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INTRODUCTION 1
Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible
heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller
temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. Two aspects have been the focus of this review:
PCM materials and heat pipe. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a
wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap
and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large
surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity. Inorganic
PCMs generally have a volumetric latent heat storage capacity that is twice that of organic compounds.
However, organic PCMs such as alkenes and paraffins generally have the advantages of melting congruently,
of self-nucleation, and of being noncorrosive to conventional materials. A detailed discussion of choices for
PCMs is available in review of literature.
The objective of the work here presented was to design, construct and run an experimental
installation to study PCMs with a melting temperature around 32–36
0
C. This installation could lead to a
feasibility study of a free-cooling installation to store outdoors cold during the night and release it indoors
during the day (Fig. 1). In a system for free cooling many factors, such as air inlet temperature, air flow,
material used, etc. interact.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2
2.1 Introduction
Free cooling is a replacement of air conditioning system by new system that is night time cooling
system. In this proposed work of experiment, a fan is used to throw air over the exposed end of heat pipes.
The other end of heat pipes are attached with PCM storage module. During the day, the warm air inside the
room is cooled by the PCM i.e. heat is transfer to the PCM. During night, shutters are open in such a way that
the cool air from the outside passes over the heat pipes and extracts heat from the PCM. The cycle is then
repeated next day. Suggested by R.Velraj, A.Pasupathy [1]
The advantages of this system are,
 System is free from ozone depletion potential and global warming potential unlike refrigerator and air
conditioner.
 Systems provide the potential to attain the energy saving which reduce the environment impact.
 Systems meet the need of cooling at low cost.

2.2 Phase Change Material
Phase Change Material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at
certain temperatures, is capable of storing or releasing large amounts of energy. Phase change materials are
latent heat storage substance, in which energy is store in the process of changing the state i.e. either by solid
to liquid or liquid to solid. When phase change materials attain the temperature at which phase change
occur, they absorb large amount of energy and phase change material solidifies, releasing its stored latent
heat when the ambient temperature around phase change material drops.
According to M.Fatih Demirbas [2].The amount of heat energy that can be stored in phase change
material is estimated by,
Heat energy (Q) = (change in temperature) (mass) (specific heat).
2.2.1 Required properties for Phase Change Material
 Melting point according to need of temperature.
 Large amount of heat of fusion.
 Large thermal conductivity.
 Little temperature difference between the melting point and solidification point.
 Harmlessness.
 Low toxicity.
 Nonflammability.
 High density.
 Stability.


2.2.2 Types Of Phase Change Material

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PCM may be organic or inorganic materials. The phase changes comprise predominantly solid-liquid
transitions for thermal storage applications.
(i) Inorganic PCM
These materials are salt hydrates, the phase change properties of these materials are shown in Table 1.
These PCMs have some attractive properties including high latent heat values, they are not flammable and
their high water content means that they are inexpensive and readily available. However, their unsuitable
characteristics have led to the investigation of organic PCMs for this purpose. These include corrosiveness,
instability, improper re-solidification, and a tendency to super cool.

Table 2.1: Salt hydrate PCMs (typical values)

PCM
Melting Point
(
0
C)
Heat of Fusion
(kJ/kg)

KF.4H
2
O

Potassium fluoride tetra hydrate
18.5 231
Mn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O
Manganese nitrate hexahydrate
25.8 125.9
CaCl
2
.6H
2
O
Calcium chloride hexahydrate
29.0 190.8
CaBr
2
.6H
2
O
Calcium bromide hexahydrate
30.2 115.5
Li NO
3
.6H
2
O
Lithium nitrate
hexahydrate
30.0 296
Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O
Sodium sulphate
ecahydrate
32.4 254
Na
2
CO
3
.10H
2
O
Sodium carbonate decahydrate
34.2 146.9
Na
2
HPO
4
.12H
2
O
Sodium orthophosphate
dodecahydrate
35.5 265
Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O
Zinc nitrate
hexahydrate
36.2 246.5

Source [3]
(ii) Organic PCMs
Organic PCMs have a number of characteristics which render them useful for latent heat storage. They
are more chemically stable than inorganic substances, they melt congruently and super cooling does not pose
as a significant problem. Although the initial cost of organic PCMs is higher than that of the inorganic type,
the installed cost is competitive.
However, these organic materials do have their quota of unsuitable properties. Of the most significant
of these characteristics, they are flammable and they may generate harmful fumes on combustion. Other
problems, which can arise in a minority of cases, are a reaction with the products of hydration in concrete,
thermal oxidative ageing, odors and an appreciable volume change. The most promising selection of these
organic PCMs is shown in Table 2.2




