problem Solving and Reasoning, Psychology of, Pages 12120-12123, H.A. Simon
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Problem Solving and Reasoning: Case-based, Pages 12117-12120, D.B. Leake
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Problem Solving: Deduction, Induction, and Analogical Reasoning, Pages 12123-
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Procedure: Legal Aspects, Pages 12136-12141, J. Resnik
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Procrustes Analysis, Pages 12141-12143, J.G. Gower
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Production Systems in Cognitive Psychology, Pages 12143-12146, R.M. Young
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Professionalization of Social and Behavioral Scientists: United States, Pages
12146-12154, F.J. Levine
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Professionalization/Professions in History, Pages 12154-12160, H. Siegrist
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Professions in Organizations, Pages 12160-12166, C.R. Hinings
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Professions, Sociology of, Pages 12166-12169, A. Abbott
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Program Evaluation, Pages 12169-12173, C. Spiel
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Progress: History of the Concept, Pages 12173-12177, D. Ross
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Progressive Education Internationally, Pages 12177-12181, V. Lenhart
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Projective Methods in Psychology, Pages 12181-12185, G. Stricker, K. Somary
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Pronouns, Pages 12185-12190, U. Wiesemann
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Property Rights, Pages 12205-12208, D.B. Needham
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Property, Philosophy of, Pages 12199-12205, S. Dodds
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Property: Legal Aspects, Pages 12190-12196, P.S. Menell
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Property: Legal Aspects of Intergenerational Transmission, Pages 12196-12199, R.
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Prophetism, Pages 12208-12212, M. Hamilton
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Prophylaxis in Psychiatry, Pages 12212-12216, J. Levine, S. Gershon
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Proportional Representation, Pages 12216-12219, J.H. Nagel
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Propositional Representations in Psychology, Pages 12219-12224, C.H. Frederiksen
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Prosecution, Pages 12224-12230, K. Levine, M. Feeley
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Prosocial Behavior and Empathy: Developmental Processes, Pages 12230-12233,
M.L. Hoffman
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Prosopagnosia, Pages 12233-12236, A.W. Young
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Prosopography (Collective Biography), Pages 12236-12241, C. Charle
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Prospective Memory, Psychology of, Pages 12241-12244, M.A. McDaniel, G.O. Einstein
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Prostitution, Pages 12244-12247, J. O'Connell Davidson
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Protein Synthesis and Memory, Pages 12247-12252, B.W. Agranoff
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Protestantism and Gender, Pages 12252-12256, B.W. Harrison
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Protocol Analysis in Psychology, Pages 12256-12262, K.A. Ericsson
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Psychiatric Assessment: Negative Symptoms, Pages 12262-12267, H.-J. Möller
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Psychiatric Care, Economics of, Pages 12267-12272, S. Tyutyulkova, S.S. Sharfstein
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Psychiatric Disorders: Culture-specific, Pages 12272-12277, W.G. Jilek
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Psychiatry and Sociology, Pages 12277-12283, H. Katschnig
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Psychiatry, Evidence-based, Pages 12287-12292, G. Andrews
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Psychiatry, History of, Pages 12292-12296, J. Goldstein
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Psychiatry: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 12283-12287, A. Kraus
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Psychiatry: Informed Consent and Care, Pages 12296-12302, L.W. Roberts
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Psychoanalysis in Clinical Psychology, Pages 12319-12325, P. Fonagy
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Psychoanalysis in Sociology, Pages 12325-12328, A. Elliott
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Psychoanalysis, History of, Pages 12315-12319, E. Mühlleitner
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Psychoanalysis: Adolescence (Clinical–Developmental Approach), Pages 12302-
12308, G.G. Noam
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Psychoanalysis: Current Status, Pages 12308-12315, O.F. Kernberg
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Psychoanalysis: Overview, Pages 12328-12336, S. Gardner
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Psychobiology of Stress and Early Child Development, Pages 12336-12339, M.R.
Gunnar
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Psychohistory, Pages 12339-12343, R. Binion
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Psycholinguistics: Overview, Pages 12343-12349, B.J. MacWhinney
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Psychological Anthropology, Pages 12349-12355, J.M. Ingham
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Psychological Climate in the Work Setting, Pages 12355-12359, B.B. Baltes
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12359-12363, C. Trevarthen
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Psychological Therapies: Emotional Processing, Pages 12363-12369, E.B. Foa, S.P.
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Psychological Treatment Delivered Nontraditionally, Pages 12369-12372, M.K.
Jacobs
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Psychological Treatment, Effectiveness of, Pages 12372-12377, M.J. Lambert, E.J.
Hawkins
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Psychological Treatments, Empirically Supported, Pages 12377-12383, W.C.
Sanderson
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Psychological Treatments: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials, Pages 12383-
12388, W.S. Agras
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Psychologism, History of, Pages 12388-12390, M. Kusch
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Psychology and Economics, Pages 12390-12396, K. Fiedler, M. Wänke
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Psychology and Marketing, Pages 12396-12399, B.J. Calder, A.M. Tybout
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Psychology of the Real Self: Psychoanalytic Perspectives, Pages 12405-12409, J.F.
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Psychology: Historical and Cultural Perspectives, Pages 12399-12405, M.G. Ash
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Psychology: Overview, Pages 12409-12416, W. Schönpflug
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Psychometrics, Pages 12416-12422, J.O. Ramsay
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Psychoneuroimmunology, Pages 12422-12428, R. Ader
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Psychopharmacotherapy, Costs of, Pages 12428-12434, J. Fritze
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Psychopharmacotherapy: Side Effects, Pages 12434-12439, N.R. Schooler, H. Gunduz
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Psychophysical Theory and Laws, History of, Pages 12439-12444, S.W. Link
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Psychophysics, Pages 12444-12448, D. Laming
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Psychosomatic Medicine, Pages 12452-12457, D. Oken
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Psychotherapy and Hermeneutics, Pages 12458-12460, C. Strenger
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Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy, Combined, Pages 12460-12466, R. Balon,
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Psychotherapy and Religion, Pages 12466-12470, V.A. Waldorf, T.B. Moyers
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Psychotherapy Integration, Pages 12491-12494, J.C. Norcross
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Psychotherapy Process Research, Pages 12499-12504, D.E. Orlinsky
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Psychotherapy, Brief Psychodynamic, Pages 12470-12473, J.P. Barber, R. Stratt
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Psychotherapy, History of: Psychiatric Aspects, Pages 12484-12491, S. Bloch, E.
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Psychotherapy: Case Study, Pages 12473-12475, F. Petermann, J.M. Müller
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Psychotherapy: Clinical Practice Guidelines, Pages 12476-12480, K. Strosahl, P.
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Psychotherapy: Ethical Issues, Pages 12480-12484, J. Younggren
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Psychotherapy: Legal Issues (United States), Pages 12494-12499, S.R. Hall, B.D.
Sales
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Puberty, Psychosocial Correlates of, Pages 12504-12507, A.C. Petersen
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Public Administration, Politics of, Pages 12512-12515, P. Eisinger
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Public Administration: Organizational Aspects, Pages 12507-12512, J. Johnston
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Public Broadcasting, Pages 12515-12519, M. Tracey
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Public Bureaucracies, Pages 12519-12521, F.E. Rourke
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Public Commemoration, Pages 12521-12526, J. Winter
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Public Good, The: Cultural Concerns, Pages 12526-12530, H. Münkler, K. Fischer
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Public Goods: International, Pages 12530-12535, A. Héritier
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Public Health, Pages 12535-12540, L. Murard, P. Zylberman
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Public Health as a Social Science, Pages 12540-12546, B. Oldenburg
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Public Interest, Pages 12546-12549, M. Blitz
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Public Interest Law, Pages 12549-12553, C. Halpern
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Public Management, New, Pages 12553-12556, C. Hood
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Public Opinion: Microsociological Aspects, Pages 12556-12560, T. Kuran
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Public Opinion: Political Aspects, Pages 12560-12563, L.M. Bartels
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Public Policy Schools, Pages 12563-12567, J.W. Ellwood, E. Smolensky
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Public Psychiatry and Public Mental Health Systems, Pages 12567-12572, J.A.
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Public Reason, Pages 12572-12578, G.F. Gaus
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Public Relations in Media, Pages 12578-12581, H. Tumber
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Public Sector Organizations, Pages 12581-12585, G. Callender
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Public Sphere and the Media, Pages 12585-12590, N. Garnham
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Public Sphere: Eighteenth-century History, Pages 12590-12594, R. Chartier
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Public Sphere: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century History, Pages 12594-12599, C.
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Publishing as Medium, Pages 12599-12603, L.J. Miller
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Punishment, Comparative Politics of, Pages 12603-12606, R.C. Fried
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Punishment: Social and Legal Aspects, Pages 12606-12612, J. Simon
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Qualitative Methods in Geography, Pages 12618-12620, I. Dyck
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Qualitative Methods, History of, Pages 12613-12617, J.R. Hall
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Quality Control, Statistical: Methods, Pages 12620-12624, R.V. Hogg
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Quality Control, Statistical: Reliability and Life Testing, Pages 12624-12628, N.D.
Singpurwalla
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Quality of Life: Assessment in Health Settings, Pages 12628-12631, C.A. O'Boyle
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Quangos in Politics, Pages 12631-12634, A. Barker
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Quantification in History, Pages 12634-12638, K.H. Jarausch, P.A. Coclanis
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Quantification in the History of the Social Sciences, Pages 12638-12644, T.M. Porter
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Quantifiers, in Linguistics, Pages 12644-12649, D. Gil
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Quantitative Cross-national Research Methods, Pages 12649-12655, G. Esping-
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Quasi-Experimental Designs, Pages 12655-12659, W.R. Shadish
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Queer Theory, Pages 12659-12663, S.D. Walters
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Questionnaires: Assessing Subjective Expectations, Pages 12663-12667, C.F.
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Questionnaires: Cognitive Approaches, Pages 12667-12673, N. Schwarz
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Quetelet, Adolphe (1796–1874), Pages 12673-12676, R. Lesthaeghe
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Queues, Pages 12676-12680, C. Armero, M.J. Bayarri
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Race and Gender Intersections, Pages 12681-12684, B. Robnett
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Race and the Law, Pages 12684-12689, R.T. Ford
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Race and Urban Planning, Pages 12689-12694, J.M. Thomas
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Race Identity, Pages 12703-12706, T. Duster
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Race Relations in the United States, Politics of, Pages 12706-12711, K. Tate
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Race: Genetic Aspects, Pages 12694-12700, G. Barbujani
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Race: History of the Concept, Pages 12700-12703, D. Schnapper
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Racial Relations, Pages 12711-12716, J.R. Feagin
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Racism, History of, Pages 12716-12720, G.M. Fredrickson
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Racism, Sociology of, Pages 12720-12723, P.L. van den Berghe
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Radicalism, Pages 12723-12725, R. Barker
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Radio as Medium, Pages 12725-12731, J.E. Hayes
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Random Assignment: Implementation in Complex Field Settings, Pages 12731-
12734, R.G. St. Pierre
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Random Numbers, Pages 12734-12738, P. L'Ecuyer
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Ranke, Leopold von (1795–1886), Pages 12738-12741, W. Hardtwig
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Ranking Models, Mathematics of, Pages 12741-12747, D.E. Critchlow
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Rape and Sexual Coercion, Pages 12747-12751, P.R. Sanday
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Rational Choice and Organization Theory, Pages 12751-12755, M. Zey
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Rational Choice Explanation: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 12755-12760, R. Hardin
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Rational Choice in Politics, Pages 12760-12763, M.P. Fiorina
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Rational Choice Theory in Sociology, Pages 12768-12771, P. Abell
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Rational Choice Theory: Cultural Concerns, Pages 12763-12768, J. Elster
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Rational Theory of Cognition in Psychology, Pages 12771-12775, L. Schooler
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Rationalism, Pages 12775-12778, K. Minogue
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Rationality and Feminist Thought, Pages 12778-12782, G. Labouvie-Vief
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Rationality in Society, Pages 12782-12786, H.A. Simon
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Reactance, Psychology of, Pages 12786-12789, R.A. Wicklund
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Readability, Applied Psychology of, Pages 12789-12791, C.A. Weaver III, A. Renken
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Reading Nonalphabetic Scripts, Pages 12797-12800, T. Hatta
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Reading Skills, Pages 12800-12805, C.A. Perfetti
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Reading, Neural Basis of, Pages 12791-12797, J.A. Fiez
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Real Estate Development, Pages 12805-12812, R. Peiser
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Realism/Neorealism, Pages 12812-12815, A. Stein
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Realisms and their Opponents: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 12815-12821, U. Mäki
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Reasoning with Mental Models, Pages 12821-12824, P.N. Johnson-Laird
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Rechtsstaat (Rule of Law: German Perspective), Pages 12824-12829, P. Kunig
