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Electric Motors and Drives - Third Edition

Solutions to Review Questions - Chapters 1 and 2
Chapter 1
1) The magnetomotive force or MMF is simply the product of the number of turns and the current,
i.e. MMF = 25 × ! = 2 "T. The #"T$ stands for ampere%turns, but strictly the MMF unit is
2) &e are told that the magnetic circuit is made of good%'uality magnetic steel, (hich is a coded
(ay of saying that the reluctance of the steel part of the magnetic circuit is negligible in
comparison (ith the air%gap. )nder these circumstances all of the MMF provided by the coil
*2 ") is available across the gap, and the flu+ density in the air%gap is given by e'uation 1.,
T. 2- 1
1 2
2 1 .
NI μ
× ×
= =

The 'uestion then as0s about the flu+ density in the iron, implying that it is different from that
in the air%gap. 1ut as (e have seen in the s0etches *e.g. Fig 1.,) the flu+ density remains the
same unless the cross%sectional area changes, so the ans(er is that the flu+ density in the iron is
the same, i.e. 1.2- T.
2f the cross%sectional area (ere doubled, it (ould ma0e no difference to the flu+ density
because, as revealed in e'uation 1.,, the air%gap flu+ density only depends on the MMF and the
length of the gap. 3o(ever, (ith t(ice the area, and the same flu+ density, the total flu+ (ould
increase by a factor of t(o.
"n alternative (ay of reaching the same conclusion (ould be to say that if the cross%sectional
area (ere doubled, the reluctance of the air%gap (ould be halved, so for a given MMF the flu+
(ould double.
/) " flu+ density of 1.. Tesla means 1.. &ebers of flu+ per s'uare metre, so the flu+ crossing an
area of 1! cm
(ill be given by
m&b. 52 . 2 1 1! . . 1
= × × = Φ

.) 1ecause no information is given about the iron part of the magnetic circuit, (e are e+pected to
assume that (e can ignore its reluctance, and assume that the only significant reluctances are
those due to the air%gaps. This hidden message is reinforced by the use of the (ord #estimate$
rather than calculate4 if the *small) reluctance of the iron parts is neglected, our values of flu+
density are inevitably going to be slightly on the high side.
Ta0ing the second part of the 'uestion first, if (e denote the reluctance of the .5 mm air%gap
by R, the reluctance of the 1 mm gap (ill be 2R, because reluctance is directly proportional to
length. The t(o air%gaps are in series, so the total reluctance is /R. The flu+ through both is
the same, and from the Magnetic 5hm$s la( is given by
= = = Φ
To find the MMF across each air%gap (e apply the magnetic 5hm$s la( again4 so the MMF
across the .5 mm gap is given by
. " .
6eluctance Flu+ MMF = × = × = R
7imilarly the MMF across the 1 mm gap is given by
. " ! 2
6eluctance Flu+ MMF = × = × = R
To find the flu+ density (e can proceed as in 'uestion 2 and apply e'uation 1., to either gap.
For the 1 mm gap, this yields
T. 1
1 1
! 1 .
NI μ
× ×
= =

5) 2n order to double the flu+ density, the flu+ (ould have to double, and so therefore (ould the
MMF. 3ence the current in the field (inding must double, (hich means that the voltage
applied to the field (inding must double also. &ith t(ice the voltage and t(ice the current, the
po(er increases by a factor of ., to 1 &.
T(o things should be mentioned here. Firstly, (e did not need to 0no( the t(o values of flu+
density, but the fact that both are (ell belo( the saturation flu+ density for iron provides us (ith
8ustification for ignoring the reluctance of the iron parts. 7econdly, the resistance of copper
(indings increases (ith temperature, so (e must e+pect the field resistance to be higher (hen
the po(er dissipation is 1 & than (hen it is 25 &. &e cannot say ho( hot it (ill get because
(e have no information about the cooling system. "gain, (e ta0e refuge in the fact that (e are
as0ed to estimate, not calculate.
-) The ne( rotor diameter is 299.5 mm instead of /mm, so radius has decreased by .25 mm,
meaning that the ne( air%gap is 2.25 mm, instead of its original 2 mm. To the uninitiated, this
might appear to be of little conse'uence.
3o(ever, the reluctance of the air%gap has increased by 12.5:, so, assuming that (e can
neglect the reluctance of the iron parts, the MMF (ill have to increase by 12.5: in order to
maintain the same flu+ density.
