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Texas 2006 GA State Thiele

Constitutive Criminology
Morrison Gender Negative
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Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
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Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
1NC
1. STAT3S "3# S#$%ES !
A. %A'A (( 2ASSE6 AN6 (TS C#NST(T3T(#NA$
*ausner 02
B6eena 3niteA States v. .orrison& A CritiCue oD the SuEreme CourtFs +estriGtion oD CongressF 7ourteenth AmenAment
2oHers 11 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 261 SEring 4 SummerJ 2002 $4NK BGtK
/. Alternatives to SeGtion 13581 oD the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt
SeGtion 13581 oDDereA the Eromise oD an imEortant means oD reAress Dor viGtims oD genAerLmotivateA Grime. (t is
imEortant that Congress enaGt neH legislation to aAAress these EroIlemsJ tailoreA to survive the SuEreme CourtFs striGt
interEretation oD Congressional authority. 3nAer its 7ourteenth AmenAment EoHersJ Congress has authority to enaGt a
statute authoriMing a DeAeral Gause oD aGtion in situations involving AisGriminatory resEonses Iy loGal anA4or state
oDDiGials. 128 #n 7eIruary 6J 2001J Congress enaGteA the %iolenGe Against 'omen Civil +ights +estoration AGt oD
2001. 125 This statute authoriMes the 3niteA States Attorney General to Dile suit uEon a reasonaIle shoHing that the
stateJ EolitiGal suIAivision oD a stateJ or state agent NAisGriminateA on the Iasis oD genAer in the investigation or
EroseGution oD genAerLIaseA Grimes... .N 130 The BO21,K Attorney General must Erove Nthat the AisGrimination is
Eursuant to a Eattern or EraGtiGe oD resistanGe to investigating or EroseGuting genAerLIaseA Grimes... .N 131 /eGause this
legislation targets state aGtors sEeGiDiGallyJ it is muGh more liPely to survive SuEreme Court sGrutiny. 132 /y its natureJ
hoHeverJ this remeAy is Dar more limiteA in sGoEe than the original %A'A Givil rights Erovision IeGause it Aoes not
authoriMe a Gause oD aGtion against inAiviAual EerEetrators.
/. (T GA+NE+S .#%E.ENTS NECESSA+- T# S#$%E CASE
6avis 01
B.artha 7.J Counsel oD +eGorA Dor Christy /rMonPala in 3niteA States v. .orrison anA 9ate Stoneman %isiting
2roDessor at AlIany $aH SGhool. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C %(#$ENCE&
6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the %iolenGe Against
'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
.eanHhileJ HomenFs rights aAvoGates are organiMing. 'e are IuilAing on the grounAHorP that Has laiA through the
original %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt anA Iy the enaGtment oD %A'A 2000. 36 $egislators inGreasingly unAerstanA the
urgenGy oD the issue. States also aGPnoHleAge that they Gannot go it alone. (n the aDtermath oD .orrisonJ there is a Iill
EenAing in Congress Hith 181 GoLsEonsors that HoulA reenaGt a neH version oD the Givil rights remeAy Gonsistent Hith
the Earameters that .orrison set BO,),K out. 31 (t is a very narroH laH IeGause Hhat .orrison suggesteA might Eass
muster HoulA Ie a laH HhiGh reCuireA a shoHing oD GommerGial nexus in every instanGe. .any Gases that HoulA have
Ieen eligiIle unAer the Erior laH may not Ie Irought unAer this neH version. (t is still HorthHhile IeGause it Hill helE
some HomenJ anA it is imEortant to Gontinue to eAuGate EeoEle aIout this issue through the legislative EroGess. The
EartiGular laH that is EenAing HoulA also Eermit the 3niteA States Attorney General to taPe aGtion against reGalGitrant
states Hhere there is a Eattern or EraGtiGe oD AisGrimination. 38 That is a neH Erovision that Has not in the Erior laH.
'hile this neHer version oD the Givil rights remeAy Hill not helE as many EeoEleJ this is all Eart oD a EroGess. (t is a long
term GamEaign to maPe Erivate violenGe an aEEroEriate Iasis Dor national EuIliG EoliGy. There are also other neH iAeas
EerGolating. #ne is DoGusing on the HorPElaGeJ HhiGh oD Gourse Aoes have a GommerGial nexus anA HhiGh is the ElaGe
Hhere many Homen suDDer the most as the result oD AomestiG violenGe. (n looPing at the EroIlem in 155)J Congress
DounA that many Homen are stalPeA in the HorPElaGe anA are not aIle to Ie as eGonomiGally EroAuGtive IeGause they
are Aealing Hith Iattering in the home. 'e are looPing at Hays to try to aAAress HorPElaGe sensitivity to AomestiG
violenGe anA imEose some resEonsiIility on emEloyers not to AisGriminate against viGtims oD violenGeJ Iut insteaAJ to
AeveloE Erograms to assist them.
Through litigation anA through the legislative EroGess He have aGGomElisheA a lotJ even though He lost the Iattle in
.orrison. AnA Hhile He lost in .orrisonJ ( have no AouIt that He Hill ultimately Hin the GamEaign against violenGe
against Homen.
3
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
2. 73N6(NG T+A6E #77
A. 2$AN T+A6ES #77 '(T* %A'A 73N6(NG 2+#%(S(#N
6inan 02
B<ohn Congressional resEonses to the +ehnCuist CourtFs DeAeralism AeGisions. 2uIlius & 2g. 1:2,; %ol. 32 No. 3 (SSN&
00)8L,5,0<une 22J 2002 $4NK BGtK
The Dailure to overGome the eDDeGts oD .orrison Gan Ie attriIuteAJin EartJ to insuDDiGient EolitiGal suEEort Dor the
reinstatement oD the DeAeral GivilLremeAy Erovision. Conyers trieA to oItain suEEort Dor suGh a measureJ anA along these
lines he argueA on 21 <u1y 2000 that .orrison Has NQust the latest in a series oD Gases in HhiGh the SuEreme Court hasJ
in my vieHJ imEroEerly narroHeA CongressF authority to legislate unAer the CommerGe Clause.N:23; Conyers anA
several other memIers oD the *ouse <uAiGiary Committee then trieA to aAA the %A'C++A to a Iill reauthoriMing
DunAing Dor %A'A Erograms :HhiGh haA alreaAy Ieen sGheAuleA Dor GonsiAeration Erior to the CourtFs AeGision;J Iut the
amenAment Has AeemeA nongermaneJ anA the GivilLremeAy Erovision Has not inGluAeA in the Iill that Has reEorteA out
oD the Gommittee. SuEEorters oD the GivilLremeAy Erovision may or may not have Ieen aIle to Garry the Aay haA they
Ghosen to Eress their GaseJ Iut in the enAJ they Ghose not to Ao soJ in Eart out oD a IelieD that this might imEeril the
EenAing reauthoriMation oD %A'A DunAing. Their Dear Has that even though the vast maQority oD the Erovisions in
%A'A haA Ieen leDt unAisturIeA Iy the .orrison AeGisionJ Galling attention to the ruling might have the eDDeGt oD
Gasting AouIt in the EoEular minA on the overall legitimaGy oD the statute. ConseCuentlyJ they Ghose to AoHnElay any
talP oD .orrison anA thus any neeA Dor a resEonse to the AeGisionJ at least Auring the 106th Congress.:2);
/. T*E (.2ACT (S 1.6 /($$(#N 6#$$A+S
6avis 01
B.artha 7.J Counsel oD +eGorA Dor Christy /rMonPala in 3niteA States v. .orrison anA 9ate Stoneman %isiting
2roDessor at AlIany $aH SGhool. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C %(#$ENCE&
6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the %iolenGe Against
'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
SeGonAJ .orrison itselD GhallengeA only the Givil rights remeAy oD the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt oD 155)J 18 not the
entire laH HhiGh EroviAeA S 1.6 Iillion Dor IattereA Homen sheltersJ trainingJ EoliGeJ a national hotline oEerating out oD
TexasJ anA other suEEort Dor the Dight against AomestiG violenGe. AgainJ Hhile oEEonents oD the laH suggesteA that the
Givil rights remeAy somehoH gave Homen sEeGial rightsJ muGh oD that DunAing Hent to male AominateA institutions liPe
the EoliGe anA the QuAiGiary. AlsoJ the laH itselD is genAer neutral so that anyone Hho is a viGtim oD genAer motivateA
violenGeJ Hhether a manJ HomanJ or transLgenAereA EersonJ GoulA Iring a Gase unAer the statute Dor genAer motivateA
violenGe. 15
3. C(%($ +E.E6(ES 2+E%ENT +E7#+. #7 C+(.(NA$ +A2E $A'
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
Civil GomEensation in aGCuaintanGeLraEe Gases is not a neH GonGeEt. The loHer IurAen oD ErooD anA the lesser
EroteGtions extenAeA to the AeDenAant maPe Givil aGtions an inviting alternative to Griminal EroseGutions Dor raEe
viGtims. The AraHIaGPs inGluAe the GonsiAeraIle time anA exEense involveA in Givil EroGeeAingsJ as Hell as the limiteA
GaEaGity oD Givil Gourts to Eunish oDDenAers. AAAitionallyJ the overuse oD the Givil Gourts to resolve essentially Griminal
EroIlems generates other EroIlems. ShiDting a signiDiGant numIer oD Gases aHay Drom the resEonsiIility oD the Griminal
Gourts removes the inGentive Dor raEe laH reDorm. $aIelling Gertain PinAs oD raEes as essentially NtortiousJN not GriminalJ
trivialiMes them. (t Greates a tHoLtier system in HhiGh some raEes are NGrimesN anA thus more NlegitimateN IeGause they
are trieA in Griminal Gourt. #ther raEes are GonsiAereA Nmere tortsN IeGause the Gases are Irought in Givil Gourt.
)
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
). C#.2$ACENC- ! 7E6E+A$(0AT(#N G3A+ANTEES STATES '($$ 2ASS #N T*E
/3C9 T# #%E+/3+6ENE6 7E6E+A$ C#3+TS
$evey 01
BCurtJ 6ireGtor oD $egal anA 2uIliG ADDairsJ Center Dor (nAiviAual +ights. :The Center EroviAeA reEresentation Dor
Anthony .orrison in 3niteA States v. .orrison;.. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
'hether it is AiDDerent EoliGy GhoiGes or EeoEle not Ieing inAiGteA Hhen He thinP they shoulA IeJ it is a Dar Gry Drom
eviAenGe that the states are intentionally AisGriminating against Homen. AnAJ againJ Hhere intentional AisGrimination
Aoes oGGurJ Homen Gan still sue the oDDenAing state oDDiGials unAer existing DeAeral Givil rights laHs liPe T 1583. )) (
thinP that Senator /iAenJ Hhen BO,,2K he Has talPing aIout the symIoliG value oD the DeAeral Givil rights remeAyJ
reGogniMeA that men anA Homen Hill alHays have to AeEenAJ Dor the most EartJ on loGal anA state governments to
EroteGt them Drom violenGe. 7eAeral GourtsJ DeAeral IureauGratsJ anA DeAeral laH enDorGement agenGies liPe the 7./.(.
Hill never Ie the ansHer Dor more than a tiny DraGtion oD the millions oD EeoEle Hho are viGtimiMeA eaGh year Iy violent
GrimeJ Hhether it is genAer IaseA or not. (n the enAJ it is a mistaPe to Ao anything that AeLemEhasiMes resEonsiIility at
the level Hhere this EroIlem has to Ie solveAJ that isJ the state anA loGal level. The last thing He neeA is to give state or
loGal oDDiGials an exGuse to Eass the IuGP anA sayJ NThat is a DeAeral Givil rights issueJ He are not Aoing anything
IeGause the 6eEartment oD <ustiGe Hill looP at it.N
,. S-./#$(S. T3+N
A. C(%($ +E.E6- (S 23+E$- S-./#$(C ! (T 6#ESNUT 6# AN-T*(NG
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
(%. ConGlusion
The Givil rights remeAy oD the 155) %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt resiAes in a Gategory Hith the EroverIial laH against
IaA Heather L the seleGteA means Iears no relation to the intenAeA enA. (t is Aisheartening that so many legislators anA
legal Gommentators have DaileA to reGogniMe that aIuseA Homen laGP the means to Eursue a Givil rights aGtion against
their sEouse or Eartner anA that the DeAeral Gourts are in no Eosition to taPe on the EroIlem. $aHmaPers anA aGaAemiGs
aliPe must reGogniMe that soGial ills Hill not retreat in the DaGe oD highly BO816K EuIliGiMeAJ symIoliG aGtion. 5) +eal
money Hill have to Ie GommitteA iD the EroIlem is to Ie solveA L Iut solutions liPe that HonFt Ie nearly as EoEular as
the relatively GostLDree C++. No AouIt legislators anA aGaAemiGs Here eager to suEEort the C++ IeGause it has suGh a
small AoHnsiAe. (t is veryJ very GheaE L the DiGtitious ElaintiDDs get the laHsuits starteA anA the imaginary AeDenAants Eay
all the QuAgments anA legal Iills. (n the Givil rights remeAyJ AmeriGa got exaGtly Hhat it EaiA Dor.
/. S-./#$(0AT(#N G3A+ANTEES +#$$/AC9 #7 '#.ENUS +(G*TS
+osenIerg 06
BGeralA N. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA $eGturer in $aHJ 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ /.A.J 6artmouth
CollegeJ 1516V ..A.J #xDorA 3niversityJ 1515V <.6.J 1583J 3niversity oD .iGhiganV 2h.6.J 158,J -ale 3niversity.
Constitutional $aH SymEosium& The +ole #D Courts (n SoGial Change& ArtiGle& Courting 6isaster& $ooPing 7or
Change (n All The 'rong 2laGes ,) 6raPe $. +ev. 15, SummerJ 2006 $4NK BGtK
$itigation suIstitutes symIols Dor suIstanGe. The GollaEse oD the EroLGhoiGe movement aDter +oe is a EerDeGt illustration
as it remains the Gase that Dor many Homen aIortion serviGes are AiDDiGult to DinA. SimilarlyJ the groHing reLsegregation
oD the nationFs EuIliG sGhools is oGGurring at a time Hhen /roHn has aGhieveA almost mythiGalJ symIoliG status. The
Aanger oD GeleIrating a symIol is that it Gan leaA to a sense oD selDLsatisDaGtion anA insensitivity to aGtual EraGtiGe. Seen
in this lightJ /roHn is Nlittle more than an ornamentJ or golAen GuEolaJ Iuilt uEon the rooD oD a struGture DounA rotting
anA inDesteAJ assuring the gentleDolP Hho only Eass Iy Hithout entering that all is Hell insiAe.N n108 CeleIrating legal
symIols enGourages us to looP to legal solutions Dor EolitiGal anA Gultural EroIlems. 'ithout EolitiGal suEEortJ Gourt
AeGisions Hill not EroAuGe soGial Ghange. To valoriMe laHyers anA Gourts enGourages reDormers to litigate Dor soGial
Ghange. /ut iD EolitiGal suEEort is laGPingJ the eDDeGt oD this vision is to limit Ghange Iy AeDleGting Glaims Dor reDorm
aHay Drom suIstantive EolitiGal IattlesJ Hhere suGGess is EossiIleJ to harmless legal ones Hhere it is not. (n this HayJ
Gourts Elay a AeeEly Gonservative iAeologiGal DunGtion in AeDense oD the status Cuo. 'hen soGial reDormers suGGumI to
the Nlure oD litigationN they Dorget that AeeELseateA soGial GonDliGts Gannot Ie resolveA through litigation.
,
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
6. %(CT(.(0AT(#N T3+N
A. C(%($ +E.E6- 7#+CES '#.EN T# 2#+T+A- T*E.SE$%ES AS %(CT(.S (N
T*E C#3+T (N #+6E+ T# '(N.
2iGart 03
BCaroline <oan :9ay; Assistant 2roDessor oD English anA Courtesy Assistant 2roDessor oD $aH at 7loriAa State
3niversity in TallahasseeJ +hetoriGally +eGonDiguring %iGtimhooA anA AgenGy& The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGtFs
Civil +ights Clause +hetoriG = 2uIliG ADDairs 6.1 :2003; 51L12, 2roQeGt .3SEK BGtK
.uGh that has Ieen Hritten aIout %A'AFs Givil rights remeAy revolves arounA Hhether it is Gonstitutional. 7or the
EurEose oD GonGisenessJ ( narroH this essay to an analysis oD AeDinitional strategies AeEloyeA in legal AoGuments
:ErinGiEally reGorAs oD the Gases; anAJ Hhere availaIleJ meAia Goverage meant to aAAress the aIuse oD Homen that Has
imElieA in the Iill. "uestions oD Hhat intimate violenGe isJ or Hhat a NIattereA HomanFsN or NraEeA HomanFsN
exEerienGes areJ raise GruGial issues GonGerning hoH theory anA EraGtiGe are intrinsiGally GonneGteA in HorP on the
aIuse oD Homen. SEeGiDiGallyJ this essay DoGuses on the tensions in the AeDinitional GonstruGtion oD the NraEeA HomanN
anA NIattereA HomanN simultaneously as suDDering Drom illnesses that Aeserve meAiGal treatment anA as viGtims oD
aIuses that Aeserve legal reAress. 3ltimatelyJ the EroIlems Hith these GharaGteriMations arise Drom the DaGt that Gurrent
EoEular anA legal interEretations oD NagenGyN :laIeleA the NreasonaIle manN stanAarA; anA oD NviGtimhooAN leave
IattereA Homen in a AouIle IinA& the IurAen oD NrationallyN Eroving that the Iattering relationshiE Has suDDiGiently
GoerGive or liDeLthreatening is ElaGeA on their shoulAers Iy asPing Hhy they never attemEteA to leaveV anA iD they Dail to
Dit the arGhetyEal EroDile oD the Ntrue viGtimN Iy not Ieing reEentant or traumatiMeA enoughJ or Iy Ieing angryJ then they
are QuAgeA as not truly viGtimsJ anA thereDore as not meriting legal reAress.
Although %A'A goes a long Hay in aAAressing issues oD violenGe against HomenJ itJ tooJ is ElagueA Iy these
AeDinitional EroIlemsJ HhiGh ultimately striPe at the heart oD this EartiGular issue& the legal GonstruGtions oD striGt
AiGhotomies seEarating the NautonomousN Drom the NviGtimiMeA.N These unvoiGeA assumEtions regarAing agenGy anA
viGtimhooA are GruGial to unAerstanAing the transition Drom Hhat /runo $atour HoulA Gall the NhotN Ehase :in HhiGh
Gontroversies run ramEantJ anA stanAarAs Dor reaGhing GonGlusions regarAing the NtruthDulnessN oD a sGientiDiG Glaim are
DluiA; to the NGolAN Ehase :in HhiGh Gontroversies are AeGiAeAJ anA stanAarAs Dor Aetermining Hhether the Glaims are
NlegitimateN are GementeA;. 13 The DoGus oD this BEnA 2age 55K essay is less to argue Dor or against Hhether %A'AFs
Givil rights Erovision shoulA have Ieen QuAgeA GonstitutionalJ anA is more genealogiGal anA AesGriEtive. That isJ it aims
to AesGriIe or maE Hhat rhetoriGal strategies Here useAJ anA Hithin Hhat GonAitions they oEerateA in orAer to Hin or
AeDeat GasesJ via %A'AFs Givil rights Erovisions. (n all these GasesJ AesEite the DluGtuations in rhetoriGal registersJ it is
Glear that one Iinary Eersists& the agent vs. viGtim AiGhotomy. The artiGle Gloses Iy examining some oD the imEliGations
that DolloH Drom the EersistenGe oD this agent vs. viGtim AiGhotomyJ HhiGhJ though it is GonstruGteA to Ie GogniMant oD
Gategories oD genAer in %A'AFs Givil rights ErovisionJ is IlinA to other interseGtional Gategories suGh as raGe or Glass. 1)
3ltimatelyJ this artiGle interseGts Hith rhetoriGal AeEiGtions oD viGtimhooA anA agenGy in suGh Aiverse areas as Deminist
legal theoryJ laH anA eGonomiGsJ anA GritiGal raGe theoryJ as ( shall Aemonstrate. 1,
CA+6 C#NT(N3ES
(t aEEears that one DaGtor in the GourtFs GonviGtion oD Striuli Has the DaGt that $iuFs Eresentation oD the events DitteA the
Eattern oD the viGtim that %A'A itselD AemanAs& that she move GomEletely Drom the sEhere oD agent to that oD Eassive
oIQeGt. The Gourt noteA that the Eattern oD EhysiGal anA emotional aIuseJ inGluAing the raEes :the main Delonies
EunishaIle Iy laH;J the leHA GommentsJ the threats oD AeEortationJ along Hith the laGP oD any other aEEarent motiveJ
Here suDDiGient to GonvinGe the Gourt that StriuliFs Iehavior Has genAerLmotivateA. As rhetoriGal QustiDiGationJ Earallel
Gases EroDiling this tyEe oD Iinary AiGhotomy oD viGtimiMer versus viGtim Here GiteA& EE#C v. 7armer /ros. Co.J HhiGh
stateA that NBSKexual harassment may Ie symEtomatiG oD genAerLIaseA hostilityJ the emEloyer or suEervisor using
sexual harassment Erimarily to suIorAinate Homen . . . anA to Aemean themN anA Anisimov v. $aPeJ HhiGh helA that
Nallegations oD reEeateA unHelGome sexual aAvanGes anAJ ultimatelyJ a raEe satisDy the genAerLmotivation element oD
the G.%A.N #nGe againJ AesEite the DavoraIle ruling Dor Ioth $iu anA the Gonstitutionality oD %A'AJ it is interesting to
note that the general rulings anA even %A'AFs stanAarAs Dor liaIility still reiDy the same allLtooLDamiliar stereotyEes&
that unless the viGtim has shoHn overHhelming eviAenGe oD Erotest against the aIuseJ then it must have Ieen
thoroughly NGonsensualNV anA that in orAer legitimately to Glaim legal reAressJ the ElaintiDD has to Erove that she haA
IeGome Eurely an agentless viGtimJ rather than a Eartial viGtim anA Eartial agent. $iuFs raGeJ anA her status as a graAuate
stuAent :neither Dully EroDessional nor Dully artiGulate;J though these are never rhetoriGally set uE as NrelevantN Deatures
oD the GaseJ EroIaIly also GontriIuteA to the mixeA results in this Gase.
6
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
/. T*(S %(CT(.(0AT(#N +ELEN7#+CES 2AT+(A+C*-
2iGart 03
BCaroline <oan :9ay; Assistant 2roDessor oD English anA Courtesy Assistant 2roDessor oD $aH at 7loriAa State
3niversity in TallahasseeJ +hetoriGally +eGonDiguring %iGtimhooA anA AgenGy& The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGtFs
Civil +ights Clause +hetoriG = 2uIliG ADDairs 6.1 :2003; 51L12, 2roQeGt .3SEK BGtK
To GloseJ AesEite %A'AFs Erogressive aims anA amIiguous gainsJ there is a sense in HhiGh it IeGomes a strange
IeADelloH oD its sameLotherJ raAiGal Deminist theoryJ as Eut Dorth Iy Catharine .G9innon anA AnArea 6HorPin. (n IrieDJ
.aG9innon anA 6HorPinFs Deminist legal theoryJ although ostensiIly aimeA at liIerating HomenJ inAulges in the
rhetoriG anA imagery oD violenGe as HellJ to reGreate4rally arounA Demale viGtimhooA as an essentialist anA totaliMing
iAentity. 86 Their Iattle Gry ironiGally Gonverts HomenFs HeaPnesses :GonstruGteA Drom a EatriarGhal Eoint oD vieH; into
Hhat maPes Homen HomenWa steE that reElaGes the reGonstruGtion oD virtue Drom viGe Hith the even more Datal error
oD strengthening EatriarGhal GonstruGtions oD sex anA genAer as inevitaIilities. Though .G9innon anA 6HorPinFs
EolitiGs ultimately reaGh AiDDerent GonGlusions Drom those oD %A'A :EartiGularly the GonGlusion that all sexJ no matter
hoH NaEEarentlyN GonsensualJ is ultimately raEeJ given the Eervasiveness oD EatriarGhyFs GonDlation oD the erotiG anA the
violent;J there is a sense in HhiGh the stanAarAs oD viGtimhooA anA agenGy remain the same in Ioth aGGounts. 81 (n Ioth
GasesJ Homen are either Dully viGtims or Dully agentsWanA there is no room Dor an aGGount that tries to GaEture or even
Eartially AesGriIe the GhiarosGuro oD agenGy anA AisemEoHerment Homen live Drom Aay to Aay. Neither Aoes this tyEe
oD totaliMing language get at the EraGtiGal anA interseGtional GategoriMations oD raGe anA GlassJ among othersJ that enaIle
these Homen to oGGuEy anA EraGtiGe AiDDerential sEheres oD agenGy anA viGtimhooA.
1. A77 +E(7(ES T*E 23/$(C42+(%ATE S2$(T ! 2+#SEC3T#+ .3ST 2+#%E T*E 23/$(C
NAT3+E #7 T*E +A2E T# '(N T*E CASE
2iGart 03
BCaroline <oan :9ay; Assistant 2roDessor oD English anA Courtesy Assistant 2roDessor oD $aH at 7loriAa State
3niversity in TallahasseeJ +hetoriGally +eGonDiguring %iGtimhooA anA AgenGy& The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGtFs
Civil +ights Clause +hetoriG = 2uIliG ADDairs 6.1 :2003; 51L12, 2roQeGt .3SEK BGtK
3ltimatelyJ Hhile the %A'A itselD is an aAmiraIle EieGe oD legislation that haA attemEteA to aAAress violenGe against
Homen in a GomErehensive anA Gohesive HayJ there is a sense in HhiGh its oHn more Erogressive anA Aaring seGtionsJ
suGh as the Givil rights remeAyJ still mime EoEular anA mainstream legal GonstruGtions oD NviGtimhooAN anA NagenGy.N
3ltimatelyJ %A'AFs Givil rights Erovision EroAuGeA the same eDDeGts as other means oD seePing legal reAress Dor a
Delony motivateA Iy a genAer animus& that NErivateN Gases oD HiDeLIeating4raEe anA GamEus assault4Aate raEe seem more
AiDDiGult to Erove than NEuIliGN Gases Hhere sexual harassment involves a GlearJ EroDessionally relateA EoHer
AiDDerential. That isJ AesEite its Eotential ErogressivenessJ %A'AFs Givil rights remeAyJ in the manner in HhiGh it Has
rhetoriGally invoPeAJ enAeA uE reiDying the same olA stereotyEiG Iinary AiGhotomies oD the HomanLasLviGtim vs.
HomanLasLagentJ anA oD the Erivate vs. the EuIliG.
8. +A2E S*(E$6 T3+N
A. C(%($ S3(TS $AC9 ACCESS T# +A2E S*(E$6 $A'S
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
Another EossiIle AraHIaGP to using the Givil Dorum is the viGtimFs loss oD the EroteGtions EroviAeA Iy the raEe shielA
laHs. 88 3nless the stateFs statute sEeGiDies that raEe shielA EroteGtions aEEly in the Givil GontextJ the viGtim might lose
even those meager saDeguarAs. (D the QuAge AeGiAes that the viGtimFs sexual history is relevantJ she may DinA her entire
Erivate liDe aAmitteA into eviAenGe. (n shortJ the viGtimFs status as a Givil ElaintiDD rather than a Griminal Hitness Aoes not
guarantee her PinAer treatment Iy the Gourt or the AeDense attorney. 85
1
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
/. T*(S CA3SES +E%(CT(.(0AT(#N AN6 $ETS +A2(STS G# 7+EE
/ahl 00
B.ary E. +aEe ShielA $aHs& 'ho +eally NeeAs 2roteGtingRK BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.imEaGtEress.Gom4artiGles4aErmay004raEe),00.htmlK
(t HoulA seem aDter vieHing these tHo Gases that raEe shielA laHs Gan Erevent a man aGGuseA oD raEe Drom AeDenAing
himselD in GourtJ as he is entitleA to Ao unAer the laH. Those Hho Hant the laHs reEealeA say that this is a Gase oD
reverse AisGrimination anA sexism toHarAs men. This may Hell Ie true in these anA other Gases. /ut the DaGt remains
that many viGtims oD raEe anA sexual assault are viGtimiMeA onGe again in Gourt Iy Gharges that their East sexual
histories maPe them NlooseN anA Nhaving asPeA Dor itN. Even though soGietyFs attituAes toHarAs HomenJ sex anA raEe are
Ghanging Dor the IetterJ those Ghanges are Goming sloHly. #lA attituAes have PeEt raEists Drom getting EunisheAJ Iut olA
laHs may Erevent aGGuseA raEists :Hho areJ aDter allJ still innoGent until Eroven guilty; Drom AeDenAing themselves
against Dalse aGGusers. +aEe shielA laHs may still Ie a neGessityJ Iut they may neeA some rethinPing anA reHorPing so
that true QustiGe may Ie serveA Gonsistently.
