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UNIT

2:

600 TO

1450 CE

ISLAMIC EMPIRES

AFTER MUHAMMAD

No clear successor to Muhammad Caliph: political & religious ruler

Son-in-law, Ali

vs.

Abu Bakr

AFTER MUHAMMAD

No clear successor to Muhammad

Caliph: political & religious ruler

AFTER MUHAMMAD

AFTER MUHAMMAD • Abu Bakr, 632-634

Abu Bakr, 632-634

ARAB CONQUEST

Economic

Military

Religious

ARAB CONQUEST • Economic • Military • Religious

“RIGHTLY GUIDED” CALIPHS

“RIGHTLY GUIDED” CALIPHS • Abu Bakr, 632-634 • Umar I, 634-644 • Uthman, 644-656 • Ali,
“RIGHTLY GUIDED” CALIPHS • Abu Bakr, 632-634 • Umar I, 634-644 • Uthman, 644-656 • Ali,

Abu Bakr, 632-634

“RIGHTLY GUIDED” CALIPHS • Abu Bakr, 632-634 • Umar I, 634-644 • Uthman, 644-656 • Ali,
“RIGHTLY GUIDED” CALIPHS • Abu Bakr, 632-634 • Umar I, 634-644 • Uthman, 644-656 • Ali,

Umar I, 634-644 Uthman, 644-656

Ali, 656-661

THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE

Mu’awiya, 661

Capital @ Damascus

THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE • Mu’awiya, 661 • Capital @ Damascus

THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE

Shi’a supported Ali’s son, Husayn

Husayn set off for Iraq to declare himself caliph

Battle of Karbala

THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE • Shi’a supported Ali’s son, Husayn • Husayn set off for Iraq to

THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE

Center of the Islamic world:

Damascus

Mosque Bazaar

THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE • Center of the Islamic world: Damascus • Mosque • Bazaar

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

Spain

Tariq

Gibraltar

Toledo

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE • Spain • Tariq • Gibraltar • Toledo

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

• Arabic language • Economic boom
• Arabic language
• Economic boom

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

Dome of the Rock

Geometric art

Calligraphy

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

Four great cities:

Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus

Role of women

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE • Four great cities: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus • Role of women

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE

Sufi movement

Rebellion

Abu al-Abbas

Abbasids conquered Damascus in 750.

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE • Sufi movement • Rebellion • Abu al-Abbas • Abbasids conquered Damascus in

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

750-1258

Capital @ Kufa, Iraq

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE • Caliph al- Mansur (754-775) • New capital @ Baghdad • Persian style

Caliph al- Mansur

(754-775)

New capital @ Baghdad

Persian style

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE • Golden age • Harun al- Rashid • Wealth of Baghdad

Golden age

Harun al- Rashid

Wealth of Baghdad

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

Islamic learning Greek classics

Arabic numerals

Geography Astronomy

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE • Islamic learning • Greek classics • Arabic numerals • Geography • Astronomy

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

Civil wars of succession

Empty treasury

Taxes on peasants led to the destruction of cities

Shi’a sects

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE • Civil wars of succession • Empty treasury • Taxes on peasants led

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

Revolts in distant provinces

Spain & Tunisia declared independence

Caliphs limited to religious matters

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE • Revolts in distant provinces • Spain & Tunisia declared independence • Caliphs

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE

THE ABBASID CALIPHATE • Egypt & Syria broke away • Independent kingdoms • Buyids in 945

Egypt & Syria broke away

Independent kingdoms Buyids in 945 Sultan

THE SELJUK TURKS

THE SELJUK TURKS • Ruled in the name of caliphs • Devout Sunnis • Restored political

Ruled in the name of caliphs

Devout Sunnis Restored political initiative Defeated Byzantines in Anatolia

THE SELJUK TURKS

THE SELJUK TURKS • Took Antioch & Jerusalem from Fatimids • Not tolerant of Christians

Took Antioch & Jerusalem from Fatimids Not tolerant of Christians