"s (e sa( in 'uestion 5, this means that the po(er dissipated in the field (indings has to
increase by a factor of *1.125)
, i.e. 1.2,. 7uch a large increase in heating (ill almost certainly
be unacceptable, because unless the original cooling system had been overdesigned *in (hich
case the field (indings (ere running (ell%belo( their allo(able temperature rise), the
permissible rise (ill certainly be e+ceeded under the ne( conditions.
7o (hat are the options; 2n the short run, the only course open is to tolerate the reduced flu+
density, (hich (ill be !9: of its original value. "t rated armature voltage the motor (ill then
run 12.5: above its rated speed, (hich can be restored by reducing the armature voltage to
appro+imately !9: of its original value. &ith the same full%load armature current the full%load
tor'ue and po(er (ill then be 11: belo( their original values.
2n the longer term it might be possible to add some e+tra turns to the field (inding *if there is
space<), but even then the field voltage (ill have to be raised to maintain the same field current.
,) The sentence in brac0ets is intended to encourage us to pursue our suspicion that to ans(er the
'uestion, (e must first 0no( the ma+imum allo(able flu+ density. 2n section 1./.5 it is
mentioned that flu+ densities in iron are not usually much above 1.5 T, so this is a reasonable
figure to use to ma0e an estimate. 5n this basis the cross sectional area is given by
. cm // or m 1 //
5 . 1
1 5
2 2 .

× =
!) This is an e+ercise in applying e'uation 1.2, i.e.
. l I B F =
7o for *a) the force is
=, ! . 25 . . ! . = × ×
(hile for *b) the total force is
=. ! 25 . 2 ! . 2 = × × ×

The result for *b) is ten times as great as that for *a) because the total current in the coil%side is
. ".
9) To estimate the tor'ue (e first need to calculate the total tangential electromagnetic force, and
then multiply by the radius at (hich the force acts. &e are told that there are 12 conductors,
but that only ,5: of the circumference is covered by the poles4 this means that only ,5: of the
conductors (ill be e+posed to the radial flu+ density at any instant, i.e. (e can assume that 9
of the 12 conductors ma0e a contribution to the tor'ue. &e also ma0e the very important
assumption that if the conductors lying under a = pole carry positive current, those under a 7%
pole (ill be carrying negative current, so that they all contribute to tor'ue.
The electromagnetic force on one conductor is given by
. = 1 5 . 5 . . = × × = = l I B F
=ote that (e use the mean flu+ density under the
pole%face in this calculation4 some conductors may be e+posed to a slightly higher flu+ density
than others, but (e do not need the details as long as (e are given the average flu+ density.
The total tangential force is thus 9 × 1 = 9 =. &e assume that the force acts at the centre of
the conductors, but all (e 0no( about the diameter of the conductors is that it must be less than
1 cm in order to fit in the air%gap. 2f (e ta0e the diameter as .! cm, the radius at (hich the
electromagnetic force acts (ill be 15 > .. = 15.. cm or .15. m. The tor'ue is therefore given
=m. 1/9 15. . 9 radius Force T = × = × =
1) 2n the machines (e have loo0ed at in chapter 1, the radial flu+ density has been ta0en to be
constant under the pole%face, and ?ero else(here *see for e+ample Figure 1.11). 3o(ever, in
'uestion 9 (e ac0no(ledged that there is some variation even under a pole%face. 1ut in many
a.c. machines *discussed in later chapters) the radial flu+ density varies sinusoidally around the
periphery *see for e+ample Figure 5.1). 2n such cases the meaning of the #average flu+ density$
*used to calculate average force, for e+ample) is the average over a half%sine(ave, i.e. over one
#pole$. The average of a half%sine(ave turns out to be 2@A times the pea0.
" pedantic person might point out that since there are al(ays an even number of poles, and that
flu+ is a circuital 'uantity, the nett flu+ entering the rotor surface is al(ays balanced by an e'ual
'uantity of flu+ leaving the rotor surface. 7trictly spea0ing, therefore, the average flu+ density
over the rotor surface is indeed ?ero, but this is of no use (hen (e (ant to calculate tor'ue<
11) The re(ound *22 B) field (inding must produce the same MMF as the original (inding did
(hen it (as supplied at 11 B. 2f (e are not sure ho( to proceed further, (e can begin by
arguing that, to do the same 8ob as the old (inding, the ne( one (ould probably consume the
same po(er, in (hich case if the current in the 11 B field (as I, the current in the 22 B one
(ould be I@2. 1y progressing further (ith this approach, it should soon become clear (hether
or not (e are on the right lines.