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Recognition Memory (in Primates), Neural Basis of, Pages 12829-12832, E.A. Murray
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Recognition Memory, Psychology of, Pages 12832-12835, H. Tajika
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Reconstruction/Disaster Planning: Germany, Pages 12835-12839, U. von Petz
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Reconstruction/Disaster Planning: Japan, Pages 12839-12841, J. Hasegawa
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Reconstruction/Disaster Planning: United States, Pages 12841-12844, R.J. Burby
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Reconstructive Memory, Psychology of, Pages 12844-12849, H.L. Roediger III
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Recovery of Function, Neural Basis of, Pages 12852-12857, D. Lavond
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Recovery of Function: Dependency on Age, Pages 12849-12852, B. Kolb
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Reduction, Varieties of, Pages 12857-12863, G. Oddie
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Reference and Representation: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 12863-12869, F.
Jackson
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Referendums, Pages 12869-12872, D.B. Magleby
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Reflective Equilibrium, Pages 12872-12877, N. Daniels
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Reflexivity in Anthropology, Pages 12877-12881, G.E. Marcus
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Reflexivity, in Science and Technology Studies, Pages 12881-12884, M. Ashmore
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Reflexivity: Method and Evidence, Pages 12884-12888, T. Hopf, F.V. Kratochwil, R.N.
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Reform: Political, Pages 12888-12891, B.E. Cain
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Reformation and Confessionalization, Pages 12891-12895, H. Schilling
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Refugees in Anthropology, Pages 12901-12905, M. Eastmond
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Refugees: Geographical Aspects, Pages 12895-12901, J. Bascom
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Region: Geographical, Pages 12905-12908, M.B. Pudup
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Regional Geography, Pages 12908-12914, G. Wood
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Regional Government, Pages 12914-12917, R. Balme
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Regional Identity, Pages 12917-12922, J. Pohl
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Regional Integration, Pages 12922-12925, S.J. Hix
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Regional Planning, History of, Pages 12925-12930, D.A. Johnson
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Regional Science, Pages 12930-12935, A. Isserman
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Regionalism and Cultural Expression, Pages 12935-12939, W. Griswold
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Regression Discontinuity Design, Pages 12940-12945, W.M. Trochim
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Regulation and Administration, Pages 12945-12951, S. Sterett
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Regulation Theory in Geography, Pages 12974-12978, R. Danielzyk, J. Ossenbrügge
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Regulation, Economic Theory of, Pages 12951-12957, D.E.M. Sappington
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Regulation, Political Economy of, Pages 12967-12970, N.L. Rose
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Regulation: Empirical Analysis, Pages 12957-12963, N.L. Rose
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Regulation: Family and Gender, Pages 12963-12967, J. Lewis
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Regulation: Sexual Behavior, Pages 12970-12974, D. di Mauro
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Regulation: Working Conditions, Pages 12978-12982, F.J. Carré
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Regulatory Agencies, Pages 12982-12985, C.H. Foreman Jr.
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Rehabilitation (Cardiac): Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 12986-12988, D.W. Johnston
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Rehabilitation of the Offender, Pages 12988-12993, F. Lösel
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Reification: History of the Concept, Pages 12993-12996, F. Vandenberghe
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Reinforcement, Principle of, Pages 12999-13002, I.M. Evans
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Reinforcement: Neurochemical Substrates, Pages 12996-12999, J.D. Belluzzi, L. Stein
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Relapse Prevention Training, Pages 13002-13005, P.H. Wilson
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Relative Clauses, Pages 13005-13009, A.D. Andrews
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Relativism, Pluralism, and Skepticism (Philosophical Perspective): Cultural
Concerns, Pages 13018-13023, W.C. Booth
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Relativism: Cognitive, Pages 13009-13012, M. Bunge
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Relativism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 13012-13018, M. Baghramian
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Reliability: Measurement, Pages 13023-13028, D. Rindskopf
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Religion and Economic Life, Pages 13028-13034, R.H. Roberts
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Religion and Gender, Pages 13034-13037, M.J.F. Rosado Nunes
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Religion and Health, Pages 13037-13040, E.L. Idler
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Religion and Politics: United States, Pages 13040-13044, D.C. Leege
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Religion and Science, Pages 13044-13051, G.B. Ferngren
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Religion and Youth, Pages 13051-13054, S. Collins
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Religion, History of, Pages 13071-13077, F.W. Graf, A. Reuter
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Religion, Phenomenology of, Pages 13093-13096, H. Knoblauch
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Religion, Psychology of, Pages 13102-13106, F. Watts
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Religion, Sociology of, Pages 13106-13112, R. O'Toole
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Religion: Culture Contact, Pages 13054-13060, D. Maxwell
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Religion: Definition and Explanation, Pages 13060-13062, P. Byrne
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Religion: Evolution and Development, Pages 13062-13066, R.N. Bellah
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Religion: Family and Kinship, Pages 13066-13071, K. Knott
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Religion: Mobilization and Power, Pages 13077-13082, M. Percy
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Religion: Morality and Social Control, Pages 13082-13085, C. Davies
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Religion: Nationalism and Identity, Pages 13085-13090, A.D. Smith
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Religion: Peace, War, and Violence, Pages 13090-13093, D. Martin
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Religion: Psychiatric Aspects, Pages 13096-13102, G.T. Harding IV
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Religiosity, Sociology of, Pages 13115-13119, K.J. Christiano
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Religiosity: Modern, Pages 13112-13115, P. Heelas
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Religious Fundamentalism: Cultural Concerns, Pages 13119-13123, M.E. Marty
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Religious Nationalism and the Secular State: Cultural Concerns, Pages 13123-
13127, T.N. Madan
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Religious Organizations, Pages 13127-13132, J.A. Beckford
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Religious Specialists, Pages 13132-13136, S. Gilliat-Ray
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Religious Stratification, Pages 13136-13139, B.S. Turner
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Remedies and Damages: Legal Aspects, Pages 13139-13144, T. Eisenberg
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Remote Sensing, Pages 13144-13150, J. Estes, K. Kline, E. Collins
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Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Analysis, Pages 13150-
13155, E.F. Lambin
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Renaissance, Pages 13155-13160, B. Roeck
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Repartnering and Stepchildren, Pages 13160-13164, F.K. Goldscheider
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Replication, Pages 13164-13167, R. Rosenthal
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Representation of Serial Order, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 13171-13174, J.
Hoffmann
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Representation: History of the Problem, Pages 13167-13171, P. Wagner
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Representations and Rituals of the State, Pages 13174-13180, D.I. Kertzer
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Reproductive Medicine: Ethical Aspects, Pages 13180-13184, G. Hermerén
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Reproductive Rights in Affluent Nations, Pages 13184-13188, S. Staggenborg
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Reproductive Rights in Developing Nations, Pages 13188-13193, S. Corrêa
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Republic, Pages 13193-13196, A.W. Saxonhouse
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Republican Party, Pages 13196-13199, J.F. Bibby
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Republicanism: Impact on Social Thought, Pages 13199-13204, M.E. Vatter
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Republicanism: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 13204-13210, M.N.S. Sellers
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Reputation, Pages 13210-13216, K. Lang, G.E. Lang
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Resampling Methods of Estimation, Pages 13216-13220, B. Efron, D. Rogosa, R.
Tibshirani
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Research and Development in Organizations, Pages 13220-13224, K. Pavitt
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Research Conduct: Ethical Codes, Pages 13224-13227, F. Thiele
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Research Ethics, Cross-cultural Dimensions of, Pages 13231-13235, D. Tuzin
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Research Ethics: Research, Pages 13235-13240, J.E. Sieber
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Research Funding: Ethical Aspects, Pages 13240-13242, Ørjar Øyen
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Research Publication: Ethical Aspects, Pages 13242-13246, F. Di Trocchio
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Research Subjects, Informed and Implied Consent of, Pages 13246-13250, P.S.
Appelbaum
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Research: Ethical Aspects of Long-term Responsibilities, Pages 13227-13231, C.F.
Gethmann
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Residential Concentration/Segregation, Demographic Effects of, Pages 13250-
13254, M.J. White
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Residential Environmental Psychology, Pages 13254-13258, R. Gifford
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Residential Segregation: Geographic Aspects, Pages 13258-13263, S.J. Smith
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Residential Segregation: Sociological Aspects, Pages 13263-13266, D.S. Massey
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Resource Geography, Pages 13266-13269, G. Bridge
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Resource Institutions, Pages 13269-13272, A. Agrawal
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Resources and Environment: Contingent Valuation, Pages 13272-13275, R.T. Carson
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Respiratory Disorders: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 13275-13279, A.A. Kaptein
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Responsibility: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 13279-13283, M. Oshana
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Retail Trade, Pages 13283-13286, A. Ghosh
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Retirement and Health, Pages 13286-13289, P. Moen
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Retirement, Economics of, Pages 13289-13294, A.L. Gustman, T.L. Steinmeier
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Reviews, Critics, and Cultural Gatekeepers, Pages 13295-13299, H. Verdaasdonk
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Revolution, Pages 13299-13302, R. Stahler-Sholk
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Revolutions of 1989–90 in Eastern Central Europe, Pages 13306-13310, K. von
Beyme
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Revolutions, History of, Pages 13302-13306, J. Leith
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Revolutions, Sociology of, Pages 13310-13314, J. Markoff
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Revolutions, Theories of, Pages 13314-13317, R. Aya
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Rhetoric, Pages 13317-13323, G.A. Kennedy
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Rhetorical Analysis, Pages 13323-13327, P. Larsen
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Rheumatoid Arthritis: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 13327-13330, E. Taal
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Ricardo, David (1772–1823), Pages 13330-13334, P.A. Samuelson
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Right-wing Movements in the United States: Women and Gender, Pages 13344-
13347, R.E. Klatch
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Rights, Pages 13334-13339, D. MacLean
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Rights: Legal Aspects, Pages 13339-13344, M. McCann, S. Scheingold
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Risk Screening, Testing, and Diagnosis: Ethical Aspects, Pages 13351-13356, G.
Hermerén
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Risk, Sociological Study of, Pages 13356-13360, E.A. Rosa, W.R. Freudenburg
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Risk, Sociology and Politics of, Pages 13360-13364, S. Yearley
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Risk: Empirical Studies on Decision and Choice, Pages 13347-13351, E.U. Weber
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Risk: Theories of Decision and Choice, Pages 13364-13368, M. Weber
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Ritual, Pages 13368-13371, D. Parkin
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Ritual and Symbolism, Archaeology of, Pages 13371-13375, R.A. Joyce
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Robinson, Joan (1903–83), Pages 13375-13379, G.C. Harcourt, P.M. Kerr
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Robustness in Statistics, Pages 13379-13385, S. Morgenthaler
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Rogers, Carl Ransom (1902–87), Pages 13385-13390, H. Kirschenbaum
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Rokkan, Stein (1921–79), Pages 13390-13394, P. Flora
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Romanticism: Impact on Social Thought, Pages 13394-13398, H. Friese
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Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78), Pages 13398-13403, J. Oelkers
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Rule of Law, Pages 13403-13408, M. Krygier
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Rules in the Legal Process, Pages 13408-13413, R.A. Kagan
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Rumors and Urban Legends, Pages 13413-13416, J.-B. Renard
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Rural Geography, Pages 13416-13421, J. Little
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Rural Industrialization in Developing Nations and Gender, Pages 13421-13425, P.
Arias
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Rural Planning: General, Pages 13425-13429, H.C. Dandekar
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Rural Sociology, Pages 13429-13433, F.H. Buttel
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Russian Revolution, The, Pages 13433-13437, M. Hildermeier
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Sacrifice, Pages 13439-13441, D. Hicks
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Safety, Economics of, Pages 13441-13448, J.F. Burton Jr.
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Sample Surveys, History of, Pages 13453-13458, S.E. Fienberg, J.M. Tanur
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Sample Surveys: Cognitive Aspects of Survey Design, Pages 13448-13453, J.M.
Tanur
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Sample Surveys: Methods, Pages 13458-13462, C.M. Cassel, L. Lyberg
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Sample Surveys: Model-based Approaches, Pages 13462-13467, S.L. Lohr
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Sample Surveys: Nonprobability Sampling, Pages 13467-13470, J.J. Forster
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Sample Surveys: Survey Design Issues and Strategies, Pages 13470-13475, H.
Schuman
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Sample Surveys: The Field, Pages 13475-13480, L. Lyberg, C.M. Cassel
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Sanctions in Political Science, Pages 13480-13482, D.A. Baldwin
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Sapir, Edward (1884–1939), Pages 13482-13486, V. Golla
Abstract PDF (72 K)

