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Design optimization of Helical Spring used in Maruti Suzuki 800 front suspension

system using Penalty function method

Abstract :

The goal of optimization is to minimize or maximize certain quantities such as life, mass, etc. In
the mathematical model these goals are expressed as functions of certain variables. In a design
problem those variables may be the various dimensions of the component. There are many
methods available for solving these models towards minimization or maximization.
One of these algorithm the Penalty function method works based on the penalizing the
function on violation of constraints . The algorithm is illustrated with optimization of helical
spring using as front suspension spring of Maruti Suzuki 800 for minimum weight. Helical
spring is used in many applications so the requirement of minimum weight reduce the cost of
the spring and fulfill the purpose of the spring without affecting the performance.
In this work it is proposed to implement Penalty function method for solving the design
optimization problem of helical spring to achieve the minimum mass which satisfy various
constraints. The objective here is to design helical spring for minimum weight in order to
withstand the given working condition.

Approach used for optimizing :
Penalty methods are a certain class of algorithms for solving constrained optimization problem.
A penalty method replaces a constrained optimization problem by a series of unconstrained
problems whose solutions ideally converge to the solution of the original constrained problem.
The unconstrained problems are formed by adding a term, called a penalty function, to
the objective function that consists of a penalty parameter multiplied by a measure of violation
of the constraints. The measure of violation is nonzero when the constraints are violated and is
zero in the region where constraints are not violated.

Problem statement:

This problem is taken from International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering &
Management (IJAIEM) Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847 “Optimization of
Helical Spring for Minimum Weight by Using Harmony Search Algorithm “ by Mr. Avakash P
Patel and Mr. V.A.Patel

Case : The weight of a helical spring is an important measure of quality. Optimization of
spring for minimum weight for a given specification of Helical Spring used in Maruti Suzuki
800 front suspension system.

Specification of Helical Spring used in Maruti Suzuki 800 front suspension system.

1 Material Oil tempered carbon steel wire containing 0.6 to 0.7 % Carbon and
0.6 to 1.0 % Manganese.
2 Density of the Material 7.84 * 10
kg / m

3 shear Modulus of the
81370 N / mm

4 Maximum load The weight of the Maruti Suzuki 800 is 1200 Kg when loaded. (with
1 + 4 parsing). So the each wheel carried 300 Kg of load.
Load in Newton = Load in Kg * Gravitational Constant
= 300 * 9.81 = 2943 N = 3000 N (Approx)
5 Maximum Allowable
6 Frequency of the Force

7 Maximum shear stress 300 MPa

1) Design variables-

In this design problem the variables are d (Diameter of wire), D (Diameter of spring coil) and n
(Number of active coil)
d x

X = D = x

n x

2) Objective function-

The objective of this work is to minimise the weight f(x) of the helical spring.

Minimise F(X) =

Taking the constraints in to account a penalty factor is introduced and the new objective

+Penalty factor φ(X) =

The penalty factor is the value which corresponds to any violation of the given constrain.

3) Stress constraint

The maximum shear stress which is developed in the spring due to the load F .
Let τ be the bending stress developed with the given load F.
Let τ
be the allowable bending

stress. respectively.
Then the stress constraints are τ



where c = spring index

Assuming c= 10
Ks = 1.05

Deflection constraint:
For safe design axial deflection is smaller than the allowable deflection.



Frequency constraint: The fundamental critical frequency f
should be from 15 to 20 time the
frequency of the force to avoid resonance with the harmonics.

The force frequency in helical spring used in suspension of Maruti Suzuki 800 is taken as 25 Hz.
So the condition for maximum critical frequency can be expressed as