To produce the same MMF (ith half the current the number of turns must be 2=, (here = is the
original number of turns. 1ecause the current in the 2= turns is only 2@2, the cross%sectional
area of the original conductor can be halved, leaving the current density in the (ire the same as
it (as in the original (ire. This gives the ne( (inding t(ice as many turns, but the cross%
sectional area of each (ire is halved, so the ne( (inding should fit in the same space as the
original one. &e should no( chec0 that our initial assumption % that the po(er of the ne( one
(ould be the same as the old one C is correct.
Det the resistance of the original (inding be R4 it (as supplied at 11 B, so the current I (as
given by I = 11@R and the po(er consumption (as *11)
The ne( (inding has t(ice as many turns, so if it (ere made of the same (ire its resistance
(ould be 2R. 1ut the cross%sectional area of the ne( (ire is only half of the original, so each
turn of the ne( coil has t(ice the resistance of a turn of the original (ire. The total resistance
of the ne( (inding is therefore .R. The ne( (inding is supplied at 22 B, so the current is
22@.R = 55@R , i.e. the ne( current is, as e+pected, half of the original. The po(er
consumption is 22 × 55@R = *11)
@R, the same as the original. 7o our original belief that to
produce the same MMF, the same po(er (ould be re'uired, is seen to be correct.
The ne( (inding provides the same MMF, and contains the same volume of copper, occupies
the same space, and dissipates the same po(er. &e can conclude from this that (hat really
matters is the amount of copper and ho( hard (e (or0 it *i.e. the current density)4 the number
of turns and the cross%sectional area of (ire can be chosen to suit any desired operating voltage.
12) The discussion in 'uestion 11 related to the field (indings, but the same argument can be
applied to all the (indings in the machine. 2t should therefore be clear that there (ill be very
little e+ternal difference, e+cept that the cable for the 11 B version (ould have to be thic0er to
carry 8ust over t(ice as much current as the 2. B version.
1/) The (indings inevitably have resistance, say R. 3ence (hen they carry a steady current *I),
there is a continuous po(er dissipation of I
R, and this is e'ual to the po(er supplied by the
voltage source. 2f the field (indings (ere made of superconducting (ire having ?ero
resistance, the steady%state po(er dissipation (ould be ?ero.
The energy supplied during the transient period *(hen the (inding is first s(itched on, and the
build%up of current is influenced by the inductance of the (inding) is divided bet(een that
dissipated in the resistance as heat, and that stored in the magnetic field. 5nce the field is
established, and the current becomes steady, no further energy is re'uired to maintain the
magnetic field.
1.) The direction of po(er flo( in all of the electrical machines in this boo0 is inherently
reversible, i.e. they can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy or vice%versa,
generally (ithout any modification. 7o the ans(er to the 'uestion is4 no difference.
15) Mechanical po(er is given by the product of tor'ue and speed, so a lo(%speed motor needs
more tor'ue than a high%speed one to produce the same po(er. The tor'ue of an electrical
machine *(ith a given sophistication of cooling system) is broadly determined by the volume of
its rotor, (hich in turn is closely related to its overall volume. 3ence for a given po(er a motor
that runs say ten times as fast (ill be ten times smaller than its lo(%speed e'uivalent, and thus
(ill be cheaper to manufacture. The high%speed motor (ill have to be geared do(n to provide a
lo(%speed drive, but this still turns out to be cheaper than a direct%drive motor in most cases.
Chapter 2
1) *a) Ta0ing the bottom rail as the reference for voltages, the potential of point x oscillates
sinusoidally (ith an amplitude of 2 B, (hile the potential of point y remains constant at
>1 B. The diode (ith the higher anode potential (ill conduct, thereby reverse%biassing the other
one. The voltage at the load (ill therefore follo( the sine(ave (hile the voltage is greater than
>1 B, and be held at >1 B at all other times, as sho(n by the thic0 line in part *a) of the figure
Fig 2" here.