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Table 2.2: Organic PCMs (typical values)
PCM
Melting Point
(
0
C)
Heat of Fusion
(kJ/kg)

CH
3
(CH
2
)16COO (CH
2
)3CH
3

Butyl stearate
19 140
CH
3
(CH
2
)11OH
1-dodecanol
26 200
CH
3
(CH
2
)12OH
1-tetradecanol

38 205
CH
3
(CH
2
) n (CH3..
Paraffin

20-60
200

45% CH
3
(CH
2
)8COOH
55% CH
3
(CH
2
)10COOH
45/55 capric-lauric acid
21 143
CH
3
(CH
2
)12COOC3H7
Propyl palmitate

19 186

Source [4]
2.3 Heat Pipe
A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that can transport large quantities of heat with a very small
difference in temperature between the hot and cold interfaces.
A typical heat pipe consists of a sealed hollow tube, which is made from a thermo conductive metal
such as copper or aluminum. The pipe contains a relatively small quantity of working fluid. On the internal
side of the tube's side-walls a wick structure exerts a capillary force on the liquid phase of the working fluid.

2.3.1 Common Wick Structure and Their Characteristics For Heat Pipe


Axial Groove Fine Fiber Screen Mesh Sintering

There are four common wick structures used in commercially produced heat pipes; groove, wire mesh,
powder metal/sintering and fiber. Each wick structure has its advantages and disadvantages.. Every wick
structure has its own capillary limit. The groove heat pipe has the lowest capillary limit among the four, but
works best under gravity assisted conditions where the condenser is located above the evaporator. The rate
of vapor traveling from the evaporator to the condenser is governed by the difference in vapor pressure
between them. It is also affected by the diameter and the length of the heat pipe. In the large diameter heat
pipe, the cross sectional area will allow higher vapor volume to be transported from the evaporator to the
condenser than in a small diameter pipe. The rate of working fluid return from the condenser to the
evaporator is governed by capillary limit and is the reciprocal function of the heat pipe length. A longer heat
pipe transports less heat versus the same heat pipe with a shorter length.



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Wicking Material Conductivity Overcome Gravity Stability

Axial Groove Good Poor Good
Screen Mesh Average Average Average
Fine Fiber Poor Good Poor
Sintering Average Excellent Average

2.3.2 Typical Operating Characteristics Of Heat Pipes

Temperature
Range ( °C)
Working Fluid Vessel
Material
-200 to -80 Liquid Nitrogen Stainless
Steel
-70 to +60 Liquid Ammonia Nickel,
Aluminum,
Stainless
Steel
-45 to +120 Methanol Copper,
Nickel,
Stainless
Steel
+5 to +230 Water Copper,
Nickel
+190 to +550 Mercury
+0.02%
Magnesium
+0.001%
Stainless
Steel
+400 to +800 Potassium Nickel,
Stainless
Steel

Table 2.3
Source [5]
2.4 Parameters influencing the LHTES
According to C. Arkar, S. Medved [6], the parameters which influence latent heat thermal energy
storage are the mass of the PCM (m
PCM
), in the storage and the air volume flow rate V in m
3
/h), the LHTES
have the same specific air-flow rate, defined by Eq.
V
sp
= V/ m
PCM
He also concluded that the aspect ratio, L/D has a larger influence on the LHTES.
Another important parameter that has an influence on the thermal response and on the efficiency of the free
cooling system is the melting temperature of the PCM.
2.5 Measurements of physical properties of PCM
Katsunori Nagano et al. [7], by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) analyses the thermal properties,
such as the melting and the solidification points and the heat of fusion. From these analyses, he was
concluded that Mn (NO3)2.6H2O (Manganese Nitrate Hexahydrate) has a large possibility of PCM for TES of
the cooling system. Also, the features of this substance are general, nontoxic, non-inflammable properties
and its high density.
V.V.Tyagi, D.Buddhi [8], studied the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of
calcium chloride hexahydrate (CaCl2.6H
2
O) inorganic salt as a latent heat storage material, he conducted a
thousand of accelerated thermal cycle tests. He determined the effect of thermal cycling and the reliability in
terms of the changing of the melting temperature using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). He has
noticed that the CaCl2.6H
2
O melts between a stable range of temperature (29.2
0
C) and has shown small
variations in the latent heat of fusion during the thermal cycling process. Thus, it can be a promising phase
change material (PCM) for heating and cooling applications.
According to Mohammed M. Farid et al. [9], the extra water principle was used to prevent the
formation of anhydrous salts, due to which the storage density of the hydrated salts is reduced. The
crystallization temperature of these hydrated salts is between 30
0
C and 50
0
C, which make them very
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suitable for cooling and heating applications. The high storage density of inorganic PCM is difficult to
maintain and usually decreases with cycling, this result in formation of the lower hydrated salt. The hydrated
salts studied were CaCl
2
.6H
2
O, Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O, Na
2
HPO
4
.12H
2
O, Na
2
CO
3
.10H
2
O, Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O and found to
be very suitable for thermal energy storage because of their physical properties. .