5. N# (.2ACT ! GEN6E+ /(AS G#ES AGA(NST .EN
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity .ore eCual than others.AmeriGan SEeGtatorJ 01)88)1)J .ay51J
%ol. 30J (ssue , .aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
/ut it is rather unGlear Hho really suDDers more Drom oDDiGial NgenAer IiasN in this area. (t is trueJ as %A'A aAvoGates
EroGlaim :anA as 2resiAent Clinton emEhasiMeA in a 155, EroGlamation on NNational 6omestiG %iolenGe AHareness
.onthN;J that Homen are relatively more liPely to Ie PilleA Iy Damily memIers or NintimatesN than are men. /ut the
notion that Damily liDe is a sEeGial Aanger to Homen is a tHisteA Deminist Dantasy. AGGorAing to a 1553 stuAy Iy the
/ureau oD <ustiGe StatistiGsJ Homen Hho are unmarrieA or seEarateA are aGtually tHentyLDive times more liPely to suDDer
violent attaGP than marrieA Homen Hho live Hith their husIanAs.
(n aIsolute numIersJ moreoverJ Dar more men than Homen are PilleA eaGh year Iy Damily memIers or NromantiG
Eartners.N N6omestiG violenGeN taPes less oD a Aeath toll among men only in EerGentage termsJ IeGause men areJ overallJ
three times as liPely as Homen to Ie Datalities oD violenGe. (D anyone neeAs EroteGtion Drom NviolenGeJN it is men. TrueJ
most oD the violenGe that is Pilling men is not the result oD NgenAer Iias.N /ut so HhatR Are He more shoGPeA Iy
NgenAer IiasN than Iy murAerR 'hat young IlaGP men LL Iy Dar the largest single Gategory oD murAer viGtims LL got
Drom the 155) #mniIus Crime EaGPage Has miAnight IasPetIall.
(D He are going to oIsess aIout NgenAer IiasJN the most eviAent Iias in the Qury system is antiLmale. AGGorAing to
another reGent stuAy Iy the /ureau oD <ustiGe StatistiGsJ men Hho Pill their sEouses are Dar more liPely to Ie GonviGteA
than are Demale sEouseLPillers :only 6 EerGent oD HiDeLPillers are aGCuitteAJ GomEareA Hith 21 EerGent oD husIanAL
Pillers;. .en also tenA to get muGh longer Erison sentenGes Dor suGh Grimes :the sEouseLPilling average is sixteen years
Dor menJ six years Dor Homen;. The liPely reason Dor suGh AisEarities is that Quries are more inGlineA to see a Demale
Piller as having aGteA in selDLAeDense or in resEonse to ErovoGationJ Hhile they are more inGlineA to vieH a male
EerEetrator as a Aangerous Piller Hho Hill Pill again iD not EunisheA. SuGh assumEtions are Gertainly unAerstanAaIle.
.en areJ in generalJ more violent than Homen. /ut that is stereotyEiGal thinPing. (n other GontextsJ that sort oD
stereotyEiGal thinPing GoulAJ in itselDJ Ie AenounGeA as NgenAer Iias.N
8
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
10. C(%($ S3(TS C#..#6(7- <3ST(CE L .3ST S*(7T #3+ 7(+ST 2+(#+(T- A'A- 7+#.
.#NE- T# S#$%E
/enAer 50
B$eslie AssoGiate 2roDessorJ SyraGuse 3niversity College oD $aH 7rontier #D $egal Thought (ii& 7eminist :+e;Torts&
Thoughts #n The $iaIility CrisisJ .ass TortsJ 2oHerJ AnA +esEonsiIilities. 1550 6uPe $.<. 8)8 SeEtemIerJ 1550 $4NK
BGtK
( am the Dirst to aAmit that there are a lot oD Cuestions Hith this moAel. *oH Gan He maPe EeoEle GareR *oH Gan the laH
enDorGe this PinA oD resEonsiIilityR (s reCuireA Garegiving Horse than no Gare at allR 'ho as a viGtim HoulA Hant the
harmLGausers Eersonally involveA in their livesR *oH muGh time anA energy shoulA a harmLGauser Aevote to this PinA
oD GaregivingJ GonsiAering she must still Ie aIle to PeeE her QoI anA meet her oHn Damily oIligationsR (t must Ie
rememIereAJ thoughJ that these iAeas are EroEoseA as a rethinPing oD our legal organiMation anA exEresseA values. (n
orAer to imElement themJ He may neeA to Ghange the struGture oD the HorPElaGe to Eermit EeoEle to sEenA more time in
AireGtJ interEersonal Garegiving. 11) /ut Ghange must Iegin someHhere. (D He agree that money is inaAeCuate to salve
the Eain anA loss oD viGtimsJ anA money has EroveA inaAeCuate to Aeter the Greation oD nonLAemoGratiGally imEoseA
risPs anA harms on innoGent memIers oD the EuIliGJ then He have a GomEelling neeA Dor a reimagineA aEEroaGh. .aQor
BO508K EaraAigmatiG shiDts in our values or soGial organiMation are very AiDDiGult to imagine. 'e are so inGulGateA Hith
the Aominant iAeologiGal Eremises anA our existing GonAitions that our vision is hamEereA. ( PnoH that mine is. /ut (
Deel GonDiAent in the suEeriority oD the reorAereA values Drom HhiGh ( am HorPingJ anA ( Ielieve in our human GaEaGity
to Ghange anA imagine Ghange.
Something is terriIly Hrong Hith our soGialLeGonomiGLEolitiGal system Hhen He have reEeateA instanGes oD mass harms
anA toxiG Eoisonings GauseA Iy GorEorate aGtivities or EroAuGts. AnA the situation Gontinues to Horsen. 'hen He try to
solve the EroIlem Iy relying on moneyJ He Aig ourselves AeeEer into the same Eit. To alter our GonsGiousness aIout
solutions Dor Eersonal inQuriesJ He neeA to ErioritiMe values other than Aollars anA eGonomiG groHthJ anA He neeA to
AeveloE remeAies other than money Aamages. 'e shoulA looP to values oD human healthJ saDetyJ anA AignityJ values oD
AemoGratiG EartiGiEationJ values oD relationshiEs anA Garing. These values are alreaAy Eart oD our voGaIulary. 'e use
them in legal oEinionsJ in our GonversationsJ in our reaGtions to harmsJ anA in our soGial systemsJ Iut He enA uE giving
them liE serviGe insteaA oD aGting uEon them in tort laH. This is a ElaGe Dor Deminist :re;torts.
11. AC"3A(NTANCE +A2E T3+N L C(%($ $A'S3(TS 6EL$EG(T(.(0E AC"3A(NTANCE
CASES '*(C* T+(%(A$(0ES +A2E
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
'iAesEreaA use oD Givil laHsuits against raEistsJ hoHeverJ runs the risP oD Greating a tHoLtier system Eresenting
strangerLEerEetrateAJ NviolentN raEes as true GrimesJ anA NnonLviolentN aGCuaintanGe raEes as mere torts. This
GlassiDiGation reDleGts the lingering misunAerstanAing that aGCuaintanGe raEes are less serious than stranger raEesJ anA
that somehoH less guilt attaGhes to men Hho raEe their DrienAs anA girlDrienAs than those Hho Ghoose their viGtims oDD
the street. SiAelining aGCuaintanGe raEes to the arena oD tort laH EerEetuates this AistinGtionJ trivialiMes the attaGPs anA
utterly Dails to AisGourage Eotential raEists.
$iPeHiseJ Givil remeAies Gannot aAeCuately Eunish raEists in a Hays that aGPnoHleAges the violenGe suDDereA Iy the
viGtim. CertainlyJ AeDenAing a Givil suit is exEensive anA inGonvenient. NonLinAigent AeDenAants may Ie DorGeA to
satisDy suIstantial QuAgments. A Givil AeDenAantJ hoHeverJ is never DaGeA Hith the more serious threat oD inGarGeration.
.ore imEortantlyJ he Aoes not suDDer the soGietal stigma oD Ieing IranAeA a Griminal. Every raEeJ hoHeverJ CualiDies as
a GrimeJ Hhether or not viGtim anA raEist PnoH eaGh other. +aEe is a violentJ AeliIerate anA intentional Grime that leaves
its viGtims EhysiGally anA emotionally AevastateA. AAvoGating Givil aGtion as a Eenalty Dor aGCuaintanGe raEes trivialiMes
these attaGPs as mere torts. Civil Eenalties are Dar less liPely to Aeter Eotential raEists than a EroEerly DunGtioning
Griminal system. Too oDten the raEe itselD must Ie AisguiseA as another PinA oD Hrong :suGh as assault anA IatteryJ
AeErivation oD Givil rights;J EerEetuating the notion that aGCuaintanGe raEes are not NrealN raEes. AGCuaintanGe raEes are
Griminal aGtsJ anA they neeA anA Aeserve to Ie treateA as suGh.
5
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
12. GEN6E+ AN(.3S T3+N L GEN6E+ AN(.3S STAN6A+6 2E+2ET3ATES C+A0-
+A2(ST .-T* '*(C* *3+TS E77#+TS T# C#N7+#NT +A2E
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
%A'AFs Erovision oD a Givil rights aGtion Dor sexual assaults IaseA uEon NgenAer animusN similarly reinDorGes the myth
oD the GraMeA raEistJ although %A'AFs EroEonents never intenAeA that result. %A'AFs goals are Glearly Deminist in
nature. (nAeeAJ %A'AFs EroEonents GharaGteriMe the AGtFs Erimary aims as eAuGating the EuIliG regarAing the manner in
HhiGh traAitional QuAiGial meGhanisms routinely ignoreA violenGe against Homen routinely anA EroviAing Homen an
avenue oD reAress Dor Grimes that oDten Hent unEunisheA at the state level. 2)2 %A'AFs legislative history is reElete
Hith Gongressional DinAings anA AisGussions oD the many stereotyEes Ereventing raEe viGtimsF vinAiGationJ 2)3 HhiGh
EroEonents hoEeA to eraAiGate Hith the neH Givil rights BO181K aGtion. 3nDortunatelyJ the Givil rights aGtionFs NgenAer
animusN reCuirement unAerGuts its otherHise Deminist grounAing.
CA+6 C#NT(N3ES
3nDortunatelyJ Iy Iasing %A'AFs Givil rights aGtion on the EaraAigm useA in Iias4AisGrimination GasesJ its suEEorters
suItly reinDorGeA olA stereotyEes regarAing raEe. Although suGh remeAiesJ liPe %A'AJ Ao not reCuire animosity as a
motivating DaGtorJ 26) that emotion is Gommonly the unAerlying BO186K imEetus Dor a AeDenAantFs GonAuGt in suGh
Gases. 26, 7raming the Gause oD aGtion in terms oD genAerLIias anA liPening it to Givil rights violations or Iias Grimes
against minorities thus NAeEenAs in Eart on an assumEtion that genAer Iias Hill maniDest itselD as raGe AisGrimination
maniDests itselD& in an emotional state GalleA Nhate.FN 266 SuGh an assumEtion ignores the GomElexity oD menFs motives
Dor raEe. As 9atharine /aPer has noteAJ some men raEe IeGause they hate Homen Iut many others Ao so Dor vastly
AiDDerent reasons L to IonA Hith other menJ IeGause they vieH Homen as GommoAities to EossessJ or IeGause they Aesire
sex anA are simEly inAiDDerent to HomenFs oIQeGtions. 261 These latter motives are Dar more liPely to unAerlie Hhat He
thinP oD as aGCuaintanGe raEe. As a GonseCuenGeJ the Iias EaraAigm may enGourage the legal system anA the EuIliG to
maPe the same AistinGtions that the /rMonPala Gourt maAe. 268 BO181K (D a man Aoes not use exGessive violenGeJ is not
a stranger or HorPing in a grouEJ anA Aoes not seem mentally unIalanGeA or soGially unattraGtiveJ he Hill Ie less liPely
to Ie thought oD as aGting out oD NhatreAN rather than some otherJ more exGusaIle motive. .oreoverJ %A'AFs
EroEonents Durther exaGerIateA the Eotential EerEetuation oD these raEe myths Iy using a sGenario in HhiGh a serial
raEist hurls misogynistiG slurs Hhile Gommitting the raEe as their Erimary examEle oD a genAerLmotivateA raEe. 265
Although the AraDters AiA not intenA Dor this to Ie the only examEle oD a Iias GrimeJ their use oD it as a EaraAigmatiG one
has in turn GauseA Gourts to rely heavily on that EaraAigm Dor guiAanGe Hhen AisGussing genAer animus. 210
7inallyJ %A'AFs EroEonentsF aAmission that some raEes are not motivateA Iy genAer is esEeGially Gorrosive to the
Deminist GritiCue oD raEe. 'hile AiDDerent motives Dor Hhy men raEe Homen Ao in DaGt existJ all motives essentially
AeEenA uEon HomenFs suIorAinate status anA a AisregarA Dor Demale humanity. (n $ynne *enAersonFs HorAs NraEe
Aenies that you are a EersonJ that you exist ... . 'hen a HomanFs existenGe Qust Aoes not matterJ interGourse IeGomes
raEe.N 211 To suggest that something other than genAer or genAerL BO188K hierarGhies is at the root oD raEe not only
oEens the Aoor to EatriarGhal arguments that raEe is aIout a manFs EsyGhosisJ it ultimately unAerGuts the Deminist
agenAa.
13. T*(+6 2A+T- $(A/($(T-
A. %A'A (NC+EASES T*(+6 2A+T- $(A/($(T- S3(TS
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
ThirALEarty liaIility EroviAes another EossiIle Hay to eDDeGt reGovery in aGCuaintanGeLraEe Gases. This is a Dairly
Gommon strategy in raEe GasesJ anA has Ieen useA suGGessDully many times. 65 The ElaintiDD must Erove that the thirA
Earty negligently GreateA the GonAitions HhiGh leA to the raEe. 10 'hile thirAEarty liaIility may enGourage institutions
to maPe their DaGilities saDe Dor HomenJ 11 it Hill not Ie helEDul in many aGCuaintanGeLraEe Gases. The oIvious
AraHIaGP is that the viGtim Hho voluntarily ElaGeA herselD in the GomEany oD the AeDenAant has no negligenGe Glaim.
The viGtim Hhose attaGPer IroPe into her aEartment may have a Glaim against her lanAlorAJ Iut one Hho inviteA her
attaGPer over Dor Ainner Aoes not. The only aGCuaintanGe raEes GovereA Iy thirAEarty liaIility HoulA Ie those Hhere the
attaGPer Hho IroPe into the HomanFs aEartment haEEeneA to PnoH the viGtim. 12 BO156K
10
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
/. T*(S 6($3TES T*E 7(G*T AGA(NST +A2E
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
ThirALEarty liaIility also Eoses EhilosoEhiGal EroIlems. AlloHing Givil reGovery in raEe Gases enGourages viGtims Hho
are unaIle to get a satisDaGtory Griminal verAiGt against their attaGPers to Gome DorHarA. Entering a QuAgment against a
thirA Earty has aIsolutely no Aeterrent or Eunitive eDDeGt on the raEist himselD. (D anythingJ it Ailutes the IlameJ
suggesting that the emEloyer :or lanAlorA or hotelierJ anA so Dorth; shares Eartial resEonsiIility Dor the attaGPerFs aGtions.
'hile the attemEt to DinA Greative Hays to GomEensate raEe viGtims is GommenAaIleJ the DoGus on the thirA EartyFs
negligenGe Aiverts attention aHay Drom the attaGPer Hho is resEonsiIle Dor the raEe anA Hho most Aeserves Eunishment.
ThirALEarty liaIilityJ thereDoreJ is not EartiGularly useDul in aGhieving the goal oD enGouraging more viGtims to reEort the
Grimes against them. 13
1). (NTE+SECT(#NA$(T- ! %A'A $(.(TS C$A(.S T# GEN6E+ T*3S (GN#+(NG T*E
(NTE+SECT(#N #7 #T*E+ #22+ESS(#NS CA3S(NG 7A($3+E
2iGart 03
BCaroline <oan :9ay; Assistant 2roDessor oD English anA Courtesy Assistant 2roDessor oD $aH at 7loriAa State
3niversity in TallahasseeJ +hetoriGally +eGonDiguring %iGtimhooA anA AgenGy& The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGtFs
Civil +ights Clause +hetoriG = 2uIliG ADDairs 6.1 :2003; 51L12, 2roQeGt .3SEK BGtK
'hat this essay has sought to unAerline is EreGisely the EerniGiousness oD this EartiGular Iinary AiGhotomyJ HhiGh Dails
to aAAress the GomElexities that viGtims liveJ Hith their AiviAeA loyalties anA the GhiarosGuro oD agenGy anA
EoHerlessness they straAAle Drom Aay to Aay. The simEliDiGations GharaGteristiG oD rhetoriGal GonstruGtions oD
viGtimhooA anA agenGyJ in Ioth legal anA EoEular Gultural GonstruGtionsJ have tangiIle eDDeGts on HomenFs lives. 7or all
the gooA intentions that motivate %A'AJ it still suDDers Drom several struGtural DlaHs that Eromote stereotyEiG
AeEiGtions oD viGtimhooA anA that Dail to Nget atN the nuanGes oD Hhat Ieing a viGtim entails. #ne salient GritiGismJ
HhiGh arises Drom this interseGtional Glose reaAing BEnA 2age 118K oD Gases anA HhiGh is in line Hith the GritiGal raGe
theory GritiCue oD normative laHJ is that %A'AJ anA esEeGially its Givil rights remeAyJ still envisageA all viGtims oD
AomestiG violenGe as essentially Hhite anA oD the right Glass anA eAuGation to Ie aIle to taPe aAvantage oD the Givil
rights remeAy. (t is imEortant to note that in three out oD the Dour Gases stuAieA aIoveJ no mention oD raGe is ever maAeV
$iuFs TaiHanese raGial iAentity is EresenteA in a Hay that it is GoinGiAentalJ rather than GruGialJ to hoH the events
unDolAeA. (n all Dour GasesJ Glass is rhetoriGally invisiIleJ though it is imElieA that .attisonJ as a EroDessional HomanJ
Has EroIaIly more eGonomiGally ErivilegeA anA eAuGateA than $iuJ the TaiHanese graAuate stuAentJ anA /rMonPalaJ the
Gollege stuAentV Christina /ergeronJ Hhose Gase has the least AetailsJ is not EroDileA in terms oD her raGe or Glass. ThusJ
ElaintiDDs Hho Dit an NinterseGtionalN moAe :Dor examEleJ Hhose raGe anA Glass AiDDerentiate them Drom the EresumeA
norm; exEerienGe AisGrimination anA aIuse not simEly as HomenJ Iut as Homen Hho Ielong to a Gertain raGeJ GlassJ
sexualityJ ageJ anA level oD aIleLIoAieAnessJ among other DaGtors. The Gase oD *elen /rooms illustrates hoH a Nsingle
axisN aEEroaGh to hanAling violenGe anA AisGrimination against HomenJ symEtomatiG oD %A'AFs Givil rights remeAyJ
Dails miseraIly. The /rooms Gase is EartiGularly signiDiGant Dor an assessment oD %A'AFs gains IeGause it involves
elements oD violenGe in a raGial anA sexual harassment Gontext.
11
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
1,. 7+E T3+N ! 7E6E+A$ +3$ES #7 E%(6ENCE C*ANGES ENS3+E T*AT C(%($ S3(TS
'($$ N#T /E 7A(+ ! T*E- '($$ /E (N"3(S(T(#NS #N T*E 6E7EN6ANT *3+T(NG
T*E AGEN6A
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
C. 7eAeral +ules oD EviAenGe )13L)1,
3nliPe registrationJ notiDiGationJ anA sexual EreAator statutesJ HhiGh entirely stem Drom traAitional stereotyEes regarAing
raEe EerEetratorsJ 7+E )13L)1, emIraGe Ioth traAitional stereotyEes anA Deminist notions aIout raEe. (n suEEort oD the
neH rulesJ Dor examEleJ EroEonents aAoEteA Deminist arguments regarAing the DreCuent GreAiIility EroIlems that
aGCuaintanGe raEe viGtims DaGe as a result oD the everLEresent Gonsent AeDense. n20, *oHeverJ they also relieA heavily
on the myth that raEists are a Nsmall Glass oD AeEraveA GriminalsN n206 Hho reGiAivate more than other oDDenAersJ thus
QustiDying use oD EroEensity eviAenGe. n201 Although their Deminist goals are lauAaIleJ suEEorters ultimately unAerGut
their agenAa Iy QustiDying the neH rules Eartly on traAitional raEe stereotyEes. Although Gourts have alloHeA eviAenGe
oD East aGts unAer the neH rulesJ as AisGusseA IeloH they have Aone so almost exGlusively in Gases involving stranger
raEe or GhilA molestation. AAult viGtims oD sexual misGonAuGt Iy an aGCuaintanGeJ n208 HhiGh is the grouE iAentiDieA as
IeneDiting BO11)K the most Drom the rulesJ rarely see suGh results.
The general rule Iarring the use oD GharaGter eviAenGe at trials is an institution in the laH oD eviAenGe. To many it is one
oD those DunAamental tenets oD Dairness that marPs our QustiGe system. n205 AGGorAing to some GommentatorsJ liIeral
introAuGtion oD EroEensity eviAenGe in sex oDDense Gases oIliterates the right to a Dair trial anA Iears the imErimatur oD
an inCuisition. n210 Courts aEElying the rules have aGPnoHleAgeA those GonGerns anA Aealt Hith them largely Iy
reCuiring a IalanGing oD 7+E )13L)1, eviAenGe unAer 7+E )03 to Aetermine iD it is more EroIative than EreQuAiGial.
n211 7+E )03Fs IalanGing test neGessarily leaves Gourts Hith great latituAe to Aetermine Hhen otherHise relevant
eviAenGe may unDairly harm the AeDenAant. The GomIination oD Dairness GonGernsJ IroaA QuAiGial AisGretionJ anA the neH
rulesF relianGe on traAitional stereotyEes aEEears to have resulteA in AisEarate aEEliGation in a manner that reDleGts the
GraMeA raEist EaraAigm.
<ane AiPenFs revieH oD the neH rulesF aEEliGation in Givil aGtions Dor sexual misGonAuGt reveals that in Gases involving
EaraAigm stranger raEe or GhilA molestationJ Gourts tenA to alloH EroEensity eviAenGe although they routinely sustain
7+E )03 oIQeGtions in situations Hhere the sexual misGonAuGt involveA an aAult Demale aGCuaintanGe. n212 Cases
AeGiAeA sinGe AiPenFs artiGle Gontinue BO11,K that trenA. n213 None oD the Gourts exGluAing EroEensity eviAenGe in
sexual misGonAuGt Gases involving aGCuaintanGes exEliGitly Iases its reQeGtion oD the eviAenGe on the GraMeA raEist
stereotyEe. +atherJ the reasons GiteA Iear the marP oD neutral eviAentiary EoliGy. ThusJ in some GasesJ the Gourt DounA
that East eviAenGe Has too staleJ n21) or that the East aGts Here suDDiGiently AiDDerent Drom the EenAing Gase to Ie nonL
EroIative anA EreQuAiGial. n21, Given the Eotentially inDlammatory anA EreQuAiGial uses oD EroEensity eviAenGeJ those
reasons seem EerDeGtly legitimate. n216 The EroIlem in these GasesJ hoHeverJ lies not in their use oD suGh reasonsJ Iut
that in using them they sGrutiniMe Dar more GareDully Gases involving aGCuaintanGes than they Ao GhilA molestation or
stranger raEe Gases.
CA+6 C#NT(N3ES
BO115K The AisEarate treatment oD EroEensity eviAenGe in GhilA molestation anA stranger raEe GasesJ on the one hanAJ
anA sexual misGonAuGt Gases involving aGCuaintanGesJ on the otherJ suggests that Gourts oEerate on a AouIle stanAarA.
This is not to say that Gourts shoulA more liIerally alloH aAmission in aGCuaintanGe misGonAuGt GasesV in DaGtJ He rather liPe the general rule Iarring use
oD EroEensity eviAenGe. n231 /ut the Eattern oD AeGisions in 7+E )13L)1, Gases suggests that the Gonstitutional anA EhilosoEhiGal Cuestions raiseA Iy the
neH rulesJ along Hith the NGraMeAN raEist stereotyEe that unAerlies themJ Arive QuAges to treat AiDDerently those AeDenAants Hho assault or harass
aGCuaintanGes.
That a similar Eattern has arisen in states using the NlustDul AisEositionN exGeEtion Durther suEEorts this GonGlusion. Courts using this exGeEtion routinely
alloH suGh eviAenGe in GhilA molestation GasesJ DinAing it useDul to NIolster the GreAiIility oD the EroseGuting Hitness ... Hhere the aGGusations or the aGts
stanAing alone seem imEroIaIle or Hhere the aGts are Grimes in GontinuaAo in nature anA it is highly EroIaIle similar aGts have oGGurreA IeDore or Hill
oGGur aDter.N n238 7ar DeHer QurisAiGtions extenA the exGeEtion to raEe Gases n235 anA some Gourts exEliGitly AisGriminate against aGCuaintanGe raEe
viGtimsJ noting that raEe oD an aAult Homan is not NAeviant IehaviorN n2)0 anA that Nthe DaGt that one Homan Has raEeA is not suIstantial eviAenGe that
another AiA not Gonsent.N n2)1
BO180K Although Gourts may DreCuently have GreAiIle anA legitimate reasons Dor exGluAing 7+E )13L)1, eviAenGeJ the
Eattern arising in their AeGisions is telling. As long as the AeDenAant Gan Ie GharaGteriMeA as monstrousJ Gourts are aIle
to overGome their traAitional Cualms regarAing EroEensity eviAenGe anA alloH its use at trial. 7or men Hho Ao not Dit
that EaraAigmJ hoHeverJ Gourts go to great lengths to ensure that suGh eviAenGe is exGluAeAJ usually to the Aetriment oD
sexual assault viGtim anA suGGessDul EroseGution. Although the neH rulesF suEEorters hoEeA to Durther the Deminist
agenAa regarAing aGCuaintanGe raEeJ the rulesF aGGeEtanGe oD myths regarAing men Hho raEe entirely unAerGut the
agenAa.
12
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
16. SETT$E.ENT T3+N
A. C(%($ S3(T ST+3CT3+E *EA%($- 7A%#+S SETT$E.ENT
Cooter = 3len 0)
B+oIertJ 3niv oD Cali X /erPeley = Thomas 3niv. oD (llinoisJ 3rIanaLChamEagne >$aH = EGonomiGs& 7ourth
EAition.? 2age )05K BGtK
'e have exElaineA that voluntary Eooling oD inDormation tenAs to GorreGt Dalse oEtimism anA leave Dalse Eessimism
unGorreGteAJ HhiGh Eromotes settlements out oD Gourt. This GonGlusion relates to our AisGussion oD asymmetriG
inDormation in GontraGts in ChaEter 1. 'e argueA that EeoEle oDten value gooAs AiDDerently IeGause they Eossess
AiDDerent inDormation. Even so they usually GaEture all oD the Eotential gains Drom traAe through Dree exGhange.
SimilarlyJ Earties to a suit usually exGhange inDormation voluntarily anA thus avoiA the Haste oD litigation Gosts.
/. T*(S T3+NS CASE
Shuman 53
B6aniel '. 2roDessor oD $aHJ Southern .ethoAist 3niversity SGhool oD $aHJ 6allasJ Texas. The 2syGhology oD
6eterrenGe in Tort $aH )2 9an. $. +ev. 11, 7allJ 1553 $4NK BGtK
Not all viGtims leave the tort system Deeling Ietter. Cases are oDten Aealt Hith Iy mass EroAuGtion teGhniCuesJ litigants
are oDten EressureA to BO6,K settleJ anA those Hho AemanA their Aay in Gourt may Ie DorGeA to Hait years Dor trial. Tort
litigants Hhose Gases are resolveA Erior to trial may Deel that their AisEutes Here not imEortant enough to Harrant a trial
anA that they AiA not reGeive the GourtFs Dull attention. Claimants exGluAeA Drom any oD this DormalityJ hoHeverJ may
similarly Deel that their AisEutes laGPeA imEortanGe or attention.
11. 7(7T* A.EN6.ENT T3+N
A. 7(7T* A.EN6.ENT $##2*#$ES (N C(%($ S3(TS .EAN T*E %(CT(. '($$
$#SE
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
The AeDenAant in a Griminal trial has an aIsolute right 8) to reDuse to ansHer Cuestions that GoulA Ie Eotentially
inGriminatory. A Givil AeDenAantJ Iy GontrastJ is only EroteGteA to the extent that he may reDuse to ansHer Griminally
inGulEatory Cuestions. *e must taPe the stanA iD GalleA uEonJ anA the ElaintiDDFs attorney is Dree to Gomment on the
imEliGations oD the AeDenAantFs reDusal to ansHer Cuestions. 8, *is 7iDth AmenAment Erivilege is thus not as extensive
in the Givil Gontext. BO158K
The imEliGations oD this are signiDiGant. (D a Givil AeDenAant Hishes to avoiA testiDyingJ he must invoPe the 7iDth
AmenAment Hhile on the stanAJ Hhereas a Griminal AeDenAant has the right to reDuse to even taPe the stanA. 86 #n the
other hanAJ sinGe the most Gommon AeDense to aGCuaintanGe raEe is GonsentJ many AeDenAants Hill Hish to tell their siAe
oD the story even in a Griminal EroGeeAing. 81 The AiminisheA EroteGtion oD the 7iDth AmenAment Erivilege in the Givil
GontextJ thereDoreJ may HorP against the viGtim.
