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2L

L
L
P
A
B
C
D
E
P
E
= !
2
EI/L
2
! = P/P
E
AB P
E
= 0.375!
2
EI/L
2
!
1
= 2.667P/(!
2
EI/L
2
)
BC P
E
= !
2
EI/L
2
!
2
= P/(!
2
EI/L
2
)
!
2
= 0.375!
1
Using the slope-deflexion equations:
CD M
CD
= (-4"
C
+ 2"
D
)EI/L

M
DC
= (-2"
C
+ 4"
D
)EI/L
Since D is pinned M
DC
= 0 and so M
CD
= -3"
C
EI/L
CB M
CB
= (s
2
c
2
"
B
- s
2
"
C
)EI/L

M
BC
= (s
2
"
B
- s
2
c
2
"
C
)EI/L
BE M
BE
= 4"
B
EI/L, E is fixed and so "
E
= 0.
AB M
BA
= 0.75s
1
"
B
EI/L, A is fixed and so "
A
= 0.
M
B
= M
BE
+ M
BA
+ M
BC
and M
C
= M
CD
+ M
CB
we have in matrix form
M
C

=
M
B
-3 - s
2
s
2
c
2
-s
2
c
2 4 + s
2

+ 0.75s
1
"
C


"
B
Example No. 1
In the plane frame shown below all the members have the same flexural
rigidity, EI, except the lower column, AB, which has a value of 1.5EI. Show
that the elastic critical load is equal to 1.175!
2
EI/L
2
. Make use of the EXCEL
spreadsheet to calculate the stability functions.
"
B
"
A
=0
#"
C
"
D
"
E
=0
(3 + s
2
)
- (s
2
c
2
)
2
= 0 (4 + s
2

+ 0.75s
1
)
For instability the determinant of the stiffness matrix is zero. Therefore
Using the stability functions we get by direct substitution !
2
= 1.175 In
other words P
cr
= 1.175!
2
EI/L
2
.
TABLE OF STABILITY FUNCTIONS TABLE OF STABILITY FUNCTIONS TABLE OF STABILITY FUNCTIONS TABLE OF STABILITY FUNCTIONS TABLE OF STABILITY FUNCTIONS TABLE OF STABILITY FUNCTIONS
!1 $1
s1 c1
!2 $2
s2 c2
3.1338 2.781 -6.444 -1.287 1.1752 1.703 2.139 1.211
3 + s2 5.139
4 + s2 + 0.75s1 4 + s2 + 0.75s1 1.306
s2*c2 2.591
-0.0028
Example No.2
In the plane frame shown in Fig. * the members have the same flexural
rigidity, EI. Show that the elastic critical load is equal to 0.61!
2
EI/L
2
.
Make use of published tables of stability functions.
Using the slope-deflexion equations:
BC M
BC
= [4"
B
# 2"
C
] EI/L

M
CB
= [2"
B
# 4"
C
] EI/L
Since C is pinned M
CB
= 0 and so M
BC
= 3"
B
EI/L
AB M
AB
= [sc"
B
- s(1 + c) (%/L)] EI/L

M
BA
= [s"
B
- s(1 + c) (%/L)] EI/L
M
B
= M
BC
+ M
BA

= [(s + 3)"
B
- s(1 + c) (%/L)] EI/L
The shear -F
B
is given by
M
AB
+ M
BA

L
+
P%
L
= [s(1 + c)"
B
- 2s(1 + c) (%/L)] EI/L
2
+ !!
2
EI/L
2
(%/L)
where P = !!
2
EI/L
2

Taking EI/L = 1, we may write in matrix form
L
P
A
B
C

"
A
=0
%
"
B
, %
L
#"
C

M
B

=
L
.
F
B
s + 3 -s(1 + c)
-s(1 + c)
2s(1 + c) - !!
2
"
B


%
B
/L
For instability the determinant of the stiffness matrix is zero. Therefore
(s + 3) - s
2
(1 + c)
2
= 0 (2s(1 + c) - !!
2
)
Using the stability functions we get
det(! = 0.60) = 0.765 and det (! = 0.64) = -2.002
and so, by interpolation, ! = 0
.
61.
In other words
P
cr
= 0
.
61!
2
EI/L
2
.