6 views

Uploaded by Aarthi Janakiraman

wireless

- Minor Project Synopsis Of Digital Watermarking using DCT and Genetic algorithm
- IRJET-A Study of Video Watermarking Techniques Based on Energy Model
- Digital Water Marking
- A Novel VLSI Architecture for Image Compression Model Using Low Power Discrete Cosine Transform
- Image Forgery and it's Detection Technique: A Review
- DIGITAL IMAGE CRYPTOSYSTEM WITH ADAPTIVE STEGANOGRAPHY
- Robust Watermarking Framework with DCT Based Encryption
- [IJCT-V2I3P12] Authors :Ravi Kumar ,Garima Garg
- Reversible Digital Watermarking Current Status
- IRJET-Image Retrieval Based On Color and Texture Features Modification in Watermarking Technique
- water_marking.ppt
- Watermarking
- Semi Video2
- Untitled
- IJAIEM-2014-11-30-121
- Raw Data on Literature
- 10.1.1.114.6299
- biometic templates
- RcppEigen Introduction
- A Comprehensive Study of Cryptography & Content Hiding Techniques for Security of Digital Videos

You are on page 1of 19

document images

Shi-Jinn Horng & Didi Rosiyadi & Pingzhi Fan &

Xian Wang & Muhammad Khurram Khan

Published online: 20 July 2013

#

Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Abstract This paper proposes an adaptive watermarking scheme for e-government document

images. The adaptive scheme combines the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the singular

value decomposition (SVD) using luminance masking. As a core of masking model in the human

visual system (HVS), luminance masking is implemented to improve noise sensitivity. Genetic

algorithm (GA), subsequently, is employed for the optimization of the scaling factor of the

masking. Involving a number of steps, the scheme proposed through this study begins by

calculating the mask of the host image using luminance masking. It is then continued by

transforming the mask on each area into all frequencies domain. The watermark image, following

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

DOI 10.1007/s11042-013-1579-5

This work was supported in part by the National Science Council under contract number NSC-99-2916-I-011-

002-A1, and it was also partially supported by the 111 Project under the grant No. 111-2-14 and One Hundred

Person Project 2012, Sichuan Province.

S.<J. Horng

:

P. Fan

:

X. Wang

Institute of Mobile Communications, Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, China

P. Fan

e-mail: pingzhifan@gmail.com

X. Wang

e-mail: drwangxian@gmail.com

S.<J. Horng

:

D. Rosiyadi

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science

and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan

D. Rosiyadi

e-mail: didi.rosiyadi@gmail.com

M. K. Khan

Center of Excellence in Information Assurance, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

e-mail: mkhurram@ksu.edu.sa

D. Rosiyadi

Research Center for Informatics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jakarta, Indonesia

e-mail: rosiyadi@informatika.lipi.go.id

S.<J. Horng (*)

43, Sec. 4, Kee-Lung Rd., Taipei, Taiwan 106, Republic of China

e-mail: horngsj@yahoo.com.tw

this, is embedded by modifying the singular values of DCT-transformed host image with singular

values of mask coefficient of host image and the control parameter of DCT-transformed water-

mark image using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The use of both the singular values and the control

parameter respectively, in this case, is not only to improve the sensitivity of the watermark

performance but also to avoid the false positive problem. The watermark image, afterwards, is

extracted from the distorted images. The experiment results show the improved adaptive perfor-

mance of the proposed scheme is in resistant to several types of attacks in comparison with the

previous schemes; the adaptive performance refers to the adaptive parameter of the luminance

masking functioned to improve the performance or robustness of an image from any attacks.

Keywords Adaptive

.

Watermarking

.

Luminance masking

.

Human visual system

.

E-government

1 Introduction

Implemented to several multimedia elements such as image, audio, and video; digital

watermarking has been widely functioned as access control, copyright information, authenti-

cation, protection of the intellectual property rights, fingerprint, tamper proofing, and annota-

tion. Watermarking based on the type of the embedded information can be classified into three

categories - non-blind, semi-blind and blind. The non-blind schemes require both the original

image and the secret key(s) for watermark embedding; a semi-blind scheme requires both the

secret key(s) and the watermark sequences, and the blind one can only use the secret key(s).

Furthermore, the adjustment of watermarking strength is to obtain a minimum perceptual

distortion that is by employing the human visual system (HVS) model. For this, robustness,

imperceptibility, and security are three requirements necessary to be fulfilled by an adaptive

digital watermark. For the robustness, the watermark should remain in the host image

regardless of the possible processing that the image might be undergone. For the

imperceptibility, the watermark, meanwhile, should be invisible under certain typical or

specified viewing conditions - reflecting the incapability of human eyes in distinguishing the

watermarked media from the original one. At last, security means the incapability of the

unauthorized parties to recover the watermark even if for the known data embedding or

extraction techniques. In most of systems, this technique could be achieved by using secret

keys known to the authorized user. In the previous researches, the secret key, however, has

been used to scramble the watermark. In addition, a digital watermark should also be robust

against any image disturbance such as noise that could be a serious problem in a multimedia

element (video, audio, and image). Hence, this topic is widely studied [4, 6, 12–15, 24, 25, 27, 38].