/. $#S(NG CA3SES .#+E S377E+(NG AN6 SEN6S A S(GNA$ $EG(T(.(0(NG
+A2E.
Smith 06
BSusan 9. Attorney X Smith = .ooreJ $$C. <6J 3niv oD ConneGtiGut SGhool oD $aH. A./. Smith College >Civil
+emeAies Dor %iGtims oD Sexual AIuse?K BGtK BhttE&44HHH.smithLlaHDirm.Gom4remeAies.htmlK
No Gase Gan Ie DeasiIle unless the EerEetrator is NlaHsuit Horthy.N TheoretiGal Gases Hith no hoEe oD GolleGting
Aamages are not hanAleA Hell Iy our QuAiGial system anA only serve to Durther AisaEEointJ invaliAate anA Drustrate
viGtims. Cases Gan Ie lost Dor legal reasons that have no Iearing on the truth oD the allegations or the merits oD the
Glaim. $ost Gases only serve to Durther Aamage viGtims. $ost Gases also senA the Hrong message to EerEetrators. 7or
these reasons most laHyers GareDully sGreen viGtim reGourse Gases anA only aGGeEt those Hith a gooA GhanGe oD suGGess.
'hen those Gases are iAentiDieA anA suGGessDul Glaims are IroughtJ viGtims Gan IeneDit Drom maPing their EerEetrators
DinanGially anA morally aGGountaIle.
13
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 1 ! S" Solves& %A'A ((
.2X ! State AGtor 6isGrimination
%A'A (( S#$%ES STATE ACT#+ 6(SC+(.(NAT(#N /ETTE+ T*AN T*E 2$AN
$evey 01
BCurtJ 6ireGtor oD $egal anA 2uIliG ADDairsJ Center Dor (nAiviAual +ights. :The Center EroviAeA reEresentation Dor
Anthony .orrison in 3niteA States v. .orrison;.. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
#D GourseJ nothing in the .orrison AeGision EreGluAes Congress Drom reHriting the DeAeral Givil remeAy Erovision so
that it targets the state aGtors that are allegeAly AisGriminating. That HoulA solve the Gonstitutional EroIlemsJ anA it
HoulA also Eunish those Hho are Aoing the AisGriminating anAJ in that senseJ Ie a real remeAyJ not a suIstitute Dor a real
remeAy. The Iest Hay to stoE EeoEle Drom AisGriminating is to Eunish them Dor Aoing so. 2unishing state aGtors HoulA
also narroHly tailor the DeAeral remeAy to instanGes Hhere it is neeAeAJ that isJ Hhere there is an eCual EroteGtion
violation. That HoulA not only satisDy the SuEreme Court Iut HoulA also allay the Dears oD those Hho Hant DeAeral
intervention to Ie a last resort anA not a Dirst imEulse.
1)
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 1 ! S" Solves& #ther
2NC
1. STAT3S "3# S#$%ES N#'
A. CE6A' '($$ 2ASS ! S#$%ES CASE
6avis 01
B.artha 7.J Counsel oD +eGorA Dor Christy /rMonPala in 3niteA States v. .orrison anA 9ate Stoneman %isiting
2roDessor at AlIany $aH SGhool. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C %(#$ENCE&
6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the %iolenGe Against
'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
(n aAAitionJ over the next AeGaAe or tHoJ there is going to Ie an inGrease oD the role oD international laH AomestiGallyJ
HhiGh Hill Eut aAAitional Eressure on the DeAeral government to maPe sure that IasiG human rights are EroteGteA. There
is a lot oD Eressure on Congress noH to enaGt the Convention Dor the Elimination oD 6isGrimination Against 'omen
:NCE6A'N;J HhiGh holAs Gountries aGGountaIle Dor aAAressing violenGe against Homen. 3, (t Hill holA the 3niteA
States government aGGountaIleJ not the inAiviAual states. 3nAer CE6A'J the 3niteA States government Gannot Qust rely
on inGentives to statesV it must try to aAAress these issues nationHiAeJ Greating a AiDDerent PinA oD AynamiG IetHeen the
states anA the DeAeral government.
/. S32+E.E C#3+T '($$ (NE%(TA/$- 7$(2L7$#2 #N GEN6E+ #%E+ T(.E
$oEeM 01
BAlIerto /. <.S.6. CanAiAateJ StanDorA $aH SGhoolJ <.S...J StanDorA $aH SGhoolJ <.6.J (nAiana 3niversity SGhool oD
$aHL(nAianaEolisJ ..S.J 3niversity oD Notre 6ameJ /.S.J +oseL*ulman (nstitute oD TeGhnology. 7orty -eas anA 7ive
Nays L The Nays *ave (t& .orrisonFs /lurreA 2olitiGal AGGountaIility anA the 6eDeat oD the Civil +ights 2rovision oD
the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 65 Geo. 'ash. $. +ev. 2,1 7eIruaryJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
BO252K 6esEite all oD the alarming similarity Hith the East exEerienGes oD minority grouEsJ history also Aemonstrates
that the CourtFs vieH oD the DeAeral EroteGtion against genAerLIaseA animus Hill Ghange in time. As time aAvanGesJ our
nation has extenAeA the laH to EroteGt the minority Drom the interests oD the maQority. ADter holAingJ Dor examEleJ the
Civil +ights AGt oD 181, unGonstitutionalJ the SuEreme Court Iravely oEEoseA raGial AisGrimination in AeGisions liPe
/roHn v. /oarA oD EAuGation. 3)6 (n DaGtJ the Civil +ights AGt oD 156) not only ostensiIly EroteGteA the Givil rights oD
ADriGanLAmeriGansJ Iut also gave Homen a right to sue emEloyers on the theory oD sex AisGrimination unAer Title %((.
3)1 *oHeverJ the reGognition oD sex AisGrimination is a reGent AeveloEment anA only Iegins the HorP neeAeA to Ietter
the status oD Homen in soGiety. (n his .orrison summationJ <ustiGe +ehnCuist GontenAeA that Nno GiviliMeA system oD
QustiGe GoulA Dail to EroviAe her a remeAyN Dor the harm that resulteA Drom the viGtimFs genAerLIaseA attaGP. 3)8 The
.orrison AeGision AisGarAs one Eotential remeAy availaIle to viGtims oD genAerLIaseA violenGe anA Dunnels them to
state QustiGe systems Draught Hith genAerLIaseA AisGriminationJ thereIy reAuGing a viGtimFs GhanGe to oItain a remeAy.
'e are not as GiviliMeA as He thinPJ Iut He Hill Ghange in time.
C. T*E G#%E+N.ENT S2EN6S 1.6 /($$(#N 6#$$A+S #N *A+.S N#'
6avis 01
B.artha 7.J Counsel oD +eGorA Dor Christy /rMonPala in 3niteA States v. .orrison anA 9ate Stoneman %isiting
2roDessor at AlIany $aH SGhool. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C %(#$ENCE&
6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the %iolenGe Against
'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
SeGonAJ .orrison itselD GhallengeA only the Givil rights remeAy oD the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt oD 155)J 18 not the
entire laH HhiGh EroviAeA S 1.6 Iillion Dor IattereA Homen sheltersJ trainingJ EoliGeJ a national hotline oEerating out oD
TexasJ anA other suEEort Dor the Dight against AomestiG violenGe. AgainJ Hhile oEEonents oD the laH suggesteA that the
Givil rights remeAy somehoH gave Homen sEeGial rightsJ muGh oD that DunAing Hent to male AominateA institutions liPe
the EoliGe anA the QuAiGiary. AlsoJ the laH itselD is genAer neutral so that anyone Hho is a viGtim oD genAer motivateA
violenGeJ Hhether a manJ HomanJ or transLgenAereA EersonJ GoulA Iring a Gase unAer the statute Dor genAer motivateA
violenGe. 15
1,
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT , ! SymIolism
EXT ! $inP& 74$
EXTEN6 #3+ 1NC +EGAN 55 E% ! %A'A (S 23+E$- S-./#$(C .EAN(NG (T 6#ES
A/S#$3TE$- N#T*(NG 7#+ '#.EN /ECA3SE #7 7(NANC(A$ /A++(E+S
%A'A (S S-./#$(C ! #N$- 10 CASES 2E+ -EA+J E%EN (7 A$$ '#.EN C#3$6 ACCESS T*E
7E6E+A$ C#3+TJ T*E C#3+T '#3$6 S(.2$- S*3T 6#'N
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
(t HoulA seem that the C++ is a EoHerDul HeaEon Dor aIuseA HomenJ Iut it Qust seems that Hay. (naIility to Eay an
attorneyJ Aelay in oItaining a QuAgment :liPely to Ie several yearsJ iD the suit is suGGessDul;J anA the unliPelihooA oD
enDorGing the QuAgment have Ieen enough to Aeter nearly all aIuseA Homen Drom availing themselves oD the C++Fs
Erovisions. 25 The numIers Gannot lie L aDter Dive yearsJ there have Ieen at most EerhaEs a DeH hunAreA Dilings. 30
.oreoverJ even iD all oD these AiDDiGulties GoulA Ie maAe to AisaEEearJ anA even iD all Dour million aIuseA Homen GoulA
sue Hithout Durther Aelay in DeAeral GourtsJ nothing more HoulA Ie aGGomElisheA than a shutLAoHn oD those Gourts. The
imEossiIility oD having 6)6 AistriGt QuAges 31 hearing BO803K )J000J000 aAAitional Gases eaGh year :over 6000 Eer
QuAge; is Qust ignoreA Iy the C++. 32
7E6E+A$ C#3+TS A+E <3ST AS /(ASE6 AS STATE C#3+TS
+aIPin 00
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity 7eAeralism vs. 7eminism AmeriGan SEeGtatorJ 01)88)1)J
6eG554<an2000J %ol. 32J (ssue 12 .aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
/rMonPala then Hent aDter the tHo aGGuseA stuAents unAer the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGtJ HhiGh alloHs viGtims oD
violenGe to seeP Aamages Drom the assailants iD the latter Here motivateA Iy NgenAer Iias.N (n exElaining the neeA Dor a
DeAeral GlaimJ /rMonPalaFs attorney inDormeA the 3.S. AistriGt Gourt in %irginia oD the ElaintiDDFs NhoEes Dor a HiAe
national AeIate aIout Hhy the Fno means yesF myth still Eersists.N AnA that Eretty muGh seems to Ie Hhat %A'A Has
AesigneA to generateLLDeminist GonsGiousnessLraising Iy DeAeral litigation. (t Has notJ aDter allJ as iD raEe anA sexual
assault Here otherHise Hithout remeAy unAer state laH. AAvoGates Dor %A'A in Congress insisteA that state Gourts Here
too inDeGteA Hith sexual stereotyEes to give viGtims oD sexual violenGe a Dair hearing. /ut iD state QuAges Here so loyal to
Nthe anGient mysogynistiG myth that Homen seGretly Aesire to Ie raEeAN :as /rMonPalaFs attorney Eut it;J Hhy exEeGt
anything Ietter Drom DeAeral QuAges or DeAeral QuriesR
#D GourseJ the Eremise oD the statute Has alHays EreEosterous. +aEe is harA to Erove not IeGause QuAges anA Quries AonFt
taPe it seriously Iut IeGause they Ao taPe it seriously. As reGently as the late 1510FsJ it Has still a GaEital oDDense in a
numIer oD states. /ut in 155)J Congress Has eager to shoH that it haA Ngotten the messageN anA AiAJ tooJ NGareJN so it
enaGteA an entirely suEerDluous DeAeral statute to maPe harA Gases into DeAeral Gases.
7E$#N- $##2*#$E 2+E%ENTS S#$%ENC-
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
*oHeverJ it is EroIlematiG to Gonstrue the AGt as aEEliGaIle to raEe Gases. The AGt AeDines NGrime oD violenGeN to
inGluAe any NaGt . . . that HoulA Gonstitute a Delony against the EersonJN Hhether or not the aGt resulteA in Griminal
BO153K Gharges. )8 (n many statesJ reGent raEe laH reDorms instituteA a system oD Aegrees oD raEeJ Hith NviolentN raEes
AeDineA as more serious oDDenses than NnonviolentN raEes. )5 A raEe GonsiAereA oD a lesser Aegree might not CualiDy as a
NDelonyN anA thus may not Ie aGtionaIle unAer the AGt. ,0 This is EartiGularly EroIlematiG Hhen Aealing Hith
aGCuaintanGe raEesJ HhiGh are less liPely to involve HeaEons or severe EhysiGal violenGe anA so are less liPely to satisDy
the AeDinition oD NDelony.N ,1 An aGCuaintanGe raEe viGtim Hho Dails to meet her stateFs stanAarA Dor Delony raEe might
thus DinA herselD unEroteGteA Iy the AGt.
16
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT , ! SymIolism
EXT ! $inP& EXT 1
%A'A (S S-./#$(C
+aIPin 00
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity 7eAeralism vs. 7eminism AmeriGan SEeGtatorJ 01)88)1)J
6eG554<an2000J %ol. 32J (ssue 12 .aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
To taPe the state attorneys general at DaGe valueJ youFA thinP they Here enAorsing the Deminist Glaim that states are so
misogynist that they automatiGally siAe Hith EerEetrators oD sexual violenGe. So Hhy arenFt they AemanAing neH state
laHs anA neH state training Erograms Dor QuAges anA EroseGutors in their oHn statesR 2roIaIly IeGause theyFA DinA suGh
a GamEaign rather aHPHarA. *aving GlaimeA that sexual violenGe is a Iig EroIlem anA then oDDereA only %A'A in
resEonseJ theyFA sounA liPe the raEist Hho saiAJ N-ouFA Ietter Eut some iGe on that.N
%A'A (S S-./#$(C ! (TS +E7E+ENCE6 (N .#+E <#3+NA$ A+T(C$ES T*AN C#3+T CASES
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
'hen a laH is reDerenGeA in more Qournal artiGles than Gourt GasesJ Ioth the Hriters anA the laHmaPers have maAe a
mistaPe. #ne suGh mistaPe is the vaunteA Givil rights remeAy Erovision oD the 155) %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt. 2
The Givil rights remeAy :C++; Has intenAeA to Ie a DeAeral resEonse to the EroIlem oD violenGe against AmeriGan
Homen. 3 3nDortunatelyJ the Givil rights remeAy has Eroven to Ie a DeAeral resEonse to the EroIlem oD Qournal toEiG
seleGtion Dor AmeriGan laH stuAents. )
The Givil rights remeAy alloHs Homen Hho have Ieen EhysiGally aIuseA IeGause oD their genAer to sue their attaGPers
Dor Aamages in DeAeral Gourt. , The 3niteA States Court oD AEEeals Dor the 7ourth CirGuitJ sitting en IanG last sEringJ
EroAuGeA over 80J000 HorAs in Dour oEinions AisGussing the Gonstitutionality oD this statute L even though it has
EroAuGeA DeHer than ten reEorteA AeGisions a year sinGe it IeGame eDDeGtive in 155,. 6 (n /rMonPala v. %irginia
2olyteGhniG (nstitute BO800K anA State 3niversityJ 1 the 7ourth CirGuit struGP AoHn the C++J AeGlaring that it Has
outsiAe the EoHers granteA to Congress in ArtiGle ( oD the Constitution. 8 The Dour seEarate oEinions in the Gase
Gonsume over 100 Eages oD the 7eAeral +eEorter. 5
7E6E+A$ 6#C9ET CANUT *AN6$E %A'A C$A(.S
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
2. There Are Not Enough 7eAeral Courts
Even more Aisheartening than the C++Fs Dailure to attraGt ElaintiDDs Hho Gan sue is the Dailure oD its EroEonents to
realiMe thatJ even iD the intenAeA ElaintiDDs GoulA sueJ the DeAeral Gourts are not EreEareA to hear very many oD their
Glaims. An imEortant motivating DaGtor IehinA the enaGtment oD the C++ Has that state Gourts Here not aAQuAiGating the
Glaims oD aIuseA Homen Dairly. ), /ut it is only in state Gourts that Homen Gan Ie hearA in great numIers. )6
BO806K The imEaGt oD a Gause oD aGtion liPe the C++ )1 has to Ie measureA Iy the numIer oD EeoEle Hho reGeive
relieD unAer its Erovisions L unliPe an antitrust ElaintiDDJ a C++ Glaimant Gannot sue on IehalD oD those similarly situateA.
The iAea oD 6000 more Givil Dilings Dor eaGh DeAeral QuAge isJ oD GourseJ riAiGulousJ Iut even iD only one in ten aIuseA
Homen DileA a C++ GlaimJ that HoulA Ie 600 aAAitional Givil Gases Eer QuAge. (n 1551J there Has a total oD 212J021 Givil
Dilings in the 3niteA States 6istriGt Courts. )8 That HorPs out to aIout )21 Dilings Eer QuAge. (D ten EerGent oD aIuseA
Homen DileAJ their Gases HoulA Ie sixty EerGent oD the DeAeral Givil AoGPet. That Hill never Gome to Eass. (D only tHo
anA a halD EerGent oD the Dour million Homen aIuseA eaGh year DileAJ there HoulA still Ie a IaGP IreaPing 1,1 aAAitional
Gases Dor every QuAge L an inGrease oD aIout thirtyLDive EerGent. AnA all oD this Gomes at a time Hhen the 7eAeral
<uAiGial Center has GonGluAeA that the siMe oD the DeAeral AoGPet is an NimEenAing Grisis.N )5
11
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
%A'A #N$- $EA6 T# $ESS T*AN 10 7E6E+A$ C(%($ +(G*TS +E.E6- 2E+ -EA+ ! -#3+
(.2ACT (S $ESS T*AN ,0 2E#2$E.
.eAina= 6avis 01
B.. (saIel.J AssoGiate 2roDessorJ $oyola 3niversity NeH #rleans SGhool oD $aH. .artha 7.J Counsel oD +eGorA Dor
Christy /rMonPala in 3niteA States v. .orrison anA 9ate Stoneman %isiting 2roDessor at AlIany $aH SGhool
S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C %(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer
SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1
$oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
.s. .eAina&
$et me go IaGP to something that you mentioneAJ .r. $eveyJ anA .s. 6avisJ (Fm AireGting the Cuestion to you. .r.
$evey reDerreA to the iAea oD the Givil rights remeAy as a symIoliG remeAy anA CuoteA Senator /iAen Hith the vieH that
it Has marginally symIoliG. ( have hearA Senator /iAen sEeaP on this suIQeGtJ anA ( BO,,6K thinP my exEerienGe Hith
him Has that he saH it as more EoHerDul a tool than Qust as a symIolJ Iut .s. 6avisJ aDter six years on the IooPsJ there
Here only DiDty or so reEorteA Gases unAer the Civil +ights +emeAy AGt. 6oes not this Iear out the Glaim that it is really
symIoliG rather than that it really maPes a AiDDerenGeR
.s. 6avis&
$et me Dirst Qust exElain Hhat ( Gan aIout the numIers. (t is Gertainly true that there Here many DeHer Gases Irought
unAer the Givil rights remeAy than haA Ieen antiGiEateA at the time oD the AeIate. The DeAeral QuAiGiary EreAiGteA 20J000
Gases Eer year. 'e PnoH that it Has noHhere near that. 'e also PnoH that the DiDty reEorteA Gases may Ie the tiE oD the
iGeIerg anA that there Here Gertainly many Gases that Here not reEorteA. There may Ie Gases that Here not even Irought
IeGause the laHs on the IooPs enGourageA a settlement IeDore a Gase Has DileA. /ut He Gan say that the numIer oD Gases
seePing the Erivate remeAy Has not the huge numIer oD Gases that some antiGiEateA.
E%EN %A'AUS S2#NS#+S SA(6 T*E C(%($ +(G*TS +E.E6- 'AS S-./#$(C
$evey 01
BCurtJ 6ireGtor oD $egal anA 2uIliG ADDairsJ Center Dor (nAiviAual +ights. :The Center EroviAeA reEresentation Dor
Anthony .orrison in 3niteA States v. .orrison;.. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
That is all ( Hant to say aIout the legal asEeGts oD the Gase. #n EoliGy grounAsJ ( Ao not thinP that the Aemise oD the Givil
remeAy Erovision shoulA Ie seen as a maQor setIaGP Dor EeoEle liPe .artha or Homen in general. Even Senator /iAenJ
the Erimary sEonsor oD the IillJ aAmitteA that the Iill Has largely symIoliG. ( am going to reaA you a Cuote Drom Senator
/iAen&
( AonFt exEeGt that maPing this a Givil rights violation Hill solve this EroIlem. 2eoEle Hill not say that ( Has thinPing oD
Gommitting a Grime oD violenGe anA raEing that HomanJ Iut noH that itFs a Givil rights violation ( HonFt Ao it IeGause (
may Ie sueA in DeAeral Gourt. /ut it Aoes state that there is a neeA Dor the national EsyGhe to aGPnoHleAge that there is
something horriIly Hrong. The laH shoulA reDleGt that attituAe. )3
( really Ao thinP thatJ unliPe the DunAing ErovisionsJ HhiGh have very suIstantive IeneDitsJ the DeAeral Givil remeAy Has
largely symIoliG.
18
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT , ! SymIolism
EXT ! $inP& EXT 2
7E6E+A$ C#3+TS A+E <3ST AS /(ASE6 AS STATE C#3+TS
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity Christy on the IrinP . 01)88)1)J <an1551J %ol. 30J (ssue 1
.aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
/ut suEEose the Deminist version oD reality is Gloser to the truthJ anA state governments really are shrugging oDD a vast
tiAe oD raEe anA violenGe against Homen. 'hy suEEose that DeAeral Gourts HoulA Ie any AiDDerentR (s there really suGh a
strong regional Iias hereJ so that the states Hhere Homen are Dree Gan senA DeAeral QuAges AoHn to the states Hhere the
Homen are still reCuireA to Hear veilsR
15
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT , ! SymIolism
EXT ! $inP& AT& State EnDorGement
3N6E+LEN7#+CE.ENT (S N#T 6(SC+(.(NAT(#N
$evey 01
BCurtJ 6ireGtor oD $egal anA 2uIliG ADDairsJ Center Dor (nAiviAual +ights. :The Center EroviAeA reEresentation Dor
Anthony .orrison in 3niteA States v. .orrison;.. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
( PnoH this is EroIaIly the most Gontroversial thing ( Hill sayJ Iut unless you taPe a simElistiG Nmen are aIusersJ
Homen are viGtimsN vieH oD the HorlAJ it is not even Glear to me hoH the unAerLenDorGement oD laHs against AomestiG
violenGeJ HhiGh Has really the maQor argument maAe Iy the other siAeJ is eviAenGe oD AisGrimination against Homen.
6omestiG violenGe is Qust as Gommon in gay relationshiEs. 6omestiG violenGe sometimes involves violenGe Iy Homen
against men. ( Ao not Hant to get into the Hhole AeIate aIout Hhether unErovoPeA Demale on male violenGe is Qust as
Gommon as the reverseJ HhiGh a reGent 6eEartment oD <ustiGe stuAy seemeA to suggestJ or Hhether it is only a small
DraGtion oD the HholeV ( Ao not thinP it matters. Either HayJ to shoH genuine AisGrimination against Homen rather than
Qust inGomEetenGe in enDorGing the laHJ you have to shoH that some set oD laHs is Ieing Ietter enDorGeA Hhen the viGtim
is male.
.#++(S#N 6(6 N#T EXC$36E GEN6E+ ! <3ST T*E 2A+T(C3$A+ +E.E6- 3SE6
+osen 02
BErin <.6. CanAiAateJ SGhool oD $aHJ 3niversity oD CaliDorniaJ /erPeley :/oalt *all;J 2002. CASEN#TE& An #GGasion
Dor a .ore Thorough Analysis& The NeH 7inAings +eCuirement anA Congressional 2oHer 3nAer SeGtion , oD the
7ourteenth AmenAment ADter 3niteA States v. .orrison 50 CaliD. $. +ev. ,13 .arGhJ 2002 $4NK BGtK
ThusJ the Court struGP AoHn 13581 not IeGause the harm Has inaEEroEriate Dor legislationJ Iut IeGause Congress Ghose
an inaEEroEriate remeAy to aAAress this harmV the Court DounA 13581 to Ie an inaEEroEriate remeAy IeGause it Has not
aAAresseA to a state aGtor 16) anA IeGause it Has AiDDerent Drom other remeAies in that it aEElieA uniDormly throughout
the nation Hithout DinAings oD national harm.
20
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT , ! SymIolism
EXT ! $inP& AT& Constitutionality
C#NST(T3T(#NA$(T- C$A(.S A+E A/S3+6
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
/. SounA anA 7ury L The Constitutionality oD the C++
The SuEreme Court has granteA Gertiorari in /rMonPala 18 to GlariDy the CourtFs reGent CommerGe Clause Gasuistry. The
Gase may have maQor Gonstitutional signiDiGanGeJ Iut it Hill mean very little to aIuseA Homen. The /rMonPala argument
anA oEinion Hill EroviAe another oEEortunity Dor the C++ to AistraGt the nationFs attention Drom the real EroIlems
IattereA Homen DaGe. 15 The C++Fs EroEonents Hill maPe aIsurA Glaims on the steEs oD the Gourthouse aIout a glorious
viGtory or a tragiG AeDeat Hhile men Gontinue to Ieat Homen.
Some have suggesteA that AouIt aIout the C++Fs Gonstitutionality is the reason there have Ieen so DeH GasesV 80 Iut
this is HishDul thinPing. The EraGtiGal Iarriers to Iringing a C++ Glaim are Dar more imEosing than the Gonstitutional
ones. 81 %iolenGe against Homen is outsiAe DeAeral QurisAiGtion as a EraGtiGal matterJ anA the Court Hill not Ghange that
Iy AeGiAing that it is Hithin DeAeral QurisAiGtion as a Gonstitutional matter.
21
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT , ! SymIolism
EXT ! .2X
S-./#$(S. #N$- *3+TS '#.EN
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
The argument that the C++ Hill have great symIoliG EoHer in aAvanGing the Gause oD HomenFs rights 16 is also a reA
herring L in DaGtJ the laH Hill have Qust the oEEosite eDDeGt. As it IeGomes Glearer that the laH is imEotentJ the EerioAiG
Dlurries oD attention EaiA to the laH Hill reveal it Dor Hhat it is L a DaA. The EriGe Hill Ie EaiA in HasteA time anA eDDortJ
anA inGreaseA GyniGism aIout the aIility oD the laH to maPe a AiDDerenGe.
The C++Fs EroEonents QumEeA to GonGlusions. They AeGiAeA the states haA DaileA to solve the EroIlem anA so the neeA
Dor a DeAeral remeAy Has assumeA. /ut there Has not enough thought given to hoH that DeAeral remeAy HoulA suGGeeA
Hhere the states haA DaileA. The argument Dor the C++ is oD the GlassiG Dorm& NSomething must Ie AoneV this is
somethingV thereDore this must Ie Aone.N The time sEent on the C++ has Eroven to Ie a very IaA investment. The
eDDorts oD EoliGe anA EroseGutors in the state systems Dail to graI heaAlinesJ Iut they also give an aIuseA Homan a
GhanGe to get Hhat she neeAs L timelyJ EhysiGal EroteGtion Drom her aIuser. 11
The C++ is a PinA oD EsyGhotheraEeutiG legislation. (t is EsyGhotheraEyJ not Dor aIuseA HomenJ Iut Dor EeoEle stuAying
the EroIlem oD aIuseA Homen. (t maPes legislatorsJ laHyersJ anA laH stuAents Deel IetterJ as though something
imEortant has Ieen Aone aIout the EroIlem. The notion oD NDeAeral Givil rights legislationN evoPes images oD the 1560s
anA AramatiG aGtion on IehalD oD AisaAvantageA minorities. #D GourseJ the C++ has not :anA Hill not; Gause any aGtion
to Ie taPen on IehalD oD aIuseA Homen IeGauseJ unliPe the great Givil rights legislation BO812K oD thirtyLDive years agoJ
it is not AireGteA at viaIle AeDenAantsJ nor are there Hilling anA aIle ElaintiDDs. NeverthelessJ the iAea that the DeAeral
government has interveneA isJ in an aGaAemiG senseJ very GomDorting.
22
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 6 ! %iGtimiMation
EXT ! .2X
%(CT(.(0AT(#N *AS AN EXTE+NA$ (.2ACT ! (T S2($$S #%E+ (NT# T*E(+ ENT(+E $(%ES
Shuman 53
B6aniel '. 2roDessor oD $aHJ Southern .ethoAist 3niversity SGhool oD $aHJ 6allasJ Texas. The 2syGhology oD
6eterrenGe in Tort $aH )2 9an. $. +ev. 11, 7allJ 1553 $4NK BGtK
AGGorAing to attriIution theory researGhJ learneA helElessness oGGurs Hhen EeoEle attriIute suGGess or Dailure to events
outsiAe themselves. 108 %ieHeA Drom the insights oD attriIution theoryJ DaultLIaseA GomEensation may enGourage
EeoEle to EerGeive others as at Dault anA themselves as viGtims oD otherFs GonAuGtJ rather than enGouraging them to
EerGeive themselves as in Gontrol oD their oHn lives. The GonseCuenGes oD maPing Ilaming a ErereCuisite to Glaiming
105 may extenA IeyonA the triggering oD those Glaims. The results oD one stuAy suggest that Namong severe aGGiAent
viGtimsJ Ilaming another anA Deeling that one GoulA have avoiAeA the aGGiAent Here EreAiGtors oD Eoor GoEingJ Hhilst
selDLIlame Has a EreAiGtor oD gooA GoEing.N 110 ThusJ a Ereliminary analysis oD tort GomEensation vieHeA Drom the
lens oD attriIution theory suggests antitheraEeutiG eDDeGts oD tort reGovery that may transDer to other segments oD the
ElaintiDDFs liDe.