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Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis, Pages 13486-13490, J.A. Lucy
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Sauer, Carl Ortwin (1889–1975), Pages 13490-13492, M. Williams
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Saussure, Ferdinand de (1857–1913), Pages 13492-13495, E.F.K. Koerner
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Savage, Leonard J (1917–71), Pages 13495-13499, D.V. Lindley
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Savings Behavior: Demographic Influences, Pages 13499-13501, A. Mason
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Scale in Geography, Pages 13501-13504, D.R. Montello
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Scaling and Classification in Social Measurement, Pages 13504-13508, D.R. Heise
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Scaling: Correspondence Analysis, Pages 13508-13512, M. Greenacre
Abstract PDF (104 K)

Scaling: Multidimensional, Pages 13512-13519, J. de Leeuw
Abstract PDF (119 K)

Scandal: Political, Pages 13519-13522, J.B. Thompson
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Schemas, Frames, and Scripts in Cognitive Psychology, Pages 13522-13526, P.
Whitney
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Schemas, Social Psychology of, Pages 13526-13530, D.E. Carlston, L. Mae
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Schizophrenia, Pages 13530-13537, R. Warner
Abstract PDF (163 K)

Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Genetic Aspects, Pages 13537-13543, D.K.
Kinney
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Schizophrenia, Treatment of, Pages 13546-13552, T. Pollmächer
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Schizophrenia: Neuroscience Perspective, Pages 13543-13546, C.D. Frith, S.-J.
Blakemore
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School (Alternative Models): Ideas and Institutions, Pages 13560-13563, A.
Leschinsky
PDF (61 K)

School Achievement: Cognitive and Motivational Determinants, Pages 13552-
13556, A. Helmke, F.-W. Schrader
Abstract PDF (128 K)

School Administration as a Field of Inquiry, Pages 13556-13560, D.J. Willower
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Abstract PDF (74 K)
School as a Social System, Pages 13563-13567, M. Hallinan
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School Effectiveness Research, Pages 13567-13572, J. Scheerens
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School Improvement, Pages 13572-13576, B.P.M. Creemers
Abstract PDF (69 K)

School Learning for Transfer, Pages 13576-13579, G. Salomon
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School Management, Pages 13580-13583, B.J. Caldwell
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School Outcomes: Cognitive Function, Achievements, Social Skills, and Values,
Pages 13583-13589, T.L. Good, S.L. Nichols
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Schooling: Impact on Cognitive and Motivational Development, Pages 13589-
13594, F.E. Weinert
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Schools, Micropolitics of, Pages 13594-13598, H. Altrichter
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Schumpeter, Joseph A (1883–1950), Pages 13598-13603, R. Swedberg
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Schütz, Alfred (1899–1959), Pages 13603-13607, I. Srubar
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Science and Development, Pages 13607-13610, W. Shrum
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Science and Industry, Pages 13610-13614, H. Etzkowitz
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Science and Law, Pages 13614-13621, S. Jasanoff
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Science and Religion, Pages 13621-13625, C.A. Russell
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Science and Social Movements, Pages 13625-13629, A. Jamison
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Science and Technology Studies: Ethnomethodology, Pages 13644-13647, M. Lynch
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Science and Technology Studies: Experts and Expertise, Pages 13647-13654, O.
Renn
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Science and Technology, Anthropology of, Pages 13629-13633, G.L. Downey
Abstract PDF (68 K)

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Science and Technology, Social Study of: Computers and Information
Technology, Pages 13638-13644, S.L. Star
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Science and Technology: Internationalization, Pages 13633-13638, A. Elzinga
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Science and the Media, Pages 13654-13657, B.V. Lewenstein
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Science and the State, Pages 13657-13664, Y. Ezrahi
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Science Education, Pages 13668-13673, M.C. Linn
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Science Funding: Asia, Pages 13673-13676, V.V. Krishna
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Science Funding: Europe, Pages 13676-13680, J. Calvert, B.R. Martin
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Science Funding: United States, Pages 13680-13683, S.E. Cozzens
Abstract PDF (261 K)

Science, Economics of, Pages 13664-13668, W.E. Steinmueller
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Science, New Forms of, Pages 13683-13687, J.R. Ravetz
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Science, Social Organization of, Pages 13687-13691, C. Mukerji
PDF (67 K)

Science, Sociology of, Pages 13692-13698, T.F. Gieryn
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Science, Technology, and the Military, Pages 13698-13704, W.A. Smit
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Scientific Academies in Asia, Pages 13708-13714, C.-C. Yi
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Scientific Academies, History of, Pages 13704-13708, M. Biagioli
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Scientific Concepts: Development in Children, Pages 13714-13719, Z. Chen, R.
Siegler
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Scientific Controversies, Pages 13719-13724, T. Pinch
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Scientific Culture, Pages 13724-13727, D. Hess
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Scientific Disciplines, History of, Pages 13727-13731, R. Stichweh
Abstract PDF (73 K)

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Scientific Discovery, Computational Models of, Pages 13731-13733, P.C.-H. Cheng
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Scientific Evidence: Legal Aspects, Pages 13733-13737, J. Sanders
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Scientific Instrumentation, History and Sociology of, Pages 13737-13741, T. Shinn
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Scientific Knowledge, Sociology of, Pages 13741-13746, H.M. Collins
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Scientific Reasoning and Discovery, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 13746-13749,
K. Dunbar
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Scientific Revolution: History and Sociology of, Pages 13749-13752, P. Damerow, J.
Renn
PDF (61 K)

Scientometrics, Pages 13752-13755, L. Leydesdorff
Abstract PDF (109 K)

Screening and Selection, Pages 13755-13760, J.L. Gastwirth
Abstract PDF (100 K)

Search, Economics of, Pages 13760-13768, C.A. Pissarides
Abstract PDF (116 K)

Second Language Acquisition, Pages 13768-13771, W. Klein
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Second World War, The, Pages 13771-13777, R.J.B. Bosworth
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Secondary Analysis: Methodology, Pages 13777-13780, D.S. Cordray
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Secrecy, Anthropology of, Pages 13780-13783, L. Lindstrom
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Secular Religions, Pages 13783-13786, A.L. Greil
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Secularization, Pages 13786-13791, J. Casanova
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Segregation Indices, Pages 13791-13795, R. Harrison
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Selection Bias, Statistics of, Pages 13795-13799, R. Breen
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Self-concepts: Educational Aspects, Pages 13799-13803, R. Pekrun
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Self-conscious Emotions, Psychology of, Pages 13803-13807, J.P. Tangney
Abstract PDF (67 K)

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Self-development in Childhood, Pages 13807-13812, S. Harter
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Self-efficacy, Pages 13812-13815, A. Flammer
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Self-efficacy and Health, Pages 13815-13820, A. Bandura
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Self-efficacy: Educational Aspects, Pages 13820-13822, D.H. Schunk
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Self-esteem in Adulthood, Pages 13822-13826, J. Crocker
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Self-evaluative Process, Psychology of, Pages 13826-13830, A. Tesser
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Self-fulfilling Prophecies, Pages 13830-13833, L. Jussim
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Self-knowledge: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 13837-13841, V. McGeer
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Self-monitoring, Psychology of, Pages 13841-13844, M. Snyder
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Self-organizing Dynamical Systems, Pages 13844-13850, J.A.S. Kelso
Abstract PDF (113 K)

Self-regulated Learning, Pages 13855-13859, B.J. Zimmerman
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Self-regulation in Adulthood, Pages 13859-13862, R.F. Baumeister
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Self-regulation in Childhood, Pages 13862-13866, C.B. Kopp
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Self: History of the Concept, Pages 13833-13837, P. Wagner
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Self: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 13850-13855, C. Rovane
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Semantic Knowledge: Neural Basis of, Pages 13866-13873, A. Martin
Abstract PDF (293 K)