*b) This part probably needs a little more thought.. 2f (e imagine that B2 reduces gradually from
the >1 B that applied in part *a), (e can see that the hori?ontal line in the load voltage (aveform
simply moves progressively do(n(ards until it reaches ?ero. "s this happens, the diode E2
conducts for shorter and shorter intervals. &hen B2 reaches ?ero (e obtain the (aveform sho(n
at *b). &e observe that (hichever diode is conducting, its current is flo(ing up(ards, and
returning by flo(ing do(n(ards through the load.
&hen B2 becomes negative, (e might be tempted to thin0 that the output voltage could become
negative for part of each cycle, but this is not possible because the current (ould then be trying to
flo( up through the load and do(n through a diode. The diodes can only conduct from anode to
cathode *i.e. in the direction of the broad arro() so (e conclude that neither diode (ill conduct and
the (aveform (ill be as sho(n in *b) regardless of the value of the negative voltage B2.
*c) &hether the diode is above or belo( the voltage source ma0es no difference since they are in
2) The reference to a motor load means that there is inductance present. 2f, as is most li0ely, (e can
assume that the current is continuous, the mean d.c. voltage from a fully%controlled single%phase
converter is given by combining e'uations 2./ and 2.5 to yield
2 2
cos .
dc rms
V V α
*2f the current is discontinuous (e cannot determine the voltage (ithout 0no(ing the load and the
motor parameters.)
The ma+imum voltage is obtained (hen α = , giving a value of 2, B. This ignores the volt%
drop across the diodes, so in practice the true figure (ill be nearer to 25 B. The reference to lo(%
impedance mains signals that (e can neglect the volt%drop due to supply system impedance.
/) The mean output voltage is given by e'uation 2.-, i.e.

cos 2 cos .
dc d rms
V V V α α
= =
7ubstituting Vrms = .15 and Vdc = / gives α = 5,.-°.
The fre'uency does not affect the formula for the average d.c. voltage, so there (ould be no
.) This is the sort of deceptively simple 'uestion that can easily trip up the un(ary. &hatever
approach is ta0en, e+perience sho(s that it is essential to define terms clearly and proceed
&e (ill begin by noting that the circuit is as sho(n in Figure 2.,, and the output voltage
(aveforms for continuous%current operation are sho(n in Figure 2.9. &e should also recall that
devices T1 and T. conduct for half a cycle, (hile T2 and T/ conduct for the other half cycle.
Det us focus attention on the (aveform of voltage across T1, i.e. the potential difference bet(een
its anode and its cathode. &e can see that the anode of T1 is permanently connected to terminal "
of the mains supply, so its anode is al(ays at the potential of terminal ". 7o (e need to see (hat
happens to the potential of the cathode of T1 in order to s0etch the voltage across it.
For the half%cycle (hen T1 and T. are conducting *(hich (e conventionally ta0e as
predominantly during the #positive$ half%cycle of the mains), the for(ard volt%drop across T1 (hen
it is conducting (ill be very small, so (e (ill assume for the purposes of s0etching that (e can
ta0e the #on$ voltage across T1 as ?ero for this 1!°of conduction.
Euring the other 1!°conduction period, T2 and T/ are conducting *(ith negligible volt%drop), so
the cathode of T1 is connected % via T2 % to terminal 1 of the supply, (hile its anode remains as
before, i.e. connected to terminal " of the mains. The potential difference bet(een the anode and
cathode of T1 is therefore the potential difference bet(een terminals " and 1, (hich is of course
the mains voltage, B"1. 7o for the second period the voltage across T1 is the mains voltage. The
complete (aveform of the voltage across T1 is therefore as sho(n in the s0etch belo(.
Fig 21 here.

5) &e are told that the d.c. load current is smooth at 25 ". 6eferring to Figure 2.,, (e recall that for
one period of 1!° the load current flo(s out from T1 and returns through T., i.e. up(ards through
the supply in Figure 2.,, (hile during the other period of 1!° the load current flo(s out from T2
and returns through T/, i.e. do(n(ards through the supply. 7ince the load current is constant at 25
", the supply current is a 25 " s'uare%(ave, as sho(n in the figure belo(.
Fig 2F here.