There have been many schemes proposed in this field. Verma and Tapaswi [31] proposed a

noise sensitive region based watermarking embedding technique that is to embed the watermark

in the given region of image. Kuo and Johnston [20], meanwhile, employed a spatial noise

shaping (SNS) method with human visual sensitivity to exploit the capability of a frequency

domain linear prediction for the spatial envelope retrieval. This algorithm shapes or hides the

noise of an image well in areas and is insensitive to human vision - leading it to be more pleasant

for human eyes. Furthermore, Xue and Teng [35] implemented a human visual sensitivity to

determine the weight for the masking. In their method, the embedding procedure has been

operated in an intermediate domain in which the noise sensitivity can affect the coefficients

value. Li et al. [22] presented a hybrid DWT-SVDdomain-watermarking scheme by considering

human visual properties. Here, the host image is in the decomposition of four sub-bands. SVD,

3086 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

in this case, was applied to each sub-band and embedding the singular values of the watermark

with human visual model., Bao and Ma [3] proposed an image authentication scheme based on

DWT-SVD by applying a simple quantization-index-modulation process. To improve the

fidelity and the perceptual quality of the watermarked image and to enhance the security of

watermarking, Here, a bit embedded on the singular value (luminance) of the blocks within the

wavelet sub-band of the original image and model, the adaptive quantization parameters based

on the statistics of blocks within sub-band has been used.

Voloshynovskiy [32] described about a number of attacks on digital watermarking

consisting of classification, estimation-based attacks and benchmarks. Here, benchmarks are

to evaluate the performance of different watermarking algorithms. In [9], Cui and Li proposed

an adaptive scheme based on a discrete multiwavelet including a multi bit, multiplicative,

spread spectrum, unbalanced and balanced multiwavelet. This scheme combines various

masking effects of human visual perception by considering the eye’s sensitivity to noise

changes depending on spatial frequency, luminance and texture of all the image sub-bands.

Mairgiotis et al. [25] presented a new family of watermark detectors for additive watermarks in

digital images. These detectors are based on a recently proposed hierarchical and two-level

image model found to be beneficial for some problems in image recovery. They also proposed

an estimation method to determine the necessary parameters for these detectors. In [36], Yan et

al. proposed a block-based adaptive image-watermarking scheme using Just Noticeable Dif-

ference (JND). The scheme has been performed in both pixel domain and DCT domain. It

begins by dividing the host image into 8×8 blocks and, afterwards, calculating the capacity of

each block to embed information without being perceptible. Here, the capacity is determined by

JND threshold with one feature of Human Visual System (HVS) model.

He and Chang [12] proposed an adaptive scheme with the characteristic of Human Visual

System (HVS) and the association memory ability of neural network. The watermarking signal

embedment is through a higher frequency in the lower frequency of an original image by DWT

joined with DCT. Himanshu [13] presented an adaptive scheme based on DCT-SVDby the human

visual model to mask the original image. For watermark embedding mask of the original image is

computed using HVS model and original image is transformed into frequency domain using DCT.

And then embed watermark by modifying the singular values of DCT coefficient, by singular

values of mask coefficient of original image and singular values of watermark logo. Zhu and Liu

[39] presented an adaptive model with the Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics based on

DWT-DCT. In this model, the original visually meaningful binary watermark image has been

preprocessed by using the extended Arnold transform. The secret watermark bits are embedded on

the singular values of the blocks within a lowfrequency of sub-band in host image. Amiri et al. [1]

introduced an adaptive multi-resolution watermarking approach in DWT domain. Here, a multi-

resolution representation of a binary watermark has been inserted into the selected coefficients of

the wavelet-decomposed image - representing the high activity regions of the image. The co-

efficients with maximum local variance in the lowest frequency sub-band and that of with

maximummagnitude in the higher frequency sub-bands have been selected here. The watermarked

image is transparent according to the characteristics of human vision system and robust against

progressive wavelet image coding - even at very low bit rates. The watermark extraction process is

in the completely blind and multiple spatial resolution levels of the watermark.

In [18], the watermarking channel has been modeled as a generalized channel with fading

and nonzero mean additive noise. To improve the watermark robustness against the gener-

alized channel, an optimized watermark extraction scheme has been presented using an

adaptive receiver for the quantization-based watermarking. Hence, for extraction scheme it is

by adaptively estimating the decision zone of the binary data bits and the quantization step.

Barni et al. [4] presented an adaptive scheme based on a wavelet domain through a new

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3087

approach to mask the watermark based on the characteristics of the human visual system

(HVS). Lai et al. [21] had proposed a novel image watermarking scheme using singular

value decomposition (SVD) and micro-genetic algorithm (micro-GA). The singular values

of the cover image are modified by multiple scaling factors to embed the watermark image.

The proper values of scaling factors are optimized and obtained efficiently by means of the

micro-GA. Carballeira [7] analyzed the performance of the geometric distortion incurred

when coding depth maps in 3D Video. Several geometric distortion techniques consist of

capture the geometric distortion caused by the depth coding error and the pixel-mapping

precision in view synthesis. Naiss [26] had proposed computable bounds for rate distortion

with Feed forward for stationary and Ergodic sources, which derive a sequence of achievable

and computable rates that converge to the feed-forward rate distortion.

Through a comprehensive review towards a number of previous researches, it is found that

there is no any research using the GA based hybrid DCT-SVD technique in this case by adding

an adaptive parameter in order to improve the performance of e-government document images

towards any attacks. In particular, in the comparison with the reference [28], the proposed

scheme has a novelty in the matter of adding an adaptive parameter of luminance masking.

This paper, in turn, aims to propose an adaptive watermarking scheme for e-government

document images. The proposed scheme combines the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and

singular value decomposition (SVD) using luminance masking in accordance with the charac-

teristics of the human visual system (HVS) on the improved noise sensitivity. Furthermore, an

optimization process of the scaling factor is conducted based on the genetic algorithm (GA).

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is to present the preliminaries of

the Human Visual System (HVS), discrete cosine transform (DCT), and singular value

decomposition (SVD), followed by Section 3 to explain about the proposed scheme.

Furthermore, Section 4 and Section 5 present the experiment results and the conclusion of

this paper, respectively.

2 Preliminaries

This section provides an overview about Human Visual System (HVS), discrete cosine

transform (DCT), and singular value decomposition (SVD).