EXPERIMENTATION & METHODOLOGY 3
3.1 Details Of Experimental Set-Up
Fig 3.1 shows the schematic diagram of the experimental setup. It is a cabinet made up of G.I. sheet
and heat lawn as insulation. It consist of two heat pipe as a heat transfer media and PCM storage module
attaching the outer end of heat pipe as shown in fig. 3.1. Cabinet has two opening at the top and bottom to
enter and release outside cold air during night. Outside of cabinet it consists of U-tube manometer in which
water is use as a manometric fluid for pressure drop measurement. Eight thermocouple are use to measure
the temperature of heat pipe, PCM module, inside and outside temperature of cabinet.


Fig 3.1 Schematic of Free cooling system

3.2 Phase Change Material for Experimentation

The phase change material used for experimentation are Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O and
Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O).
The properties of these phase change material are:








ENERGY METER






















T4
3


T1
T3
T6
T5

T8
T7
TEMP. INDICATOR

T2
WATER TUBE
MANOMETER
6
Table: 3.1 properties of phase change material
P
h
a
s
e

c
h
a
n
g
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

D
e
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n

A
p
p
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

B
a
s
e

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

P
h
a
s
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

T
e
m
p
.
o
C

S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

G
r
a
v
i
t
y

H
e
a
t

o
f

f
u
s
i
o
n
/
K
g

S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

H
e
a
t
K
j
/
K
g

T
h
e
r
m
a
l

C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
/
m

o
C

C
o
n
g
r
u
e
n
t

M
e
l
t
i
n
g

F
l
a
m
m
a
b
i
l
i
t
y


H
a
z
a
r
d
o
u
s


Zn(NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O
Solid Whit
e
Inorganic
salt
36.2 1.45 246.
5
2 0.6 YES NO NO
Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O
Solid Whit
e
Inorganic
salt
32.4

1.45 254 2 0.6 YES NO NO

3.3 Experimental Procedure
In the apparatus fan is use to throw the warm air inside cabinet during day over the exposed ends of
heat pipe which transfer heat from one end to another end at which PCM are filled in container and these
container are attached with other end of heat pipe, thus heat from the air inside the cabinet is abstract and
stored in PCM, thus air inside the cabinet get cooled after some time. During this process melting of Phase
Change Material (PCM) is occurred. During this process the shutters are closed i.e. top and bottom opening of
cabinet. Now during the night time both the shutter are open so that the cold air from atmosphere is enter in
cabinet and passes over the exposed end of heat pipe so that due to the temperature difference of PCM and
cold air, heat transfer takes place from PCM container to cold air. As heat is release from PCM, therefore it
get solidify. This process is called charging of PCM.
As the fan is put ON, warm air passes over the heat pipe, measure the temperature of all distinguish
point by using thermocouple at starting of experimentation, including temperature of heat pipe, temperature
of PCM, inside and outside WBT and DBT. Measure the manometer reading to calculate the velocity of air.
Take a temperature reading and energy meter reading at an interval of 30 min. Enthalpy of air is find out by
using psychometric chart. COP is calculate by enthalpy difference and energy meter input. A graph is plotted
Temperature vs. Time and temperature vs. Enthalpy. This experimental procedure is carried out for two
different phase change material. These are Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O and Sodium Sulphate
Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O).
3.4 Data Collection (Observations)

To calculate the coefficient of performance (COP). Temperature at different point, manometer
reading and energy meter reading are necessary to record during experimentations. Following table shows
the observation table for different phase change material (PCM).