&e should note that because (e have ignored supply inductance *(hich causes the #overlap$ effect
discussed in this chapter), the current commutates instantaneously, and the current (aveform is
rectangular. 2n practice the current ta0es a finite time to commutate, and the (aveform is
trape?oidal, but still very much non%sinusoidal and far from ideal from the point of vie( of the
supply authorities, (ho do not (elcome harmonic components of current<
To calculate the pea0 supply po(er (e can see from the s0etch that this occurs (hen the voltage
reaches its pea0, so the pea0 po(er is given by
ma+ ma+
25 2/ 2 25 !.1/0&. P V = × = × =
Gerhaps the easiest (ay to obtain the average po(er is to ta0e advantage of the fact that (e are told
to ignore the losses in the devices. This means that the average a.c. input po(er is e'ual to the
mean d.c. po(er, (hich is easy to calculate in this instance because the current is constant. &hen
the current is constant, the mean po(er is simply the mean d.c. voltage *(hich (e can obtain from
e'uations 2./ and 2.5) multiplied by the current.
3ence the mean po(er is given by ( ) . 0& -- . / 25 .5 cos 2/
2 2
= × = × =

dc dc av
2t is important to note that the mean po(er can only be obtained by multiplying the mean voltage
by the current if the current is constant. 2f both the voltage and current vary (ith time, it is
necessary to integrate the instantaneous po(er *i.e. the product of instantaneous voltage and
instantaneous current) to obtain the total energy per cycle, and then divide by the period to obtain
the mean po(er.
"n alternative approach to find the mean po(er directly from the a.c. side e+ploits the fact that if,
as here, the voltage is sinusoidal, the average po(er can be obtained by finding the r.m.s. value of
the fundamental%fre'uency component of the current, 21H then ta0ing the product
cosI 2 B
1 s m r ,
is the phase angle bet(een the fundamental components of current and voltage.
The amplitude of the fundamental component of a s'uare (ave of 25 " can readily be sho(n to be
" !/ . /1 25
= ×
, so the r.m.s. of the fundamental component of current is
". 51 . 22
!/ . /1
3ence the average po(er is given by
0&, -- . / .5 cos 51 . 22 2/ = × ×

as above.
-) The average load voltage is 2 B and the source voltage is 1 B, so it follo(s that the transistor is
#on$ for one%fifth of the time. The load *motor) current is constant at 1 ", so the (aveforms of
source and load are as sho(n belo(.
Fig 2E here.
The average input current is 1 ", so the input po(er is 1 B × 1 " = 1 &. The average load
voltage is 2 B, so the load po(er is 2 B × 5 " = 1 &.
To dra( a parallel (ith a transformer *see chapter ,) (e focus on the average values of the input
and output voltages and currents, in (hich case the chopper appears to function as an ideal step%
do(n transformer (ith a turns ratio of 5 to 14 the secondary voltage is one%fifth of the primary
*input) voltage, (hile the secondary current is five times the primary current. "nd li0e an ideal
transformer, the input and output po(ers are e'ual.
,) The circuit and the load voltage and current (aveforms are sho(n in Figure 2... The current is
described as being #almost constant$, (hich means that (e treat it as constant for the purposes of
i) The average load voltage is given by the product of the resistance and the average current, i.e. !
× 5 = . B. The voltage (aveform itself is rectangular, being 15 B (hen the transistor is #on$
and ?ero (hen the transistor is #off$ and the current is free(heeling through the diode. 2f (e
denote the on time *the mar0) by Ton and the off time *the space) by Toff , the average voltage is
given by
. /-. .
, 2-, .
, .
off on
off on
= ∴ =
∴ =
ii) 1ecause the load current is constant, (e can obtain the average load po(er from the product of
the mean load voltage and the current, i.e. . × 5 = 2 &.
iii) &e are told to treat all the devices as ideal, so there are no losses and the input po(er must
e'ual the output po(er, i.e. 2 &. "s a chec0, (e can easily calculate the average source
po(er because the input voltage is constant *at 15 B), so the average po(er is simply the
product of 15 B and the average source current.
The source current is 5 " (hen the transistor is on, and ?ero (hen it is off. 7o the average
source current is
( ) ". // . 1 2-, . 5
off on
= =
3ence the mean source po(er is
15 × 1.// = 2 &, as above.
!) Ta0ing the possibilities in the order given4
"s there is no tendency for current to flo( up(ards through the s(itch there is no need to prevent
it % and in any event a M57FJT contains an intrinsic diode that is reverse%biased during normal
operation, but (ould allo( reverse current to flo( if necessary.
2nductors do not need protection from high voltages4 any #high voltages$ present are li0ely to be
generated by high rates of change of current through inductors any(ay.