Semantic Processing: Statistical Approaches, Pages 13873-13878, P.W. Foltz
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Semantic Similarity, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 13878-13881, U. Hahn, E. Heit
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Semantics, Pages 13881-13887, J.I. Saeed
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Semiotics, Pages 13887-13891, K.B. Jensen
Abstract PDF (86 K)

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Semiparametric Models, Pages 13891-13897, J.L. Horowitz
Abstract PDF (143 K)

Senescence: Genetic Theories, Pages 13897-13902, J.W. Curtsinger
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Sensation and Perception: Direct Scaling, Pages 13902-13905, M. Teghtsoonian
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Sensation Seeking: Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases, Pages 13905-
13908, M. Zuckerman
PDF (61 K)

Sensitive Periods in Development, Neural Basis of, Pages 13908-13911, H.-J.
Bischof
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Sentence Comprehension, Psychology of, Pages 13911-13917, C. Clifton Jr.
Abstract PDF (87 K)

Sequential Decision Making, Pages 13917-13922, A. Diederich
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Sequential Statistical Methods, Pages 13922-13927, D.A. Berry
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Serial Verb Constructions, Pages 13927-13930, M. Sebba
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Service Economy, Geography of, Pages 13930-13935, W.B. Beyers
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Services Marketing, Pages 13935-13936, S. Cherubini
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Settlement and Landscape Archaeology, Pages 13937-13941, G.M. Feinman
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Sex Differences in Pay, Pages 13941-13946, G. Whitehouse
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Sex Hormones and their Brain Receptors, Pages 13946-13951, R.D. Brinton, J.T.
Nilsen
Abstract PDF (1018 K)

Sex Offenders, Clinical Psychology of, Pages 13951-13955, G.C.N. Hall
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Sex Preferences in Western Societies, Pages 13955-13958, J.D. Marleau, J.-F. Saucier
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Sex Segregation at Work, Pages 13962-13965, B.F. Reskin
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Sex Therapy, Clinical Psychology of, Pages 13965-13969, W. Everaerd
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Sex-role Development and Education, Pages 13958-13961, G. Nunner-Winkler
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Sexual Behavior and Maternal Functions, Neurobiology of, Pages 13974-13977, L.
Clemens, A.A. Nunez
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Sexual Behavior: Sociological Perspective, Pages 13977-13981, A. Béjin
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Sexual Harassment: Legal Perspectives, Pages 13982-13987, E. Goldsmith, V. Schultz
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Sexual Harassment: Social and Psychological Issues, Pages 13987-13991, B.A.
Gutek
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Sexual Orientation and the Law, Pages 13991-13995, M.M. Ertman
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Sexual Orientation: Biological Influences, Pages 13995-13998, E. Stein
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Sexual Orientation: Historical and Social Construction, Pages 13998-14002, J.
Weeks
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Sexual Perversions (Paraphilias), Pages 14002-14007, R.E. Goodman
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Sexual Preference: Genetic Aspects, Pages 14007-14012, K. Reinhold
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Sexual Risk Behaviors, Pages 14012-14018, J. Bengel
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Sexuality and Gender, Pages 14018-14021, D. Richardson
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Sexuality and Geography, Pages 14021-14026, H.J. Nast
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Psychosocial Aspects, Pages 14026-14032, M.
Fishbein
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Shamanism, Pages 14032-14035, D. Joralemon
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Shame and the Social Bond, Pages 14035-14039, T.J. Scheff
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Shared Belief, Pages 14039-14043, R. Tuomela
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Sherrington, Sir Charles Scott (1857–1952), Pages 14043-14046, E.D. Schomburg
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Short-term Memory, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 14046-14049, A.F. Healy
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Short-term Memory: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 14049-14055, G.
Vallar
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Shyness and Behavioral Inhibition, Pages 14055-14058, K.H. Rubin
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Sibling Relationships, Psychology of, Pages 14063-14066, J. Dunn
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Sibling-order Effects, Pages 14058-14063, F.J. Sulloway
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Sign Language, Pages 14066-14071, U. Bellugi, E.S. Klima
Abstract PDF (359 K)

Sign Language: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 14071-14075, D.P. Corina
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Signal Detection Theory, Pages 14075-14078, N.A. Macmillan
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Signal Detection Theory, History of, Pages 14078-14082, J.A. Swets
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Signal Detection Theory: Multidimensional, Pages 14082-14085, H. Kadlec
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Significance, Tests of, Pages 14085-14091, N. Reid
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Simmel, Georg (1858–1918), Pages 14091-14097, O. Rammstedt, N.C. Milà
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Simulation and Training in Work Settings, Pages 14097-14101, B. Hesketh, M. Frese
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Simultaneous Equation Estimates (Exact and Approximate), Distribution of,
Pages 14101-14106, K. Morimune
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Simultaneous Equation Estimation: Overview, Pages 14106-14110, C.F. Christ
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Single-case Experimental Designs in Clinical Settings, Pages 14110-14116, W.C.
Follette
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Single-subject Designs: Methodology, Pages 14116-14121, J.P. Forsyth, C.G. Finlay
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Situated Cognition: Contemporary Developments, Pages 14121-14126, P. Cobb
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Situated Cognition: Origins, Pages 14126-14129, P. Cobb
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Situated Knowledge: Feminist and Science and Technology Studies
Perspectives, Pages 14129-14133, C.M. Thompson
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Situated Learning: Out of School and in the Classroom, Pages 14133-14137, A.
Renkl
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Situation Model: Psychological, Pages 14137-14141, R.A. Zwaan
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Skinner, Burrhus Frederick (1904–90), Pages 14141-14146, M.N. Richelle
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Slavery as Social Institution, Pages 14146-14152, O. Patterson
PDF (82 K)

Slavery: Comparative Aspects, Pages 14152-14157, O. Patterson
PDF (76 K)

Slaves/Slavery, History of, Pages 14157-14162, A. Wirz
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Sleep and Health, Pages 14162-14166, W.C. Orr
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Sleep Disorders: Psychiatric Aspects, Pages 14166-14172, E. Holsboer-Trachsler, E.
Seifritz
Abstract PDF (238 K)

Sleep Disorders: Psychological Aspects, Pages 14172-14174, R.D. Cartwright
Abstract PDF (55 K)

Sleep States and Somatomotor Activity, Pages 14174-14178, M.H. Chase, J. Yamuy,
F.R. Morales
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Sleep: Neural Systems, Pages 14178-14185, J.A. Hobson
Abstract PDF (237 K)

Small-group Interaction and Gender, Pages 14185-14189, C.L. Ridgeway
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Smith, Adam (1723–90), Pages 14189-14195, A.S. Skinner
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Smoking and Health, Pages 14195-14201, K.E. Warner
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Smoking Prevention and Smoking Cessation, Pages 14201-14205, H. de Vries
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Soap Opera/Telenovela, Pages 14205-14208, M.P. Porto
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Sociability in History, Pages 14208-14212, H. Ninomiya
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Social Behavior (Emergent), Computer Models of, Pages 14212-14216, C.K.
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Hemelrijk
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Social Capital, Pages 14216-14219, R.W. Jackman
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Social Categorization, Psychology of, Pages 14219-14223, J. Krueger
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Social Change: Types, Pages 14223-14228, G. Hernes
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Social Changes: Models, Pages 14228-14233, G. Hernes
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Social Class and Gender, Pages 14233-14238, R. Crompton
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Social Cognition and Affect, Psychology of, Pages 14238-14242, J.P. Forgas
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Social Cognition and Aging, Pages 14242-14245, F. Blanchard-Fields
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Social Cognition in Childhood, Pages 14245-14250, J.F. Dunn
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Social Cognitive Theory and Clinical Psychology, Pages 14250-14254, A. Bandura
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Social Comparison, Psychology of, Pages 14254-14257, L. Wheeler, J. Suls, R. Martin
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Social Competence: Childhood and Adolescence, Pages 14258-14264, W.M.
Bukowski, K.H. Rubin, J.G. Parker
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Social Constructivism, Pages 14264-14267, W. Detel
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Social Democracy, Pages 14267-14270, T.P. Harsanyi
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Social Demography: Role of Inequality and Social Differentiation, Pages 14270-
14276, V.K. Oppenheimer
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Social Dilemmas, Psychology of, Pages 14276-14279, P.A.M. Van Lange
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Social Evolution, Sociology of, Pages 14286-14290, E. Di Nuoscio
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Social Evolution: Overview, Pages 14279-14286, S.K. Sanderson
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Social Facilitation, Psychology of, Pages 14290-14293, C.F. Bond Jr.
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Social Geography, Pages 14293-14299, S. Bowlby
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Social History, Pages 14299-14306, C. Conrad
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Social Identity, Psychology of, Pages 14306-14309, D. Abrams
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Social Inequality and Schooling, Pages 14309-14313, P. Barnhouse Walters
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Social Inequality in History (Stratification and Classes), Pages 14313-14320, P. Nolte
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Social Influence, Psychology of, Pages 14320-14325, J.M. Burger
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Social Insurance: Legal Aspects, Pages 14325-14327, G. Igl
Abstract PDF (54 K)

Social Integration, Social Networks, and Health, Pages 14327-14332, L.F. Berkman
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Social Intervention in Psychiatric Disorders, Pages 14332-14338, W. Rössler
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Social Justice, Pages 14338-14341, V.H. Schmidt
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Social Learning, Cognition, and Personality Development, Pages 14341-14345, B.J.
Zimmerman
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Social Mobility, History of, Pages 14345-14348, H. Kaelble
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Social Movements and Gender, Pages 14348-14352, V. Taylor
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Social Movements, Geography of, Pages 14357-14360, B. Miller
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Social Movements, History of: General, Pages 14360-14365, L. Tilly
Abstract PDF (77 K)

Social Movements, Sociology of, Pages 14371-14375, F. Chazel
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Social Movements: Environmental Movements, Pages 14352-14357, D. Wastl-Walter
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Social Movements: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 14365-14368, T. Tyler
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Social Movements: Resource Mobilization Theory, Pages 14368-14371, J.C. Jenkins
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Social Network Models: Statistical, Pages 14375-14380, P. Pattison, S. Wasserman
Abstract PDF (217 K)

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Social Networks and Fertility, Pages 14380-14384, H.P. Kohler, C. Bühler
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Social Networks and Gender, Pages 14384-14388, H. Ibarra
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Social Neuroscience, Pages 14388-14391, J.T. Cacioppo, G.G. Bernston
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Social Properties (Facts and Entities): Philosophical Aspects, Pages 14391-14397,
D.-H. Ruben
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Social Protests, History of, Pages 14397-14402, L. Tilly
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Social Psychology, Pages 14402-14405, H.T. Reis
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Social Psychology, Sociological, Pages 14409-14413, S. Stryker
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Social Psychology, Theories of, Pages 14413-14421, S.T. Fiske
Abstract PDF (98 K)