23
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 1 ! 2uIliG42rivate
EXT ! $inP
%A'A 7#+CES '#.EN T# (6ENT(7- T*E.SE$%ES AS %(CT(.S (N#+6E+ T# '(N ! T*(S
+E(N7#+CES T*E 23/$(C42+(%ATE S2$(T
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
.oreoverJ the aGtual aEEliGation oD the Givil rights remeAy unAer the %A'A reCuires viGtims to assert agenGies in Hays
that GonDorm to traAitional Erivate anA EuIliG roles Dor Homen. $egal sGholar Caroline 2iGart examines hoH in sEeGiDiG
Gases oD litigants seePing remeAies unAer the %A'A Homen are rhetoriGally GonDigureA as viGtims. She suggests that
the signiDiGanGe oD using DeAeral means to Eunish Eurely Erivate aGts GreateA the IurAen to shoH that the reAress Has not
>out oD EroEortion? Hith the Grime GommitteA. (n orAer to estaIlish themselves as >viGtims? Homen Here DorGeA to
reinDorGe the AiGhotomy IetHeen the Erivate versus the EuIliG in a starP unEroIlematiG Hay. 7or examEle in a Gase oD
marital raEeJ the ElaintiDD Christina /ergeron haA to negotiate the Gontrasting image oD her >status as a Dormer HiDe Hith
a noH UangryU Homan seePing legal reAress Dor Hhat Has DrameA as an allegeA attemEteA raEe.? The Gourt AeGision >is
haunteA Iy the same sEeGter oD male Dears oD Dalse aGGusationV anA its attemEt to strongly Aelineate IetHeen the
vengeDul Homan :agent; anA terriDieA Homan :viGtim;.?1,
C#3+T A6<36(CAT(#N /(ASES >23/$(C? +A2E CASES #%E+ >2+(%ATE? +A2E CASES
ENT+ENC*(NG T*E 23/$(C42+(%ATE S2$(T
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
6esEite the striPing AoHn oD the DeAeral ErovisionJ inAiviAual states have enaGteA similar versions oD the statute anA
have sought to aEEly the same Griteria oD animus. The EreAominant stanAarA is GalleA the >totality oD GirGumstanGes
aEEroaGh.? This aEEroaGh to Glaims Iy state %A'A ElaintiDDs Greates hierarGhies oD raEesJ >Hith some aGts oD raEe seen
as >Horse? than others anA thus Aeserving oD reAressJ anA other raEes emerging as laGPing suDDiGiently EroIative inAiGia
oD genAer Iias. 2araAigmatiG >stranger raEe? %A'A Glaims might Hell suGGeeAJ Iut Gases involving interLsEousalJ
sameLsexJ or >ErovoGation? raEes GoulA Hell Dail.?18 This Greates the Eotential Dor Givil rights litigation to have the
oEEosite eDDeGt than intenAeA Iy the AraDters oD the %A'AWthe Gourts might Hell give more legitimaGy to raEes in a
>EuIliG? setting anA Dail to reGogniMe the harm oD raEe in Erivate Gontexts. AnA the enA result may Ie that the %A'A
Hill Ie interEreteA in a nonLuniDorm Dashion anA AeGisions Hill reDleGt the Iiases anA soGial vieHs oD inAiviAual Gourts.
The enA result is that >these AeGisions reDleGteA anA Durther entrenGheA alreaAy existing myths oD raEe anA genAer
status.?15
2)
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 5 ! No (mEaGt
EXT ! $inP
N# E%(6ENCE T# S322#+T %(#$ENCE AGA(NST '#.EN C$A(.
GlenAon 55
B.ary Ann. 2roD oD $aH X *arvarA 3niv. >#n 'rit #D Certiorari To The 3niteA States Court #D AEEeals 7or The
7ourth CirGuit.? 'omenFs 7reeAom NetHorP /rieD& AmiGus Curiae 6eGemIter 12J 1555K BGtK
3. Even assuming that statistiGs aIout raEe anA AomestiG violenGe are relevantJ they Ao not shoH that Homen exEerienGe
suGh violenGe at a higher rate than men.
'omen suDDer Drom HorPElaGe Grime at a muGh loHer rate than men. (nAeeAJ they GonstituteA only 11Y oD HorPElaGe
homiGiAe viGtims in 155,. See Census oD 7atal #GGuEational (nQuries L 155)J reErinteA in /ureau oD $aIor StatistiGs
NeHs :Aug. 3J 155,;. 2etitionersF reEeateA assertion that NhomiGiAe is the leaAing Gause oD Aeath Dor Homen at HorPNJ
/rM. /r. at 11V see GovFt at 1J merely reDleGts that HomensF QoIs generally Ao not Eose the same risP oD aGGiAental inQury
as mensF QoIs. (n DaGtJ 52Y oD HorPElaGe Datalities are male. See /ureau oD $aIor StatistiGsJ 7atal #GGuEational (nQuries
/y SeleGteA 'orPer CharaGteristiGs anA Event or ExEosureJ 155)J at 1.
'omen are also less liPely than men to Ie viGtimiMeA Hhile travelling. See /<SJ Sex BOO35K 6iDDerenGes in %iolent
%iGtimiMationJ at 8 :SeEt. 1551;J availaIle at httE&44oQE.usAoQ.gov4IQs4EuI4asGii4sAvv.txt.
7urthermoreJ CongressFs DinAing that N5,Y oD all AomestiG violenGe viGtims are HomenJN see GovFt at 6J is GomEletely
Hithout DounAation. #verHhelming eviAenGe Aemonstrates that men are viGtimiMeA Iy AomestiG violenGe at least as
oDten asJ iD not more BO18K thanJ Homen. See .artin S. 7ieIertJ +eDerenGes Examining Assaults Iy 'omen on Their
SEouses42artnersJ in 1 Sexuality = Culture 213 :1558; :N8, sGholarly investigations :10 emEiriGal stuAiesJ anA 1,
revieHs anA4or analyses; ... Aemonstrate that Homen are as EhysiGally aggressiveJ or more aggressiveJ than men in their
relationshiEs Hith their sEouses or male EartnersN;.
+aEe anA sexual aIuse also are not aimeA exGlusively at Homen. (nAeeAJ the total numIer oD male raEe viGtims Eer year
EroIaIly exGeeAs the numIer oD Demale raEe viGtimsJ onGe Erison raEes are aAAeA to statistiGs. SeeJ e.g.J SteEhen
6onalAsonJ The +aEe Crisis /ehinA /arsJ N.-. TimesJ 6eG 25J 1553 at A11. 7urthermoreJ at least oneLthirA oD GhilA
sexual aIuse viGtims are male. See S.6. 2etersJ G.E. 'yattJ anA 6aviA 7inPelhorJ 2revalanGeJ in 7inPelhor BOO)0K et alJ
A SourGeIooP on ChilA Sexual AIuse 1, :1586;.
.ale homosexuals may Ie at greater risP oD Aate raEe than are Homen. See /aierJ 2atterns oD Sexual /ehaviorJ suEra at
316 :homosexual stuAents L oD Hhom 1,Y Here male L reEorteA a ,0Y higher inGiAenGe oD Aate raEe than AiA
heterosexual Demale stuAents;.
AnA men suDDer more inQuries than Homen Ao Drom violent assaults. See .iGhael +. +anAJ %iolenGeL+elateA (nQuries
TreateA in *osEital EmergenGy +oomsJ in /<S SEeGial +eEortJ Aug. 1551J at 1 :men Gonstitute aIout 60Y oD
emergenGy room visitors seePing treatment Dor inQury Aue to violenGe;.
(nAeeAJ Homen suDDer Drom all tyEes oD Grime :inGluAing raEe; at a loHer rate than men. See SourGeIooP oD Criminal
<ustiGe StatistiGs 1551J TaIle 3.15 at 21, :1,Y oD homiGiAe viGtims are maleV tHoLthirAs oD roIIery anA assault viGtims
are maleV men are tHo anA oneLhalD times more liPely to Ie viGtims oD violent assault;. ThusJ Hhile it may Ie true that
signiDiGant numIers oD AmeriGan Homen Hill one Aay IeGome Grime viGtimsJ see GovFt at 6J men are muGh more liPely
to Ie viGtimiMeA.
7inallyJ AomestiG violenGe is only a very small suIset oD all violenGe. #nly slightly over 1Y oD Demale emergenGy
BOO)1K room visitors are seePing treatment Dor an inQury Aue to AomestiG BO15K violenGe. See +anAJ %iolenGeL+elateA (nQuries
TreateA in *osEital EmergenGy +oomsJ suEraJ at , :aIout 1.2Y;V 3.S. 6eEFt oD *ealth anA *uman ServiGesJ 2uIliG *ealth ServiGeJ 2hysiGal %iolenGe anA (nQuries in (ntimate
+elationshiEsJ ), .orIiAity anA .ortality 'eePly +eEort :1556; :only 1Y oD NeH -orP Demale emergenGy room visitors Here seePing treatment Dor inQuries inDliGteA Iy AomestiG
violenGe;V <ean AIIotJ +oIin <ohnsonJ <ane 9oMiolL.G$ainJ anA Steven $oHensteinJ 6omestiG %iolenGe against 'omen& (nGiAenGe anA 2revalenGe in EmergenGy +oom
2oEulationsJ 213 <ournal oD the AmeriGan .eAiGal AssoGiation 1163 :155,; :stuAy oD Dive emergenGy AeEartments DounA that unAer tHo EerGent oD Demale visitors Here seePing
treatment Dor inQuries inDliGteA Iy AomestiG violenGe;.
The GovernmentFs Gontention that N20 EerGent oD hosEital emergenGy Gases are relateA to HiDe IatteringJN see GovFt at 26J misreaAs the unAerlying surveyJ HhiGh DounA that this
EerGentage oD Demale emergenGy room visitors haA at some Erior Eoint exEerienGeA some level oD violenGe Drom a Eartner :inGluAing mere Eushing anA graIIing;.
These surveys BOO)2K also shoH that as many or more male emergenGy room visitors have exEerienGeA AomestiG violenGeJ Ielying the AisEroEortionality rationale. (A. (t shoulA Ie
noteA that suGh surveys overreEresent the inGiAenGe oD AomestiG violenGeJ IeGause they GaEture a large EerGentage oD those suDDering Drom inQuries relateA to AomestiGLviolenGeJ Iut
only a small EerGentage oD the total EoEulation :sEeGiDiGallyJ that EerGentage that has reGently exEerienGeA inQury;.
There is also no DaGtual eviAenGe to suEEort 2etitionersFs Gontention that Nas many as ,0 EerGent oD homeless Homen anA GhilAren are Dleeing AomestiG violenGe.N /rM. /r. at 12J
GovFt at 1 n.). As a leaAing authority on AomestiG violenGe has stateAJ this NDaGtoiA ... BisK Hithout any aGtual EuIlisheA sGientiDiG researGh to suEEort it.N +iGharA <. GellesJ
6omestiG %iolenGe 7aGtoiAsJ availaIle at httE&44HHH.minGava.umn.eAu4EaEers4DaGtoiA.htm.
C. (n sumJ there is no eviAenGe at all to suEEort CongressFs GonGlusory DaGtual DinAing that genAerLmotivateA BO20K
violenGe is a signiDiGant EroIlem. The Court oHes this DinAing no AeDerenGeJ thereDoreJ anA Gertainly shoulA not rely
uEon it in EerDorming its oHn Gonstitutional analysis. BOO)3K
2,
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
-#3+ STAT(ST(CS A+E 7$A'E6 ! /3+EA3 #7 <3ST(CE C#NC$36ES T*E #T*E+ 'A-
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity Christy on the IrinP . 01)88)1)J <an1551J %ol. 30J (ssue 1
.aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
(n DaGtJ EroEonents oD the laH AiA try to Eut over the notion that Homen Here suIQeGt to massive unreEorteA Haves oD
violenGe. They GlaimeAJ Dor examEleJ that raEe rates have Ieen rising Dour times Daster than other Grimes in reGent yearsJ
though the /ureau oD <ustiGe StatistiGs reEorts that raEe rates have aGtually Ieen AeGlining sinGe 1513. 2roEonents
GlaimeA that an AmeriGan Homan toAay has a oneLinLDive GhanGe oD IeGoming a raEe viGtim Auring her liDetimeJ though
aGGorAing to /<S statistiGsJ this HoulA Ie true only iD the average AmeriGan Homan haA a liDe exEeGtanGy oD 2,0 years.
2lainlyJ Deminist aAvoGates have a rather AiDDerent notion oD Hhat Gounts as NraEeN or NviolenGe against HomenN than Ao
the exEerts in the DeAeral government.
26
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 10 ! CommoAiDiGation
.2X ! (nsuranGe
C(%($ S3(TS T+ANS$ATE +ES2#NS(/($(T- (NT# 6#$$A+S '*(C* '($$ $EA6 T#
$(A/($(T- (NS3+ANCE T*3S A%#(6(NG *A+.
/enAer 50
B$eslie AssoGiate 2roDessorJ SyraGuse 3niversity College oD $aH 7rontier #D $egal Thought (ii& 7eminist :+e;Torts&
Thoughts #n The $iaIility CrisisJ .ass TortsJ 2oHerJ AnA +esEonsiIilities. 1550 6uPe $.<. 8)8 SeEtemIerJ 1550 $4NK
BGtK
Not only Ao He translate inQuries anA Eain into AollarsJ He also translate resEonsiIility into Aollars. 11 (D our QustiGe
system attriIutes resEonsiIility BO816K to Earties Dor harms anA has at its AisEosal only the EossiIility oD maPing
monetary aHarAs against those EartiesJ then resEonsiIility ultimately IeGomes solely a monetary oIligation. (t may
even enA uE as a monetary oIligation AraHn Drom anotherFs resourGes rather than Drom the Eerson Hho generateA the
harmJ IeGause Eayment is maAe Iy EreEurGhaseA liaIility insuranGe.
21
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 10 ! CommoAiDiGation
AT& N43
1. C#..#6(7(CAT(#N (S $(NEA+ ! <3ST $(9E T*E(+ GEN6E+E6 %(#$ENCE (.2ACTJ
EAC* AN6 E%E+- (NSTANCE #7 C#..#6(7(CAT(#N #N$- 73+T*E+
6(SA6%ANTAGES '#.EN
2. A$TE+NAT(%E S#$%ES C#..#6(7(CAT(#N /EST ! .3ST 7#C3S #N$- GENE+A$
S#C(A$ C*ANGE A 2+E+E"3(S(TE 7#+ S#$%(NG T*E C#..#6(7(CAT(#N #7
(N<3+-
/enAer 50
B$eslie AssoGiate 2roDessorJ SyraGuse 3niversity College oD $aH 7rontier #D $egal Thought (ii& 7eminist :+e;Torts&
Thoughts #n The $iaIility CrisisJ .ass TortsJ 2oHerJ AnA +esEonsiIilities. 1550 6uPe $.<. 8)8 SeEtemIerJ 1550 $4NK
BGtK
.onetary tort Aamages veer Dar Drom the marP in GomEensating Dor intangiIle inQuriesJ Iut the legal system has Ieen
silent aIout alternatives. CritiGs have IlameA Gommon laH tort Hrongly Dor this EroIlem. 'e shoulA looP Gloser to our
Gore. (D He GritiGiMe the GommoAiDiGation oD inQury LL a Hholly QustiDieA GritiGism LL our DoGus shoulA not Ie on tort laH
anA tort reDorm Iut rather systemiG EolitiGalJ eGonomiGJ anA soGial Ghange. 'hen He have GhangeA our valuesJ ethiGsJ
anA iAeologyJ tort laH Hill DolloH. (t is not the resEonsiIility oD tort laH to Ghange our value systemJ normsJ anA
EersEeGtives. Tort rules Gan GooEerate in those GhangesJ or nuAge them alongJ Iut they Gannot aGt alone. The
monetiMation oD inQury is a struGtural AeDeGt in our legal system. 'e must AeGiAe GolleGtively that healthJ saDetyJ anA
human relationshiEs taPe Eriority over eGonomiG eDDiGienGyJ DreeAom oD GontraGtJ anA Erivate EroDit. #ur legal system
must Ie more imaginative anA resEonsive to the real human neeAs anA GirGumstanGes oD tort viGtims. This is one oD the
most aEEroEriate ElaGes in laH Dor GomEassionJ emEathyJ anA Garing. 10
28
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 10 ! CommoAiDiGation
AT& <ustiGe
.#NE- T*+#3G* C(%($ S3(TS 6#ES N#T 2+#%(6E <3ST(CE
/enAer 50
B$eslie AssoGiate 2roDessorJ SyraGuse 3niversity College oD $aH 7rontier #D $egal Thought (ii& 7eminist :+e;Torts&
Thoughts #n The $iaIility CrisisJ .ass TortsJ 2oHerJ AnA +esEonsiIilities. 1550 6uPe $.<. 8)8 SeEtemIerJ 1550 $4NK
BGtK
(roniGallyJ He generally maintain the IelieD that the iAeal oD QustiGe is aIove the Dray oD GommoAiDiGation that otherHise
has GorruEteA the tort system. The unexElaineA gaE IetHeen the iAeology oD the QustiGe system anA the realities oD its
DunGtioning Greates a Gognitive AissonanGe that has Ieen attriIuteA Hrongly to Gommon laH tort anA has motivateA
some oD the strongest tort reDorm Glaims. The legal system in general LL not Qust the tort system LL has GommoAiDieA
QustiGeJ anA He shoulA not Ie surEriseA Hhen tort Quries anA tort viGtims unAerstanA this insight anA reaGt Iy inGreasing
aHarAs to reDleGt their sense oD the inQustiGes suDDereA Iy ElaintiDDs.
CA+6 C#NT(N3ES
<ustiGe is a Eassionate GonGeEt that insEires us. /elieD in its EresenGe motivates us to go on Hith liDeV its aIsenGe angers
anA Drustrates us anA Gauses hatreA. .oney EroviAes no suIstitute. An orAer Dor the Eayment oD money might inAiGate
the state is trying to ensure that QustiGe is AoneJ Iut the Eayment oD money Aoes not amount to QustiGe.
25
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 12 ! Animus
.2X& SolvenGy
GEN6E+ AN(.3S STAN6A+6 2+E%ENTS S#$%ENC-
Casarino 56
BCorinne Civil +emeAies (n AGCuaintanGe +aEe Cases 6 /.3. 2uI. (nt. $.<. 18, 7allJ 1556 $4NK BGtK
The AGtFs reCuirement that the AeDenAant Ie NmotivateA Iy genAerN ,2 is also Gause Dor GonGern. The AGt AeDines
NGrimes oD violenGe motivateA Iy genAerN as Na Grime oD violenGe GommitteA IeGause oD genAer or on the Iasis oD
genAerJ anA AueJ at least in EartJ to an animus IaseA on the viGtimFs genAer.N ,3 The AGt sEeGiDiGally EroviAes that the
viGtim must Erove Iy a EreEonAeranGe oD the eviAenGe that the attaGP Has motivateA Iy genAer. ,) 3nAer this
eviAentiary stanAarAJ a ElaintiDD might Ie DorGeA to Eresent aAAitional eviAenGe that her attaGPer Has motivateA Iy his
hatreA Dor Homen. ,, 3nless the raEist maAe his sexist motivation oIvious IyJ Dor examEleJ shouting misogynist slurs
Auring the GrimeJ it is AiDDiGult to imagine the PinA oD eviAenGe that HoulA meet that stanAarA. ,6 .any sGholars HoulA
suggest that all raEes are Iy AeDinition motivateA Iy an animus toHarAs HomenJ violently exEressing the suIorAinate
Eosition oD Homen in soGiety anA the general assumEtion Iy men that they are entitleA to sexual Aominion over Homen.
,1 SinGe the AGt Aoes not Gontain language to that eDDeGtJ Gourts may Dreely imEose the higher stanAarA oD sEeGiDiG
motivationJ anA many Hill EroIaIly Ao so. A viGtimFs inaIility to Erove that her attaGPer Has aGtually motivateA Iy
hatreA oD Homen GoulA renAer her ineligiIle Dor EroteGtion unAer the AGt.
30
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 12 ! Animus
AT& Animus StanAarA GooA
GEN6E+L.#T(%ATE6 %(#$ENCE (S A+/(T+A+- ! T# SE2A+ATE (T 7+#. >N#+.A$
%(#$ENCE? (S (.2#SS(/$E
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity Christy on the IrinP . 01)88)1)J <an1551J %ol. 30J (ssue 1
.aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
Then there is the Eremise that violenGe against Homen is really AiDDerent Drom violenGe against NorAinary human
Ieings.N 'e have Ieen AoHn this Eath IeDoreJ anA it gets stiGPy anA EutriA very CuiGPly. *oH Ao He Aistinguish
violenGe NmotivateA Iy genAerN Drom Qust Elain olA violenGe or generiG violenGe against the HeaPR 6iA that young man
EounGe on the AeDenseless granAmother IeGause she Has Demale or IeGause she Has AeDenselessR 6iA the husIanA Ieat
his HiDe IeGause she Has Demale or IeGause she Has his HiDeR :(n the utoEian Duture Hhen He have singleLsex marriageJ
Hill He say that interLsEousal aIuse shoulA Ie GovereA Iy %A'AR;
/ut this Irings us to the most trouIling Eoint. To the extent that it is not a meaningless Iit oD Gongressional
shoHIoatingJ the statute only seems to maPe sense as a suItle Hay oD enlarging the AeDinition oD violenGeLLorJ ratherJ oD
enAorsing the Deminist AoGtrine that every aDDront to Homen is tantamount to raEe. (n a ConneGtiGut %A'A GaseJ DileA at
the same time as a state AivorGe EroGeeAingJ the HiDe GhargeA that the husIanA haA DorGeA her Nto Ie a FslaveF anA
EerDorm all manual laIorJ inGluAing maintaining anA laying out his Glothes Dor his numerous Aates Hith his many
girlDrienAs anA mistresses.N <uAge <anet Arterton DounA suGh GomElaints Hell Hithin the sGoEe oD %A'AJ sinGe the
husIanA Has also GhargeA Hith NthroHing Bthe HiDeK to the DloorJ PiGPing her ... anA Aestroying EroEerty Ielonging to
BherKN anA thus having NsystematiGally ... inDliGteA a violent Eattern oD EhysiGal anA mental aIuseN against her. The Eoint
is summeA uE in that last Ehrase LLNviolent Eattern oD EhysiGal anA mental aIuse.N %iolent mental aIuse.
Someone Hho is Gonstantly Aressing uE to imEress his numerous girlDrienAs anA mistresses may Ie a GaALLanA Gertainly
is a moral slug Hhen he is alreaAy marrieA anA Garries on this Hay in Dront oD his HiDe. (t is not easy to see hoH his
oDDense Gan Ie NAueJ at least in EartJ to an animus IaseA on the viGtimFs genAerJN sinGe he seems so eager to meet anA
attraGt neH Homen. /ut elementary AistinGtions Ao not seem to matter. N%iolenGeN anA NanimusN are Qust aIstraGtionsJ
sEun out Iy maleLAominateA legislators anA Qurists. The Eoint seems to Ie that men liPe the AeDenAant are enemies oD
HomanPinA anA ought to Ie EunisheA Iy DeAeral Gourts on some Iasis or otherJ IeGause the state Gourts are too IoggeA
AoHn in legal teGhniGalities to Ao the QoI.
31
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 12 ! Animus
AT& Not #ur (nterE
-#3+ T3+NS A+E T*E#+ET(CA$J T*E +EA$ '#+$6 C#NC$36ES NEGAT(%E.
A; 7+A.E+S 2+#%E #3+ $(N9
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
3nDortunatelyJ not everyone interEreteA the term NanimusN in this manner. 7or examEleJ Senator *atGhJ Hho sEonsoreA
later versions oD %A'AJ argueA that the term NanimusN Has to Ie useA more in the sense oD NmaliGeN or Nanimosity.N
That isJ Homen Iringing suGh Glaims must shoH that their BO183K attaGPer Iore some PinA oD hatreA or illLHill toHarA
them&
'eFre not oEening the DeAeral Aoors to all genAerLmotivateA Grimes. Say you have a man Hho Ielieves a Homan is
attraGtive. *e Deels enGourageA Iy her anA heFs so motivateA Iy that enGouragement that he riEs her Glothes oDD anA has
sex Hith her against her Hill. NoH letFs say you have another man Hho graIs a Homan oDD some lonely roaA anA in the
EroGess oD raEing her says HorAs liPeJ N-ouFre Hearing a sPirtZ -ouFre a HomanZ ( hate HomenZ (Fm going to shoH youJ
you HomanZN NoH the Dirst oneFs terriIle. /ut the otherFs muGh Horse. (D a man raEes a Homan Hhile telling her he
loves herJ thatFs a Dar Gry Drom saying he hates her. A lust DaGtor Aoes not sEring Drom animus. 2,2
Senator *atGhFs examEle thus highlights the enAuring AistinGtion IetHeen NrealN raEe involving a DrenMieA anA
unIalanGeA stranger anA otherJ Nless harmDulJN raEe involving aGCuaintanGes. .oreoverJ his eCuation oD the term
NanimusN Hith NanimosityN is not illogiGal given moAern tenAenGies to GonDlate the term. 2,3 #ne Gan GonseCuently see
hoH the Givil rights aGtionFs language might enGourage Gourts to Gontinue Aistinguishing IetHeen NrealN anA NnotLrealN
raEe.
/; C#3+TS 2+#%E #3+ $(N9
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
2rior to the SuEreme Court DinAing %A'A unGonstitutionalJ at least one Gourt aEEarently maAe suGh a AistinGtion. (n
/rMonPala v. %irginia 2olyteGhniG anA State 3niversityJ 2,) the AistriGt Gourt raiseA the issue oD Hhether the raEe giving
rise to the viGtimFs Givil rights Glaim CualiDieA unAer the AGt. AGGorAing to the GomElaintJ tHo men Hhom the viGtim met
Nless than a halDLhour earlier anA Hhose iAentities she PneH only Iy given names anA Iy their status as DootIall team
memIersN reEeateAly raEeA the viGtim in a university Aorm room. 2,, The raEe Has Glearly eDDeGteA Iy DorGe L the
AeDenAants EinneA AoHn BO18)K the viGtim L anA the AeDenAants aAmitteA that she AiA not Gonsent. 2,6 #n these DaGtsJ
the QuAge Has satisDieA that the viGtim raiseA a Glaim IaseA on NgenAer animus.N 2,1 The Gourt maAe GlearJ hoHeverJ
that not all raEes HoulA suEEort suGh a Glaim&
All raEes are not the sameJ anA the GharaGteristiGs oD the raEes here allegeAJ Hhen GomEareA to other raEesJ inAiGateA
that genAer animus more liPely ElayeA a Eart in these raEes than in some other tyEes oD raEes. 7irst the assault involveA
a gang raEe. 'hile any raEe is egregiousJ all other DaGtors the sameJ gang raEe generally is more egregious than oneLonL
one raEe ... . SeGonAJ these raEes Dall someHhere in IetHeen stranger raEe anA Aate raEeJ anA are EroIaIly Gloser to
stranger raEe. AgainJ Hhile any raEe is egregiousJ stranger raEe anA raEes suGh as the one in Cuestion generally are
more egregious than Aate raEe. 2,8
To Ie sureJ not all Gourts Dell into this traE. 2,5 NonethelessJ the DaGt that some Gourts are Hilling to reaA the animus
reCuirement as limiting the Givil rights Glaim to only EaraAigmatiG stranger or gang raEe inAiGates the Eotential to
reinDorGeJ anA EerEetuateJ the olA stereotyEes. 260
32
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 12 ! Animus
AT& No Animus
A/AN6#N(NG AN(.3S 6#ESNUT A%#(6 T*E $(N9 ! C#3+TS '($$ 7A$$ /AC9 T# S2EC(7(C
.#T(%E +E"3(+E.ENTS '*(C* $(N9 <3ST AS .3C*
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
BO18,K The Givil rights aGtion might have Ieen ErimeA Dor suGh misuse even aIsent the term Nanimus.N Although
laGPing the NanimusN languageJ even the original versions oD the Givil rights aGtion reCuireA a sEeGiDiG motive. The
legislative history suEEorting the NIeGause oD genAer or on the Iasis oD genAerN language emEhasiMeA that
NAisGriminatory motivation is Glearly reCuireA ... anA ... the ElaintiDD must Erove that the Grime oD violenGe L Hhether an
assaultJ a PiAnaEEingJ or a raEe L Has motivateA Iy genAer.N 261 .oreoverJ the legislative history Durther emEhasiMeA
that the Givil rights aGtion Has intenAeA to reAress Grimes oD genAerLIias in muGh the same Hay that Gurrent Iias Grimes
legislation EroteGteA other Gategories oD EeoEle. 262 (n DaGtJ Congress sEeGiDiGally noteA that Ngenerally aGGeEteA
guiAelines Dor iAentiDying hate Grimes may also Ie useDulN in giving Gontent to the genAerLmotivation reCuirement. 263
33
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 1) ! (nterseGtionality
EXT ! Class
#N$- T*E +(C* CAN A77#+6 C(%($ S3(TS ! %A'A (S A .#C9E+- T# 2##+ 2E#2$E '*#
CAN NE%E+ +EC#%E+ 6A.AGES
+egan 55
BChristoEher <ames <.6. CanAiAateJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhoolJ 2000. A 'hole $ot #D Nothing Going #n& The Civil
+ights N+emeAyN #D The %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt 1, Notre 6ame $. +ev. 151 6eGemIerJ 1555 $4NK BGtK
1. There Are No 2laintiDDs L AnA No 6eDenAants Either
There are no C++ ElaintiDDs. ConsiAering hoH EoHerDul the C++ Erovisions are L GhoiGe oD DorumJ Eunitive AamagesJ
attorneyFs Dees 33 L this is telling. 2laintiDDsF attorneys HoulA Gertainly Ie eager to taPe C++ Gases iD there Here
ElaintiDDs to Iring them anA AeDenAants Drom Hhom to reGover. /ut there are virtually no suGh laHsuits IeGause there are
harAly any suGh EeoEle. %iolenGe against Homen EreAominates among Eoor Homen anA Homen oD average means. 3)
These Homen have little Gash anA may not even have a GheGPing aGGountJ a Gharge aGGountJ or a Gar. 3, Their Iatterers
are not AeeELEoGPeteA GorEorationsJ government agenGies or EeoEle Hho haEEen to Ie insureA against Aamage aHarAs
Dor their intentional torts. They are Dour million AmeriGan IoyDrienAs anA husIanAs Hho are extremely BO80)K unliPely
to have the Gash on hanA to suEEort a GivilLrights trial. 36
ThusJ the IattereA Homan Aoes not have enough money to Eay an attorney iD she loses. 31 The man Gannot Eay a
QuAgment iD she HinsJ 38 so a Gontingent Dee arrangement is unliPely. 35 The manFs homeoHners EoliGy Aoes not Gover
him Dor intentional torts. 2uIliG interest grouEs Gan suEEort only a DeH test GasesJ liPe /rMonPala. )0 This is all to say
nothing oD Eoor HomenJ marrieA to Eoor menJ Hho are even Darther Drom the Gourthouse.