2.1 Human visual system (HVS)

The goal of image applications is to aid a human observer to perceive the visual information

in an image. Hence, understanding human visual system (HVS) comes to be important. As

one of the most complex biological systems, HVS includes three stages; encoding, repre-

sentation, and interpretation and mainly consists of the eye (image sensor or camera), optic

nerve (transmission path), and brain (image information processing unit or computer) [4, 13, 23].

Based on the features of the image in HVS, the masking model is composed of

luminance, texture, and edge masking [4, 13, 30, 35]

1. The luminance masking is the measure of the darkness and brightness of the image. The

visibility of luminance threshold in the spatial domain depends on two factors: average

background luminance and non-uniformity of the background luminance.

2. The texture masking shows a relationship between an individual pixel value and the

mean value of the group pixels inside the sliding window [9, 13]. This is a key element

to represent whether the texture of the image is high activity or uniform.

3088 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

3. Edge masking models represent the regions that have a number of abrupt changes in the

pixel values. Edges carry information content in the image. In image processing, edge

detection refers to a process or an operation that can distinguish the edge regions from

the non-edge ones.

2.2 Discrete cosine transform (DCT)

The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a technique for converting a signal into elementary

frequency components. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) turns over the image edge to make the

image be transformed into the form of even function. It is one of the most common linear

transformations in digital signal process technology. The two-dimensional DCT transformation is

the development of one-dimensional DCT transformation. This transformation is used to convert

two-dimensional coordinates into frequency components. The formula can be seen as follows:

c r; s ð Þ ¼ α r ð Þ:α s ð Þ

x;y¼0

N−1

f x; y ð Þ:cos

2x þ 1 ð Þπr

2N

_ _

:cos

2y þ 1 ð Þπs

2N

_ _ _ _

ð1Þ

The formula of Inverse DCT is

f x; y ð Þ ¼

x;y¼0

N−1

α r ð Þ:α s ð Þ:c r; s ð Þ:cos

2x þ 1 ð Þrπ

2N

_ _

:cos

2y þ 1 ð Þsπ

2N

_ _ _ _

ð2Þ

The output of the DCT function is the value of a particular frequency component, and the

output of this function is determined by two parameters, namely r and s. The two dimensional

DCT can not only concentrate the main information of original image into the smallest low-

frequency coefficient, but it also can cause the image blocking effect being the smallest, which

can realize a good compromise between the information centralizing and the computing

complication. DCT obtains the widespread application in the compression coding [8, 16].

Input and output from the function of DCT are the matrix of size NxN. f(x,y) is the value

of pixel at the coordinate (x,y), index is started from 0. α(r) and α(s) are the functions to take

back the value per square root if r and s=0 and take back value 1 if r and s is not equal to

zero. For the calculation of cosine, it is done in the modus of radian (not degree). Mean-

while, variable N refers to variable stating the size of matrix. In the formula of inverse DCT,

c(r, s) is from the result of formula DCT. The output of the function of inverse DCT is f(x,y),

the value of pixel in the coordinates (x, y).

2.3 Singular value decomposition (SVD)

In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is an important factorization of a

rectangular real or complex matrix, with many applications in signal processing and statistics

[21, 35]. We will diagonalize it, but not by S

−1

AS. Its row space is r-dimensional (inside R

n

).

Its column space is also r-dimensional (insideR

m

). We are going to choose special ortho-

normal bases v

1

,......., v

r

for the row space and u

1

,......., u

r

for the column space. For those

bases, we want each Av

1

to be in the direction of u

1

. In matrix form, these equations :

Av

1

¼ σ

i

u

i

ð3Þ

become

AV ¼ U∑ ð4Þ

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3089

or

A ¼ U∑V

T

ð5Þ

Where U and Vare unitary (orthogonal), Σ is the singular value of A. ∑=diag(λ

1

,λ

2

,....,λ

m

).

m is the rank of matrix A, so A = U

1

.λ

1

.V

1

+........+U

m

.λ

m

.V

m

SVD is a powerful numerical analysis tool, having several applications in scientific

computing, especially in signal and image processing areas. The prominent advantages of

SVD in image processing applications can be seen in [21, 35]:

& The singular values (SVs) of an image are stable, i.e. when small disturbances are added

to an image, the singular values still remain intact.

& The SVs of an image have algebraic image properties which are intrinsic and not visual.

2.4 E-government information security

Until now, the internet is still one of the communication media necessary for daily life,

including in the field of governance. The internet is not only a source of information but also

a tool in implementing the duties of state administration. Thus, the use of internet or e-

government can initiate the transition from a traditional government, which still uses manual

methods, to a modern government with electronic tools.

The objectives of e-government development are the forming of an information network

and the transactions of the public services that have quality and scope which can meet the

needs of society and can be accessed from the whole regions at any time and at a reasonable

cost. Additionally, essential is the forming of interactive links with corporations to increase

the growth of the national economy and strengthen the ability to face change, and the

emulation of international trade, forming the mechanism and communication channels with

state institutions [19, 29, 33, 34].

To safeguard important information in the government requires e-government informa-

tion security. Security is critical in their successful implementation for e-government and

transaction-based services. Some of the security issues in e-government are discussed below

[37]:

& Confidential information should not be accessible to unauthorized users.

& Authenticity, when information is received, it should be verified by a person or a project

claiming to be originator and vice versa.

& Integrity on retrieval or received at the other end of a communication network, the

information should appear exactly as it was stored or sent.

& Non-repudiation after sending/authorizing a message, the sender should be unable to

deny at the time of having done so.