Observation Table

S.
N.
Heat
Pipe
Temp.
0C
PCM
module
Temp.
0C
Cabinet
Inside Temp.
0
C
Enthalpy
h
i


Kj/Kg
Cabinet
Outside
Temp.
0
C
Enthalp
y
h0
Kj/Kg
Time
(min
)
Energy
meter
readin
g KWH
Wat
er
head
(mm
)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
WBT
T6
DBT
T7
WBT
T8
DBT
1
2

7



3.5 Calculations
In the present work, the velocity of air is calculated by manometer reading by using
equation, which can be expressed as:
V = (2 x g x h
a
)
½
Where, V = Velocity of air in m/s

h
a
= h
w
× ρw / ρa
COP of system can be calculated by following expression
COP = m
a
× (h
o
- h
i
) / W
Where, ma = mass flow rate of air ( kg/s)
= ρAV
ρ = density of air (kg/m)
V = velocity of air (m/s)
h
0
= outside enthalpy of air ( kJ/kg)
h
i
= inside enthalpy of air ( kJ/kg)
A = area (m
2
)
3.6 Data Analysis:
Finally after the observation of various phase change material (PCM), COP of free cooling system is
obtained. On the basis of different Phase Change Material COP of system is analyzed. The comparison of the
COP of free cooling system by using various phase change material (PCM) is done with Temperature vs. Time
and temperature vs. Enthalpy graph.
DESIGN & FABRICATION 4
4.1 Introduction
A heat pipe is a hollow cylinder filled with a vaporizable liquid. It is a simple device that can quickly
transfer heat from one point to another. It is a passive heat transfer mechanism. Heat pipes are often
reoffered to as the “superconductor” of heat as they posses an extra ordinary heat transfer capacity and rate
with almost no heat loss. It consist of a sealed copper or aluminum container whose inner surface has a
capillary wicking material. It has the ability to transport heat against gravity by an evaporation- condensation
cycle with the help of porous capillaries that form the wick. The wick provides the capillary driving force to
return the condensate to the evaporator. The type of wick structure determines the performance of heat
pipe. Different types of wick structure are used depending on the application for which the heat pipe is being
used



Figure 4.1 Heat pipe

Design of a heat pipe requires careful selection of its three main components
 Working fluid
 Wick structure
 Container or Envelope
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4.2 Choosing a Working Fluid
A first consideration in the identification of working fluid is the operating vapor temperature range.
Several possible working fluid may exist, and variety of characteristics must be examined in order to
determine the most acceptable of these working fluid as given below.
 Good thermal stability.
 Wet ability of wick and wall material.
 Vapor not too high or low over operating temperature range.
 High latent heat.( transfer maximum amount of heat with minimum amount of fluid flow)
 High thermal conductivity
 Low liquid and vapor viscosities.(minimum resistance to fluid flow)
 High surface tension (enable pipe to operate against gravity and generate high capillary driving
force)
4.3 Choosing a Wick Structure
The wick provides a means for the flow of liquid from the condenser to the evaporator section of the
heat pipe. It also provides surface pores that are required at the liquid–vapor interface for development of
the required capillary pressure. The wick structure also has an impact on the radial temperature drop at the
evaporator end between the inner heat pipe surface and the liquid–vapor surface. Thus, an effective wick
requires large internal pores in a direction normal to the heat flow path. This will minimize liquid flow
resistance. In addition, small surface pores are required for the development of high capillary pressure and a
highly conductive heat flow path for minimization of the radial surface to liquid–vapor surface temperature
drop.
Wick structure Pore radius
r (mm)
Wire/Fibre diameter
d
w
(mm)
Porosity
ε (%)
Stainless steel mesh 0.08 0.09 41
4.4 Choosing a Container
The function of the container is to isolate fluid the outside environment. Selection of container
material depends on many factors. These are as follows:

 Must be completely isolate fluid from environment (leak proof).
 Maintain pressure difference across walls.
 Enable transfer of heat to takes place into and from the working fluid.
 High thermal conductivity (ensure minimum temperature drop between heat source and wick).
 Should be nonporous ( to prevent diffusion of gas into the heat pipe ).

Heat pipe container material Thermal conductivity (W/m
0
k)
Copper 382

4.5 Calculation for Cooling Load

Following correlation are use to find out the cooling load of system.
Nusselt no.
Nu = 0.332 × Re ½ × Pr 1/3
Where, Re =Reynolds no.
Re = ρ V L/ μ
Pr = Prandtl no,
At atmospheric temperature properties of air are,
ρ = density of air
= 1.165 Kg/m
3

V = velocity of air
= 4.04 m/s
L = Length of test section

= 0.75 m
µ = dynamic viscosity of air
= 18.63 × 10
-6
N s/m
2

Pr = 0.701
K = thermal conductivity of air = 0.02675 W/m
0
k
9
Therefore,
Re = 1.165 × 4.04 × 0.75 / 18.63 × 10
-6