(n the enAJ the only EeoEle the C++ satisDies are EeoEle Hho hoEe Dor legislation seeming to Davor Homen regarAless oD
its Gontents. 2erhaEs not GoinGiAentallyJ those are the EeoEle Hho are Dighting Dor it. (n /rMonPalaJ almost tHo AoMen
HomenFs aAvoGaGy grouEs DileA amiGus Guriae IrieDs on IehalD oD Christy /rMonPalaJ arguing that the C++ BO80,K Has
Gonstitutional. )1 #D GourseJ Christy /rMonPala haA tHo things going Dor her that most aIuseA Homen never Hill L an
institution liPe %irginia TeGh to GolleGt Drom iD she HonJ anA test Gase status to Iring numerous HomenFs aAvoGaGy
grouEs to her siAe. )2 #rAinary HomenFs Gases have no suGh ErosEeGts Dor DinanGial reGovery or Dor Erivate DunAing.
As the C++Fs suEEorters surely PnoHJ there has alHays Ieen a Gause oD aGtion Dor EeoEle Hho are violently attaGPeA Iy
others. )3 There is no GomElaint unAer the C++ that HoulA survive summary QuAgment that HoulA not also state a Gase
Dor Iattery. #D GourseJ a IattereA Homan is unliPely to sue her husIanA Dor Iattery Dor the same reasons she is unliPely
to emEloy the C++. She Qust GanFt aDDorA to. AnA He have PnoHn Hhy Dor more than one hunAreA years. As
Congressman <ames 'ilson exElaineA on the *ouse Dloor Auring the AeIate on the Civil +ights AGt oD 1866J Givil
Gauses oD aGtion Dor Givil rights violations reCuire a ElaintiDD to
Eress BherK oHn Hay through the Gourts anA Eay the Iills attenAant thereon. This may Ao Dor the riGhJ Iut to the EoorJ
Hho neeA EroteGtionJ it is a moGPery ... The GitiMen Gan only reGeive BGivil AamagesK in the Dorm oD a DeH Aollars ... iD
BsheK shall Ie so Dortunate as to reGover against a solvent HrongAoer. ))
C(%($ +E.E6(ES #N$- A22$- T# +(C* 2E#2$E ! -#3 CANUT S3E S#.E#NE '(T*#3T
.#NE- '(T*#3T A66(NG T# T*E %(CT(.S S377E+(NG
Smith 06
BSusan 9. Attorney X Smith = .ooreJ $$C. <6J 3niv oD ConneGtiGut SGhool oD $aH. A./. Smith College >Civil
+emeAies Dor %iGtims oD Sexual AIuse?K BGtK BhttE&44HHH.smithLlaHDirm.Gom4remeAies.htmlK
No Gase Gan Ie DeasiIle unless the EerEetrator is NlaHsuit Horthy.N TheoretiGal Gases Hith no hoEe oD GolleGting
Aamages are not hanAleA Hell Iy our QuAiGial system anA only serve to Durther AisaEEointJ invaliAate anA Drustrate
viGtims. Cases Gan Ie lost Dor legal reasons that have no Iearing on the truth oD the allegations or the merits oD the
Glaim. $ost Gases only serve to Durther Aamage viGtims. $ost Gases also senA the Hrong message to EerEetrators. 7or
these reasons most laHyers GareDully sGreen viGtim reGourse Gases anA only aGGeEt those Hith a gooA GhanGe oD suGGess.
'hen those Gases are iAentiDieA anA suGGessDul Glaims are IroughtJ viGtims Gan IeneDit Drom maPing their EerEetrators
DinanGially anA morally aGGountaIle.
3)
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
#N$- T*E +(C* CAN A77#+6 <3ST(CE (N A C(%($ S3(T
/enAer 50
B$eslie AssoGiate 2roDessorJ SyraGuse 3niversity College oD $aH 7rontier #D $egal Thought (ii& 7eminist :+e;Torts&
Thoughts #n The $iaIility CrisisJ .ass TortsJ 2oHerJ AnA +esEonsiIilities. 1550 6uPe $.<. 8)8 SeEtemIerJ 1550 $4NK
BGtK
<ustiGe is EurGhasaIle. 12 The Cuality oD reEresentation anA the liPelihooA oD getting a laHyer to reEresent you oDten
AeEenAs uEon hoH muGh you Gan Eay or hoH muGh the laHyer Gan exEeGt to reGover. This is most Glearly eviAent Hhen
He GomEare the Givil QustiGe system to the Griminal QustiGe system. (n Griminal GourtJ Hhere AeDenAantsF lives anA
liIerties are threateneAJ reEresentation oDten is EroviAeA Iy EuIliGlyLDunAeA laHyers Hho are overHorPeA anA
unAerEaiAJ anA Hhose resourGes are negligiIle. -etJ Hhen the issue in a Givil laHsuit is hoH Aollars shoulA Ie EasseA
arounA among GorEorations anA inAiviAuals :e.g.J mergersJ leverageA IuyLoutsJ seGuritiesJ antitrustJ mass tortJ
government GontraGtsJ GoEyright anA Eatent inDringementsJ maQor Eersonal inQuryJ real estate transaGtions;J there is toEL
notGh reEresentation on every minor EroGeAural Eoint. .oney sEeaPs louAly in our QustiGe system. .onetary AisEutes
seem to taPe Eriority over issues oD liDe anA liIerty in terms oD the legal resourGes AevoteA to them. AnA money
Gertainly aDDeGts the availaIility oD laHyers anA resourGes.
3,
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 1, ! +ule )13
EXT
%A'A (S #%E+$- /(ASE6 AGA(NST 2E#2$E ACC3SE6 #7 GEN6E+L.#T(%ATE6 %(#$ENCE
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity .ore eCual than others.AmeriGan SEeGtatorJ 01)88)1)J .ay51J
%ol. 30J (ssue , .aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
.ore remarPaIle anA more telling than %A'AFs seleGtive targeting oD neH DeAeral QurisAiGtion are the very seleGtive
GhangesJ enaGteA at the same timeJ to the DeAeral rules oD Griminal EroGeAure. The rules noH alloH eviAenGe oD East
EraGtiGe Iy the AeDenAant to Ie EresenteA to the Qury in orAer to Aemonstrate NEroEensityN to Gommit the Grime. +ules oD
eviAenGe in Griminal Gases usually DorIiA EroseGutors Drom telling Quries aIout the East misAeeAs oD the AeDenAant. :The
theory is that suGh inDormation HoulA EreQuAiGe QurorsJ enGouraging them to thinP the AeDenAant Has the sort oD Eerson
Hho HoulA Ao the Grime or the sort oD Eerson Hho AeserveA to Ie EunisheA anyHayJ no matter Hhat the eviAenGe in the
Gase at hanA.; %A'A leaves these restriGtive rules in ElaGe Dor every Grime LLexGeEt sexual assault anA GhilA
molestation.
36
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
EXT 1, ! +ule )13
.2X& 1)
th
AmenAment
+3$E )13 SE2A+ATES +A2(STS (N AN#T*E+ C$ASS 7+#. #T*E+ %(#$ENCE '*(C*J
3N6E+ ST+(CT SC+3T(N-J %(#$ATES T*E 1)
T*
A.EN6.ENT E"3A$ 2+#TECT(#N C$A3SE
SheDt 5,
B.arP A.J $aH ClerPJ The *onoraIle <ohn C. $iDlanAJ 3niteA States 6istriGt <uAgeJ 6istriGt oD NeH <erseyV <.6.J 155,J
*arvarA $aH SGhoolV A./.J 1550J 2rinGeton 3niversity. 7eAeral +ule oD EviAenGe )13& a Aangerous neH Drontier.
:aAmissiIility oD Erior aGts as eviAenGe in raEe Gases;.N AmeriGan Criminal $aH +evieH 33.n1 :7all 155,;& ,1L81.
(nDoTraG #ne7ile.K BGtK
SinGe the Court in GriDDin helA that the aEEellate EroGeAural rule must aEEly eCually even Hhere aEEellate revieH is not
Gonstitutionally reCuireAJ a DortioriJ rules aEEliGaIle in a Qury trialLLHhiGh is a Gonstitutional imEerativeLLmust also aEEly
eCually regarAless oD Grime GhargeA. +ule )13J hoHeverJ EoliGes the DloH oD Erior GonAuGt inDormation in raEe trials less
vigilantly than Ao the rules governing other DeAeral Griminal trials. The AeDenAantFs Erior sexual assaults are aAmissiIle
Dor any relevant EurEoseJ HhiGh eDDeGtively exEanAs the ErooD availaIle to the government.:1)2; (D a Gourt emIraGes the
IroaAer interEretation oD GriDDinJ this uneCual treatment Gannot stanA unless neGessary to eDDeGtuate a GomEelling DeAeral
interest.
StriGt sGrutiny thus aEElies Hhether a Gourt aGGeEts this novel argument orJ in the alternativeJ IeGause +ule )13 treats
raEe AeDenAants AiDDerently Iy Aenying them the DunAamental right to a trial unGorruEteA Iy EroEensity eviAenGe.
NStriGtN in theory anA NDatalN in DaGtJ:1)3; suGh sGrutiny Hill liPely invaliAate +ule )13 sinGe DeH GlassiDiGations have
suGGessDully run this gauntLlet.:1)); .inimiMing sexual violenGe Iy assisting the EroseGution oD raEistsJ one oD the ruleFs
EurEorteA goalsJ is Hithout Cuestion a Heighty anA moving DeAeral interest. /ut +ule )13 Aoes not Iear a neGessary
relationshiE to this GomEelling goal IeGause Nthe GonGerns exEresseA Iy Congress anA emIoAieA in neH EviAenGe
+uleBK )13 ... are alreaAy aAeCuately aAAresseA in the existing 7eAeral +ules oD EviAenGe.N:1),; 7eAeral sex oDDense
EroseGutionsJ Gontrary to CongressF imEressionJ yielA guilty verAiGts more oDten than all other Glasses oD violent Grime
EroseGution GomIineA.:1)6; Thus although our Griminal QustiGe system may not enDorGe Hith suDDiGient vigor laHs
against sexual violenGeJ this Aerives not Drom eviAenGe rules that DaGilitate the aGCuittal oD guilty EeoEle Iut rather Drom
nonLeviAentiary DaGtors suGh as the hostility viGtims GonDront Hhen reEorting anA testiDying aIout their exEerienGes.
:1)1; AEEroEriating more DunAs Dor sex Grime EroseGutionsJ eAuGating Homen anA EoliGe aIout raEe reEorting anA
investigation teGhniCuesJ anA eliminating suIstantive anA EroGeAural rules that unAermineA raEe EroseGutions in the
East more eDDeGtively may aAvanGe CongressFs valiA interest in this area. +ule )13 Gannot Glaim the mantle oD neGessity
Hhen Congress Gan reaGh the same Aestination Iy DolloHing these other EoliGy routes. (n the aIsenGe oD the reCuisite
means4enA DitJ +ule )13Fs AisEarate treatment oD DeAeral raEe AeDenAants violates the ECual 2roteGtion Clause oD the
7iDth AmenAment.
31
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
AT& 1)
th
AmenAment
AT& 156) Civil +ights Analogy
A 156) C(%($ +(G*TS ANA$#G- (SNUT A22$(CA/$E ! '#.EN *A%E C(%($ #2T(#NS
$evey 01
BCurtJ 6ireGtor oD $egal anA 2uIliG ADDairsJ Center Dor (nAiviAual +ights. :The Center EroviAeA reEresentation Dor
Anthony .orrison in 3niteA States v. .orrison;.. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
SuEEorters oD the DeAeral Givil remeAy Erovision have oDten GomEareA it to the 156) Civil +ights AGtJ as .artha AiA
IrieDlyJ Iut ( Ao not thinP that the tHo are eCuivalent. The 156) Civil +ights AGt haA a very AramatiG suIstantive
imEaGt. (n GontrastJ BO,,1K the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt Gongressional hearings unAersGoreA that oItaining
Aamages Drom most oD the AeDenAants HoulA Ie AiDDiGult IeGause many oD them are QuAgment ErooD. 'hen Title %(( anA
the rest oD the 156) Civil +ights AGt Has enaGteAJ genAer anA raGe AisGrimination Here not illegal in most states. (n
GontrastJ Homen toAay Gan sue their attaGPers in all DiDty statesJ anA they Ao not have to Erove genAer IaseA animusJ so
the EroteGtion EroviAeA Iy the states is IroaAer than it Has unAer the Givil remeAy Erovision oD the %iolenGe Against
'omen AGt.
38
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
AT& 1)
th
AmenAment
AT& >ECuality?
.#++(S#N 6(6 N#T A$TE+ T*E .EAN(NG #7 T*E '#+6 E"3A$(T- ! (T .E+E$- $(.(TE6
T*E +E.E6(A$ #2T(#NS 7#+ %(#$AT(#NS #7 T*AT E"3A$(T-
.aG9innon 00
BCatharine A. EliMaIeth A. $ong 2roDessor oD $aHJ The 3niversity oD .iGhigan $aH SGhoolJ anA longLterm visitorJ The
3niversity oD ChiGago $aH SGhool involveA in Dormulating the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt anA signeA the /rieD oD
$aH 2roDessors as AmiGi Curiae in SuEEort oD 2etitionersJ .orrison Comment& 6isEuting .ale Sovereignty& #n 3niteA
States %. .orrison 11) *arv. $. +ev. 13, NovemIerJ 2000 $4NK BGtK
The Court GomErehensively revisiteA these issues most reGently in City oD /oerne v. 7loresJ 161 HhiGh aAAresseA a
Gongressional attemEt to overrule a 7irst AmenAment AeGision oD the SuEreme Court. Although /oerne thereDore EoseA
a Cuestion Hithout Earallel in the %A'AJ its maE oD the terrain GoulA have suEEorteA it. (n /oerneJ the Court
invaliAateA the +eligious 7reeAom +estoration AGt :+7+A; IeGauseJ aGGorAing to the CourtJ Congress exerGiseA its ,
authority to try to Ghange the meaning oD the 7ree ExerGise Clause oD the 7irst AmenAmentJ not to enDorGe it. The
.orrison maQority AiA not Glaim that the %A'A GhangeA the meaning oD 7ourteenth AmenAment eCuality. (nAeeAJ the
eCuality theory emIoAieA in the %A'A L that violenGe against Homen violates sex eCuality rights L haA Ieen Ereviously
emIraGeA Iy the Court in numerous settings anA Has not reQeGteA in .orrison. The Court has interEreteA various
DeAeral Givil rights statutes against AisGrimination to aEEly to genAerLIaseA violenGe. 7or examEleJ unAer the ruIriG oD
sexual harassmentJ Title %(( anA (XFs ErohiIitions on sex AisGrimination have Ieen aEElieA to raEe anA other instanGes
oD sexual aggression at HorP anA sGhool seemingly Hithout oDDenAing state sovereignty or imEermissiIly altering the
meaning oD the CommerGe Clause or the SEenAing Clause. 162 (n a ruling that straAAleA Title %(( anA the 7ourteenth
AmenAmentJ the Court helA that raEeaIility GonstituteA a HomanFs Nvery HomanhooAJN suGh that Homen GoulA Ie
exGluAeA Drom Gertain QoIs on the Iasis oD their sex. 163 AEEarentlyJ vulneraIility to raEe is sexLIaseAJ even reGogniMeA
as sex itselD unAer eCuality laH. 7urtherJ although the theory Has AeErivation oD liIerty Hithout Aue EroGess rather than
eCual EroteGtionJ a state Gourt QuAge Hho haA sexually assaulteA Homen litigants anA Gourt emEloyees Has EermitteA to
Ie EroseGuteA unAer 18 3.S.C. 2)2J 16) suggesting BO163K at least that the DeAeral legislative EoHer may extenA to
sexual violenGe Hithout imEermissiIly altering the meaning oD Gonstitutional liIerty or tramEling statesF rights. AnA
sexual harassment has Ieen Gonsistently reGogniMeA as aGtionaIle against states AireGtly unAer the 7ourteenth
AmenAmentJ 16, although the SuEreme Court has yet to rule on this theory. These rulings Iring genAerLIaseA violenGe
Glearly Hithin the CourtFs existing 1 eCuality QurisEruAenGe.
35
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
AT& AAvantage ! GenAer
AT& 1)
th
AmenAment
AT& State AGtors
1)
T*
A.EN6.ENT +E"3(+ES STATE ACT#+S T# (NTENT(#NA$$- 6(SC+(.(NATE !
C#NG+ESS 7#3N6 N# E%(6ENCE #7 T*(S
$evey 01
BCurtJ 6ireGtor oD $egal anA 2uIliG ADDairsJ Center Dor (nAiviAual +ights. :The Center EroviAeA reEresentation Dor
Anthony .orrison in 3niteA States v. .orrison;.. S-.2#S(3. #N (NTEG+AT(NG +ES2#NSES T# 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE& 6omestiG %iolenGeLLA 2roEer SuIQeGt oD National $egislationR 3niteA States v. .orrison anA the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt& A .oGP 6eIate )1 $oy. $. +ev. ,3, SEringJ 2001 $4NK BGtK
/eGause oD the laGP oD state aGtion hereJ the Court never reaGheA the issue oD Hhether the allegeA state AisGrimination
against viGtims oD AomestiG violenGe anA raEe rose to the level oD an eCual EroteGtion violationJ HhiGh is Hhat HoulA Ie
reCuireA to trigger CongressFs EnDorGement Clause EoHers. /ut let me say a DeH things aIout that. CongressFs DinAings
Here Gertainly reElete Hith GritiGism oD state laHs anA EraGtiGes that maPe GonviGtion oD aIusers anA raEists more
AiDDiGult. /ut there Has virtually no eviAenGe EresenteA that this Has a result oD intentional AisGrimination BO,)5K
against HomenJ HhiGh is reCuireA to DinA an eCual EroteGtion violation or even to aGt EroEhylaGtiGallyJ that isJ
EreventivelyJ unAer SeGtion ,. (t HoulA Ie very AiDDiGult to shoH intentional AisGrimination on the Eart oD state aGtors in
EroseGuting aIusers anA raEists Hhen there Has so muGh testimony Auring the Gongressional hearings aIout the
tremenAous Erogress that is Ieing maAe at the state anA loGal level. That is not to say that EeoEle testiDieA that there
Here no EroIlemsV oD GourseJ there are. /ut hoH Gan state oDDiGials Ie maPing Erogress iDJ in their heartJ their real goal
is to AisGriminate against HomenR Surely there are some state oDDiGials Hho Hant to AisGriminate against HomenJ anA (
am sure there are DeAeral oDDiGials Hho are eCually evil. /ut you Ao not neeA a DeAeral Givil remeAy to sue them. (D you
Gan shoH intentional AisGriminationJ you Gan sue state oDDiGials right noH unAer Givil rights statutes suGh as T 1583. )0
)0
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
Test Case 7iat
1NC
A. %(#$AT(#N L A77 CANUT 7(AT A TEST CASE !(T .3ST +E$- #N #NE (N T*E STAT3S "3#
/aum 5,
B$aHrenGe /aumJ #hio State 3niv. The SuEreme Court 2. 83L8)K
The seGonA Gategory oD EartiGiEants inGluAes litigants anA Eotential litigantsJ along Hith laHyers anA interest grouEs that
may inDluenGe their GhoiGes. $iPe most GourtsJ the SuEreme Court Gannot hear a Gase on itFs oHn initiative. Thus the
Court is AeEenAent on EeoEle anA institutions that Irought Gases to Gourt originally anA that Iring them to the SuEreme
Court. AnA the Court must aAAress the DaGts oD the Gases that Gome to it. (t Gannot reaGh out Dor a Gase Hith a NIetterN set
oD DaGts iD suGh a Gase haA not Ieen Irought to it. The issues that litigants raise also helE to Aetermine the CourtFs range
oD oEtions in a Gase.
/. T*E- $#SE
1; 2+(%ATE ACT#+ 7(AT ! T*E- 7(AT 2+(%ATE ACT#+S T# /+(NG A TEST CASE T# T*E
C#3+T T# +3$E #N. T*(S (S /#T* EXT+A T#2(CA$ '*(C* 6EST+#-S #3+ G+#3N6 AN6
$EA6S T# 7(AT(NG #3T #7 T*E A77 *A+.S.
2; N# S#$%ENC- ! CANUT #%E++3$E .#++(S#N '(T*#3T A TEST CASE '*(C* CANUT
EX(ST /ECA3SE C(%($ +E.E6(ES 6#NUT EX(ST
/arrett 03
BAmy Coney Assistant 2roDessorJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhool. Stare 6eGisis AnA 6ue 2roGess 1) 3. Colo. $. +ev. 1011
SummerJ 2003 $4NK BGtK
Cases involving QuAiGial revieH illustrate Hell the DaGt that EreGeAent is sometimes inAistinguishaIle. <uAiGial revieH
Gan aDDeGt nonEarty litigants aGutely. #nGe a Gourt holAs a statute or a Eortion oD a statute DaGially unGonstitutionalJ it is
virtually imEossiIle Dor later Gourts to resurreGt it. 7or examEleJ aDter 3niteA States v. .orrisonJ )0 it is AouItDul that
any litigant GoulA suGGessDully Iring a Erivate Gause oD aGtion unAer the %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt. ADter 3niteA
States v. $oEeMJ )1 it BO1022K is unliPely that any DeAeral EroseGutor GoulA seGure a GonviGtion unAer the GunL7ree
SGhool 0ones AGt.
)1
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
Test Case 7iat
AT& Test Cases Exist
2NC
1. TEST CASES 6#NUT EX(ST (N T*E C#NTEXT #7 .#++(S#N ! T*E+E (S N# A
$#NGE+ A C(%($ +E.E6- NECESSA+- T# C+EATE T*E $(T(GAT(#N NECESSA+-
7#+ <36(C(A$ +E%(E'.
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6inan 02
B<ohn Congressional resEonses to the +ehnCuist CourtFs DeAeralism AeGisions. 2uIlius & 2g. 1:2,; %ol. 32 No. 3 (SSN&
00)8L,5,0<une 22J 2002 $4NK BGtK
Although Congress Has thereDore aIle to overGome the temEorary oIstaGle ElaGeA in its Eath Iy $oEeMJ the situation has
thus Dar Ieen Cuite AiDDerent in regarA to the CourtFs AeGision in .orrison. +eEresentative <ohn Conyers :6L.(; trieA to
resEonA to the AeGision Iy introAuGing the %iolenGe Against 'omen Civil +ights +estoration AGt :%A'C++A; in Ioth
the 106th anA 101th CongressesJ Iut the Iill AiA not maPe it out oD the <uAiGiary Committee on either oGGasion.
.oreoverJ even iD the Iill Here enaGteAJ it HoulA Dall short oD aGhieving the goals emIoAieA in the original statute.
The Dailure to overGome the eDDeGts oD .orrison Gan Ie attriIuteAJin EartJ to insuDDiGient EolitiGal suEEort Dor the
reinstatement oD the DeAeral GivilLremeAy Erovision. Conyers trieA to oItain suEEort Dor suGh a measureJ anA along these
lines he argueA on 21 <u1y 2000 that .orrison Has NQust the latest in a series oD Gases in HhiGh the SuEreme Court hasJ
in my vieHJ imEroEerly narroHeA CongressF authority to legislate unAer the CommerGe Clause.N:23; Conyers anA
several other memIers oD the *ouse <uAiGiary Committee then trieA to aAA the %A'C++A to a Iill reauthoriMing
DunAing Dor %A'A Erograms :HhiGh haA alreaAy Ieen sGheAuleA Dor GonsiAeration Erior to the CourtFs AeGision;J Iut the
amenAment Has AeemeA nongermaneJ anA the GivilLremeAy Erovision Has not inGluAeA in the Iill that Has reEorteA out
oD the Gommittee. SuEEorters oD the GivilLremeAy Erovision may or may not have Ieen aIle to Garry the Aay haA they
Ghosen to Eress their GaseJ Iut in theenAJ they Ghose not to Ao soJ in Eart out oD a IelieD that this might imEeril the
EenAing reauthoriMation oD %A'A DunAing. Their Dear Hasthat even though the vast maQority oD the Erovisions in %A'A
haA Ieen leDt unAisturIeA Iy the .orrison AeGisionJ Galling attention to theruling might have the eDDeGt oD Gasting AouIt
in the EoEular minA onthe overall legitimaGy oD the statute. ConseCuentlyJ they Ghose to AoHnElay any talP oD .orrison
anA thus any neeA Dor a resEonse to the AeGisionJ at least Auring the 106th Congress.:2);
3. E%EN (7 A TEST CASE 6#ES EX(ST ! T*E S32+E.E C#3+T '#NUT G+ANT CE+T
/arrett 03
BAmy Coney Assistant 2roDessorJ Notre 6ame $aH SGhool. Stare 6eGisis AnA 6ue 2roGess 1) 3. Colo. $. +ev. 1011
SummerJ 2003 $4NK BGtK
The GhanGes that the SuEreme Court Hill grant Gertiorari are similarly loH. The Court reQeGts over ninetyLseven EerGent
oD Eetitions Dor Gertiorari. 1)0 The CourtFs rules exEliGitly state BO10)1K that it Hill not grant revieH simEly to GorreGt
error in the loHer GourtFs AeGision. 1)1 To Harrant revieHJ a Eetition must Eresent a Cuestion oD national imEortanGeJ or
one on HhiGh the Gourts oD aEEeals have AiviAeA. 1)2 (n aAAitionJ the reGorA must Ie Glean anA the Gase must Ie HellL
laHyereA. 1)3 The CourtFs stringent Gertiorari stanAarAs renAer the EossiIility oD SuEreme Court revieH too remote to
Gure a laGP oD an oEEortunity to Ie hearA at the GirGuit level. 1))
)2
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
Test Case 7iat
AT& C4( Create Test Case
2NC
C+EAT(NG A TEST CASE #N$- 6E$A-S <3ST(CE '*(C* '($$ #N$- A66 T# T*E %(CT(.US
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BAnita 9. /lairJ EresiAent oD the (nAeEenAent 'omenFs 7orumK BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.momsreDuge.Gom4neHs400014inAex.htmlK
Anita 9. /lairJ EresiAent oD the (nAeEenAent 'omenFs 7orumJ GalleA the DeAeral FgenAer GrimesF Erovisions oD the
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt unGonstitutional anA GhargeA they aAAeA to the viGtimsF suDDering.
CA+6 C#NT(N3ES
/lair aAAeAJ NThe /rMonPala Gase is a gooA examEle. A young Homan sueA in DeAeral in .arGh 1556J over an inGiAent
that allegeAly oGGurreA at her Gollege in SeEtemIer 155). 7ourteen months laterJ in <uly 1556J the DeAeral trial Gourt
AismisseA her GaseJ saying she shoulA have sueA in stateJ rather than DeAeral Gourt. *aA she Aone so thenJ she HoulA
have long ago haA her Aay in Gourt. (nsteaAJ her laHyers Elan to let their Glient Hait another year or so Dor QustiGe Hhile
they attemEt to vinAiGate the unGonstitutionalJ raAiGal DeministLinsEireA %iolenGe Against 'omen AGt.