It is compulsory to protect unauthorized copy, misappropriation and misrepresentation of

digital information in an e-government system. There are various criteria of security

assessment of ICT based networks. One of the most important criteria is the European

Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC), which assists the security of

information communication and technology based network [38]. This criterion covers three

basic threats:

& Confidentiality (revealing unauthorized information)

& Integrity (unauthorized data modification)

& Availability (unauthorized withholding of information or resources)

3090 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

Therefore, to prevent and counter these threats, there must be a new technology that will

protect the integrity of digital information and safeguard intellectual property rights. This

new technology is called digital watermarking. Digital watermarking is required in e-

government to track print document sources, tamper proofing and assessment, copy control,

finger printing, etc.

3 Proposed scheme

This research presents a DCT-SVD scheme using luminance masking in accordance with the

characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) on improved noise sensitivity. An opti-

mization process of the scaling factor, additionally, is conducted based on genetic algorithm

(GA). An advantage of DCT-SVD schemes is not only for being resistant to various attacks

but also for being able to improve a document image’s performance, security, and robustness

[28]. Furthermore, in this research the performance for the noise sensitivity is conducted

using the luminance method and for the optimization process it is using a GA to find the

optimization scaling factor of the watermark image for the DCT-SVD technique. Luminance

masking is a core of masking model in HVS. Noted here, this component has been already

used in a number of previous researches [9, 20, 22, 31].

The proposed scheme consists of several steps of watermarking embedding and extrac-

tion. In watermark embedding it begins by calculating the mask of the host image by

luminance masking and transforming it in all frequencies on each area a1, a2, a3 and a4,

respectively. The transformed host image is shown in Fig. 1. The DCT-transformed host

image consists of 256×1024 coefficients, which are divided into four rectangular areas a1,

a2, a3, and a4, respectively. Each area has 65,536 (256×256) coefficients. The areas are

decomposed into16 blocks, each with 4,096 (64× 64) coefficients.

Fig. 1 The mapping of the transformed host image

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3091

The watermark image later is embedded by modifying the singular values of DCT-transformed

host image with singular values of mask coefficient of host image and the control parameter of

DCT-transformed watermark image using Genetic Algorithm (GA). In turn, both the singular

values and the control parameter are respectively used to improve the sensitivity of watermark

performance and to avoid the false positive problem. The next step is to extract the watermark

image from the distorted images. It is found from the experiment that the improved adaptive

performance of the proposed scheme is in resistant to several types of attacks as compared to the

previous existing schemes. Figure 2 below shows a block diagram of the proposed scheme.

Figure 2 refers to the improvement from reference [28] in which the parts that have been

revised come to the addition of the calculation of luminance masking in accordance with

Eq. 6. Through this additional calculation, the computation time complexity is relatively

fixed, compared to the reference [28] since in lm it only requires one subtractive calculation,

one divisional calculation and two multiplicative calculations

The time complexity of the proposed scheme for the GA will highly rely on several

factors including genetic operators, their implementation (which may have a very significant

effect on overall complexity), the representation of the individuals and the population, and

the fitness function. In the proposed scheme, the common choices consists of one point

crossover, point mutation, and roulette wheel selection for the Genetic Algorithm; the time

complexity is O(NGen(NPopNumGen+NPopNumGen+NPop)), where NGen is the number

of generations, NPop is the population size and NumGen is the size of the individuals.

Therefore, the total time complexity is then O (NGenNPopNumGen)).

Document Header

Image

Inverse map and

IDCT

Watermark Image

DCT

GA-based

optimization

process

Extract The

singular value

Embedding

(Singular Values)

SVD

DCT and map

DCT into 4 sub

blocks

Comparison

Watermark

DCT and map

DCT into 4 sub

blocks

SVD

Inverse map and

IDCT

Referenced

Watermark

(a) (b)

Calculate the lm

function

Watermarked

Image

Extracted

watermark image

Fig. 2 The block diagram of proposed watermarking technique: a Watermark embedding, b Watermark extraction

3092 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

3.1 The luminance masking based on HVS

In the scheme proposed in this research, the luminance masking is applied to grayscale

digital image. The luminance masking is defined as follows.

lm ¼

I x; y ð Þ−128

128

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

; ð6Þ

where lm is the luminance masking, I(x,y) is the background luminance of the pixel (x, y).

The concept of luminance masking shows that the human eye is less sensitive to distortion

dependent on regions either with high brightness or with high darkness compared to mid-grey

regions with the most noticeable distortion. An 8-bit grayscale value is composed of 0 and 255.

In this case, the grayscale value of 0 is the total darkness or the lowest luminance, whereas the

maximum 8-bit grayscale value of 255 is bright white or the highest luminance [4, 5, 13, 35].

3.2 Watermark embedding process

The first step of the watermark-embedding process, reading the host image I and watermark

W, and then calculating the lm function corresponding to I. Assume the size of visual

watermark is n x n, and the size of the cover image is 2n x 4n. In step two, apply DCT to

host image I entirely; I

dct

= f

dct

(I), where I

dct

is a function of the DCT-transformed host

image I and consists of r rows and c columns.

In step three, scan the DCT coefficients into 4 areas a1, a2, a3 and a4 respectively in the

zigzag manner:

z ¼ f

zigzag

I

dct

ð Þ ð7Þ

Let l be the length of DCT- transformed host image in each area, where l ¼

rÂc ð Þ

4

. Let I

dct

a

be

an array to store all DCT coefficients of DCT-transformed host image in each area, where

I

dct

a

= f

convert_two

(z(l(a−1)+1:(a×l))), z is obtained from Eq. (7), convert_two is a function to

convert the one dimensional array z into a two dimension array of size r Â

c

4

, and a=1, 2, 3, 4.

In step four, perform SVD operation on the host image I

dct

a

in each area of a1, a2, a3 and

a4, respectively.

I

a

dct

¼ U

a

dct

S

a

dct

V

aT

dct

ð8Þ

where U

dct

a

S

dct

a

V

dct

aT

= f

svd

(I

dct

a

) and a=1, 2, 3, 4.