Social Psychology: Research Methods, Pages 14405-14409, C.M. Judd
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Social Question: Impact on Social Thought, Pages 14421-14423, G. Procacci
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Social Relationships in Adulthood, Pages 14423-14429, M.S. Clark
Abstract PDF (106 K)

Social Science, the Idea of, Pages 14429-14435, F. D'Agostino
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Social Security, Pages 14435-14439, F.-X. Kaufmann
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Social Simulation: Computational Approaches, Pages 14439-14443, M.W. Macy
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Social Stratification, Pages 14443-14452, D.B. Grusky
Abstract PDF (100 K)

Social Support and Health, Pages 14452-14458, K. Orth-Gomér
PDF (99 K)

Social Support and Recovery from Disease and Medical Procedures, Pages
14458-14461, K.J. Petrie
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Social Support and Stress, Pages 14461-14465, S.E. Hobfoll
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Social Support, Psychology of, Pages 14465-14469, T.C. Antonucci
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Social Survey, History of, Pages 14469-14473, M. Bulmer
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Social Trauma, Pages 14473-14476, B. Giesen
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Social Welfare Policies and Gender, Pages 14476-14481, D. Sainsbury
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Social Welfare Policy: Comparisons, Pages 14481-14485, G. Esping-Andersen
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Socialism, Pages 14485-14488, P. Thomas
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Socialism: Historical Aspects, Pages 14488-14492, F. Andreucci
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Socialist Law, Pages 14493-14496, A. Sajo
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Socialist Societies: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 14496-14500, K. Verdery
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Sociality, Evolution of, Pages 14504-14507, B. Crespi
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Sociality: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 14500-14504, M. Carrithers
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Socialization and Education: Theoretical Perspectives, Pages 14507-14513, K.A.
Schneewind
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Socialization in Adolescence, Pages 14513-14516, L. Steinberg
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Socialization in Infancy and Childhood, Pages 14516-14522, R.D. Parke, R. Buriel
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Socialization, Sociology of, Pages 14525-14530, V. Gecas
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Socialization: Political, Pages 14522-14525, M.K. Jennings
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Societies, Types of, Pages 14530-14536, R. Deliège
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Society/People: History of the Concept, Pages 14536-14539, L. Trägårdh
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Sociobiology: Overview, Pages 14539-14543, M. Daly, M. Wilson
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Sociobiology: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 14543-14549, K. Sterelny
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Sociocybernetics, Pages 14549-14554, F. Geyer
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Socioeconomic Status and Health, Pages 14554-14558, G.A. Kaplan
Abstract PDF (112 K)

Socioeconomic Status and Health Care, Pages 14558-14562, P.M. Lantz
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Sociolinguistics, Pages 14562-14569, J. Holmes
Abstract PDF (89 K)

Sociology, Epistemology of, Pages 14569-14574, M. Bunge
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Sociology, History of, Pages 14574-14580, J. Goudsblom, J. Heilbron
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Sociology: Overview, Pages 14581-14585, R. Boudon
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Solidarity, Sociology of, Pages 14588-14591, M. Hechter
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Solidarity: History of the Concept, Pages 14585-14588, G. Procacci
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Somatoform Disorders, Pages 14591-14596, J. Angenendt, M. Härter
Abstract PDF (98 K)

Somatosensation, Pages 14596-14600, P. Zeigler
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Somatotherapy, History of, Pages 14600-14605, T.A. Ban
Abstract PDF (72 K)

South America: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 14607-14612, N.E. Whitten Jr.
Abstract PDF (74 K)

South Asia, Archaeology of, Pages 14612-14622, G.L. Possehl
Abstract PDF (493 K)

South Asia: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 14622-14627, A. Béteille
Abstract PDF (72 K)

South Asian Studies: Culture, Pages 14627-14631, M.M. Prasad
Abstract PDF (68 K)

South Asian Studies: Economics, Pages 14631-14636, N. Singh
Abstract PDF (75 K)

South Asian Studies: Environment, Pages 14636-14640, G. Utkarsh
Abstract PDF (65 K)

South Asian Studies: Geography, Pages 14640-14643, D.N. Zurick
Abstract PDF (58 K)

South Asian Studies: Health, Pages 14643-14650, S.C. Jain, N. Johri
Abstract PDF (89 K)

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South Asian Studies: Politics, Pages 14650-14656, C. Jaffrelot, J. Zerinini-Brotel
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Southeast Asia, Archaeology of, Pages 14656-14661, E.A. Bacus
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Southeast Asia: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 14661-14666, H.-D. Evers
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Culture, Pages 14666-14670, R.W. Hefner
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Economics, Pages 14670-14676, H. Hill
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Gender, Pages 14676-14680, B.W. Andaya
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Geography, Pages 14680-14683, M.J.G. Parnwell
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Health, Pages 14683-14687, P.T. Cohen
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Politics, Pages 14687-14691, R.H. Taylor
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Religion, Pages 14691-14697, R.S. Kipp
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Southeast Asian Studies: Society, Pages 14697-14701, A.B. Shamsul
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Southern Africa: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 14701-14706, R.J. Thornton
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Sovereignty: Political, Pages 14706-14709, S.D. Krasner
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Soviet Studies: Culture, Pages 14710-14715, O. Sezneva
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Soviet Studies: Economics, Pages 14715-14718, R.C. Stuart
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Soviet Studies: Education, Pages 14718-14723, M.S. Johnson
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Soviet Studies: Environment, Pages 14723-14728, C.E. Ziegler
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Soviet Studies: Gender, Pages 14728-14731, L. Attwood
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Soviet Studies: Geography, Pages 14731-14733, B. Mitchneck
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Soviet Studies: Politics, Pages 14733-14735, L. Shevtsova
Abstract PDF (53 K)

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Soviet Studies: Society, Pages 14735-14743, M. Titma, N.B. Tuma
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Space and Social Theory in Geography, Pages 14743-14749, B. Warf
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Space: Linguistic Expression, Pages 14749-14752, S.C. Levinson
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Spatial Analysis in Geography, Pages 14752-14758, M.M. Fischer
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Spatial Association, Measures of, Pages 14758-14763, A. Getis
Abstract PDF (184 K)

Spatial Autocorrelation, Pages 14763-14768, R.P. Haining
Abstract PDF (86 K)

Spatial Choice Models, Pages 14768-14771, H. Timmermans
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Spatial Cognition, Pages 14771-14775, D.R. Montello
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Spatial Data, Pages 14775-14778, S.C. Guptill
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Spatial Data Infrastructure, Pages 14778-14785, D. Rhind
Abstract PDF (364 K)

Spatial Decision Support Systems, Pages 14785-14788, G. Rushton
Abstract PDF (85 K)

Spatial Equity, Pages 14789-14792, R. Morrill
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Spatial Interaction, Pages 14792-14794, E.J. Taaffe
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Spatial Interaction Models, Pages 14794-14800, A.S. Fotheringham
Abstract PDF (92 K)

Spatial Labor Markets, Pages 14800-14804, H. Fassmann
Abstract PDF (155 K)

Spatial Memory Loss of Normal Aging: Animal Models and Neural Mechanisms,
Pages 14804-14807, C.A. Barnes
Abstract PDF (541 K)

Spatial Mismatch, Pages 14807-14811, S. McLafferty
Abstract PDF (429 K)

Spatial Optimization Models, Pages 14811-14818, R.L. Church
Abstract PDF (128 K)

Spatial Pattern, Analysis of, Pages 14818-14822, B. Boots
Abstract PDF (196 K)

Spatial Sampling, Pages 14822-14827, R.P. Haining
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Spatial Search Models, Pages 14827-14829, J.O. Huff
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Spatial Statistical Methods, Pages 14829-14836, L.M. Berliner
Abstract PDF (123 K)

Spatial Thinking in the Social Sciences, History of, Pages 14840-14843, P. Claval
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Spatial-temporal Modeling, Pages 14837-14840, E. Casetti
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Spatially Explicit Analysis in Environmental Studies, Pages 14843-14847, J.
Geoghegan
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Special Education in the United States: Legal History, Pages 14847-14851, J.D.
Smith
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Specialization and Recombination of Specialties in the Social Sciences, Pages
14851-14855, M. Dogan
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Species and Speciation, Pages 14855-14861, C.L. Boggs
Abstract PDF (98 K)

Spectral Analysis, Pages 14861-14864, J.N. Rayner
Abstract PDF (117 K)

Speech Errors, Psychology of, Pages 14864-14870, M. Garrett
Abstract PDF (118 K)

Speech Perception, Pages 14870-14875, D.W. Massaro
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Speech Production, Neural Basis of, Pages 14875-14879, N.F. Dronkers, J.V. Baldo
Abstract PDF (118 K)

Speech Production, Psychology of, Pages 14879-14882, H. Schriefers, G. Vigliocco
Abstract PDF (105 K)

Speech Recognition and Production by Machines, Pages 14882-14887, W. Ward
Abstract PDF (112 K)

Speed Reading, Pages 14887-14890, D.S. McNamara
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Spelling, Pages 14890-14894, M. Sebba
Abstract PDF (71 K)

Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903), Pages 14894-14898, J.H. Turner
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Sperry, Roger Walcott (1913–94), Pages 14899-14901, T.J. Voneida
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Spirit Possession, Anthropology of, Pages 14901-14904, Ute Luig
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Split Brain, Pages 14904-14909, C. Trevarthen
Abstract PDF (138 K)

Sport and Exercise Psychology:Overview, Pages 14909-14913, A.E. Abele, D.
Alfermann
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Sport Psychology: Performance Enhancement, Pages 14924-14928, S.J. Danish
Abstract PDF (96 K)

Sport Psychology: Training and Supervision, Pages 14929-14932, M.B. Andersen
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Sport, Anthropology of, Pages 14913-14916, E.P. Archetti
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Sport, Geography of, Pages 14916-14919, M.J. Bowden
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Sport, History of, Pages 14919-14924, C. Eisenberg
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Sport, Sociology of, Pages 14932-14935, T.W. Crosset
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Sports as Expertise, Psychology of, Pages 14935-14938, B. Abernethy
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Sports Performance, Age Differences in, Pages 14944-14947, M.J. Stones
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Sports Performance, Self-regulation of, Pages 14947-14952, J. Beckmann
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Sports, Economics of, Pages 14938-14944, G.W. Scully
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Standpoint Theory, in Science, Pages 14952-14955, S. Sismondo
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State and Local Taxation, Pages 14955-14961, L.P. Feld, F. Schneider
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State and Society, Pages 14961-14964, G. Poggi
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State Formation, Pages 14970-14972, I.V. Gruhn
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State, History of, Pages 14972-14978, W. Reinhard
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State, Sociology of the, Pages 14978-14983, H.L. Root
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State: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 14965-14970, J. Borneman
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States and Civilizations, Archaeology of, Pages 14983-14988, E.M. Brumfiel
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Statistical Analysis, Special Problems of: Grouped Observations, Pages 14995-
15002, Y. Haitovsky
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Statistical Analysis, Special Problems of: Outliers, Pages 15002-15006, T. Lewis
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Statistical Analysis, Special Problems of: Transformations of Data, Pages 15007-
15014, D. Ruppert
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Statistical Analysis: Multilevel Methods, Pages 14988-14994, W.M. Mason
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Statistical Clustering, Pages 15014-15019, J.A. Hartigan
Abstract PDF (93 K)