= 250.13 × 10
3
Therefore,
Nu = 0.332 × (250.13 × 10
3
)
1/2
× (0.701)
1/3

Nu

= 148
But,


Nu = h L/ k

h =(148 x 0.02675)/ 0.75
h = 5.27 W/m
2

o
k
Where,
h = heat transfer coefficient W/m
2

o
k
Heat transfer (cooling load) can be calculate by,
Q = U A ΔT
Where,
U = overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2

o
k )
U = 1/ (1/h +L
a
/K
a
+ L
h
/K
h
+ L
s
/K
s
)
Where, L
a
= thickness of acrylic sheet 0 .004 m
K
a
= thermal conductivity of acrylic sheet 0.19 W/m
0
k
L
h
= thickness of heat lawn 0.016 m
K
h
= thermal conductivity of heat lawn 0.20 W/m
0
k
L
s
= thickness of G.I. sheet 0.0003 m
K
s
= thermal conductivity of G.I. sheet 60 W/m
0
k
Therefore,
U = 1/(1/5.27 + 0.004/0.19 +0.016/0.20 + 0.0003/60)
U = 8.44 (W/m
2

o
k )
Therefore,
Q = 6 × (8.22 × 0.75 × 0.75 × 5)
= 138.38 Watt. + Other loss
Q = 150 Watt. (Cooling load)
4.6 Design of Heat Pipe
Now, considering length of heat pipe is 25 cm
For Heat pipe,
Q = (A
w
P
w
M)/ L
Where, Q = Heat transfer (Watt)
A
w
= Wick cross sectional area (m
2
)
P
w
= Permeability of wick (m
2
)
M = Liquid transfer factor (W/m
2
)
L = Length of heat pipe (m)
For Stainless steel mesh,
Wire dia. d
w
= 0.09 mm
Porosity ε = 0.41
Therefore,
P
w
= dw
2
ε
3
/[122(1- ε)
2
]
= 0.09 x (0.41)
3
/[122 (1 – 0.41)
2
]

P
w

= 1.91 x 10
-12
m
2

Now,
M = (ς h
fg
ρ)/μ
For methanol
ς = liquid surface tension = 2.18x10
2
N/m
2

h
fg
=

latent heat of evaporation = 1155 Kj/Kg
ρ = density of methanol = 764.1 Kg/m
3

μ = viscosity = 0.521x10
-4
Ns/m
2

Therefore,
M = ( 2.18 × 10
2
× 1155 × 10
3
× 764.1 ) / 0.521x10
-4

M = 3.78 × 10
15
W/m
2

Therefore, from equation
10
Q = (Aw Pw M)/ L
Aw = 4.73 × 10
-3
m
2

= π × D
2
/4
D = 71.6 mm
Where,
D = Diameter of heat pipe.
Hence, taking diameter of heat pipe is 36 mm and number of heat pipe used are 2.
For the operation of heat pipe operation following co ndition must be meet
(ΔP
c
)
max
> ΔP
l
+ ΔP
v
+ ΔP
g
Where,
(ΔP
c
)
max
= Maximum capillary pumping head.
ΔP
1
= Pressure drop required to return the liquid from
the condenser to evaporator
ΔP
v
= Pressure drop necessary to cause vapor to flow
from evaporator to condenser.
ΔP
g
= Gravitational pressure drop.
Therefore, maximum capillary pumping head.
(ΔPc)
max
= (2 ς
1
)/ r
e

Where,
ς
1
= liquid surface tension of methanol
= 2.18 × 10
2
N/m
2

r
e
= Pour radius of wick
= 0.08 m
(ΔPc)
max
= (2×10
2
2.18 × 10
2
)/(0.09 × 10
-3
)
(ΔPc)
max
= 44666 N/m
2
Pressure drop required to return the liquid from the condenser to evaporator
ΔP
l
= (μ
l
× Q × L)/(ρ
l
× L.H × A
w
× P
w
)
Where,
μ
l
= viscosity of liquid
= 0.56 × 10
-3
N s/m
2

Q = heat input
=\ 150 Watt
L = Length of heat pipe
= 0.25 m
ρ
l
= density of liquid
= 764.1 Kg/m
3

L.H = latent heat of evaporation
= 1125 Kj/Kg
A
w
= cross sectional area of wick
= π × D/4
= π × (0.034)
2
/4
= 9.08 × 10
-4
m
2
P
w
= Permeability of wick
= 1.91×10
-12
m
2

ΔP
l
= (0.56 × 10
-3
× 150 × 0.25)/(764.1 × 1125 ×10
3
×9.08 × 10
-4
× 1.91×10
-12
)


ΔP
l
= 14086.31 N/m
2




Pressure drop necessary to cause vapor to flow from evaporator to condenser.
ΔP
v
= 8