In step five, perform SVD operation on the watermark image f

dct

(W) to obtain a DCT-

transformed watermark image.

W

dct

¼ U

w

dct

S

w

dct

V

T

w

dct

ð9Þ

where U

w

dct

S

w

dct

V

T

w

dct

¼ f

svd

f

dct

W ð Þ ð Þ .

In step six, the algorithm in [23] is improved by multiplying the control parameter of the

watermark to get the principal component of the watermark as defined:

I

w

dct

¼ U

w

dct

S

w

dct

ð10Þ

In step seven, the algorithm in [28] is improved by modifying the singular values of DCT-

transformed host image with singular values of mask coefficient of host image and the

control parameter of DCT-transformed watermark image.

S

0

a

dct

¼ lm Â α

a

Â I

w

dct

þ S

a

dct

ð11Þ

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3093

In step eight, for each area, decide the optimal value of the scaling factor key α using

Genetic Algorithm.

α ¼

u

i

l

i

λ

w

; l

i

; u

i

_ _

ð12Þ

where λ

w

¼ average λ

w

ð Þ is the average or mean of the singular values of S

w

dct

, l

i

is the

minimum scaling factor key and u

i

is the maximum scaling factor key.

In step nine, obtain the modified DCT coefficients in each area.

I

0

a

dct

¼ U

a

dct

S

0

a

dct

V

aT

dct

ð13Þ

In step ten, modify the coefficient back to their original positions and performing IDCT.

I

0 0

a

dct

¼ f

dezigzag

I

0

a

dct

_ _

ð14Þ

3.3 Watermark extraction process

The first step of the watermarking extraction, apply DCT to the watermarked image I’,

I

dct

′

=f

dct

(I′), where I

dct

′

consists of r′ rows and c′ columns. In step two, scan the DCT

coefficients into 4 areas a1, a2, a3 and a4 respectively in the zigzag manner.

z ¼ f

zigzag

I

0

dct

_ _

ð15Þ

Let l

′

be the length of DCT- transformed host image in each area, where l

0

¼

r

0

Âc

0

ð Þ

4

. Let I

dct

′a

be

an array to store all DCT coefficients of DCT-transformed host image in each area, where

I

dct

′a

= f

convert_two

(z(l′(a−1)+1:(a×l′))), z is obtained from Eq. (15), convert_two is a function to

convert the one dimensional array z into a two-dimension array of size r

0

Â

c

0

4

, and a = 1, 2, 3, 4.

In step three, perform SVD operation on the DCT-transformed host image.

I

0

a

dct

¼ U

a

dct

S

0

a

dct

V

aT

dct

; a ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4 ð16Þ

In step four, the algorithm [13] is improved as follows: Subtract the possibly distorted

watermarked image in each area with the original transformed areas, I

dct

′′a

= A

dct

′a

−I

dct

a

, Obtain

the distorted principal component for each area, I

0

a

w

dct

¼

1

_

α

a

U

z

I

′′a

dct

V

_ _

.

In step five, construct the DCT coefficients for 4-visual watermarks and apply IDCT.

W

0

a

dct

¼ I

a

w

dct

V

aT

w

dct

ð17Þ

3.4 Optimization process by GA

In this paper, continuing from the previous research [2, 10, 11, 13, 17, 28], Genetic

Algorithm (GA) is implemented as described in Eq. 12 in order to find an optimum scaling

factor. The GA process is described in the following.

a. A function α ¼ ∑

u

i

l

i

λ

w

; l

i

; u

i

_ _

as shown in Eq. 12 is created to find the scaling factor α.

3094 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

b. The initialization process is to create a population of chromosomes and to initiate the

vectors randomly for chromosomes in each block.

c. The Evaluation step is to evaluate the fitness of all chromosomes in population. The

fitness value f

i

: f

i

¼ Chromosome i ð Þ Â Avgλw ð Þ

2

þ

1

1−Chromosome i ð Þ

d. The crossover stage is to mate two chromosomes to produce the next generation.

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3095

e. The mutation step is to prevent premature convergence to local optima by randomly

sampling the number of genes. Alter one or more genes with the mutation probability.

3.5 The objective function of proposed scheme

The selection of the tuning parameters consists of population size, crossover rate and

mutation rate. The optimum values for these parameters are 30, 0.8 and 0.01 respectively.

Meanwhile, generation size is set from 1 to 50 as an initial input and each number has

different evaluation function values.

4 Experiment results

This section provides the experiment setup, experiment results of the proposed scheme, and

the comparison with other techniques.

4.1 Experiment setup

Figures 3a, b, c, and d illustrate the host image of the e-government document image of size

256×1,024, the host image of Lena, the host image of the education document image, the

watermark of the logo image of Indonesian Institute of Sciences of size 256×256, used in the

experiment of this research, respectively.

To measure the quality of the watermarked image, the criteria of peak signal to noise ratio

(PSNR) is used. The minimum square error (MSE) is used to measure the objective function

values as well.

PSNR ¼ 10⋅log

10

255

2

_

MSE

_ _

ð18Þ

MSE ¼

1

MN

x¼1

M

y¼1

N

I x; y ð Þ−I

0

x; y ð Þ ð Þ

2

ð19Þ

3096 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

For a double (M) x double (N) blocks monochrome images, I (x, y) and I’(x, y), on the

other hand, represent the gray-values for the host image and watermarked image. To verify

the existence of the watermark, a correlation coefficient between the host image and the

extracted watermark can be calculated as follows:

∞ V; W ð Þ ¼

J¼1

k

V

j ð Þ

− Vmean; k ð Þ

_

: W

j ð Þ

− Wmean; k ð Þ

_

j¼1

k

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

V

j ð Þ

−Vmean; k

_

: W

j ð Þ

−Wmean; k

_ _

_ _ _

2

_ ð20Þ

Fig. 3 a the host image of the e-government document image, b the host image of Lena, c the host image of

the education document image, d the watermark image

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3097

where V refers to the original watermark, W is the extracted watermark, Vmean is the mean

of original watermark, Wmean is the mean of extracted watermark and k is (M, N).

