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LES.

1801, Page 1 of 5
DFT 03/11/11
Supercedes 04/24/06




GENERAL DRYING AND FIRING INSTRUCTIONS
FOR NAFTA PHOS BOND PLASTICS

Any non-field technical advice furnished by Seller with reference to the use of its Products is given gratis, and Seller assumes no
obligation or liability for the advice given or the results obtained. All such advice is given and accepted at Buyer’s sole risk.
50-RAM™, 85-RAM® and EMERALD-RAM® are registered trademarks in the following jurisdiction: US. BLU-RAM is a
registered trademark in the following jurisdictions: US, VE.

SCOPE

This Engineering Standard provides the general drying and firing instructions for Vesuvius
Phos Bond Plastics.

Do not use this standard for the drying and firing of any SiC containing plastics.
Please refer to Vesuvius Engineering Standard LES.1802 for the drying and firing of SiC
containing HS plastics.


DRYING PROCEDURES

When Phos Bond high alumina plastics are exposed to ambient conditions they tend to dry
and skin over. This surface skin can cause steam entrapment during the drying and firing of
the refractory lining.

Due to the particular property of these products, forms should be left in place until just prior
beginning the drying and firing schedule. On projects where the surface is left exposed
during installation or where forms are removed and the plastic is exposed for an extended
period of time, special precaution must be taken. See Vesuvius Global Engineering
Standard LES.1804.
LES.1801, Page 2 of 5
DFT 03/11/11
Supercedes 04/24/06




GENERAL DRYING AND FIRING INSTRUCTIONS
FOR NAFTA PHOS BOND PLASTICS

Any non-field technical advice furnished by Seller with reference to the use of its Products is given gratis, and Seller assumes no obligation
or liability for the advice given or the results obtained. All such advice is given and accepted at Buyer’s sole risk.


DRYING PROCEDURES (Cont.)

Immediately after “Finishing” is complete, the finished phos-bonded plastic lining should be
perforated using 1/8” (3mm) to 3/16” (5mm) diameter rods. The perforations will provide escape
vents for the steam that will develop during drying and firing. These steam vents should be
positioned on 8-10” (200 – 250mm) centers and typically penetrate to 2/3 the lining thickness. In
cases where the phos-bonded plastic is installed directly against a welded steel shell, the venting
must be full depth of plastic.

Additional venting is needed for especially thick linings.

After the vents are formed, the surface must be sprayed or misted with water until the surface is
shiny or just visibly moist. This procedure eliminates any skin that may have formed.

Due to the tendency of this type product to "skin", the initial drying phase must be done at a
relatively low temperature for an extended period of time. This allows the heat to penetrate the
full thickness of the lining. Only then can the temperature be increased to the point where
chemical bonding occurs. The initial drying period is critical to the service life of
the lining.

Vesuvius Phos Bond high alumina plastics should be protected from freezing until the firing
schedule has been completed.

See page 3 of this standard for a step by step drying and firing schedule.



LES.1801, Page 3 of 5
DFT 03/11/11
Supercedes 04/24/06




GENERAL DRYING AND FIRING INSTRUCTIONS
FOR NAFTA PHOS BOND PLASTICS

Any non-field technical advice furnished by Seller with reference to the use of its Products is given gratis, and Seller assumes no obligation
or liability for the advice given or the results obtained. All such advice is given and accepted at Buyer’s sole risk.

FIRING SCHEDULE

Step Duration Procedure
1 4 Hours
Ramp from ambient to 250ºF (120°C) at a rate of
50ºF (25°C) per hour.
2 4 Hours
Hold at 250ºF (120°C) for four (4) hours.

3 30 Hours
Ramp to 1750ºF (955°C) at a rate of 50ºF (25°C)
per hour. See Note 6.
4 Variable
Ramp to operating temperature at rate of 100ºF
(55°C) per hour.
See Note 6.
5 1 Hour/Inch (25mm) Thickness
Hold at operating temperature prior to cooling unit
back to ambient or put unit into service.



LES.1801, Page 4 of 5
DFT 03/11/11
Supercedes 04/24/06




GENERAL DRYING AND FIRING INSTRUCTIONS
FOR NAFTA PHOS BOND PLASTICS

Any non-field technical advice furnished by Seller with reference to the use of its Products is given gratis, and Seller assumes no obligation
or liability for the advice given or the results obtained. All such advice is given and accepted at Buyer’s sole risk.

NOTES

1. Install a low temperature thermocouple on the surface of the plastic near the middle of the
floor or hearth. The thermocouple should be protected from flame impingement. The
temperature of the furnace should be controlled from this thermocouple for at least the first
two steps.

2. If temperatures are controlled by thermocouples located on a roof or wall, the thermocouples
head can be protected from flame impingement by inserting it approximately 1/8" into the
surface of the plastic.

3. Vesuvius recommends at least three thermocouples, positioned in various locations, be used
for temperature control during drying and firing. More are never too many.

4. Once the drying and firing cycle has begun, the schedule should be followed without
interruption except in cases where steaming is noted from the surface. When this occurs,
the temperature should not be decreased, but held constant until all steaming stops.

5. Any adjustment to burners or controls should take place after the schedule has been
completed.

6. Except for EMERALD-RAM Plastics, the minimum recommended firing temperature for HS,
HSM, HS-S AND PC plastics is 1750ºF (955°C). EMERALD-RAM Plastics must be fired to a
minimum of 2350°F (1290°C).

7. For units having two or more hot face refractories, use the schedule with the slowest
ramping rate.

8. Good air-flow is essential during all stages of the drying and firing schedule.

9. Flame impingement must be avoided at all times.

10. If you have any questions concerning this or any other Vesuvius Engineering Standard
document please contact the Vesuvius Linings Engineering Department.

LES.1801, Page 5 of 5
DFT 03/11/11
Supercedes 04/24/06




GENERAL DRYING AND FIRING INSTRUCTIONS
FOR NAFTA PHOS BOND PLASTICS

Any non-field technical advice furnished by Seller with reference to the use of its Products is given gratis, and Seller assumes no obligation
or liability for the advice given or the results obtained. All such advice is given and accepted at Buyer’s sole risk.


EXAMPLE DRYING AND FIRING SCHEDULE


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