Statistical Data, Missing, Pages 15019-15025, R.J. Little, D.B. Rubin
Abstract PDF (100 K)

Statistical Identification and Estimability, Pages 15025-15031, G.M. Kaufman
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Statistical Methods, History of: Post-1900, Pages 15031-15037, T. Schweder
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Statistical Methods, History of: Pre-1900, Pages 15037-15040, T.M. Porter
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Statistical Pattern Recognition, Pages 15040-15044, R.M. Golden
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Statistical Sufficiency, Pages 15044-15049, N. Reid
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Statistical Systems: Censuses of Population, Pages 15049-15053, L. Kish
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Statistical Systems: Crime, Pages 15053-15056, T. Makkai
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Statistical Systems: Economic, Pages 15057-15062, J. Ryten
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Statistical Systems: Education, Pages 15062-15066, L. Suter
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Statistical Systems: Health, Pages 15066-15072, D. Leadbeter
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Statistical Systems: Labor, Pages 15072-15076, C. Sorrentino
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Statistics as Legal Evidence, Pages 15076-15080, S.L. Zabell
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Statistics, History of, Pages 15080-15085, A. Desrosières
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Statistics: The Field, Pages 15085-15090, S.E. Fienberg, J.B. Kadane
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Status and Role, Social Psychology of, Pages 15090-15095, G.M. Platt
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Status and Role: Structural Aspects, Pages 15095-15098, J. Scott
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Statutes of Limitations, Pages 15098-15100, M. Heise
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Stereotypes, Social Psychology of, Pages 15100-15104, M.R. Banaji
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Stevens, Stanley Smith (1906–73), Pages 15104-15108, R. Teghtsoonian
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Stigler, George Joseph (1911–91), Pages 15108-15112, M. Friedman
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Stigma, Social Psychology of, Pages 15112-15115, J.K. Swim, L.L. Hyers
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Stochastic Dynamic Models (Choice, Response, and Time), Pages 15115-15121,
P.L. Smith
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Stochastic Models, Pages 15121-15126, P.A. Ferrari
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Stock Market Predictability, Pages 15126-15133, B.G. Malkiel
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Stockholders' Ownership and Control, Pages 15133-15137, M. Useem
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Strategic Human Resources Management, Pages 15137-15142, K. Legge
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Strategic Intelligence, Pages 15143-15145, H.B. Westerfield
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Strategic Planning, Pages 15145-15151, J.M. Bryson
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Strategy: Organizational, Pages 15151-15154, R. Whipp
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Street Children: Cultural Concerns, Pages 15154-15157, C. Panter-Brick
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Street Children: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 15157-15160, S.H. Koller, C.S.
Hutz

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Stress and Cardiac Response, Pages 15160-15163, J. Vila
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Stress and Coping Theories, Pages 15163-15170, H.W. Krohne
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Stress and Health Research, Pages 15170-15175, B.M. Kudielka, C. Kirschbaum
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Stress at Work, Pages 15175-15179, J. Siegrist
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Stress in Organizations, Psychology of, Pages 15179-15184, R.L. Kahn
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Stress Management Programs, Pages 15184-15190, H. Weber
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Stress, Neural Basis of, Pages 15194-15198, T.J. Shors, B. Horvath
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Stress: Measurement by Self-report and Interview, Pages 15190-15194, R.J. Turner
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Stress: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 15198-15201, S.M. Monroe
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Stressful Medical Procedures, Coping with, Pages 15201-15204, H. Leventhal
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Strikes: Sociological Aspects, Pages 15204-15208, R. Franzosi
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Strong Program, in Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, Pages 15208-15210, D. Bloor
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Structural Contingency Theory, Pages 15210-15215, L. Donaldson
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Structural Equation Modeling, Pages 15215-15222, D. Kaplan
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Structuralism, Pages 15222-15225, R.H. Barnes
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Structuralism, History of, Pages 15225-15230, F. Dosse
PDF (80 K)

Structuralism, Theories of, Pages 15230-15233, W.V. Heydebrand
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Structure: Social, Pages 15233-15237, F. Chazel
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Sub-Saharan Africa, Archaeology of, Pages 15251-15255, J. Parkington
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Subaltern History, Pages 15237-15241, P. Chatterjee
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Subaltern Studies: Cultural Concerns, Pages 15241-15245, D. Simeon
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Subculture, Sociology of, Pages 15245-15247, F. Dubet
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Subjective Probability Judgments, Pages 15247-15251, M. Bar-Hillel
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Substance Abuse in Adolescents, Prevention of, Pages 15255-15259, G.J. Botvin
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Suicide, Pages 15259-15268, T. Bronisch
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Suicide, Sociology of, Pages 15273-15278, F. Gratton
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Suicide: Ethical Aspects, Pages 15268-15273, M.P. Battin
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Sun Exposure and Skin Cancer Prevention, Pages 15278-15281, M. Eid
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Supply Chain Management, Pages 15281-15285, J.M. Swaminathan
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Support and Self-help Groups and Health, Pages 15285-15290, B.H. Gottlieb
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Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Pages 15290-15294, R.Y. Moore
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Suprasegmentals, Pages 15294-15298, C. Gussenhoven
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Supreme Courts, Pages 15298-15303, C.R. Epp
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Surprise Examination, Pages 15303-15306, F. Jackson
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Survey and Excavation (Field Methods) in Archaeology, Pages 15306-15311, M.S.
Joukowsky
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Survey Research: National Centers, Pages 15311-15314, P.P. Mohler
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Surveys and Polling: Ethical Aspects, Pages 15314-15318, E. Singer
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Survival Analysis: Overview, Pages 15318-15325, R.L. Prentice, J.D. Kalbfleisch
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Sustainability Transition: Human–Environment Relationship, Pages 15325-15329,
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R.W. Kates
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Sustainable Development, Pages 15329-15335, J.C. Burgess, E.B. Barbier
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Sustainable Transportation, Pages 15335-15339, D.L. Greene
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Symbolic Boundaries: Overview, Pages 15341-15347, M. Lamont
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Symbolic Interaction: Methodology, Pages 15347-15350, A. Fontana
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Symbolism (Religious) and Icon, Pages 15354-15357, N. Kokosalakis
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Symbolism in Anthropology, Pages 15350-15354, R. Wagner
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Symptom Awareness and Interpretation, Pages 15357-15362, B. Knäuper
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Synapse Formation, Pages 15362-15366, A. Dityatev, M. Schachner
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Synapse Ultrastructure, Pages 15366-15371, A.C.W. Weeks
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Synaptic Efficacy, Regulation of, Pages 15371-15378, G.A. Clark
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Synaptic Transmission, Pages 15378-15386, H. Korn, D.S. Faber
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Syncretism, Pages 15386-15388, A. Droogers
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Syndromal Diagnosis versus Dimensional Assessment, Clinical Psychology of,
Pages 15388-15392, G. Andrews
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Syntactic Aspects of Language, Neural Basis of, Pages 15392-15397, A.D. Friederici
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Syntactic Control, Pages 15397-15401, K.-U. Panther
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Syntax, Pages 15401-15407, G. Fanselow
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Syntax–Phonology Interface, Pages 15407-15412, E. Selkirk
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Syntax–Semantics Interface, Pages 15412-15418, U. Sauerland, A. von Stechow
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System: Social, Pages 15418-15423, R. Fillieule
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Systems Modeling, Pages 15423-15428, P.C.M. Molenaar
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
About this Reference Work
Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Taboo, Pages 15429-15431, M. Lambek
Abstract PDF (53 K)

Tacit Knowledge, Psychology of, Pages 15431-15435, A.S. Reber
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Tactile Maps in Geography, Pages 15435-15437, R. Vasconcellos
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Talk Show in Media, Pages 15437-15440, A.G.D. Leurdijk
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Taste and Smell, Psychology of, Pages 15440-15442, J.C. Stevens
Abstract PDF (54 K)

Taste and Taste Culture, Pages 15442-15447, M. Ollivier, V. Fridman
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Taste, Neural Basis of, Pages 15447-15450, T.R. Scott
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes, Pages 15450-15454, J. Brophy
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Teacher Education, Pages 15454-15459, K.R. Howey, M. Wideen
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Teacher Expertise, Pages 15459-15465, R. Bromme
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Teacher Stress and Burnout: Methodological Perspectives, Pages 15465-15468,
R.S. Guglielmi
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Teaching and Learning in the Classroom, Pages 15468-15472, T.J. Shuell
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Teaching as a Profession, Pages 15472-15476, E. Hoyle
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Teaching for Thinking, Pages 15476-15479, R.E. Mayer
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Teaching Social Sciences: Cultural Concerns, Pages 15479-15483, D.N. Robinson
Abstract PDF (65 K)

Teaching: Trends in Research, Pages 15483-15487, V. Richardson
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Teamwork and Team Training, Pages 15487-15492, E. Salas, J.A. Cannon-Bowers
Abstract PDF (73 K)

Technological Change in a Multicultural Context, Applied Psychology of, Pages
15492-15495, B. Hesketh
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Technological Determinism, Pages 15495-15498, R.R. Kline
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Technological Innovation, Pages 15498-15502, L.M. Branscomb
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Technology and Organization, Pages 15502-15506, T.M.K. Tantoush
PDF (65 K)

Technology and Social Control, Pages 15506-15512, G.T. Marx
Abstract PDF (84 K)

Technology Assessment, Pages 15512-15515, A. Rip
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Technology Districts, Pages 15521-15522, I. Eng
Abstract PDF (45 K)

Technology Transfer, Pages 15532-15537, S. Visvanathan
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Technology-supported Learning Environments, Pages 15527-15532, E. De Corte
Abstract PDF (78 K)

Technology, Anthropology of, Pages 15515-15521, B. Pfaffenberger
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Technology, Social Construction of, Pages 15522-15527, W.E. Bijker
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Teen Sexuality, Pages 15537-15540, G.S. Abbott, D. Treboux
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Teenage Fertility, Pages 15540-15546, E.F. Jones
Abstract PDF (81 K)

Telecommunications and Information Policy, Pages 15546-15550, P. Chakravartty
Abstract PDF (65 K)

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Telecommunications: Policy, Pages 15550-15555, J.W. Cortada
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Telegraph, Pages 15555-15558, D. Hochfelder
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Telephone, Pages 15558-15565, J.E. Katz
Abstract PDF (88 K)

Televangelism, Pages 15565-15568, H. Warren
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Television: General, Pages 15568-15574, J. Gripsrud
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Television: Genres, Pages 15574-15578, J. D'Acci
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Television: History, Pages 15579-15583, J.L. Baughman
Abstract PDF (66 K)