4.2 Experiment results of the proposed scheme

In this experiment, the robustness of the proposed scheme in resistant to several types of attacks

such as Gaussian noise, Cropping, JPEG compression, Median filtering, Salt and pepper noise

and Average filtering is investigated. Under those various attacks, the parameter value indicat-

ing the robustness, namely the great robust NC (Normalized Correlation Coefficient) value of

the extracted watermark fromeach area with different attacks and scales (e.g. in Gaussian noise

attack, the used scale are 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4.5, and 5) is tabulated in Table 1.

4.3 Comparison with other techniques

Here, the proposed scheme is compared with some previous schemes (e.g. the schemes

schematically being reported by Himansu et al. [13], Rosiyadi et al. [28], Xue and Teng [35],

Carballeira et al. [7], and Naiss et al. [26]). In such comparison, several types of attacks are

applied on the proposed scheme and other previous schemes with the host image of the e-

government document image of size 256×1,024 and the watermark of the logo image of

Table 1 Experiment results under six types of attacks

a

EGDI is E-Government Document Image

b

EdDI is Education Document Image

3098 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

Indonesian Institute of Sciences of size 256×256. Figure 4 compares the performance of the

proposed scheme with those reported by [7, 13, 26, 28, 35] in which the types of attacks applied

are JPEG compression 50, Scaling 1, Gaussian noise 1, Rotation 2, and Median filtering (2×2).

Based on Fig. 4, the proposed scheme has the highest value of NC for the types of attacks,

Gaussian Noise 1 and Scaling 1. This indicates that the proposed scheme is more robust

towards both types of attacks and the performance of the proposed scheme is relatively better

compared to the previous researches [7, 13, 26, 28, 35].

Regarding the processing time of the proposed scheme, we repeat for 150 times using the

host image of the e-government document image of size 256×1,024 and the watermark of

the logo image of Indonesian Institute of Sciences of size 256×256 to calculate the

processing time of the proposed scheme and the previous scheme reported by Rosiyadi et

al. [28]. The average processing time over 150 experiments is then counted. The average

processing times of the proposed scheme and the previous scheme reported by Rosiyadi et

al. [28] are 66.5045 s and 65.7910 s, respectively.

It is found that the processing time of the proposed scheme is slightly higher about

713.5ms than the previous scheme reported by Rosiyadi et al. [28]. This result is due to the

proposed scheme including more processes in which the luminance masking process has

been used to improve noise sensitivity, as shown in Table 2.

Fig. 4 The comparison results of NC value between the proposed scheme and other schemes

Table 2 the comparison of the watermarking scheme process between the proposed scheme and the previous

scheme reported by Rosiyadi et al. [28]

Proposed scheme Rosiyadi et al. [28]

Hybrid DCT-SVD Hybrid DCT-SVD

The optimization Process by Genetic Algorithm The optimization Process by Genetic Algorithm

The process of luminance masking model in the

human visual system (HVS).

–

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3099

5 Conclusion

This study presents an adaptive watermarking scheme for e-government document images. In this

scheme, the mask of the host image with luminance masking based on features of the image in

HVS and transforming is calculated for all frequencies on each area. This is followed

by modifying the singular values of DCT-transformed host image with singular values

of mask coefficient of host image and the control parameter used to avoid the false

positive problem of DCT-transformed watermark image using GA. It is found that the

proposed scheme is more robust and sensitive against several types of attacks;

particularly, Gaussian Noise 1 and Scaling 1. Further research could be done in the

adaptive watermarking scheme based on texture and edge masking.

Acknowledgments We would like to thank the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering,

National Taiwan University of Science &Technology for giving the permission to commence this thesis in the first

instance, to do the necessary research work and to use departmental data.

References

1. Amiri MD, Danyali H, Zahir-Azami B (2010) An adaptive robust and multiresolution image

watermarking for progressive wavelet image coding, 6th International Conference on Wireless Commu-

nications Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM). pp 1

2. Aslantas V(2007) An SVDbased digital image watermarking using genetic algorithm. Int J Electron Commun: 1–4

3. Bao P, Ma X (2005) Image adaptive watermarking using wavelet domain singular value decomposition.

IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 15(1):96–102

4. Barni M, Bartolini F, Piva A (2001) Improved wavelet-based watermarking through pixel-wise masking.

IEEE Trans Image Process 10(5):783–791

5. Belkacem S, Dibi Z, Bouridane A (2007) A masking model of HVS for image watermaking in the DCT

domain. IEEE Int Conf Electron, Circ Syst: 330

6. Benhocine A, Laouamer L, Nana L, Pascu AC (2013) New images watermarking scheme based on

singular value decomposition. J Inf Hiding Multimedia Signal Process 4(1):9–18

7. Carballeira P (2012) Analysis of pixel-mapping rounding on geometric distortion as a prediction for view

synthesis distortion, Proceeding of 3DTV-Conference: the true vision - capture, transmission and display

of 3D video (3DTV-CON) 2012, pp 1–4

8. Coello Coello CA, Toscano Pulido G (2001) A micro-genetic algorithm for multi objective optimization.

Proc Genet Evolut Comput Conf

9. Cui L, Li W (2011) Adaptive multiwavelet-based watermarking through JPW masking. IEEE Trans Image

Process 20(4):1047–1060

10. Genetic Algorithms http://www.cs.ucc.ie/~dgb/courses/tai/notes/handout12.pdf

11. Hamed M, Hossein Khosravi R, Mohammad R, Akbarzadeh T(2010) Anewadjustable blind watermarking based

on GAand SVD, Proceeding of International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT), pp 6–10