× μ
v
× m × L / 2 × π × ρ
Neglecting vapor pressure drop

Gravitational Pressure drop
ΔPg = ρ
l
× g × L × sin θ
Where,
θ = Angle made by Heat pipe with horizontal = 30
o
ΔP
g
= 764.1 × 9.81 × 0.25 × sin 30
ΔP
g
= 936.97 N/ m
2

11

Therefore,
(ΔPc)
max
> ΔP
1
+ ΔPv + ΔPg
44466 > 14086.31 + 936.97
44466 > 15023.28

Therefore Design of Heat pipe is safe.
Configuration of Heat Pipe

Heat pipe
container
material
Length of heat
pipe
(mm)
Diameter of heat
pipe
(mm)
No. of heat
pipe used
Wick structure
of heat pipe
Working fluid
used in heat
pipe
Copper 250 36 2 Stainless steel
mesh
Methanol
4.7 Fabrication
Specifications Of Experimental Set-Up
The detail specifications of experimental set-up are given below.
Cabinet Material – G.I. Sheet
Cabinet Size –
Length: 750 mm
Height: 750 mm
Width: 750 mm

Material: Acrylic
Thickness: 4 mm
Thermal conductivity: 0.19 W/m
0
K
Size: 750x750 mm
Insulation –
Material: Heat lawn
Inside Thickness: 12 mm
Outside thickness: 4 mm
Thermal conductivity: 0.20 W/m
0
K
Fan –
RPM: 1275
220 volt
45 Amp.
50 Hz.
Heat Pipe –
Material: copper
Diameter: 36mm
Length: 250mm
No. of heat pipe: 2
Wick Structure – Stainless steel mesh.
PCM Container –
Material: stainless steel
Length: 80 mm
Diameter: 55 mm



12

OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS 5
The experiments were conducted for the two phase change material. These are Zinc Nitrate
Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O and Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O). The different heat transfer
characteristics were note down. Following observation table shows the reading taken during experimentation
with Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O as a phase change material.
Observations: - Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O
S.N.
Heat
Pipe
Temp.
0
C
PCM
module
Temp.
0
C
Cabinet
Inside Temp.
0
C
Enthal
py
h
i

KJ/Kg
Cabinet
Outside
Temp.
0
C
Enthal
py h0
KJ/Kg
Tim
e in
min
Energ
y
mete
r
readi
ng
(KWh
)
Wat
er
head
(mm
)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
WBT
T6
DBT
T7
WBT
T8
DBT
1 38 38 34 34 30 38 99.5 30 38 99.5 0 1.3 1
2 38 38 34 34 30 38 99.5 31 39 104 30 1.5 1
3 39 39 35 35 30 38 99.5 31 39 104 60 1.7 1
4 40 40 36 36 30 38 99.5 31 40 104 90 1.9 1
5 40 40 37 37 30 39 99.5 30 40 99.5 120 2.1 1
6 41 41 38 38 30 39 99.5 32 41 110.5 150 2.3 1
7 42 42 39 39 29 38 94.5 31 42 104.5 180 2.5 1
8 42 42 40 40 29 37 94.5 30 42 99.5 210 2.7 1
9 41 41 41 40 28 37 90 29 42 94.5 240 2.9 1

Table 5.1 Observation Table for the Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO3)2.6H2O as a phase change material.








13
Observations: - Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O).

S.N.
Heat
Pipe
Temp.
0
C
PCM
module
Temp.
0
C
Cabinet
Inside Temp.
0
C
Enthal
py
h
i

KJ/Kg
Cabinet
Outside
Temp.
0
C
Enthal
py h0
KJ/Kg
Tim
e in
min
Energ
y
mete
r
readi
ng
(KWh
)
Wat
er
head
(mm
)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
WBT
T6
DBT
T7
WBT
T8
DBT
1 40 40 35 35 31 40 104 31 40 104 0 3 1
2 40 40 36 36 31 40 104 31 40 104 30 3.2 1
3 41 41 37 37 30 39 99.5 31 41 104 60 3.4 1
4 41 41 38 38 30 39 99.5 31 42 104 90 3.6 1
5 43 42 38 38 30 39 99.5 32 43 110.5 120 3.8 1
6 42 42 39 39 30 39 99.5 31 43 110.5 150 4 1
7 42 41 40 40 29 38 94.5 31 42 104 180 4.2 1
8 41 41 40 40 29 38 94.5 30 42 99.5 210 4.4 1