Television: Industry, Pages 15583-15586, D. Gomery
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Temperament and Human Development, Pages 15586-15591, M.K. Rothbart
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Temperament: Familial Analysis and Genetic Aspects, Pages 15591-15595, J.B.
Asendorpf
Abstract PDF (230 K)

Temporal Lobe, Pages 15595-15599, K. Tanaka
Abstract PDF (227 K)

Tense, Aspect, and Mood, Linguistics of, Pages 15599-15601, Ö. Dahl
PDF (56 K)

Territoriality: Geographical, Pages 15601-15604, R.D. Sack
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Terrorism, Pages 15604-15606, M. Crenshaw
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Test Administration: Methodology, Pages 15607-15610, B.F. Green
Abstract PDF (56 K)

Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement, Pages 15610-15614, R. Pekrun
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Test Bias, Pages 15614-15619, L. Bond
Abstract PDF (106 K)

Test Theory: Applied Probabilistic Measurement Structures, Pages 15619-15625, H.
Scheiblechner
Abstract PDF (109 K)

Text Comprehension: Models in Psychology, Pages 15625-15631, S.R. Goldman,
M.B.W. Wolfe
Abstract PDF (81 K)

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Textbooks, Pages 15631-15636, R.L. Venezky
Abstract PDF (127 K)

Thematic Maps in Geography, Pages 15636-15641, M. Monmonier
Abstract PDF (382 K)

Theory in Archaeology, Pages 15647-15652, R.W. Preucel
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Theory of Mind, Pages 15652-15656, A.M. Leslie
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Theory: Conceptions in the Social Sciences, Pages 15641-15647, L. Mjøset
Abstract PDF (97 K)

Theory: Sociological, Pages 15656-15662, T.J. Fararo
Abstract PDF (80 K)

Therapist–Patient Relationship, Pages 15662-15665, P. Crits-Christoph
Abstract PDF (58 K)

Thick Description: Methodology, Pages 15665-15668, T.M. Luhrmann
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Think Tanks, Pages 15668-15671, D. Stone
Abstract PDF (57 K)

Third Parties: United States, Pages 15671-15673, P. Squire
Abstract PDF (51 K)

Third World, Pages 15673-15676, M. Owusu
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Thirst and Drinking, Pages 15676-15681, A.G. Watts
Abstract PDF (100 K)

Thorndike, Edward Lee (1874–1949), Pages 15681-15683, R.M. Thorndike
Abstract PDF (54 K)

Time Perception Models, Pages 15696-15699, L.G. Allan
Abstract PDF (90 K)

Time Series Quasi-experiment, Pages 15735-15739, R. McCleary
Abstract PDF (165 K)

Time Series: Advanced Methods, Pages 15699-15704, W.K. Li, H. Tong
Abstract PDF (115 K)

Time Series: ARIMA Methods, Pages 15704-15709, G.C. Tiao
Abstract PDF (123 K)

Time Series: Co-integration, Pages 15709-15714, N.H. Chan
Abstract PDF (107 K)

Time Series: Cycles, Pages 15714-15721, M.W. Watson
Abstract PDF (149 K)

Time Series: Economic Forecasting, Pages 15721-15724, J.H. Stock
Abstract PDF (74 K)

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Time Series: General, Pages 15724-15731, D.R. Brillinger
PDF (164 K)

Time Series: Nonstationary Distributions and Unit Roots, Pages 15731-15735, D.A.
Dickey
Abstract PDF (91 K)

Time Series: Seasonal Adjustment, Pages 15739-15746, E.B. Dagum
Abstract PDF (149 K)

Time-geography, Pages 15692-15696, N. Thrift, P. Glennie
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Time-use and Gender, Pages 15749-15752, T. van der Lippe
Abstract PDF (64 K)

Time-use: Research Methods, Pages 15752-15756, J. Gershuny
Abstract PDF (72 K)

Time, Anthropology of, Pages 15683-15686, E.K. Silverman
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Time, Chronology, and Periodization in History, Pages 15686-15692, M. Sato
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Time–Space in Geography, Pages 15746-15749, D.G. Janelle
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Timing: Psychological and Neural Aspects, Pages 15756-15759, R.M. Church
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Tip-of-the-tongue, Psychology of, Pages 15759-15762, G. Vigliocco
Abstract PDF (63 K)

Tocqueville, Alexis de (1805–59), Pages 15762-15766, B. Valade
Abstract PDF (83 K)

Tolerance, Pages 15766-15771, D.C. Mutz
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Topographic Maps in the Brain, Pages 15771-15775, J.H. Kaas
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Torts, in Law, Pages 15775-15779, T. Tanase
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Torture and its Consequences, Psychology of, Pages 15779-15783, M. Başoğlu
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Torture: Legal Perspectives, Pages 15783-15786, G. Kaiser
Abstract PDF (61 K)

Tory, Pages 15786-15788, N. Ashford
Abstract PDF (52 K)

Totalitarianism, Pages 15788-15791, L. Holmes
Abstract PDF (59 K)

Totalitarianism: Impact on Social Thought, Pages 15791-15794, R. Fine
Abstract PDF (60 K)

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Totemism, Pages 15795-15797, W. Shapiro
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Tourism, Pages 15797-15800, S. Yamashita
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Tourism, Geography of, Pages 15800-15803, A.M. Williams, G. Shaw
Abstract PDF (60 K)

Trade and Exchange, Archaeology of, Pages 15803-15807, G.R. Summerhayes
Abstract PDF (67 K)

Trade Unions, Economic Behavior of, Pages 15807-15813, A.L. Booth
Abstract PDF (139 K)

Trade Unions: Empirical Analyses, Pages 15813-15819, H.S. Farber
Abstract PDF (94 K)

Tradition, Anthropology of, Pages 15819-15824, R. Bauman
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Traditions in Sociology, Pages 15824-15829, E.A. Tiryakian
Abstract PDF (76 K)

Traditions: Social, Pages 15829-15833, S. Langlois
Abstract PDF (70 K)

Training in Clinical Psychology in the United States: Practitioner Model, Pages
15833-15836, S.L. Harris
Abstract PDF (62 K)

Training in Clinical Psychology in the United States: Scientist–Practitioner
Model, Pages 15836-15840, B.R. Strickland
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Transaction Costs and Property Rights, Pages 15840-15845, O.E. Williamson
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Transfer of Learning, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 15845-15851, G. Steiner
Abstract PDF (133 K)

Transference in Psychoanalysis, Pages 15851-15856, R.S. Wallerstein
Abstract PDF (75 K)

Transition, Economics of, Pages 15856-15857, J. Svejnar
Abstract PDF (43 K)

Transnational Citizenship: Cultural Concerns, Pages 15857-15862, C. Leggewie
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Transnational Religious Identities (Islam, Catholicism, and Judaism): Cultural
Concerns, Pages 15862-15866, D.F. Eickelman
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Transportation Geography, Pages 15866-15873, G. Giuliano
Abstract PDF (674 K)

Transportation Planning, Pages 15873-15878, R. Cervero
Abstract PDF (116 K)

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Transportation, Psychology of, Pages 15878-15882, R.W. Novaco
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Transportation: Supply and Congestion, Pages 15882-15888, A. de Palma, R. Lindsey
Abstract PDF (139 K)

Transsexuality, Transvestism, and Transgender, Pages 15888-15893, D. Valentine, D.
Kulick
Abstract PDF (82 K)

Treatment of the Repetitive Criminal Sex Offender: United States, Pages 15893-
15897, R.A. Prentky, B.K. Schwartz
Abstract PDF (68 K)

Trials: Cultural, Pages 15897-15901, M.M. Feeley
Abstract PDF (69 K)

Triangulation: Methodology, Pages 15901-15906, L. Heath
Abstract PDF (74 K)