Boltage supplies are very unli0ely to be sub8ect to any restriction on the rate of change of current,
but this ans(er may have come about as a result of confusion over the need to limit the rate of rise
of current in some semiconductor devices. &here such restriction applies, an inductor (ould serve
to limit the rate of rise of current, not a diode.
Dimiting the voltage across the M57FJT is the real reason for the diode. There (ill be a
ma+imum allo(able voltage across the M57FJT *i.e. bet(een Erain and 7ource), and if this is
e+ceeded the device (ill brea0 do(n. &hen no current is flo(ing in the load *Figure K!), the
voltage across the M57FJT is e'ual to the supply voltage, so clearly the device must be capable of
(ithstanding supply voltage. 3o(ever, the real danger arises because of the load inductance, as
discussed belo(.
The voltage across, and the current through, an inductor are related by the e'uation
v L
= , i.e.
the voltage is determined by the rate of change of current, or vice%versa. 7o if (e attempt to open
a s(itch in a circuit containing an inductor through (hich current is flo(ing, thereby forcing a
very rapid rate of change of current *i.e.
tends to infinity) a very high voltage (ill be developed
across the terminals.
For e+ample suppose that there (as no diode in Figure K!, and, (ith the M57FJT s(itched on, a
steady current of 2 " (as flo(ing through an inductance of 5 m3. 2f (e then s(itched off the
M57FJT such that the current (as reduced to ?ero at a uniform rate in 1 µsec, the voltage across
the inductor (ould be 1 0B< &e 0no( from Lirchoff$s voltage la( that the sum of the voltages
around a circuit must e'ual the supply voltage, so it follo(s that almost all of the 1 0B (ould
appear across the M57FJT, leading to its immediate destruction.
The real problem lies in the energy stored in the inductance, (hich is given by
E Li = 2f (e
attempt to reduce the current to ?ero instantaneously, (e are trying to destroy energy in ?ero time,
(hich corresponds to infinite po(er, (hich is clearly impossible. The alternative is to provide a
mechanism (hereby the stored energy in the inductor can be released in a more measured fashion,
and this is (here the #free(heel$ diode comes in. &hen the s(itch opens, the diode provides an
alternative path for the current that is flo(ing do(n through the load, so the current can continue
by flo(ing in the closed path sho(n at *b) in Figure 2... "t first the current is undiminished, so
the stored energy is unchanged, but because heat is dissipated in the resistance of the load, the
current decays e+ponentially as the energy stored reduces. The term #free(heeling$ arises by
analogy (ith riding a bicycle, (here, having built%up 0inetic energy by hard foot(or0, (e can rest
the pedals and let the stored energy sustain our motion until friction brings us to rest.
The last ans(er suggesting that the diode is there to dissipate stored energy is partially correct
in that some energy is indeed dissipated in a real diode *though not in an ideal one). 1ut most
of the stored energy (ill be dissipated in the load resistance, and the resistance of the inductor
9) &e should identify the right ans(er *1., B) and e+plain (hy before speculating on the
origins of the remainder.
"s e+plained in the ans(er to 'uestion !, the free(heel diode conducts (hen the M57FJT
s(itches off, the load current flo(ing up(ards through the diode. To find the voltage across the
M57FJT in this condition (e need to find the potential of the anode of the diode (ith respect
to the ground reference *i.e. the bottom of the supply). &e 0no( that the for(ard volt%drop
across the diode is ., B, so the potential of the anode is ., B higher than the potential of the
cathode. The cathode is connected to the top of the supply, so its potential (ith respect to
ground is 1 B. 3ence the potential difference *voltage) across the M57FJT is 1., B. This
is therefore the ma+imum voltage that the M57FJT has to (ithstand.
The figure of 99./ B clearly comes about because of confusion over the sign of the voltage
across the diode. The suggestion #?ero$ presumably arises because it is believed that since there
is no current through the M57FJT during free(heeling, its voltage must also be ?ero. The
voltage across the load *resistance and inductance) is ., B during free(heeling, because the
load is *almost) short%circuited by the diode. "nd the suggestion that the voltage depends on
the inductance is understandable but (rong because (hile the value of inductance determines
the stored energy and therefore the duration of free(heeling, the voltage across the M57FJT
(ill be 1., B regardless of the inductance.
- End of Solutions for Chapters 1 and 2 -