N#nGe again leDtLHing Deminists GanFt seem to Aistinguish their oHn interests Drom the interests oD real Homen Hho are
viGtims oD sexual assault. (D Congress anA the Deminist aGtivists Hho loIIieA Dor %A'A really GareA aIout EroteGting
viGtimsJ they HoulA emEhasiMe loGal Grime EreventionJ DolloHeA Iy strong suEEort Dor loGal EroseGutionJN she
GonGluAeA.
)3
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
1NC
%A'AFS C(%($ +E.E6- 2+#%(S(#N T+A6ES (N 6#.(NAT(#N /- .EN 7#+ 6#.(NAT(#N /-
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%(#$ENCEN 3N6E+ T*E /ANNE+ #7 C+(.E T# <3ST(7- A3T*#+(TAT(%E (NTE+%ENT(#N
/- T*E STATE. T*(S +E(N7#+CES GEN6E+ 6#.(NAT(#N AN6 6E7$ECTS (N%EST(GAT(#NS
(NT# T*E +##T CA3SES #7 %(#$ENCE.
.eyerLEmeriGP 01
BNanGy AssoGiate 2roDessor oD 2uIliG AAministration 2h.6. in 2uIliG AAministration at 7loriAa AtlantiG 3niversity a
/.S. in Environmental StuAies Drom 7loriAa (nternational 3niversity ..2.A. Drom 7loriAa AtlantiG 3niversity. The
%iolenGe Against 'omen AGt oD 155) 2age4s 16L1 Google/ooPsK BGtK
AEElying 7ouGaultFs analysisJ it aEEears that DeAeral EoliGymaPers may have Ieen GonstraineA IeGause they Here aGting
Hithin a soGioGultural DrameHorP that sought to Ereserve suItle anA GomElex Dorms oD Gontrol that Dorm the Iasis oD
violenGe against Homen. This Gonstraint aEEears to have GauseA EoliGymaPers to DoGus on ameliorating extreme Dorms
oD terroriMation an inaAvertently normaliMing others. (t is AiDDiGult to Aetermine hoH legislation GoulA aAAress the
EreGursors to intimate violenGe. Sexual harassment EoliGy has Ieen suGGessDul in limiting similar Iehaviors in the
HorPElaGe anA might Ie useA as a moAel to aAAress threats oD violenGe or murAer in intimate relationshiEs.
7ouGault DoGuseA on the EroAuGtion oD AisGourse on sexuality in the last 300 years oD 'estern GiviliMation. (t is oIvious
that the AisGourse Has overHhelmingly EroAuGeA Iy men in their roles as the eliteJ EhysiGiansJ mental health
EraGtitionersJ anA sEoPesman Dor soGiety. Given that Homen only very reGently have haA a voiGe in government anA the
AisGiElinesJ AisGourse on more suItle Dorms oD terroriMation has Ieen minimal.
7ouGaultFs analysis leaAs to Cuestions aIout the EroAuGtion oD EoHer. (D in DaGt the AeEloyment oD iAeas aIout sexuality
Has unAertaPen to Gontrol EoEulations on a very intimate level through a linPage IetHeen EoHer anA sexualityJ the
%A'A have may reinDorGeA that EoHer Iy avoiAing the suItle nature oD intimiAation on intimate levels. Thus He might
GonGluAe that although the %A'A aEEears on the surDaGe to grant Homen inGreaseA EroteGtions Drom terroriMationJ it
may reinDorGe existing genAer Aomination anA AeDleGt soGietyFs anAJ in EartiGularJ HomenFs thinPing aHay Drom the root
Gauses oD violenGe.
7inallyJ Drom 7ouGaultJ the EroEagation oD PnoHleAge surrounAing sexuality resulting Drom the %A'A might maintain a
DoGus on the most Ilatant NEerversionsN oD genAereA terroriMationJ the NtiE oD the iGeIergJN so to sEeaPJ thus reinDorGing
the vast inDrastruGture oD more suItle terroriMation. 7rom this stanAEointJ AisGussion anA Iehavior may leaA soGietyJ anA
men in EartiGularJ to Hant to NAisGoverN the seGrets Hithin the GonneGtion IetHeen extreme violenGe anA sexJ thereDore
exaGerIating the EroIlemJ rather than eliminating it. 3sing 7ouGaultFs theoryJ the %A'A might aEEear to Ie reEressive
legislation that maintains the status CuoJ a AramatiG shiDt aHay Drom the genAer eCuity that the DeAeral EoliGymaPers
intenAeA.
))
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
$EGA$ +EC#3+SE (S 6(SE.2#'E+(NG L '#.EN *A%E T# S3/.(T T*E.SE$%ES T# T*E
C+(.(NA$ <3ST(CE S-STE. AS A 2+E+E"3(S(TE 7#+ +E6+ESS. T*(S N#+.A$(0AT(#N
6E2#$(T(C(0ES .A$E %(#$ENCE AN6 (N%A$(6ATES GEN6E+E6 EX2E+(ENCES.
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
The 2rotagonist AisGourse GonstruGts a seGonA AiGhotomy L the gooA viGtimLIaA viGtim Gulture L DrameA Iy the
survivorFs relationshiE Hith EoliGe anA EroseGutors. The AisGourse Greates Eolar oEEositesJ NgooAN synonymous Hith
GooEerative anA NIaAN eCual to AisoIliging. There is no Cuarter Dor Homen Hho are unGertainJ DearDul oD the outGomeJ or
AistrustDul oD the system. .oreoverJ as 7aith $utMe anA .egan Symons Eoint outJ BO308K unGooEerative is a Eroxy Dor
unHorthy. 316 (n eDDeGtJ the reGalGitrant survivor is unHorthy oD either our suEEort or our GonGern. 311
The /everly <ohnson Gase illustrates the aIanAonment oD the IaAJ unaGGommoAating viGtim. As reGounteA Iy 2roDessor *annaJ <ohnson AiA not Hant to
EroseGuteV she Has an unGooEerative viGtim. Although *anna HithAreH the GaseJ she AiA not Ao so Hithout Dirst giving <ohnson a Nstern Harning ... that
BsheK HoulA reoEen Bthe GaseK iD her IoyDrienA laiA a Dinger on her.N 318 ADter the Gase Has AroEEeAJ the last interaGtion IetHeen *anna anA <ohnson Has
one oD raEEroGhement. 315
AnA yet there Has muGh *anna GoulA have Aone. She GoulA have exEloreA Hhat Gommunity resourGes Here availaIle Dor inAiviAuals living Hith A(6S.
She GoulA have EroviAeA inDormation regarAing serviGes in the Gommunity to aAAress Ioth the violenGe anA <ohnsonFs meAiGal GonAition. She GoulA have
oDDereA helE in GonstruGting a saDety Elan. +ather than aAmonishJ *anna GoulA have EroviAeA oEtions L oEtions that aAAresseA /everly <ohnsonFs neeAs.
*annaFs interaGtion Hith <ohnson illustrates hoH the systemFs inDlexiIility Dails to aGGount Dor varying narratives anA neeAs. This vignette GrystalliMes hoH
the NIaAN viGtim is GonstruGteA anAJ Gonsonant Hith that GonstruGtionJ unHorthy oD suEEort or GonGern.
.uGh liPe AnArea 6HorPinFs .aAonnaL'hore AiGhotomy to AesGriIe soGial stereotyEes anA Gultural exEeGtations oD
HomenJ 320 the 2rotagonists have inGorEorateA Gultural EresGriEtions Hith resEeGt to Hhat Gonstitutes the gooA or
Horthy IattereA HomanJ reinDorGing rigiA stereotyEes. /ut Hho is the NgooAN viGtimR Not BO305K unliPe the gooA
Homan or the gooA motherJ she is AeDerentialJ suImissive to authorityJ anA GomEliant to the AemanAs oD others. 321
AnA yet GonGeEtions oD viGtim are GritiGal to HomenFs suIorAination. (t isJ as AesGriIeA Iy .artha 7inemanJ liPe
motherhooAJ Na GoloniMeA GonGeEt ... EhysiGally EraGtiGeA anA exEerienGeA Iy HomenJ Iut oGGuEieA anA AeDineAJ given
Gontent anA valueJ Iy the Gore GonGeEts oD EatriarGhal iAeology.N 322
2erhaEs unHittingly the 2rotagonists have aligneA themselves Hith the Aominant Gulture in aEEroEriating GonGeEtions
oD viGtim Iy reCuiring the NgooA viGtimN to suImit to the Hill oD the state. The EaraAox oD the 2rotagonist iAeology is
that the autonomousJ liIeralLselD EromiseA through GooEeration Hith the Griminal QustiGe system is EremiseA uEon utter
suImission Iy the IattereA Homan. SuGh suImission is to a system that neither valiAates nor aGGounts Dor the material
anA genAereA exEerienGes oD Homen Hho are IattereA.
The emergenGe oD the 2rotagonist iAeology is a natural result oD the shiDt in the shelter movement anA the GontinueA
iAeologiGal Eosition oD the Aominant Gulture. 'ith the transDormation oD the shelter Drom a EolitiGal to a soGialLserviGe
entityJ it is not unDathomaIle that an iAeologiGal strain Hithin the movement HoulA reDleGt an inAiviAualistiG meAiGal
moAel to exElain the Iehavior oD Ioth EerEetrator anA survivor. 'hile not GharaGteristiG oD all shelters anA voiGes Hithin
the movementJ the 2rotagonist iAeology has set in motion not only the AeEolitiGiMation oD male intimate violenGe Iut the
AisemEoHerment oD Homen Hho are IattereA.
),
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
6(SC3+S(%E C#NST+3CT(#NS #7 C+(.E (S EN7#+CE6 /- A3T*#+(TAT(%E
(NTE+%ENT(#N L S2$(TT(NG *3.AN(T- (NT# T*E 6(C*#T#.- #7 C+(.(NA$ AN6 N#N
LC+(.(NA$. T*(S CATEG#+(0AT(#N (S T*E 3$T(.ATE 6EN(A$ #7 *3.AN(T- '*(C* (S
+ES2#NS(/$E 7#+ A$$ AT+#C(T(ES (N T*E $AST CENT3+- (NC$36(NG GEN6E+E6
%(#$ENCE.
*enry = .ilovanoviG 56
BStuart = 6raganJ IaAass GriminologistsJ Constitutive Criminology. 2age 115K
CrimeJ thenJ is not GauseA Iy thingsJ eventsJ or DaGtorsJ Iut is an immanent Eart oD AisGursive EroGessesV suIQeGtsJ thenJ
GonstruGt AiDDerenGes out oD the EroliDeration oD AisEersion anA aGt toHarA that HhiGh they GonstruGt as though it Has
something other than their oHn their GonstruGtion. These are AialeGtiGal EroGesses that eEisoAiGally alloH EeoEle to
Ielieve that they are somehoH Dree Drom their relations Hith othersV these areJ as NietMsGhe has inDormeA usJ FsemiotiG
DiGtionsF that sustain that HhiGh is not. They are EroGesses in HhiGh others are alloHeA to Ie PnoHn only though the
ultimate Aenial oD their human selvesJ the stereotyEiGal Gategories oD GlassiDiGation anA summary reEresentation.
'hat FGausesF the Grime in any oD these Gases is the iAeology anA invoGation oD AisGursive EraGtiGes that AiviAe human
relations into GategoriesJ that AiviAe resEonsiIility Dor others anA to others into hierarGhy anA authority relationsJ anA
that renAer some suIQeGt Eositions vulneraIle to exGessive investment Iy others. SuGh a EroGess is the most lethal
AeviseA Iy humanity. At onGeJ it Ioth GommanAs aGtion toHarA goalsJ themselves seemingly harmlessJ anA limits the
human suIQeGtFs resEonsiIility to othersJ noH GlassiDieA as one or other lesserJ AisEosaIle GategoryJ summariMeA as Fnot
my IusinessF. The German atroGities against the <eHsV the /osnian SerIsF ethniG Gleansing oD /osnian .uslimsJ the
C(As aGtivities in murAering FunAesiraIleF memIers oD Doreign governments anA in organiMing GlanAestine oEerations
AireGteA toHarA the overthroH oD FunAesiraIleF governmentsJ as in the Gase oD the EostL1515 revolutionary SanAinista
NiGaraguan regimeV the .GCarthy attaGPs on Dree sEeeGhV the governmental attaGPs against the unioniMation movement
in the early Eart oD this GenturyV the AmeriGan $y $ai .assaGreV Drom 'atergate to (ranLContraJ Drom Gar hiQaGPing to
serial murAer to the emerging oEen Dorms oD FethniG intimiAation GrimesFJ anA Drom Arug Aealing to AomestiG violenGe&
all are moments oD sEontaneous AeveloEments in the DaIriG oD the Gonstitutive AialeGtiGal AisGursive EroGesses that
alloHs inAiviAuals to Duse oIservations oD AiDDerenGe Hith evaluations oD HorthJ struGtureA Iy a EoHer hierarGhy that
maniDests the Aenial oD others as human Ieings anA DaGilitates a EoliGy iD investment in soGial reality. 'ere this not soJ
Here EeoEle imIueA Hith a sense oD GonneGteAness to othersJ Here the silenGe on FinAiviAual DreeAomF rather than on
intersuIQeGtivityJ there HoulA Ie GonsiAeraIly less liPelihooA oD the EoHer Elay that is Grime.
)6
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
A$TE+NAT(%E& 'E S*#3$6 +E<ECT T*E C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N #7 +A2E /- EN6#+S(NG A
+EST#+AT(%E <3ST(CE 2+#6E63+E /3($T A+#3N6 S*E$TE+S AN6 SE$7L6E7ENSE. T*(S
(S T*E #N$- 'A- T# S#$%E.
)1
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
EXT ! $inP
6E.#N(0AT(#N ! C+(.(NA$(0(NG SEX3A$ %(#$ENCE ENS3+ES T*E 6E.#N(0AT(#N #7
T*E ACC3SE6 ! 2+#SEC3T#+S AN6 T*E 2#$(C- '($$ 7+A.E T*E 6E7EN6ANT AS >E%($?
(N #+6E+ T# ENS3+E S3CCESS73$ C#N%(CT(#N
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
(n the Gontext oD GriminaliMing sexual violenGeJ rarely Aoes state violenGe aEEear to Ie retaliatory in nature IeGause it is
imElementeA through highly rationaliMeA systems oD QustiGe. 7or the most EartJ in moAern 'estern statesJ liPe the
3niteA StatesJ the Eunitive DorGes oD the state are Dully integrateA into IureauGratiG anA theraEeutiG institutions that
regulate the lives oD EerEetrators anA viGtims oD violenGe. -etJ as the Gase stuAies oD gang raEe trials in this IooP have
shoHnJ Hhen the sEeGter oD the raGialiMeA stranger emergesJ even Hithin a highly IureauGratiMeA legal systemJ the
ritualiMeA Dear oD sexual Gontamination may set the stage Dor AramatiG legal anA Gultural events. (n these situationsJ the
legitimaGy oD state aGtion Gomes into Cuestion as aGtorsJ suGh as the EoliGe anA EroseGutorsJ use GoerGive EoHer anA
aEEly raGial stereotyEing. As my analysis has AemonstrateAJ it is not unGommon Dor an overly Mealous EroseGutor to
Greate a vision oD a Grime that is sexually voyeuristiG anA imIues AeDenAants Hith saAistiG motivations.
$A' (S /A6 7#+ GEN6E+ %(#$ENCE +E.E6(ES ! (T <36GES $EG(T(.AC- #7 6#.EST(C
%(#$ENCE C$A(.S #N T*E /AS(S #7 >$EA%(NG? ! T*(S S(.2$(7(CAT(#N (S /A6..
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
There isJ hoHeverJ another GonseCuenGe oD the 2rotagonist iAeology& (t GonstruGts a set oD Dalse AiGhotomies. The Dirst
involves GonGeEtions oD authentiGity. /y authentiGityJ ( am reDerring to soGial notions GonGerning legitimate Glaims oD
violenGe anA hoH the genuineness oD a Glaim is QuAgeA Iy Hhether the survivor leaves or stays. /oth laH anA EoEular
Gulture eCuate existenGe oD violenGe Hith seEaration Drom the relationshiE. 313 Staying IeGomes a soGially susEeGt
GhoiGe unAermining the HomanFs Glaim oD aIuse. $eavingJ on the other hanAJ valiAates her assertion oD harm. (D He
listen to Homen survivorsJ He learn that they stay Dor myriaA reasons L Dear oD reErisalJ Dear oD losing their GhilArenJ
eGonomiG GonGernsJ emotional ties to the Iatterer or his DamilyJ laGP oD soGial or Damilial suEEortJ anA laGP oD a ElaGe to
go. 31) -et the 2rotagonists have GollaEseA a GomElex set oD interaGtions into narroH Gategories that Dail to aAeCuately
AesGriIe the GonAitions that Drame her liDeJ her GhoiGesJ anA her GonAuGt. 31,
$A' '#NUT E$(.(NATE SEX(S(. ! $A' (S *E$$A GEN6E+E6
Torrey 5,
B.orrison 2roDessor oD $aHJ 6e2aul 3niversity College oD $aH 7eminist $egal SGholarshiE #n +aEe& A .aturing
$ooP At #ne 7orm #D %iolenGe Against 'omen 2 'm. = .ary <. oD 'omen = $. 3, 7allJ 155, $4NK BGtK
$est ( aEEear too oEtimistiGJ let me Dinish Hith a Cuotation Drom Susan EstriGhFs artiGleJ Sex at 'orPJ in HhiGh she notes
that all oD the AisGriminatory asEeGts oD raEe laH have noH Ieen inGorEorateA into sexual harassment AoGtrine&
(n the last analysisJ reDorm DaileA not IeGause Deminists are not gooA at Hriting statutesJ Iut IeGause iD there is one area
oD soGial Iehavior Hhere sexism is entrenGheA in laH one realm Hhere traAitional male Ererogatives are most EroteGteAJ
male EoHer most Qealously EreserveAJ anA Demale EoHer most Qealously limiteA it is in the area oD sex itselDJ even DorGeA
sex. Guns anA gangs may Ie reGogniMeA as GriminalJ Iut to go IeyonA that is to enter a manFs EroteGteA EreserveJ in liDe
anA in laH. (n liDeJ this male Aomain is EroteGteA Iy the HielAing oD real EoHer eGonomiGJ EhysiGalJ EsyGhologiGalJ anA
emotional. (n laHJ it is EroteGteA Iy AoGtrines oD GonsentJ GorroIorationJ Dresh GomElaintJ anA ErovoGation. (t is
EroteGteA Iy maniEulating these AoGtrines to emIraGe Demale stereotyEes HhiGh real Homen Gannot meet. (t is EroteGteA
Iy a AeDinition oD reasonaIleness that Eits this Homan against that iAealJ that Eits one Homan against the rest. (t is
EroteGteA Iy Eunishing Homen Hho are HeaP Dor their HeaPnessJ anA Homen Hho are exGeEtional Dor their strength. (t
is EroteGteAJ in shortJ Iy the oEeration oD sexism in the laH. n16
)8
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
$A' '#NUT S#$%E SEX(S.
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
(n realityJ these neH laHs suIstantially unAermine Deminist eDDorts. They Ao so Iy reinDorGing the myth that men Hho
raEe are NIrutish male aggressors ... BanAK sex GraMeA Aeviant soGioEaths ... BHho areK violent anA saAistiG BanAK use
extreme DorGe to violate BtheirK viGtim.N n5 .oAern soGial sGienGe Aata AeIunPs this myth anA suggests that the average
raEist is EsyGhologiGally normal. n10 .oreoverJ many stuAies suggest that most Homen PnoH their raEists anA that only
a small Eortion oD raEes involve violenGe BO130K extrinsiG to the raEe itselD. n11 'hile a signiDiGant Eart oD the Deminist
agenAa has Ieen the AeGonstruGtion oD this mythJ esEeGially as it relates to the GamEaign Dor EuIliG reGognition that
NaGCuaintanGe raEeN is also DorGiIle raEeJ the Nmyth oD the GraMeA raEistN remains AeeEly entrenGheA. n12
The reGent raEe legislation is rooteA in anA reinDorGes the myth oD the GraMeA raEist. +egistrationJ notiDiGationJ anA
sexual EreAator laHs are Glearly IaseA on this myth. SuEEorters oD these laHs have exEressly emIraGeA the notion that
those Hho raEe are unusually Aangerous reGiAivists against Hhom soGiety must Ie on Gonstant guarA. %A'A anA the
neH 7+E amenAments L legislation at least Eartly grounAeA in Deminist notions regarAing the neeA to Aemolish soGietal
Iarriers to raEe EroseGution L also aGGeEt the image oD the GraMeA raEist. 3ltimatelyJ the neH legislationFs aGGeEtanGe oD
this myth unAerGuts the Deminist agenAa Hith resEeGt to raEe. 7irstJ the legislation aEElies a sGheme intenAeA to aEEly to
the GraMeA raEist situation to all raEes. The AisGonneGtion IetHeen the laHsF aEEliGation anA the myth that EroEels them
enGourages Gourts to Aistinguish the EaraAigm raEist Drom those NnormalN men Hho may Ie guilty oD raEe Iut Hho Ao
not Dit the EaraAigmatiG image. SeGonAJ to the extent that some oD the legislation is GonDineA to Gertain Nextremely
AangerousN oDDenAersJ the Griteria Dor suGh an assessment oDten reDleGt stereotyEiGal anA Dalse assumEtions aIout raEe.
These errors then enGourage Gourts to Aistinguish IetHeen NrealN raEists anA other raEists. (n Ioth situationsJ
reinDorGement oD the image oD the GraMeA raEist as the NrealN raEist unAermines Deminist eDDorts to gain EuIliG
reGognition that aGCuaintanGe raEe is raEeJ a GonGrete anA serious harm.
)5
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& T4 Civil Court
2NC
1. T*(S (S (++E$E%ANT ! C#NST(T3T(%E C+(.(N#$#G- (S A/#3T 2+#CESSES #7
STATE (NTE+%ENT(#N T# 7ASC($(TATE +ET+(/3T(#N T*+#3G* T+(A$S AN6
23N(S*.ENT. /#T* C(%($ AN6 C+(.(NA$ C#3+TS 6# T*(S. CASE (N 2#(NT (S #<
S(.2S#N ! *E (S C#NS(6E+E6 A C+(.(NA$ A$T*#3G* *E 'AS #N$- 7#3N6
G3($T- (N A C(%($ C#3+T.
2. (TS (.2#SS(/$E T# .A9E A 6(ST(NCT(#N /ET'EEN C(%($ AN6 C+(.(NA$
6ETE++ENCE
SteiPer 51
BCarol S. Assistant 2roDessorJ *arvarA $aH SGhool. /.A. 1582J *arvarAL+aAGliDDe CollegesV <.6. 1586J *arvarA $aH
SGhool 2unishment anA 2roGeAure& 2unishment Theory anA the CriminalLCivil 2roGeAural 6iviAe 8, Geo. $.<. 11,
AErilJ 1551 $4NK BGtK
$arger trenAsJ hoHeverJ have GontriIuteA even more suIstantially to the litigation over the GriminalLGivil EroGeAural
AiviAe. The theoretiGal AistinGtion IetHeen remeAial anA retriIutive QustiGeJ never unEroIlematiGJ has IeGome
inGreasingly unstaIle in light oD the asGenAenGe oD eGonomiG analysis oD laHJ HhiGh strives Dor a single moAel oD
oEtimal sanGtioning that transGenAs olA Gategories. AnA the AistinGtion IetHeen Ereventive treatment anA retriIution has
Ieen similarly threateneA Iy legal AeveloEments thatJ AraHing on Ghanges in the Gognitive anA Iehavioral sGienGesJ Ilur
the AistinGtion IetHeen NmaAN anA NIaA.N EaGh oD these tHo GonGeEtual AeveloEments has GorrelateA Hith Ghanges in
the struGture anA DunGtion oD legal institutionsJ HhiGhJ in turnJ have also GontriIuteA to the instaIility oD the GriminalL
Givil AistinGtion. EGonomiG analysis oD laHJ HhiGh has DoGusseA on the Gommon Aeterrent EurEose oD the Griminal anA
Givil sanGtionsJ has GorrelateA Hith the exEansion oD NhyIriAN sanGtioning authority in the aAministrative state. AnA
AeveloEments in the Gognitive anA Iehavioral sGienGesJ HhiGh have Gast AouIt uEon rehaIilitation as an aGhievaIle goal
oD longLterm inGarGerationJ have GorrelateA Hith the EraGtiGal interGhangeaIility oD Griminal anA Givil GustoAy. 7inallyJ
soGioLGultural Ghange has maAe the QoI oD isolating Eunishment Drom other state aGtivity more AiDDiGult& given the
EreGlusion in this Gentury oD GaEital anA GorEoral Eunishment Dor most GrimesJ there are no longer PinAs oD treatment
that are AistinGtively EunitiveJ as GonDinement anA monetary Dines are useA Dor Givil restraint as Hell as Griminal
Eunishment.
,0
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
EXT ! .2X& 2NC
2NC
C+(T("3E #3T'E(G*S CASE ! *EN+- = .($#%AN#%(C 56 SA- T*AT $EGA$
(NTE+%ENT(#N C+EATES C$ASSES #7 S#C(ET- AS >C+(.(NA$? #+ >N#NLC+(.(NA$? !
T*(S 6E.A+CAT(#N (S T*E .#ST $ET*A$ 2+#CESS 6E%(SE6 /- *3.AN(T- ! (T (S T*E
3$T(.ATE 6EN(A$ #7 *3.AN(T- +ES2#NS(/$E 7#+ C#3NT$ESS AT+#C(T(ES
T*+#3G*#3T #3+ EX(STENCE
T*(S .EANS C+(T("3E #3T'E(G*S
GlenAon 55
B.ary Ann. 2roD oD $aH X *arvarA 3niv. >#n 'rit #D Certiorari To The 3niteA States Court #D AEEeals 7or The
7ourth CirGuit.? 'omenFs 7reeAom NetHorP /rieD& AmiGus Curiae 6eGemIter 12J 1555K BGtK
>AomestiG violenGe is only a very small suIset oD all violenGe. #nly slightly over 1Y oD Demale emergenGy BOO)1K
room visitors are seePing treatment Dor an inQury Aue to AomestiG BO15K violenGe
AN6 #3+ C+(T("3E T3+NS T*E CASE
A. 7#C3S ! .E-E+ 01 SA-S 6(SC3SS(NG C(%($ +E.E6(ES 6E7$ECT #3+ ATTENT(#N 7+#.
T*E +##T CA3SE #7 %(#$ENCE '*(C* (S (NC$3S(%E #7 GEN6E+E6 %(#$ENCE
/. 2ASS(%(T- L .(CC(# 0, SA-S C(%($ +E.E6(ES 7#+CE '#.EN T# S3/.(T T# T*E
C+(.(NA$ <3ST(CE S-STE. AS A 2+E+E"3(S(TE 7#+ +E$(E7. T*(S S3/.(SS(#N (S
NECESSA+- T# 6E2#$(T(C(0E .A$E %(#$ENCE '*($E AT T*E SA.E T(.E T# EN7+A.E
'#.EN (N 2AT+(A+C*-
C. 7+3ST+AT(#N ! .(CC(# 0, SA-S $EGA$ +EC#3+SE EN7+A.ES 7E.(N(ST T*(N9(NG
(NT# T*E#+ET(CA$ .#6E$S #7 +A2E T*AT (GN#+E T*E +EA$ EX2E+(ENCES #7 T*E
/ATTE+E6 ! T*(S A/AN6#N.ENT #N$- 2E+2ET3ATES 2AT+(A+C*-.
6. 23/$(C42+(%ATE S2$(T L C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N +E(7(ES T*E 23/$(C 2+(%ATE S2$(T /-
A$$#'(NG (N6(%(63A$ STATES T# (NT+36E (NT# '#.ENUS $(%ES T# 2+#TECT T*E.
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
SEeGiDiGally in the AmeriGan GontextJ IreaPing through the traAitional notions oD hoH ErivaGy has EreventeA legal
intervention may have the reverse eDDeGt oD Greating a situation Hhere Homen lose Gontrol over their Erivate Aomain
IeGause oD manAatory arrest laHs anA noLAroE EoliGies that taPe aHay Drom Homen their EoHer to AeGiAe Hhether to
Eursue Griminal QustiGe intervention. +enee +omensJ a legal sGholar Drom the NetherlanAs Gomments that in the
AmeriGan exEerienGe the shiDt oD HiDe aIuse Drom the Erivate to the EuIliG Aomain has reinDorGeA the unAerlying Iinary
oD the EuIliG anA Erivate anA leA to the imElementation oD EoliGies that have eroAeA HomenUs GhoiGes in the Erivate
sEhere anA the >DaGt that laHJ notaIly Griminal laHJ has Ieen useA as a maQor vehiGle to materialiMe this EuIliG
resEonsiIility only exaGerIates this AynamiG.?1) (n GontrastJ +omens argues that the shiDting oD the AeDinition oD the
>IattereA Homen? to a EuIliG iAentity has Ieen less EroIlematiG in 'estern EuroEean Gountries IeGause >there is more
oD a IalanGe IetHeen the legal anA the soGial Gategory anA the soGial EoliGy strategies that the IattereA HomenUs
movements have EursueA in trying to Aevise suEEortive EoliGes. (n 'estern EuroEe the issue oD Iattering has Ieen a
muGh more eDDeGtive Aomain oD soGioLEolitiGal struggle than in the 3.S.? 7rom this EersEeGtiveJ eDDorts to AeDine
violenGe against Homen as a national issue in the 3niteA States Aoes less to liIerate Homen Drom loGal GustomJ anA
more to Greate the GirGumstanGes Dor state intrusion into Erivate lives.
