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CHAPTER 5 : CELL DIVISION

 5.2 : MEIOSIS



 In human, meiosis occurs in OVARIES and TESTIS
 In plant, meiosis occurs in OVULES of ovaries and ANTHERS




 Process Of Meiosis In Animal Cells
Interphase
o Occurs before meiosis I
o Cell increase in size
o Reduplication of DNA occurs. There is duplication of chromosomes
o The centrioles replicate

Meiosis I
 Prophase I
o Early prophase :
a) Chromosomes begins to coil and condense (become shorter and thicker)
b) Each chromosomes consist of a pair of chromatids joined at the centromere
c) Homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes pair up in a process called
synapsis to from bivalents
the process of nuclear division to
produce gametes
produce 4 gametes

each gametes has only half the number of chromosomes (haploid,n) from the
number of chromosomes (diploid,2n) of parent cell
MEIOSIS
MEIOSIS
MEIOSIS I
MEIOSIS
II
d) Crossing-over occurs. There is exchange of segments of genetic material
between non-sister chromatids within a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Crossing-over occurs at sites known as chiasmata
o Late prophase:
a) Nucleolus and nuclear membrane break down
b) Centrioles separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
c) Spindle fibre begin to form
 Metaphase I
o Homologous pairs of chromosomes (bivalents) are arranged across the equator of
the spindle, attached by their centromeres
o The random arrangement of the homologous pairs of the chromosomes
(independent assortment) and their subsequent separation are factors that cause
genetic variation among gametes

 Anaphase I
o Spindle fibre pull the homologous chromosomes away from each other to the
opposite poles of the cell.
o The chromosomes number is halved
 Telophase I
o Chromosomes arrive at the poles, elongate and become long, thin chromatin
threads again
o Nuclear membrane reform
o Two haploid sets of chromosomes are created
o This is usually followed by cytokinesis. The cell divides to form two haploid
cells
Meiosis I is a reduction division. The number of replicated chromosomes is halves

Meiosis II
 Prophase II
o Chromosomes condense and shorten
o Nuclear membrane breaks down
 Metaphase II
o Homologous pairs of chromosomes (bivalents) are arranged across the equator of
the spindle, attached by their centromeres
o The random arrangement (independent assortment) of the chromosomes
relative to each other. This are factors that cause genetic variation in gametes.
o At the end of metaphase II, each centromere divides into two
 Anaphase II
o The spindle fibres shorten, the sister chromatids separate and are pulled to
opposite poles
o Each chromatid is now a daughter chromosome
 Telophase II
o Each pair of sister chromatids arrived at the opposite poles of the spindle, nuclear
membrane and nucleolus re-form
o The chromosomes elongate and become long, thin threads again (chromatin)
o Followed by cytokinesis
o Four haploid daughter cells are produced. They are genetically different and will
develop into gametes