Table 5.2 Observation Table for the Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O) as a phase change
material
Calculations:
(i) For mass flow rate of air
h
a
= h
w
* ρ
w
/ ρ
a

= .001*1000/1.2
=.833 m
Now,
Velocity of air
V = (2×g× h
a
)1/2
= (2×9.81×.833) ½
= 4.04 m/s
Therefore,
mass flow rate of air
m
a
= ρ
a
× A×V
= 1.2× (0.3×0.3) ×4.04
= 0.43 Kg/s

(ii) COP of system by using Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O

COP = m
a
(h
0
-h
i
)/W
Where,
m
a
= mass flow rate of air Kg/s
(h
0
-h
i
) = enthalpy difference (KJ/Kg)
W = work input (KW)
= 1.6×3600/(240×60)
= 0.4 Kw
14

Therefore,
COP = 0.43× (94.5 - 90) /0.4
COP = 4.83
(iii) COP of system by using Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O)

COP = m
a
(h
0
-h
i
)/W
Where,
m
a
= mass flow rate of air Kg/s
(h
0
-h
i
) = enthalpy difference (KJ/Kg)
W = work input (KW)
= 1.4 ×3600/ (210×60)
= 0.4 Kw
Therefore,
COP = 0.43× (99.5 - 94.5) /0.4
COP = 5.37
RESULTS & DISCUSSION 6
The series of experiments were carried out on the experimental test rig, the experiments were first
carried out with Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O as a phase change material and then for Sodium
Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O).
Following are the results of the experiments.
1. Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O
Following graph shows the time vs. temperature profile for Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O.
Graph shows that initially outside dry bulb temperature (DBT) increases with respect to time but there is no
change of inside dry bulb temperature (DBT), after some time inside (DBT) goes on decreasing with respect to
time. The graph clearly shows that, there is temperature difference between inside and outside DBT. Inside
DBT is lower than outside DBT. Hence cooling is obtained.



Figure 6.1: Time vs. Temperature graph

It can be seen from the graph shown below, as the time passes the inside dry bulb temperature of air goes
on decreasing at the same time enthalpy goes on decreasing and then remain constant, from this it can be
conclude that, heat is removed from air.




15




Figure: 6.2 Time vs. Temperature and Enthalpy graph
Figure : 6.3 Psychrometric chart for Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O



16
2. Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O)
Following graph shows the temperature vs. time profile for Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate
(Na2SO4.10H2O) . Graph shows that initially there is no change in outside dry bulb temperature (DBT) and
inside dry bulb temperature (DBT) with respect to time. As the outside dry bulb temperature (DBT) increases,
inside dry bulb temperature (DBT) remains constant then it decreases with respect to time. The graph clearly
shows that, there is temperature difference between inside and outside DBT. Inside DBT is lower than outside
DBT. Hence cooling is obtained.



Figure 6.4: Time vs. Temperature graph
It can be seen from the graph shown below, as the time passes the inside dry bulb temperature of
air goes on decreasing at the same time enthalpy goes on decreasing and then remain constant, from this it
can be conclude that, heat is removed from air.

17

Figure 6.5: Time vs. Temperature and Enthalpy graph

Figure : 6.3 Psychrometric chart for Sodium Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O)

CONCLUSION 7
Experimental analysis of free cooling have been carried out to study the COP of system by using two
different phase change material, such as Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate Zn (NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O and Sodium
Sulphate Decahydtrate (Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O) . These inorganic compounds have a high of fusion and high thermal
conductivity and are non-flammable. Storage unit or container for the storage of night coolness for achieving
the cooling, during day times has been studied for hot climatic conditions. Results show that it is feasible to
achieve cooling during day time by charging the PCM storage with cooler night temperature and discharging
during hot day times. A parametric study has been carried out with varying PCM melting temperatures to
access the performance of the system. It has been found that when melting point of the storage material is
equal to the comfort temperatures of the hot day, available hours within comfort temperature
range are maximized. Availability of hours within comfort temperature range is more sensitive to phase
change temperatures of the PCM. Air flow rates during night times should be higher than air flow rate during
day time because of very short summer nights and less temperature difference between phase change
temperature of PCM and night temperatures. This makes more storage to be solidified and more storage
available for day time and more comfort temperature.
Although the COP of system is more as compared to conventional air conditioning system though it
cannot be used because of its some of the limitation like, cooling is not obtained instantly as that of air
conditioning system, it take some time and high cost of phase change material (PCM).
FUTURE WORK 8
In the present market situation, an investment in PCM storage may not be economically
justified if only energy savings were accounted for. Therefore, the effect of improved thermal comfort should
also be taken into consideration. In order that more interest would be shown in the use of PCM, it is obvious
that more work should be done on enhancing and improving the economic viability of such an investment.
This could be done by further refinement of the PCM combination to improve its thermal characteristics.