,1
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
E. 7#+E(GN (NTE+%ENT(#N ! C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N C+EATES T*E /AS(S 7#+ AGG+ESS(%E
7#+E(GN 2#$(C-
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
This GriminaliMation DrameHorP targets either Gustom or Gustomary legal EraGtiGes that QustiDy authoritarian genAer roles
or HomenUs Eassivity in the DaGe oD oEEression.2 (n the human rights EaraAigmJ as Gonventionally unAerstooAJ universal
normsJ suGh as eCuality anA selDLAeterminationJ trumE Gustomary EraGtiGes that imEeAe HomenUs aAvanGement in the
EuIliG sEhere. As Hill Ie AisGusseA laterJ this Greates a Eattern oD enDorGement EraGtiGes in HhiGh >Erogress? toHarA
GomElianGe Hith international Gonventions is measureA Iy the imElementation oD oDten nationalLlevel AireGtives that
rule against loGal :anA oDten religious; EraGtiGes.3 Although the enDorGement meGhanisms are HeaPJ usually IaGPeA Iy
naming anA shaming nonLGomEliant Gountries Iut sometimes linPeA to monetary inGentivesJ the human rights moAel in
its gloIal maniDestation is a EseuAoLGriminaliMeA system oD surveillanGe anA sanGtions. At its most extremeJ hoHeverJ
human rights EoliGy Gan Ie useA to QustiDy military intervention. #ne examEle is the neH AmeriGan AoGtrine GalleA >The
+esEonsiIility oD 2roteGt? that QustiDies intervening in a Doreign stateUs AomestiG aDDairs in orAer to aAAress human rights
violations.) Thus it IeGomes imEerative to asP in Ioth a loGal anA gloIal GontextWhoH Ao EoliGies AesigneA to
>EroteGt? Homen serve to reEroAuGe violenGeR
T*(S T3+NS T*E CASE ! 7#+E(GN (NTE+%ENT(#N (S *EA%($- GEN6E+E6
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
(n light oD ArenAtUs analysis oD the nexus oD violenGe anA EoHerJ this Ehenomenon might Ie seen as a reDleGtion oD hoH
the stateUs overLinvestment in Eunitive resEonses to Grime Dails not only to shore uE its legitimaGy as the EroteGtor oD
Homen Iut maPes the state looP liPe a sexual oEEressor itselD. (t is not surErising that Hhen agents oD the moAern state
engage in illegal Dorms oD torture to aIuse Erisoners oD HarJ Dor examEleJ their aGtions oDten taPe the Dorm oD highly
IrutaliMeA sexuality. The real legitimaGy oD the state to aGt in the name oD viGtims is rarely AireGtly aAAresseA IeGause
the sovereignty oD the state to Eunish Grimes against Eersons is assumeA as a neGessary asEeGt oD the EolitiGal GontraGt in
theory anA EraGtiGe.
,2
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
.2X& SolvenGy
C+(.(NA$L#+(ENTE6 A22+#AC* T# $A' 7A($S
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
The ConneGtiGut aAvoGates unAerstooA that aIating male intimate violenGe reCuireA a GoorAinateA Gommunity resEonse.
2uIliG EoliGy that enshrineA laH enDorGement as the sole resEonse Has not only Gounterintuitive L IeGause oD
misogynistiG EraGtiGes Hithin the EoliGe AeEartment L Iut GounterEroAuGtive IeGause survivors oD suGh violenGe
reCuireA aGGess to housingJ QoIsJ anA soGial systems oD suEEort in aAAition to removal oD the oDDenAer Iy the state. 183
As 6onna CoPer has noteAJ mere GriminaliMation oD AomestiG violenGe L exemEliDieA Iy manAatory arrest L is
insuDDiGient as soGial EoliGy IeGause it Dails to aGGount Dor the GomElex eGonomiG issues GonDronteA Iy IattereA HomenJ
esEeGially Eoor IattereA Homen. 18)
BO282K /y Eresenting manAatory arrest as the sole oEtionJ not only Ao He Dail to aGGount Dor the eGonomiG GonAitions
oD Homen in general anA Eoor IattereA Homen in EartiGularJ He give ErimaGy to the notion that laH enDorGement is the
sourGe oD HomenFs suIorAination. SuGh a GraIIeA EerGeEtion oIsGures hoH Gulture GonstruGts Ioth inAiviAual anA
systemiG Iehavior. ThusJ male intimate violenGe is treateA as iD it taPes ElaGe in an inAiviAualiMeA rather than soGialiMeA
GontextJ Durther Aisaggregating male GonAuGt Drom its Gultural Iase.
-et male intimate violenGeJ anA soGial suEEort Dor suGh violenGeJ is merely emIlematiG oD the Gultural suIorAination oD
Homen. The ConneGtiGut aAvoGates oD the late 1580sJ not unliPe their sisters in the early IattereA HomenFs movementJ
reGogniMeA HomenFs suIorAination Hithin the Damily as Eart oD a larger soGial GonstruGt EremiseA uEon genAer
suIorAination. Sexual suIorAination in the Damily or Erivate sEhere Has marPeA not only Iy the violenGe oD inAiviAual
males Iut Iy Gustoms anA institutional EraGtiGes that maAe suGh violenGe normative. Any strategy that inGorEorateA
elimination oD male intimate violenGe HoulA reCuire transDormation oD the GulturalJ soGialJ anA institutional imEeratives
that shaEeA HomenFs EuIliG anA Erivate lives. ThusJ arrest GoulA Ie instrumental so long as it Has Eart oD a GoorAinateA
soGial anA EolitiGal stratagem that GhallengeA genAer asymmetry. *oHeverJ arrestJ on its oHnJ Has not the antiAote. 18,
,3
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
EXT ! A$T& Shelters
S#$%ENC- A6%#CATE ! +EST#+AT(%E <3ST(CE
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
Alternatives to GriminaliMation are rare in the 3niteA States. #ne oEtion that moves aHay Drom Eunitive state resEonses
is a >restorative QustiGe? EroGeAure that aims to >heal rather than Eunish? inGiAents oD AomestiG violenGe. This aEEroaGh
is oDDereA Iy soGial HorP sGholar $inAa .ills Hho EroEoses >intimate aIuse GirGles? to resolve situations oD AomestiG
violenGe.28 The aAvantage oD this aEEroaGh is that Iy emEloying Gommunity IaseA grouEs to sort through the situation
anA Aevise solutions it aGGeEts the Eluralism oD EersEeGtives anA the neeA Dor viGtims anA EerEetrators to live Hithin the
same Gommunities.
.#+E ST377
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
(n the 3niteA StatesJ there is another examEle oD a loGally DormeA >human rights? movementJ a .assaGhusetts
organiMation GalleA >The 'omenUs +ights NetHorP.? (ts DounAers EartiGiEateA in the 3.N. 7ourth 'orlA ConDerenGe on
'omen in /eiQing in 155, anA Here insEireA to >Iring /eiQing home.?25 Their strategy is tHoLDolAV Dirst to iAentiDy
sEeGiDiG human rights violations in the 3.S. GontextJ anA then to enGourage loGalJ Gommunity IaseA aGtivism stemming
Drom Dorms oD testimony aIout Iattering :reminisGent oD truth Gommissions;. Their iAentiDiGation oD human rights
violations inGluAes& Dailure to EroteGt Homen anA GhilAren Drom aIuseJ alloHing the Iatterer to Gontinue the aIuseJ
Aenial oD Aue EroGess to IattereA HomenJ AisGrimination anA Iias against IattereA HomenJ anA Dailure to resEeGt the
eGonomiG rights oD IattereA Homen anA their GhilAren. This organiMation has attemEteA to >GonDront the state? Hith
these violationsJ Iy inAiviAually anA GolleGtively Galling into Cuestion the AisGriminatory treatment oD IattereA Homen
in loGal Gourts.
'hile Ioth oD these human rights EraGtiGes move aHay Drom emEloying the EoHer oD the state to EunishJ they eaGh
leave the inAiviAual vulneraIle to either the HiAer interests oD the Gommunity or to EossiIle retaliation Iy oDDiGials. The
leaAers oD the 'omenUs +ight NetHorPJ Dor examEleJ Horry that maPing strong Glaims aIout human rights violations
maPes oDDiGials very angryJ anA Homen Hho Eoint out aIuses on these terms may Ie suIQeGt to IaGPlash Iy Gourts.
SimilarlyJ the restorative QustiGe solution may leave Homen in risPy situations esEeGially Hhen they Ghoose to stay :anA
are suEEorteA Iy the Gommunity; in violent Damilies. 'ithout aAAressing larger issues oD struGtural GhangeJ restorative
QustiGe may not DaGilitate Homen DinAing more seGurity anA saDety in their AomestiG lives.30
,)
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
#3+ S*E$TE+S 6#NUT $(N9 T# -#3+ CA+6S !'E (N%#9E
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
( Ao not Ielieve that $ois Ahrens unAerstooA the signiDiGanGe oD her 1580 EieGe. (t EresageA not only the EolitiGal shiDt
oD shelters Iut that oD a GritiGal Gore Hithin the movement. AhrensFs analysis oD Hhat haEEeneA to a shelter in the
AmeriGan SouthHest GharteA a seismiG Ghange nationally that realloGateA EoHer Drom resiAent to staDDV resituateA male
intimate violenGeJ Drom genAer violenGe to Damily violenGeV anA reGharaGteriMeA HomenFs aGtions as EassiveJ a
GonseCuenGe oD learneA helElessness. 155 /eGause IattereA HomenFs shelters Here the nuGleus or iAeologiGal Genter oD
the movementJ their shiDt Drom EolitiGal to soGialLserviGes entity is GritiGal IeGause it altereA the iAeologiGal GonstruGt oD
the movement. AnA the GhangesJ GatalogeA Iy Ahrens anA her GontemEorariesJ EroDounAly aDDeGteA BO286K not only the
movement Iut soGial EoliGy that Has generateA Iy movement aGtivists anA state aGtors.
#riginating in the early 1510sJ the IattereA HomenFs movement Has a Gorollary oD the seGonA Have oD Deminism. This
movement anA the IattereA HomenFs shelter movement oEerateA synergistiGallyJ anA the eDDeGt Has the Greation oD a
neH soGial Gategory& IattereA Homen. 200
/eGause oD its Deminist rootsJ the shelters oEerateA Hithin a EaraAigm AeDineA Iy Deminist ErinGiEles. They Here
EolitiGal entities in HhiGh egalitarianismJ autonomyJ anA selDLAetermination Here DounAational Eillars. Shelters Here
GonstruGteA to reDleGt suGh ErinGiEles in Ioth iAeology anA methoAology. As a resultJ there Has no oEerational
AistinGtion IetHeen staDD anA resiAentsJ anA shelter governanGe Has nonhierarGhiGal anA AeveloEeA along Gonsensus
moAels. 'omenFs GhoiGes Here not EathologiMeA nor Here survivors oD violenGe vieHeA or treateA as siGP or in neeA oD
treatment. As one aAvoGate noteAJ N'e resEeGteA HomenFs GhoiGes.N 201 This aAvoGateFs GonGeEtion oD selDL
Aetermination Has the ErinGiEleA resEonse oD IattereA HomenFs aAvoGates nationHiAe& 'hat misogyny haA
surreEtitiously stolen Drom Homen HoulA Ie returneA. 202 AnA IeGause shelter staDD Here oDten Dormerly IattereAJ their
exEerienGes inDormeA AeveloEment oD shelter EoliGy. AGGorAinglyJ the maximJ Nthe Eersonal as EolitiGalJN Has a guiAing
stanAarA.
S*E$TE+S A+E G##6
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
(n Ioth AisGourse anA EoliGyJ the early aAvoGates aEEreGiateA that EerGeEtions have meaning only in the Gontext oD
exEerienGe. 283 ConseCuentlyJ shelter EhilosoEhy resEeGteA HomenFs AeGision to stay or leave the IattererJ anA staDD
resisteA suIstituting their QuAgment Dor that oD the survivors. 28) Shelter Erograms useA GonsGiousnessLraising :C+;
grouEs among staDD anA resiAents to NBtalP aIoutK the violenGe in BtheirK livesN as a vehiGle to Ghallenge suIQeGtive
PnoHleAge aIout male intimate violenGe anA to aEEroximate Gommon grounA. 28, As Homen Drom $a Casa Ae $as
.aAres DounAJ N'e Iegan to see that He Here ... BallK oEEresseA.N 286
/ut C+ grouEs EroAuGeA an aAAitional result. Through Gonversation Hith others Hho haA haA similar exEerienGesJ
Homen maAe AisGoveries that Here transDormational. 281 7irstJ BO303K EerGeEtions oD the selD Here shaEeA Iy soGial
GonAitions anA normative values. SeGonAJ those EerGeEtions Here alteraIle. 288 AnA thirAJ the sourGe oD the aIuse Has
male Erivilege anA EoHerJ not the GonseCuenGe oD inAiviAual inaAeCuaGies. 285 As Catharine .aG9innon noteAJ the
exEerienGe oD C+ grouEs Has the AeveloEment oD PnoHleAgeJ a EolitiGal GonsGiousness that GhallengeA the exEerienGe
oD soGial ineCuality. 250 AnA the result oD suGh grouEs Has the Greation oD a GolleGtive soGial Ieing GulleA Drom the
inAiviAual anA suIQeGtive exEerienGes oD its memIers. 251
,,
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
EXT ! A$T& +esistanGe
+A2EX '#+9S
Chonin 0,
BNeva >%agina 6entata? San 7ranGisGo ChroniGle <une 12J 200,K BGtK BhttE&44HHH.sDgate.Gom4GgiLIin4artiGle.GgiR
Dile@4GhroniGle4arGhive4200,406412429G<NCE2T,1.6T$K
2retty grim oAAs. No HonAer so many EeoEle are Hilling to saGriDiGe Eersonal DreeAom Dor EroteGtion. TheyFre
AesEerateJ anA AesEeration is the mother oD invention. #9J ( maAe that last Eart uE. /ut AesEeration helEeA insEire
South ADriGan inventor Sonette Ehlers 20 years ago Hhen a raEe viGtim tolA her she HisheA she haA teeth NHhere it
mattereA.N 'ellJ reasoneA EhlersJ Hhy notR AnA tHo AeGaAes laterJ sheFs AesigneA a AeviGe she hoEes Hill give Homen
Qust that& a AeviGe that Iites a raEistFs Eenis. %isualiMe a holloH tamEon DilleA Hith miGrosGoEiG hooPs that attaGh
themselves to the oDDenAing memIer Auring Eenetration. Are you Gringing yetR NoR 9eeE reaAing.
SinGe itFs allegeAly imEossiIle Dor a man to remove the AeviGe Drom his Eenis Hithout meAiGal helEJ AoGtors Hill Ie aIle
to alert EoliGe Hhen the raEist seePs helE. AnA the raEist Hill have to seeP helEJ sinGe urination is imEossiIle Hhile the
AeviGe is in ElaGe anA any attemEt at manual removal only Aigs the hooPs in AeeEer.
CA+6 C#NT(N3ES
SureJ some EeoEle HoulA say that eventually NGhanging menFs minALsetsN is all Hell anA gooAJ Iut it Aoes little to PeeE
Homen saDe in the immeAiate Duture. ( agree Hith thatV as Dar as (Fm GonGerneAJ as long as the National +iDle AssoGiation
insists on IloGPing gun GontrolJ He might as Hell taPe aAvantage anA teaGh girls hoH to use Direarms eDDeGtively.
/eGauseJ AuAeR (t Ieats Hearing a tamEon Hith teeth every Aay Dor the rest oD oneFs liDe. (t also seems liPe a less
Eunitive solution to a EroIlem that shoulA Ie eraAiGateAJ not aGGommoAateA Iy maPing Eotential viGtims suDDer. 'omen
have enough grieDJ Hhat Hith having to agoniMe over Hhere to sit on a IusJ Hhom to talP to anA hoH Iest to sGan the
horiMon Dor Aanger.
,6
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& 2erm ! 6o /oth
2NC
1. 2E+. $(N9S /ECA3SE C(%($ +E.E6(ES (.2$(C(T$- SEE9 $EGA$ +E6+ESS '*(C* (S
T*E C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N #3+ CA+6S ASS3.E #+ (TS SE%E+ANCE '*(C* (S A %#TE+
/ECA3SE (T <AC9S NEGAT(%E G+#3N6
2. T+A6E #77 6(SA6 ! C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N #7 GEN6E+ %(#$ENCE G3A+ANTEES T*E
EX2ANS(#N #7 C+(.E C#NT+#$ 2+#G+A.S '*(C* T+A6ES #77 '(T* .#+E E77ECT(%E
S#C(A$ 2+#G+A.S
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
The invaliAation oD the Givil rights Erovision leaves intaGt the rest oD the %A'A that Erimarily sets uE Erovisions Dor
DunAing Grime Erevention Erograms. -et againJ a Deminist viGtory Dor a national EoliGy Dor the EroteGtion oD Homen has
Ieen transDormeA into a means to exEanA the Grime Gontrol aEEaratus oD the state. The maQor Eriorities Dor DeAeral
DunAing unAer the aGt inGluAe the training oD laH enDorGement EersonnelJ GollaIoration in serviGe AeliverJ anA imEroveA
Aate GolleGtion anA GommuniGation systems Dor EoliGe anA EroseGutors.20 To a large extent the DeAeral DunAs authoriMeA
Iy the %A'A DunAs are suEEorting Griminal QustiGe interventions insteaA oD EroviAing AireGt suEEort Dor IattereA
Homen. The maQor grants aHarAeA Iy %A'A have Ieen reGeiveA Iy Griminal QustiGe agenGiesJ Hhile IattereA HomenUs
sheltersJ Hhen they are reGiEientsJ reGeive so little money that %A'A DunAing is oDten a very small Eart oD their overall
IuAget. This means that shelters Gontinue to rely Erimarily on volunteers anA soDt money. #ne stuAy oD the eDDeGts oD
%A'A on AireGt serviGes Dor IattereA HomenJ DinAs that shelter Eersonnel are extremely sPeEtiGal aIout the Eotential oD
DeAeral EoliGies to aAAress the root Gauses oD the EroIlem. .oreoverJ Congress as oD <une 200) has not DunAeA maQor
soGial serviGes Erovisions in the 2000 %A'AJ liPe a transitional housing Erogram Dor IattereA Homen.21 #n the other
hanAJ as a AireGt result oD %A'A DunAingJ laH enDorGement agenGies have EromoteA maQor neH initiativesJ GalleA
CoorAinateA Community +esEonses :CC+;. The CC+Us are usually leA Iy loGal EroseGutors Hho launGh >GoorAinateA?
training anA AeveloEment eDDorts Hith EoliGeJ emergenGy room examinersJ anA soGial serviGe HorPers. The Erimary
DoGus oD CC+s is to EroAuGe more aGGurate anA relevant inDormation Drom viGtim examinations anA to imErove the
training oD examiners as exEert Hitnesses. *oHeverJ these CC+s are Ieing DunAeA at the exEense oD other Erograms that
GoulA have a more AireGt eDDeGt on viGtimUs lives. (n some Gommunities CC+Us have exEanAeA their Erograms Hhile the
only loGal AomestiG violenGe shelter has Ieen GloseA Aue to inaAeCuate DunAing.22
*E+EUS .#+E E%(6ENCE
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
Although suGh reGommenAations are imEortantJ they Ao not inGorEorate or aAAress the materialJ soGialJ anA eGonomiG
GonGerns oD Homen survivors. /y relying solely uEon the Griminal QustiGe system to remeAy suGh violenGeJ state
resourGes are DunneleA almost exGlusively into laH enDorGement EroQeGts. ConseCuentlyJ DunAs Dor legal reEresentation
oD survivorsJ 221 reloGationJ longLterm housingJ QoI trainingJ anA eAuGation are either minimal or nonexistent. 222 As
one aAvoGate Drom NeH -orP GommenteAJ Nthe allLyourLeggsLinLoneLIasPetN aEEroaGh has negatively aDDeGteA the
Aelivery oD serviGes to Homen. 223 (nAeeAJ a leaAing aGtivist in NeH -orP City remarPeA that over a tenLyear EerioA
aEEroximately S 2,8 million has Ieen alloGateA through the DeAeral %A'A Dor Griminal QustiGe Erograms in NeH -orP
City 22) L yet not one Aollar has Ieen alloGateA Dor sheltersJ longLterm housingJ or QoI training. AnA IeGause %A'A is
the largest DeAeral DunAing sourGe anA DinanGial GonAuit Dor ErogrammatiG suEEortJ 22, the narroH sGoEe oD its mission
severely imEaGts AistriIution oD resourGes to Erograms anA Homen survivors.
,1
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& 2erm ! 6o /oth
EXT 2 ! TraAe #DD
C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N .#%E.ENT C##2TS -#3+ '#.ENUS +(G*TS .#%E.ENT
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
#verallJ the %A'A has not Ieen a DoGal Eoint Dor imEroving the GonAitions oD Homen in the 3niteA States. As a Givil
rights measureJ even Hhen imElementeA on a stateIyL state IasisJ it EroviAes a EroIlematiG DounAation Dor litigation in
that it Euts an unrealistiG IurAen oD ErooD on viGtims to shoH animus as the motivation Dor violenGe. .oreoverJ as a
sourGe oD DunAing it has largely Ieen GoLoEteA Iy more organiMeA anA estaIlisheA Griminal QustiGe agenGies Hhile
grassroots IattereA Homen Erograms are leDt to Dalter Aue to DeAeral anA state Guts in soGial serviGe Erograms aGross the
IoarA.
C#A$(T(#N /3($6(NG NECESSA+- 7#+ T*E A77 G3A+ANTEES C#.2+#.(SE ! G+#32S
'($$ SAC+(7(CE A/#+T(#N AN6 N#NL*ETE+#SEX3A$ +(G*TS 7#+ T*E 2$AN
/umiller 0,
B9ristin 2roDessor oD 2olitiGal SGienGe anA 'omenFs anA GenAer StuAies at Amherst College >7reeAom Drom GenAer
%iolenGe as a *uman +ight& 7eminism anA 7eAeralism in a GloIal 2ersEeGtive? 24154200,K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.tQsl.eAu4AoHnloaAs49ristinY20/umiller.EADsearGh@Y22Y227reeAomY20DromY20GenAerY20%iolenGe
Y20asY20aY20*umanY20+ightY22Y22K
The Eush to GriminaliMe sexual violenGe is aGGomEanieA Iy other EolitiGal initiatives that are AireGteA toHarA regulating
sexual EraGtiGes in loGal anA gloIal marPets. The most notaIle measures DoGus on the traDDiGPing oD Homen anA the
AistriIution oD EornograEhyJ Ioth oD HhiGh are the suIQeGt oD emerging >Hars on Grime? similar to the targeting oD Arug
traDDiGPers. There is also a EreGarious GonneGtion IetHeen neH Erograms that target AomestiG violenGe anA state interest
in regulating the DamilyJ marriageJ reEroAuGtionJ anA sexuality more generally. Although CE6A' exEliGitly linPs
HomenUs rights to reEroAuGtive DreeAomJ these Deminist moral imEerativesJ in EraGtiGeJ are suIQeGt to Dorms oD national
Goalition IuilAing that give voiGe to EoliGies that limit HomenUs aGGess to aIortion or seeP to regulate homosexuality.
(nternationallyJ any Erogress toHarAs the GriminaliMation oD AomestiG violenGe neeAs to Ie evaluateA in the Gontext oD
hoH moAerniMing states are assuming neH EolitiGal aEEaratus to monitor the Damily anA HomenUs reEroAuGtion. 7or
examEleJ the reGent imElementation oD a neH AomestiG violenGe EoliGy in TriniAaA Has aGGomEanieA Iy the
GriminaliMation oD homosexuality anA Iy a more Gonventional legal enaGtment oD marriage.,
,8
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& $aH GooA ! General
2NC
1. T*(S (S (++E$E%ANT ! $A' .A- /E G##6 (N #T*E+ (NSTANCESJ /3T 7E6E+A$
<3+(S6(CT(#N 7#+ C(%($ C#3+T CASES (S /A6. 2+E7E+ T*E S2EC(7(C(T- #7 #3+
C$A(.S /ECA3SE -#3+ A3T*#+S 6#NUTU ASS3.E #3+S
2. -#3 CANUT ACCESS T*E $A' /ECA3SE +#$E2$A-(NG A/#3T T*E S32+E.E
C#3+T 6#ES N#T ACT3A$$- CA3SE S32+E.E C#3+T ACT(#N.
SGhlag 51
B2ierreJ 2roD oD $aHJ 3niv. oD ColoraAoJ >The 2roIlem oD the SuIQeGt.? 65 Tex. $. +ev. 1621. <une. $4NK BGtK
The Sartrean metaEhysiG Gonstantly Galls Dor inAiviAual suIQeGts to reGogniMe their resEonsiIilities anA to Ghoose. The
message is this& AvoiA IaA Daith LL GhooseZ /utJ in a 7ouGaultian senseJ this GonstruGtion oD the suIQeGt entails a
Erevailing unDreeAom. EaGh anA every soGialJ legalJ anA EolitiGal event is immeAiately reEresenteA as an event Galling
Dor a valueLIaseA GhoiGe. -ou are Dree to Ghoose IetHeen this anA that. /utJ oD GourseJ you are not Dree. -ou are not Dree
IeGause you are Gonstantly reCuireA to reenaGt the motions oD the EresGriEteAJ alreaAy organiMeA GonDiguration oD the
inAiviAual Ieing as Ghooser. -ou have toJ you alreaAy are GonstruGteA anA GhanneleA as a Ghoosing Ieing.
27
Not only is
this soGial GonstruGtion oD the selD extraorAinarily oEEressive LL Iut it oDten turns out to Ie aIsurA as Hell. .uGh oD its
aIsurAity Gan Ie seen in the normative visions that routinely issue Drom the legal aGaAemy urging us to aAoEt this
utoEian Erogram or that one LL as iD somehoH our GhoiGes :( liPe AeGentraliMeA soGialismJ you liPe Gonservative Eastoral
EolitiGsJ she liPes liIeral Gultural Eluralism; haA any AireGtJ selDLiAentiGal eDDeGt on the !"17#1$ GonstruGtion oD our
soGial or EolitiGal sGene. The GritiGal insistenGe on maPing EolitiGal value GhoiGes is utterly GaEtive to a Gonventional
anA nostalgiG AesGriEtion oD the EolitiGal DielA LL a AesGriEtion anA AeDinition oD the DielA that is guaranteeA to yielA
EolitiGal AisaIlement anA AisemEoHerment.
276
To tell EeoEle that they are alreaAy emEoHereA to maPe EolitiGal value
GhoiGes isJ in eDDeGtJ to Iolster the Aominant GultureFs reEresentation that He are DreeLGhoosing Ieings anA to strengthen
the DorGes that leaA to our oHn reEeateAJ GomEelleA aDDirmation oD :meaningless; GhoiGes.
277
/y EresuEEosing the
authentiGity oD the Sartrean suIQeGtJ GritiGal legal thought has greatly unAerestimateA the extent to HhiGh this NDreeN
suIQeGtJ in its very NDreeAom to GhooseJN is alreaAy GonstruGteA to GomEulsively aGt out Ghoosing Iehavior LL regarAless
oD Hhether the soGialJ EolitiGalJ or rhetoriGal sGene Harrants or even enaIles a GhoiGe to Ie maAe at all.
(n legal thoughtJ the sterility oD this aEEroaGh is maniDest in artiGles that exhort us to engage in Ghoosing Iehavior Hhile
reDraining Drom telling us Hhat to Ghoose. 7or instanGeJ a Hhile IaGP <ohn StiGP argueA that GlsLers anA liIerals ought to
AroE eEistemiG HarDare anA start arguing aIout Hhat really Gounts& EolitiGs :GonGeiveAJ oD GourseJ as EolitiGal value
GhoiGe;.
27%
/ut nothing haEEeneA anAJ oD GourseJ thatFs not surErising. All AresseA uE anA noHhere to go. 'hat are legal
thinPers suEEoseA to sayR Three Gheers Dor AemoGratiG soGialismR ( :really; liPe (PeR The +aHlsian AiDDerenGe ErinGiEle
really Aoes reCuire the +ule in ShelleyFs CaseR There is a Iig anA very HiAesEreaA Gategory mistaPe at HorP here& the
EresuEEosition that arguing aIout EolitiGal values is somehoH synonymous Hith engaging in EolitiGs.
27&
TalPing anA
arguing aIout EolitiGal values is not neGessarily :or even usually; EolitiGalJ anymore than talPing aIout DootIall is
EolitiGal.