Tribe, Pages 15906-15909, A. Gingrich
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Tropospheric Ozone: Agricultural Implications, Pages 15909-15913, W.L. Chameides
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Trust, Sociology of, Pages 15922-15926, M. Levi
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Trust: Cultural Concerns, Pages 15913-15917, P. Sztompka
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Trust: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 15917-15922, K. Jones
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Truth and Credibility: Science and the Social Study of Science, Pages 15926-
15932, S. Shapin
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Truth, Verification, Verisimilitude, and Evidence: Philosophical Aspects, Pages
15932-15937, G. Oddie
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Tversky, Amos (1937–96), Pages 15937-15941, B. Fischhoff
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Unconscious: History of the Concept, Pages 15943-15945, D. Levy
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Underclass, Pages 15945-15948, W.J. Wilson, J.M. Quane, B.H. Rankin
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Unemployment and Mental Health, Pages 15948-15951, D. Fryer
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Unemployment: Structural, Pages 15952-15958, A. Lindbeck
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Uneven Development, Geography of, Pages 15958-15962, N. Smith
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Unfolding and Vector Models, Pages 15962-15968, J.D. Carroll
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Unitary State, Pages 15968-15971, R.A.W. Rhodes
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United Nations: Political Aspects, Pages 15971-15974, L. Gordenker
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Universities and Science and Technology: Europe, Pages 15974-15978, B. Sporn
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Universities and Science and Technology: United States, Pages 15978-15983, M.A.
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Universities, in the History of the Social Sciences, Pages 15983-15990, S. Rothblatt
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Unobtrusive Measures, Pages 15990-15994, L. Sechrest, R.J. Hill
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Urban Activity Patterns, Pages 15995-15999, R. Kitamura
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Urban Anthropology, Pages 15999-16004, S.M. Low
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Urban Ethnography, Pages 16004-16008, E. Anderson
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Urban Geography, Pages 16008-16015, R. Schneider-Sliwa
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Urban Government: Europe, Pages 16015-16018, P. Le Galès
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Urban Growth Models, Pages 16018-16021, B. Harris
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Urban History, Pages 16021-16026, K. Ugawa
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Urban Life and Health, Pages 16026-16029, A.T. Geronimus
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Urban Life: Future Developments, Pages 16029-16031, M.A. Hughes
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Urban Places, Planning for the Use of: Design Guide, Pages 16031-16035, J. Barnett
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Urban Places: Statistical Definitions, Pages 16035-16040, S. Moses
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Urban Planning (Chinese), History of, Pages 16044-16047, M. Shi
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Urban Planning (Western), History of, Pages 16058-16063, R. Freestone
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Urban Planning: Central City Revitalization, Pages 16040-16044, D.E. Gale
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Urban Planning: Competitions and Exhibitions, Pages 16047-16051, C. Hein
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Urban Planning: Growth Management, Pages 16051-16055, A.C. Nelson
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Urban Planning: Methods and Technologies, Pages 16055-16058, R.E. Klosterman
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Urban Policy: Europe, Pages 16063-16070, R.H. Williams
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Urban Policy: North America, Pages 16070-16076, M.B. Teitz
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Urban Politics: United States, Pages 16076-16079, P. Eisinger
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Urban Poverty in Neighborhoods, Pages 16079-16082, J.E. Grigsby III
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Urban Sociology, Pages 16082-16087, A. Scaglia
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Urban Sprawl, Pages 16087-16092, R. Bruegmann
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Urban Studies: Overview, Pages 16092-16099, R. LeGates
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Urban System in Geography, Pages 16099-16104, P. Hall
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User Interface Design, Pages 16104-16107, K.R. Paap
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Utilitarian Social Thought, History of, Pages 16107-16111, J.E. Crimmins
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Utilitarianism: Contemporary Applications, Pages 16111-16113, R. Hardin
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Utility and Subjective Probability: Contemporary Theories, Pages 16113-16121, P.
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Utility and Subjective Probability: Empirical Studies, Pages 16121-16123, B.A.
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Utopias: Social, Pages 16123-16127, B. Cazes
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Valency and Argument Structure in Syntax, Pages 16129-16132, J.J. Song
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Value of Life, Economics of, Pages 16133-16139, G.C. Blomquist
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Value Pluralism, Pages 16139-16145, R.E. Chang
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Values, Anthropology of, Pages 16145-16148, J. Peacock
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Values, Development of, Pages 16148-16150, L. Kuczynski
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Values, Sociology of, Pages 16153-16158, R. Rezsohazy
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Values: Psychological Perspectives, Pages 16150-16153, D. Oyserman
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Venture Capital, Pages 16158-16161, M. Kenney
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Verbal Communication, Psychology of, Pages 16161-16165, R.M. Krauss
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Verstehen and Erklären, Philosophy of, Pages 16165-16170, J. Bransen
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Vestibular System, Pages 16170-16176, H. Scherer, A.H. Clarke
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Vestibulo-ocular Reflex, Adaptation of the, Pages 16176-16179, M. Ito
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Violence and Effects on Children, Pages 16184-16187, J. Garbarino
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Violence and Media, Pages 16187-16192, C. Whitney, E. Wartella
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Violence as a Problem of Health, Pages 16192-16196, R.P. Lorion
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Violence in Anthropology, Pages 16202-16206, K.B. Warren
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Violence, History of, Pages 16196-16202, H.-G. Haupt
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Violence: Public, Pages 16206-16211, C. Tilly
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Virtual Reality and Spatial Cognition, Pages 16211-16214, S. Gillner, H.A. Mallot
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Virtual Reality, Psychology of, Pages 16214-16218, S. Turkle
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Virtue Ethics, Pages 16218-16224, C. Swanton
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Vision for Action: Neural Mechanisms, Pages 16224-16228, M. Jeannerod
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Vision, High-level Theory of, Pages 16228-16232, J. Wagemans
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Vision, Low-level Theory of, Pages 16232-16237, H.R. Wilson
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Vision, Psychology of, Pages 16237-16246, L.O. Harvey Jr.
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Visual Anthropology, Pages 16246-16250, P. Loizos
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Visual Development: Infant, Pages 16250-16255, R.N. Aslin
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Visual Imagery, Neural Basis of, Pages 16255-16259, M.J. Farah
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Visual Images in the Media, Pages 16259-16264, J. Huxford
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Visual Memory, Psychology of, Pages 16264-16266, S. Magnussen
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Visual Methods in the Social Sciences, Pages 16266-16269, D. Harper
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Visual Perception, Neural Basis of, Pages 16269-16274, O. Braddick
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Visual Space, Geometry of, Pages 16274-16278, J. Lukas
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Visual System in the Brain, Pages 16278-16285, D.J. Felleman
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Visual Systems: Dorsal and Ventral, Pages 16285-16288, A.D. Milner
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Visualization: Representation in Science, Pages 16288-16292, M. Lynch
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Vocabulary Acquisition, Psychology of, Pages 16292-16294, M. Shatz
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Vocational Education and Training, Pages 16294-16299, M.E. Poole, J. Stevenson
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Vocational Interests, Values, and Preferences, Psychology of, Pages 16299-16302,
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Voluntary Associations, Sociology of, Pages 16302-16306, H.K. Anheier
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Voluntary Organizations, Pages 16306-16308, J. Van Til, A.P. Williamson
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Volunteerism, Psychology of, Pages 16308-16311, M. Snyder
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Voting, Sociology of, Pages 16324-16328, N. Mayer
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Voting: Class, Pages 16311-16314, G. Evans
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Voting: Compulsory, Pages 16314-16318, S. Jackman
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Voting: Issue, Pages 16318-16321, S. Macdonald, G. Rabinowitz
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Voting: Retrospective/Prospective, Pages 16321-16324, D.R. Kiewiet
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Voting: Tactical, Pages 16328-16330, G.W. Cox
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Voting: Turnout, Pages 16330-16333, B. Highton
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Vulnerability and Perceived Susceptibility, Psychology of, Pages 16333-16335, J.
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Vygotskij, Lev Semenovic (1896–1934), Pages 16335-16339, R. van der Veer
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Vygotskij's Theory of Human Development and New Approaches to Education,
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Wage Differentials and Structure, Pages 16345-16350, G. Johnson
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War Crimes Tribunals, Pages 16357-16360, J. Hagan
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War, Political Violence and their Psychological Effects on Children: Cultural
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War, Sociology of, Pages 16363-16367, E. Kiser
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War: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 16350-16354, C.R. Nordstrom
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War: Causes and Patterns, Pages 16354-16357, J.S. Levy
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Warfare in History, Pages 16367-16373, M.S. Neiberg
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Water Pollution: Marine, Pages 16373-16377, T. Jickells
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Water Pollution: Terrestrial and Groundwater, Pages 16377-16382, A. Cundy
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Water Resources, Pages 16382-16387, J.L. Wescoat Jr.
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Waterfront Planning, Pages 16387-16389, D. Gordon
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Wayfinding and Navigation Behavior, Pages 16391-16394, S.M. Freundschuh
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Wealth Distribution, Pages 16394-16401, E.N. Wolff
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Weber, Max (1864–1920), Pages 16401-16407, S.P. Turner
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Weberian Social Thought, History of, Pages 16407-16412, C. Turner
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Weight Regulation: Psychological Aspects, Pages 16412-16416, J. Wardle
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Welfare, Pages 16416-16420, A.-M. Guillemard
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Welfare Programs, Economics of, Pages 16426-16432, R.M. Blank
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Welfare State, Pages 16432-16435, M. Weir
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Welfare State, Geography of, Pages 16435-16439, L. Staeheli
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Welfare State, History of, Pages 16439-16445, E.P. Hennock
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Welfare: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 16420-16426, J. Riley
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Well-being (Subjective), Psychology of, Pages 16451-16454, E. Diener
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Well-being and Burnout in the Workplace, Psychology of, Pages 16445-16447, S.
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Well-being and Health: Proactive Coping, Pages 16447-16451, L.G. Aspinwall
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West Africa: Sociocultural Aspects, Pages 16454-16458, P. Richards
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Western Europe Studies: Health, Pages 16479-16484, E.M. Immergut
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Western European Studies: Culture, Pages 16458-16463, M. Berezin
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Western European Studies: Economics, Pages 1-7, P.F. Asso, A. Cognata
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Western European Studies: Environment, Pages 16463-16467, W. Rüdig
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Western European Studies: Gender and History, Pages 16467-16473, K. Crawford
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Western European Studies: Geography, Pages 16473-16479, R. Hudson
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Western European Studies: Religion, Pages 16484-16488, B.S. Turner
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Western European Studies: Society, Pages 16488-16494, K.W. Moore
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Whig, Pages 16494-16496, G. Peele
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White-collar Workers, History of, Pages 16496-16500, M. Prinz
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Williams Syndrome, Pages 16500-16504, A. Karmiloff-Smith
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Wisdom, Psychology of, Pages 16510-16514, U.M. Staudinger
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Wisdom: Philosophical Aspects, Pages 16504-16510, W. Welsch
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Witchcraft, Pages 16514-16517, P. Geschiere
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Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951), Pages 16517-16522, E. von Savigny
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Women and Psychiatry, Pages 16522-16528, C. Nadelson
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Women's Health, Pages 16528-16532, M.N. Haan
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Women's Religiosity, Pages 16532-16534, G. Davie, T. Walter
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Women's Suffrage, Pages 16534-16538, K. Offen
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Word Classes and Parts of Speech, Pages 16538-16545, M. Haspelmath
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Word Meaning: Psychological Aspects, Pages 16549-16552, B.C. Malt
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Word Order, Pages 16552-16555, A. Siewierska
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Word Recognition, Cognitive Psychology of, Pages 16556-16561, M.A. Moreno, G.C.
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Work and Labor: History of the Concept, Pages 16561-16565, B. Zimmermann
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Work, History of, Pages 16569-16575, J. Ehmer
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Work, Sociology of, Pages 16575-16579, F.C. Gamst
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Work: Anthropological Aspects, Pages 16565-16569, G. Spittler
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Working Classes, History of, Pages 16579-16583, M. Van der Linden
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Working Memory, Neural Basis of, Pages 16583-16587, M. Petrides
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Working Memory, Psychology of, Pages 16587-16593, R.H. Logie, S. Della Sala
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Workplace Environmental Psychology, Pages 16593-16598, E. Sundstrom
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Workplace Safety and Health, Pages 16598-16604, S. Salminen
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Worksite Health Promotion and Wellness Programs, Pages 16604-16609, J.T.S. Ho
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World Systems Theory, Pages 16609-16613, D. Chirot
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World Trade Organization, Pages 16613-16616, J. Whalley
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Wright, Sewall (1889–1988), Pages 16616-16619, J.F. Crow
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Writing Instruction, Pages 16625-16629, D. Galbraith
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Writing Process, Psychology of, Pages 16629-16633, R.T. Kellogg
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Writing Systems, Pages 16633-16640, R.D. Woodard
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Writing Systems, Psychology of, Pages 16640-16643, D.R. Olson
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Writing, Evolution of, Pages 16619-16625, D. Schmandt-Besserat
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Wundt, Wilhelm Maximilian (1832–1920), Pages 16644-16647, L. Sprung
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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences
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Editors-in-Chief: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes
ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Xenophobia, Pages 16649-16652, H.-R. Wicker
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ISBN: 978-0-08-043076-8
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Y-chromosomes and Evolution, Pages 16653-16657, A. Ruiz-Linares
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Youth Culture, Anthropology of, Pages 16657-16660, V. Amit
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Youth Culture, Sociology of, Pages 16660-16664, M. Buchmann
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Youth Gangs, Pages 16664-16668, C.S. Taylor
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Youth Movements, Pages 16668-16671, R.G. Braungart, M.M. Braungart
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Youth Movements, History of, Pages 16671-16674, J. Reulecke
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Youth Sports, Psychology of, Pages 16674-16678, D.L. Feltz
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Youth to Adulthood across Cultures, Transition from, Pages 16678-16682, A. Grob
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Zionism, Pages 16683-16685, S. Avineri
Abstract PDF (48 K)

Zionism, History of, Pages 16685-16691, J. Reinharz, M.A. Raider
Abstract PDF (79 K)

Zooarchaeology, Pages 16691-16695, D.K. Grayson
Abstract PDF (64 K)

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