18
REFERENCES 9
[1] R. Velraj, A. Pasupathy, “Phase change material based thermal storage for energy
conservation in building architecture”, Institute for energy studies CEG, Anna University, Chennai
[2] M. faith Demirbas, researcher of energy technology Trabzon, Turkey. Energy sources, part B, 1:85-
95, 2006.
[3] Belen Zalba, Jose M Marin, Luisa F. Cabeza, Harald Mehling, “Review on thermal energy storage with
phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications”. Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003)
251–283.
[4] Ruth Kelly B.Sc. (Eng), AMEC Design. “Latent heat storage in building materials”.
[5] J.P.Holman, “A text book of heat and mass transfer.” Tata MC Graw Hill publication.
[6] C. Arkar, S. Medved, Free cooling of a building using PCM heat storage integrated
into the ventilation system. Solar Energy 81 (2007) 1078–1087
[7 ] K. Nagano, T. Mochida, K Iwata, H. Hiroyoshi, R. Doma, “Thermal performance of Mn (NO3)2.
6H2O as a new PCM for cooling system”.
[8] V.V.Tyagi, D.Buddhi, “Thermal cycle testing of calcium chloride hexahydrate as a possible PCM for
latent heat storage”. Elsevier publication, February 2008.
[9] Mohammed M. Farid , Amar M. Khudhair , Siddique Ali K. Razack ,
Said Al-Hallaj. “A review on phase change energy storage: materials and
Application”. Energy Conversion and Management 45 (2004) 1597–1615.
[10] Adeel waqas, S.Kumar. “PCM thermal energy storage and cooler
night temperatures for pretreatment of ambient air introduced in the building.”
PEA-AIT International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Development: Issues
and Strategies (ESD 2010.

[11] M.Ravikumar, Dr. Pss. Srinivasan.” phase change material as a thermal energy storage material for
cooling of building” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology.
[12] Ruben Baetens, Bjørn Petter Jelle , Arild Gustavsen. “Review Phase change materials for
building applications: A state-of-the-art review”. Energy and Buildings 42 (2010) 1361–1368.
[13] Uros Stritih. “An Experimental Model of Thermal Storage System for Active Heating or
Cooling of Buildings.” University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askereeva 6,
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia,
[14] A. Heinz, W. Streicher. “Application of Phase Change Materials And Pcm-Slurries For Thermal
Energy Storage”. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz University of Technology 8010 Graz,
AUSTRIA.
*15+ Domkundwar & Domkundwar, “ Heat and Mass Transfer Data Book”,Third Edition,
Dhanpat Rai & Co 2008.
*16+ C. P. Kothandaraman, S. Subramanyan, “Heat and Mass Transfer Data Book”, Fifth
edition, New Age International Publishers 2006.
19
ANNEXURE
Properties of air

Temperature
t
(
o
C)
Density
ρ
(kg/m
3
)
Specific
heat
capacity
c
p

(kJ/kg K)
Thermal
conductivity
k
(W/m K)
Kinematic
viscosity
ν
(m
2
/s) × 10
-
6

Expansion
coefficient
b
(1/K) x 10
-3

Prandtl's
number
P
r

-150 2.793 1.026 0.0116 3.08 8.21 0.76
-100 1.980 1.009 0.0160 5.95 5.82 0.74
-50 1.534 1.005 0.0204 9.55 4.51 0.725
0 1.293 1.005 0.0243 13.30 3.67 0.715
20 1.205 1.005 0.0257 15.11 3.43 0.713
40 1.127 1.005 0.0271 16.97 3.20 0.711
60 1.067 1.009 0.0285 18.90 3.00 0.709
80 1.000 1.009 0.0299 20.94 2.83 0.708
100 0.946 1.009 0.0314 23.06 2.68 0.703
120 0.898 1.013 0.0328 25.23 2.55 0.70
140 0.854 1.013 0.0343 27.55 2.43 0.695
160 0.815 1.017 0.0358 29.85 2.32 0.69
180 0.779 1.022 0.0372 32.29 2.21 0.69
200 0.746 1.026 0.0386 34.63 2.11 0.685
250 0.675 1.034 0.0421 41.17 1.91 0.68
300 0.616 1.047 0.0454 47.85 1.75 0.68
350 0.566 1.055 0.0485 55.05 1.61 0.68
400 0.524 1.068 0.0515 62.53 1.49 0.68
PHOTOS


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