12. He X, Chang S (2011) An adaptive image watermarking algorithm based on neural network. Int Conf

Intell Comput Technol Autom 2:408

13. Himanshu H, Rawat S, Raman B, Bhatnagar G (2011) DCT and SVD based new watermarking scheme,

3rd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICETET), pp 146–151

14. Hoi-Yu Tong H (1997) A perceptually adaptive JPEG coder, master thesis, University of Toronto

15. Huang HC, Chen YH (2009) Genetic fingerprinting for copyright protection of multicast media. Soft

Comput 13(4):383–391

16. Huang HC, Chu CM, Pan JS (2009) The optimized copyright protection system with genetic

watermarking. Soft Comput 13(4):333–343

17. Huang C-H, Wu J-L (2000) Awatermark optimization technique based on genetic algorithms. Proc SPIE 3971

18. Kang X, Huang J, Zeng W (2008) Improving robustness of quantization-based image watermarking via

adaptive receiver. IEEE Trans Multimedia 10(6):953–959

19. Kumar Sharma D, Kumar Pathak V, Sahu GP (2007) Digital watermarking for secure e-government

framework Computer Society India, pp 182–191

3100 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

20. Kuo S-s, Johnston JD (2002) Spatial noise shaping based on human visual sensitivity and its application

to image coding. IEEE Trans Image Process 11(5):509–517

21. Lai CC, Huang HC, Tsai CC (2009) A digital watermarking scheme based on singular value decomposition

and micro-genetic algorithm. Int J Innov Comput Inf Control 5(7):1867–1873

22. Li Q, Yuan C, Zhong Y-Z (2007) Adaptive DWT-SVD domain image watermarking using human visual

model. Int Conf Adv Commun Technol 3:1947

23. Lim SB (2010) Human visual system, http://www.siongboon.com/projects/2010-08-22/electronicballast/

HumanVisualSystem.pdf

24. Ma X, Shen X (2008) A novel blind grayscale watermark algorithm based on SVD, Proceeding of

International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing (ICALIP), shanghai, pp 1063–1068

25. Mairgiotis AK, Galatsanos NP (2008) New additive watermark detectors based on a hierarchical spatially

adaptive image model. IEEE Trans Inf For Sec 3(1):29–37

26. Naiss I (2013) Computable bounds for rate distortion with feed forward for stationary and ergodic

sources. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 59(2):760–781

27. Pappas TN, Safranek RJ, Chen J (2005) Perceptual criteria for image quality evaluation. In: Bovik AC (ed)

Hand book of image and video processing, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, United States of America

28. Rosiyadi D, Horng S-J, Fan P, Wang X, Khan MK, Pan Y (2012) An efficient copyright protection

scheme for e-government document images. IEEE Multimedia 19(3):62–73

29. Si H, Li C-T Maintaining information security in e-government through steganology, Department of

Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK

30. Sing K (2011) edge detector, http://yumnamkirani.hpage.us/edge_detection_74376639.html

31. Verma A, Tapaswi S (2009) A novel reversible visible watermarking technique for images using Noise

Sensitive Region Based Watermark Embedding (NSRBWE) approach, IEEE EUROCON ‘09, pp 1374

32. Voloshynovskiy S, Pereira S, Pun T, Eggers JJ, Su JK (2001) Attacks on digital watermarks: classification,

estimation based attacks, and benchmarks. IEEE Commun Mag 39(8):118–126

33. Wang J (2008) Design of e-government security system based on information security model. Inf Manag,

Innov Manag Ind Eng 2: 359–362, ISBN: 978-0-7695-3435-0, 19–21

34. White GB, Jones S (2007) Minitrack E-government information security, system sciences, 2007. HICSS

2007. 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on, E-ISBN: 0-7695-2755-8, pp 97–97

35. Xue S, Teng X (2007) Adaptive blind watermarking based on improved noise sensitivity. Fourth Int Conf

Fuzzy Syst Knowl Discov 4:731–734

36. Yan Y, Wei C, Li S (2009) Block-based adaptive image watermarking scheme using just noticeable

difference. IEEE Int Work Imaging Syst Tech: 377–380

37. Zhang X, Han G, Zou K, Li W, Li B (2007) An effective mechanism based on watermark for e-government

information security. Int Conf Converg Inf Technol- IEEE:580–585

38. Zhao F, Liu G, Ren F (2009) Adaptive blind watermarking for JPEG2000 compression domain, 2nd

International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, pp 1

39. Zhu S-m, Liu J-m (2008) Adaptive watermarking scheme in hybrid DWT-DCT transform based on human

visual system. Int Symp Knowl Acquis Model: 668

Shi-Jinn Horng received his PhD. degree in computer science from the National Tsing Hua University in 1989.

Currently, he is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan

University of Science and Technology. His research interests include multimedia, biometrics, and parallel algorithms.

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3101

Didi Rosiyadi received his Master degree in the Computer Science, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta,

Indonesia in 2003. Currently, he is a PhD Student in Department Computer Science and Information

Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan. His research interests include

watermarking, and multimedia.

Pingzhi Fan (FIEE, SMIEEE) received his PhD degree in electronic engineering from Hull University, UK.

He is currently a professor and a vice president of Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China. He is the

inventor of 20 patents, and the author of over 300 research papers and 8 books. His research interests include

CDMA theory and technology, information theory & coding, information security.

3102 Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103

Xian Wang received his Ph.D. degrees in Communication and Information Systems from Southwest Jiaotong

University, Chengdu, China in 2008 and was an associate professor at the same university. He is also a

postdoctoral researcher with the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National

Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan. His research interests include mobility management

and performance modeling for personal communications service network.

Dr. Muhammad Khurram Khan (M’07) is currently working as associate professor and R&D Manager at

the Center of Excellence in Information Assurance (CoEIA), King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

He is also an honorary Professor at IIIRC, Shenzhen Graduate School, China. He has published more than

100 papers in journals and conferences. His areas of interest are biometrics, and multimedia security.

Multimed Tools Appl (2014) 72:3085–3103 3103

- Minor Project Synopsis Of Digital Watermarking using DCT and Genetic algorithmUploaded byVipul Rajput
- IRJET-A Study of Video Watermarking Techniques Based on Energy ModelUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Digital Water MarkingUploaded byarjunr1991
- A Novel VLSI Architecture for Image Compression Model Using Low Power Discrete Cosine TransformUploaded byVimal Raj
- Image Forgery and it's Detection Technique: A ReviewUploaded byIRJET Journal
- DIGITAL IMAGE CRYPTOSYSTEM WITH ADAPTIVE STEGANOGRAPHYUploaded byKapil Shere
- Robust Watermarking Framework with DCT Based EncryptionUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- [IJCT-V2I3P12] Authors :Ravi Kumar ,Garima GargUploaded byIjctJournals
- Reversible Digital Watermarking Current StatusUploaded byFaraz Akhtar
- IRJET-Image Retrieval Based On Color and Texture Features Modification in Watermarking TechniqueUploaded byIRJET Journal
- water_marking.pptUploaded bypsaravanan1985
- WatermarkingUploaded byijsjeya
- Semi Video2Uploaded byshivagurram
- UntitledUploaded byavimeirson
- IJAIEM-2014-11-30-121Uploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Raw Data on LiteratureUploaded byKamau Gabriel
- 10.1.1.114.6299Uploaded byAnbu Love
- biometic templatesUploaded byFuraha Jacob
- RcppEigen IntroductionUploaded byShu Shujaat Lin
- A Comprehensive Study of Cryptography & Content Hiding Techniques for Security of Digital VideosUploaded byIJAFRC
- Stegnography of High Embedding Efficiency by Using an Extended Matrix Encoding AlgorithmUploaded byesatjournals
- Ac 02417471753Uploaded byIJMER
- Analysis of Secure Channel Establishment Techniques for Transmission of Watermarked ImageUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- 9. Comp Sci - Ijcseitr - A Graph Clustering Approach -JahiruddinUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- DISCRETE COSINETRANSFORM-II FOR REDUCTION IN PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO OF OFDM SIGNALS THROUGH -LAW COMPANDING TECHNIQUEUploaded byJohn Berg
- ad_cheatsUploaded byGaetan Kenway
- Algorithm 2Uploaded bySubbuNaidu
- JPEG CompressionUploaded byfh637
- Discrete Cosine Transform .pdfUploaded byMohammad Rofii
- Chap4 Frequency DomainUploaded byumerahmed300

- Cs433 Fa12 Hw4 Sol CorrectUploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- 3.Decision Making and LoopingUploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- CUDA_Architecture_OverviewUploaded bysuccessfulmona
- LinkedList ProblemsUploaded byGowreesan
- Assignment 1Uploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- DBMS Aptitude Questions 2Uploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- GATE SyllabusUploaded byapi-3749970
- Still More ProblemsUploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- MiniProjectsUploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- Temporal Data Clustering ViaUploaded byAarthi Janakiraman
- LinkedList ProblemsUploaded byGowreesan
- file5Uploaded byAarthi Janakiraman

- Asaph ReportUploaded byKorir Joseph
- EMRI_2492-V1.38 (1)Uploaded bykazishah
- ITU Session 15 OFTA Regulation of Interconnection in Hong Kong 110802Uploaded byMukti Rahim
- 6md66 Catalog Sip e6Uploaded byPajo Patak
- EMU's XL-1 turboUploaded byRudy Pizzuti
- Fedora 19 Virtualization Security Guide en USUploaded byBrian Jefferson
- Contour LinesUploaded bykajal
- Grass and Saga - Grass-wikiUploaded bySamuel Fernando Mesa Giraldo
- Anna University Affiliated Institution R2013 Electronics and Instumentation SyllabusUploaded byMuruga Raj
- Bizhub 25 Administrators GuideUploaded byCopierrepair
- LD7575PS.pdfUploaded byOsama Yaseen
- Hex Tet ComparisonUploaded byajimon
- Howto Asterisk 1.8 Centos 6Uploaded byRobert Delgado
- Oscillators ModuleUploaded bymohammed229
- 26150528 CCNA Cisco Routing Protocols and Concepts Assessment 4Uploaded byCezar Luca
- Light TreeUploaded bywmallan
- Mikuni AgulhasUploaded byJaKa1
- SCM GeorgetownUploaded bych_salman
- Create a Killer,Simple,Unique Business CardUploaded bymalik
- hwang_solUploaded byamit_iitd
- steeveUploaded byalan1394b
- Noise Removal - Audacity WikiUploaded byAnonymous 2Fx1dy
- DSSummitX460_1722Uploaded bySvetlin Ivanov
- MIKE_FM_LP.pdfUploaded byBang Jali
- SAP BPP Benefit AdministrationUploaded byAbigail Wang
- 116178-technote-cvp-00(1)Uploaded byAjie Prasetyo
- Pairs Trading Using Cointegration Approach (1)Uploaded bykaddour7108
- Z-Wave Fibaro Smoke Sensor FGSS-001 Operating ManualUploaded byAndrei Martinas
- Ece-IV-signals & Systems [10ec44]-Notes (1)Uploaded bySameer Yusuf
- Global Lessons Learned NexteerUploaded byDearRed Frank