2%#
To engage in EolitiGs is to engage Hith !"17#2$ EoHer. Arguing aIout EolitiGal values may or may not
engage Hith EoHer. (t AeEenAs. /ut there is no reason to EresuEEose that aGaAemiG EolitiGal value talP has any AesireA
EolitiGal eDDeGt Hhatsoever. 'hether suGh talP has any AesireA EolitiGal eDDeGt AeEenAs on hoH the aesthetiGs oD EoHer
have enaIleA anA GonstituteA this EolitiGal value talP anA on the Gontext Hithin HhiGh this EolitiGal value talP is issueA
anA hearA :assuming it is hearA at all;.
,5
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& $aH GooA ! 6eterrenGe
2NC
1. A$T S#$%ES !
2. N# 6ETE++ENT E77ECT !
A. #3+ S-./#$(S. T3+NS #N CASE 2+#%E T*AT +A2(STS A+E N#T $ESS
$(9E$- T# +A2E <3ST /ECA3SE T*E- C#3$6 G# T# 7E6E+A$J AN6 N#T
STATE C#3+T. C(%($ +E.E6(ES A+E S-./#$(C AT /ESTJ T*E- 6#NUT
S3/STANT(%E$- 6ETE+ +A2E ! *E+ES .#+E E%(6ENCE
Shuman 53
B6aniel '. 2roDessor oD $aHJ Southern .ethoAist 3niversity SGhool oD $aHJ 6allasJ Texas. The 2syGhology oD
6eterrenGe in Tort $aH )2 9an. $. +ev. 11, 7allJ 1553 $4NK BGtK
This ArtiGleFs examination oD the EsyGhology oD AeterrenGe in tort laH lenAs suEEort to those Hho argue that the Gurrent
DaultLIaseA tort system Aoes not serve the DunGtion oD AeterrenGe Hell. The organiG anA IiologiGal theories reveal the
limiteA GaEaGity oD tort laH to Aeter unsaDe Iehavior. 302 The EsyGhoAynamiG EsyGhologiGal theories Erove too muGh
anA threaten to HeaPen AeterrenGe Iy exGusing resEonsiIility Dor muGh Iehavior that is noH vieHeA as tortious. 303
Cognitive EsyGhology reveals that human AeGisionmaPing is systematiGally DlaHeAJ anA that Daulty inDormation
EroGessing is the norm. 30) ThusJ the risP oD tort sanGtions is not liPely to inAuGe saDer Iehavior in aEEroEriate Gases.
+atherJ Gognitive EsyGhology reveals that He are liPely to overestimate tort risPs anA avoiA AesiraIle aGtivityJ or
unAerestimate tort risPs anA Iehave unsaDely. The IehavioristsF insight suggests that the tort systemFs use oD AelayeA
Eunishment rather than immeAiate Eositive reinDorGement is not an eDDeGtive means oD shaEing AesiraIle Iehavior. 30,
SoGial learning theory holAs EotentialJ Iut unless Ietter GommuniGation oD tort laH oGGurs anA the EerGentage oD
meritorious tort Gases Irought is inGreaseA so that tort sanGtions are oIservaIle Hith greater regularity in the Gase oD
tortious IehaviorJ this theory suggests that the tort system is liPely to inGrease rather than AeGrease the DreCuenGy oD
unAesiraIle Iehavior. ThusJ the GolleGtive HisAom Drom these theories oD human Iehavior leaAs to the GonGlusion that
tort laH relying on monetary sanGtions is not liPely to Ie suGGessDul in Aeterring unsaDe Iehavior.
/. C#ST #7 $(T(GAT(#N 2+E%ENTS %(CT#+(ES NECESSA+- 7#+ 6ETE++ENCE
.oss = .alin 58
BSGott A. /.A.J ..A.J StanDorA 3niversityJ 155,V <.6. CanAiAateJ *arvarA $aH SGhoolJ 1558 = 6aniel A. /.A.
CanAiAateJ *arvarA CollegeJ 1555 33 *arv. C.+.LC.$. $. +ev. 151 'interJ 1558 $4NK BGtK
$aHsuits Gan Durther an antiAisGrimination EoliGy only to the extent that viGtims sue anA Hin viGtories that reverse or
GomEensate East AisGrimination anA Aeter Duture AisGrimination. 11 Contrary to the inGreasingly EoEular EerGeEtion oD
AisGrimination laH run amoPJ viGtims oD AisGrimination are relatively unliPely to sue. 18 There is every reason to exEeGt
this outGomeJ as rational aGtors Hill sue only iD the Gost oD suing is less than the exEeGteA IeneDitLLthe EroIaIility oD
Hinning times the magnituAe oD the verAiGt. 15 'hile some emotions :e.g.J anger; inGrease the Aesire to sueJ 80 there
are oEEosite emotional Arives :e.g.J timiAity DolloHing aIuse;J anA regarAless oD the net eDDeGtJ emotions have limiteA
EoHer to Arive Glearly unEromising Glaims. 81
60
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
C. %AG3ENESS (N C(%($ $A' AN6 6(%E+S(T- #7 C#3+T (NTE+2+ETAT(#N
2+E%ENTS 6ETE++ENCE
Shuman 53
B6aniel '. 2roDessor oD $aHJ Southern .ethoAist 3niversity SGhool oD $aHJ 6allasJ Texas. The 2syGhology oD
6eterrenGe in Tort $aH )2 9an. $. +ev. 11, 7allJ 1553 $4NK BGtK
/eGause oD the imEortanGe oD Gertainty in AeterrenGe theoryJ tort laH shoulA artiGulate a GlearJ unAerstanAaIle stanAarA
oD Iehavior that is GommuniGateA to AeGisionmaPers Hho Gan then moAiDy their Iehavior to avoiA the tort sanGtions that
Hill otherHise aGGrue. )1 +eQeGting *olmesFs suggestion that QuAges GrystalliMe Qury DinAings into DixeA rulesJ )2 tort
laH has insteaA emIraGeA unGertaintyJ EreDerring insteaA to turn NGrystalsN into NmuA.N )3 The GorEus oD tort laH in any
QurisAiGtion Gonsists oD settlementsJ )) Qury verAiGtsJ trials to the GourtJ aEEellate AeGisionsJ statutesJ anA aAministrative
rules. This IoAy oD laH rarely artiGulates a GlearJ Gonsistent stanAarA oD Iehavior Hithin a single QurisAiGtion. .oreoverJ
our DeAeral system oD government oDten results in a multituAe oD AiDDerent state anA DeAeral rules. ), Even assuming the
aIility to EreAiGt HhiGh set oD rules Hill aEEly to a multistate transaGtionJ the aIility to EreAiGt the outGome oD a Gase
IaseA uEon Hhat a Qury )6 Hill Ao in BO12)K aEElying those rules in a EartiGular Gase is an artJ not a sGienGe. )1 ThusJ
tort laH is GritiGiMeA Dor valuing EartiGularity over Gertainty. )8
6. .E6(A /(AS 2+E%ENTS 6ETE++ENCE
/olAt 56
B+iGharA C. AssoGiate 2roDessorJ 3niversity oD .arylanA SGhool oD $aHJ /altimoreJ .arylanAJ 3niteA StatesV A./.J
ColumIia College 1515V <.6.J -ale $aH SGhool 1582. The +elationshiE IetHeen Theory anA 2raGtiGe in the StuAy oD
2unishment 1 Crim. $.7. )3, 1556 $4NK BGtK
BO))1K .athiesenFs language analysis lies at the Genter oD his argument. *e exElains that eDDeGtive GommuniGation
reCuires several elements& an Nexternal realityJN or eventV a system oD NsignsJN or Hhat He orAinarily thinP oD as
languageV anA NinterEretations.N 28 *e asserts that the reEresentation oD the Nexternal realityN through signs IreaPs
AoHn in the Gase oD Eenal GommuniGation Dor at least tHo reasons. The Dirst reason relates to a Dailure on the Eart oD the
meAia to Eresent a nonAistorteA aGGount oD everyAay Griminal Ilaming. As .athiesen exElains it&
6ue to Diltration anA DoGusingJ it is Erimarily the sensational anA AramatiG Nlegal neHsN HhiGh is transmitteA through the
meAiaJ thus reaGhing the larger EoEulation . . . . BHhileK the Hay in HhiGh the Griminal QustiGe system hanAles mass
GrimeJ HhiGh Gonstitutes the large IulP oD greyJ everyAay attemEts to EroviAe messages Hith a Ereventive eDDeGtJ are
only to a very small extent transmitteA. 25
E. 23/$(C .(S(NTE+2+ETS 6ETE++ENCE AS E.2T- T*+EATS
/olAt 56
B+iGharA C. AssoGiate 2roDessorJ 3niversity oD .arylanA SGhool oD $aHJ /altimoreJ .arylanAJ 3niteA StatesV A./.J
ColumIia College 1515V <.6.J -ale $aH SGhool 1582. The +elationshiE IetHeen Theory anA 2raGtiGe in the StuAy oD
2unishment 1 Crim. $.7. )3, 1556 $4NK BGtK
A seGonA Dailure iAentiDieA Iy .athiesen is GontaineA in his oIservation that Nthe EuIliGJN the intenAeA reGiEients oD the
Eenal GommuniGation assumeA Iy AeterrenGe theoryJ is not a homogeneous grouE Hho unAertaPes interEretive HorP in a
uniDorm or Gonsistent Dashion. (nsteaAJ AiDDerent inAiviAuals Hith AiDDerent IaGPgrounAsJ exEerienGesJ anA soGial
Eositions reaA the same signs to have AramatiGally AiDDerent meanings. 30 As the eAitorsF introAuGtion Euts .athiesenFs
Eoint& N(nsteaA oD interEreting Eenal messages as morally authoritative statementsJ or Harnings oD imminent GaEture anA
GonviGtionJ the most Griminally aGtive grouEs may reaA them as merely the emEty threats oD a reEressive authority.N 31
7. S2EC(7(CA$$-J N(< ST36(ES 2+#%E STATE (NTE+%ENT(#N 6#ESNUT 6ETE+
6#.EST(C %(#$ENCE
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
.oreoverJ Daith in the Aeterrent eDDeGt oD manAatory Griminal intervention is misElaGeA. The Aeterrent value oD arrest is
eCuivoGal at Iest. (n a 2001 stuAy GonAuGteA Iy the National (nstitute oD <ustiGe :N(<;J the Aata Has inGonGlusive
GonGerning a Gorrelation IetHeen arrest anA reAuGeA reGiAivism in AomestiG violenGe Gases. 2)2 The N(< stuAy DounA
that regarAless oD tyEe oD intervention most susEeGts haA no signiDiGant reEeat Griminal BO25,K oDDense against the
original survivor anA that a maQority oD men AisGontinueA aggressive Iehavior Hithout arrest. 2)3
61
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& /'S :$earneA *elElessness;
2NC
$EA+NE6 *E$2$ESSNESS T*E#+- #N$- +E(N7#+CES 2AT+(A+C*-
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
(t is Hell PnoHn that /'S has Gome unAer attaGP Iy Deminist sGholars anA aGtivists. 300 Evan StarP eloCuently anA
suGGinGtly GharaGteriMes the EroIlem Hith /'S anA GonGeEtions oD learneA helElessness. 301 StarP Glaims /'S sets uE
a traumatiMation moAel to exElain survivorsF aGtions in the Gontext oD soGial variaIles that reinDorGe the assailantsF
GonAuGt. 302 StarP unAerstanAs that HomenFs aGtions are relationalJ shaEeA Iy BO30,K environmental DaGtors that
inGluAe assailant GonAuGt anA soGial resEonse to the violenGe.
/y situating their iAeology Hithin the learneALhelElessness EaraAigmJ the 2rotagonists EathologiMe HomenFs exEerienGeJ
ereGting a meAiGal moAel to exElain HomenFs GonAuGt. The EroIlem is inverteA& (t is no longer one oD male intimate
violenGe against HomenJ Iut a HomanFs learneA helElessness as eviAenGeA Iy her Dailure to leave. As Christine $ittleton
Eoints outJ NTranslating HomenFs BGonAitionK into a EroIlem Hith Homen masPs the Eervasiveness anA extent oD menFs
aIility to oEEressJ harm anA threaten us. (t EroteGts the legal system Drom having to GonDront the Gentral EroIlems oD
Iattering L male violenGeJ male EoHer anA genAer hierarGhy.N 303 <ust as /'S is unAerstooA to AesGriIe helElessness
anA EathologiGal AeEenAenGy L not soGial GonAitions L the 2rotagonistsF DoGus on Dailure to leave oIsGures the various
DaGtors that GontriIute to a HomanFs AeGision to leave or stayJ suGh as saDety Dor herselD anA her GhilArenJ Gultural
EresGriEtions anA ErohiIitionsJ eGonomiG resourGesJ anA Damilial anA Gommunity suEEort.
.oreoverJ Iy ElaGing a Eositive valenGe on leavingJ the 2rotagonists Dlatten the toEograEhy oD male intimate violenGe.
.artha .ahoney reminAs us that leaving is oDten unsaDe IeGause male intimate violenGe is not a AisGrete inGiAent. 30)
+atherJ suGh violenGe is AeDineA Iy Gontrol that goes IeyonA an eEisoAe or series oD eEisoAesV thereDoreJ IeGause the
oDDenAer Hill seeP to reassert EoHerJ Homen may not Ie saDe simEly Iy leaving. (nAeeAJ the 2rotagonist DoGus on
leaving GonGeals the nature oD male intimate violenGe as a Nstruggle Dor GontrolJ BHhileK EretenAing aHay the extreme
Aangers oD seEaration.N 30,
7lightJ thenJ is a viaIle resEonse only iD it is saDer than staying. /eGause eaGh situation is AeDineA Iy its EartiGular
GirGumstanGesJ to GraDt a oneLsiMeLDitsLall solution is AeeEly EroIlematiG IeGause it Dails to aGGount Dor the varieA
GonAitions that shaEe HomenFs lives anA resEonses. /ut this is exaGtly Hhat the 2rotagonists have Aone.
62
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& <ustiGe
C(%($ S3(TS A+ENUT <3ST(CE ! T*E(+ A77 (S A/#3T +E%ENGE. C+(.(NA$(0AT(#N
C+EATES AN EN6$ESS C-C$E #7 +ESENT.ENT AN6 *A+.
*enry = 6ragan 56
BStuart = *enryJ IaAass GriminologistsJ Constitutive Criminology. 2age 115K
A similar analysis Gan Ie aEElieA to eaGh oD the other Griminal QustiGe EoliGies. $et us taPe tHo other muGh AeIateA
examEles& Qust Aeserts anA treatment or rehaIilitation. <ust Aeserts is the EhilosoEhy Glaiming that harms oD reAuGtion or
AeErivationJ GommitteA Iy an oDDenAer on anotherJ QustiDy the state exaGting similar harms on the oDDenAer IaseA uEon
the seriousness oD their Grime. 7or examEleJ violenGe is resEonAeA to Hith violenGeJ murAer Hith Aeath& NTo say
someone AeservesN to Ie reHarAeA or EunisheA is to reDer to his BherK East GonAuGt anA assert that its merit or Aemerit is
the reason Dor aGGorAing him BherK Eleasant or unEleasant treatmentF :%on *irsGhJ 1516& 1,L16;. 7rom a EostmoAernist
EositionJ this ageLolA retriIutive GonGeEt uses one harm as the legitimate grounAs Dor Gommitting Durther harm. (t is not
aIout reAuGing harmJ Iut aIout inGreasing it. The issue is tyEiGally EresenteA as F(D someone has PilleA othersJ they
Aeserve to DorDeit their liDe.F Arguments aIout Hho starteA the harmJ Hho is resEonAing to Hhose harmJ suImit to an
enAless GyGle oD resentment anA outrage as eaGh AisGursively GonstituteA suIQeGt or soGial agent seePs to reAuGeJ reEressJ
or Aestroy the other Dor the harm that has Ieen Aone to them. 2ut simElyJ Qust Aeserts is a EoliGy oD GounterLharm :Grime;
that reGursively reEroAuGes anA invigorates harms oD reAuGtion anA reEression rather than reElaGing them Hith less
harmDul Dorms. (nsteaA oD reGonstituting the AisGursive GonstruGtion oD harm EroAuGtionJ inAiviAual renAitions are
exGiseA :GaEital Eunishment; in the mistaPen IelieD that somehoH this maPes a AiDDerenGe. The AiDDerenGe it maPes is to
Hho is harmeA next :AisElaGement eDDeGt;J not Hhether EeoEle are harmeA at all. (D He also GonsiAer reGiAivism ratesJ
Qust Aeserts aAAs to the overall amount oD harm inDliGteA in soGiety.
63
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
AT& CraMeA +aEist .yth True
C+A0E6 +A2(ST (S A .-T* ! T*E 6ATA 6(S2+#%ES (TS EX(STENCE
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
BO1,1K 6esEite its ErominenGeJ the image oD the GraMeA raEist is unsuEEorteA in DaGt. 7irstJ as Deminists have Ieen
Eointing out Dor AeGaAesJ most Homen are not raEeA Iy strangers. 'hile stranger raEe Glearly oGGursJ statistiGs inAiGate
that over seventyLDive EerGent oD raEe viGtims are raEeA Iy someone they PnoH. n125 SeGonAJ most men Hho raEe aAult
Homen are neither mentally ill nor GomEulsive. SoGial sGienGe stuAies suggest that Nless than , EerGent oD raEists are
EsyGhotiG at the time oD the Gommission oD the BraEeK.N n130 (n aAAitionJ AesEite sex oDDenAersF Glaims oD helElessness in
the DaGe oD Demale sexualityJ there is no eviAenGe that sex oDDenAers are unaIle to Gontrol their aGtions. n131 As
9atharine /aPer notesJ many researGhers GonGluAe that Nmen Hho raEe are NnormalF to the extent that EsyGhologists Dail
to DinA eviAenGe oD aInormality.N n132 (n DaGtJ men Hho raEe areJ Drom a EsyGhoEathology stanAEointJ essentially
inAistinguishaIle Drom the male EoEulation as a Hhole. n133 To Ie sureJ men Hho raEe Ao share some iAentiDiaIle
GharaGteristiGs BO1,8K Aistinguishing them Drom the nonLraEist EoEulation. Those GharaGteristiGsJ hoHeverJ tenA to Ie
soGially GonstruGteA rather than relateA to EsyGhoEathology. ThusJ men Hho have raEeA or Hho aAmit to a liPelihooA oD
Gommitting raEe have greater aGGeEtanGe oD raEe mythsJ violenGe against HomenJ anA sexual stereotyEes. n13) 7ar
Drom Ieing mentally AeviantJ men Hho raEe have simEly internaliMeA Gertain Gultural anA sex role norms.
ThirAJ men Hho raEe are not aInormally Aangerous in that they Ao not Gommit their Grimes at an aEEreGiaIly higher
rate than other Griminals. StatistiGs AiDDer Iut all suEEort the GonGlusion that rates oD reGiAivism Dor raEe are no greater
than Dor other Grimes. n13, Although a raEist may Ie more liPely to Gommit another raEeJ n136 he isJ at the very leastJ
no AiDDerent Drom other Griminals Hho shoH an even greater liPelihooA to Gommit similar Grimes. n131 BO1,5K
.oreoverJ there is little eviAenGe to suggest that men Hho raEe an aGCuaintanGe are suIstantially less liPely to
reGiAivate than men Hho raEe strangers. 'hile the laGP oD GomErehensive stuAies on aGCuaintanGe raEe reGiAivism maPe
it AiDDiGult to GomEare aGCuaintanGe raEe reGiAivism rates Hith the reGiAivism rates oD men Hho raEe strangersJ researGh
suggests that EerEetrators oD aGCuaintanGe raEe also reGiAivate. n138 A stuAy oD almost 3J000 male Gollege stuAents
EerDormeA Iy researGher .ary 9oss inAiGateA that DortyLseven EerGent oD the men Hho haA GommitteA raEeJ NstateA that
they exEeGteA to engage in a similar assault at some Eoint.N n135 A nationHiAe survey GonAuGteA Iy the .s.
7ounAation Dor EAuGation anA CommuniGation anA DunAeA Iy the National (nstitute oD .ental *ealth Durther revealeA
that men Hho haA raEeA aAmitteA to having engageA in that Iehavior Hith their viGtim an average oD 2.25 times. n1)0
AneGAotal eviAenGe also suEEorts this GonGlusion. (n 2eggy SanAayFs stuAy oD gang raEe in Gollege DraternitiesJ Dor
examEleJ the young men aGGuseA oD raEing a Homan PnoHn to them Glearly reveleA in a Eattern oD sexual aggression
toHarA Homen. n1)1 $iPeHiseJ the stuAent athletes aGGuseA oD raEing a DelloH high sGhool stuAent in Glen +iAgeJ NeH
<ersey Here PnoHn Dor their sexual exEloitation anA GoerGion oD girls Erior to the raEe oD HhiGh they Here aGGuseA.
n1)2 .en Hho raEe aGCuaintanGes thus aEEear to Ie Cuite GaEaIle oD reEeating anA Ao reEeat their Grimes.
7ourthJ most raEes Ao not involve violenGe extrinsiG to the raEe itselD. A BO160K GomErehensive nationHiAe stuAy
revealeA that over tHoLthirAs oD raEes involve no EhysiGal inQury other than the raEe itselD anA only Dour EerGent
involveA serious EhysiGal inQuries. n1)3 AGGorAing to a 1551 reEort Iy the /ureau oD <ustiGe StatistiGsJ only DiDteen
EerGent oD nonLstranger raEe anA thirty EerGent oD stranger raEe Gases involveA a HeaEon. n1)) The laGP oD extrinsiG
violenGe or the Dailure to use a HeaEonJ hoHever Aoes not mean that nonLviolent assailants n1), are less Aangerous or
that the viGtims are less aDDeGteA Iy the raEe. Nearly halD oD the viGtims oD one survey aAmitteA to Ieing aDraiA oD serious
inQury or Aeath even aIsent overt violenGeJ n1)6 anA many Homen remain Eassive Auring assaults IeGause they are
Gaught oDD guarAJ DrighteneAJ or are trying to avoiA Hhat they EerGeive might IeGome a violent attaGP. n1)1 The
assumEtion that raEe must inGluAe exGessive violenGe ignores the DaGt that NmenFs greater siMe anA strength are in
themselves threatening to Homen anA are oDten enough either to intimiAate the viGtim or overGome her resistanGe.N
n1)8 The eCuation oD raEe anA extrinsiG violenGe Durther Aiminishes the very real EsyGhologiGal harms that viGtims oD
nonLviolent aGCuaintanGe raEe suDDerJ HhiGh are oDten GomEaraIle to viGtims oD stranger raEe. n1)5 (D anythingJ researGh
reveals that the EsyGhologiGal imEaGt oD viGtimiMation Iy an aGCuaintanGe is EartiGularly severe as it reEresents a
Ietrayal oD trust. n1,0
6)
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! Constitutive Criminology
(nAiGt ! AT& Sherman = /erP
2NC
S*E+.AN AN6 /E+9 ST36(ES 7$A'E6
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
/y the late 1580s to miAL1550sJ aAvoGates moveA to inGorEorate manAatory arrest into stateHiAe EuIliG EoliGy
initiatives. #ne reason Dor this EolitiGal strategy Has the Dirst stuAy GonAuGteA Iy $aHrenGe '. Sherman anA +iGharA A.
/erP that iAentiDieA the arrest oD EerEetrators as Pey to reAuGing reGiAivism in AomestiG violenGe Gases. 118 /y
examining arrest anA nonarrest Gases in .inneaEolisJ .innesotaJ Sherman anA /erP GonGluAeA that arrest haA a
Aeterrent eDDeGt anA reAuGeA the liPelihooA oD reEeat violenGe. 115 'hat He AiA not PnoHJ anA HoulA not learn until
2000J Has that the Sherman anA /erP results GoulA rarely Ie reEliGateA. .oreoverJ their AeEenAenGe on oDDenAer
Iehavior Aata Has EroIlematiG IeGause it relieA on suIseCuent EoliGe reEorts anA DolloHLuE reEorting Iy initial
GomElainants. 180 'hile suGh Aata may give insight into reGiAivismJ it Gannot suEEort the generaliMeA GonGlusion that
Has AraHn Drom the stuAy L that arrest Eromotes a AroE in male intimate violenGe against Homen.
+elianGe on EoliGe reEorts anA selDLreEorting is DlaHeA IeGause it Aoes not taPe into aGGount tHo imEortant DaGts. 7irstJ
EoliGe reEorts Gannot give an aAeCuate EiGture Hhen assessing suIseCuent violenGe Iy oDDenAers IeGause many Homen
Dail to reEort violations oD EroteGtive orAers or reEeat oDDenses. 181 SeGonAJ selDLreEorting Dails to taPe into aGGount that
Iatterers are Eattern aIusers. Even iD the original GomElainant may Ie reEorting no BO281K suIseCuent inGiAentsJ the
oDDenAer may have moveA on to a neH relationshiE anA a neH target Dor his rage. /eGause the stuAy AiA not DolloH
oDDenAers anA Has EreAiGateA on a restriGtive EaraAigmJ its GonGlusion that arrest Aeters male intimate violenGe Has
unsuEEorteA.
6,
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! *istoriG SimEliDiGation
1NC
/+0#N9A$A $(E6
+aIPin 00
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity 7eAeralism vs. 7eminism AmeriGan SEeGtatorJ 01)88)1)J
6eG554<an2000J %ol. 32J (ssue 12 .aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
+eaAers Hill reGall the /rMonPala GaseJ AesGriIeA here exaGtly three years agoJ DolloHing the initial ruling against
%A'A Iy a DeAeral AistriGt Gourt in %irginia. The Gase is a EerDeGt emIoAiment oD the sEirit IehinA %A'A. (n essenGeJ it
is he saiA4she saiAJ Hith some GreeEy Deminist tHists Drom that longLago era Hhen *illary +oAham Clinton Has
GhamEioning Anita *ill anA other EurEorteA viGtims oD Nsexual harassment.N
The unAisEuteA DaGts are that Christy /rMonPalaJ a stuAent at %irginia TeGhJ on her Hay home Drom another EartyJ tooP
herselD uE to the Aorm room oD tHo male stuAents. She AiA not PnoH these stuAents anA it Has alreaAy tHo a.m.
/rMonPala arriveA Hith a Demale DrienA Iut she stayeA IehinA Hhen her DrienA leDt anA also stayeA IehinA Hhen one oD
the male stuAents AiA.
Then there Has sex. /rMonPala maAe no GomElaint or Erotest Dor six months. Then she tolA sGhool authorities she haA
aGtually Ieen raEeA anA that her raEistFs roommate returneA to the room to Gommit another raEe on her. SGhool
authoritiesJ aDter a CuiGP NhearingN :Hith the usual aIIreviateA NEroGessN oD that era;J DounA the stuAents guilty oD
Nsexual misGonAuGtN Iut not raEe. AGGorAinglyJ the aGGuseA stuAents Here susEenAeA Drom sGhool Dor a year Iut not
exEelleA. A loGal granA Qury AiA GonsiAer the same eviAenGe anA AiA not DinA suDDiGient Iasis Dor any sort oD Griminal
inAiGtment.
(n an earlier eraJ a Hhite girl Grying NraEeN might have harEeA on the DaGt that her NassailantsN Here IlaGP. /rMonPalaFs
attorneyJ an aAvoGate Dor Deminist GausesJ aEEealeA to a neH EreQuAiGeJ more in Davor Hith Deminists oD the miAL1550Fs.
The aGGuseA stuAents Here Ioth on the DootIall teamLLanA thereDore...HellJ the sGhool shoulA have PnoHnZ /rMonPalaFs
suit AemanAeA S8.3 million in Aamages Drom %irginia TeGhJ the exaGt amount the sGhool haA reEorteAly earneA in the
Erevious yearFs Sugar /oHl game. The suit also AemanAeA an inQunGtion AireGting %irginia TeGh to EroviAe Nat least Dive
hours oD manAatory sexual assault aHareness eAuGation to stuAent athletesNLLas iD the sGhool Here Hinning DootIall
games Iy training its athletes to aGt liPe raEists.
C*+(ST(E 'AS N#T +A2E6
+aIPin 58
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity 7e /illFs DiGPle Deminists.J /y& +aIPinJ <eremyJ AmeriGan
SEeGtatorJ 01)88)1)J AEr58J %ol. 31J (ssue ) .aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
/rMonPala Glaims that she Has raEeA Iy tHo DelloH stuAentsJ Hhose room she entereA late at night Hithout PnoHing
their names. They say it Has a Gonsensual Earty. SGhool oDDiGials at %irginia TeGh AeGlineA to treat the inGiAent as raEe.
A loGal granA Qury reDuseA to treat it as raEe. Even /rMonPalaFs %A'A Dilings in DeAeral Gourt have never Ieen
aAQuAiGateA on the meritsJ as the Gase Has immeAiately siAeLtraGPeA into legal AisEutes over the Gonstitutional valiAity
oD the statute. NonethelessJ Deminists Here reaAy to emIraGe Christie /rMonPalaJ on her oHn sayLso. AnA so Here the
Eatrons oD Deminist rage. $ast yearJ 2resiAent Clinton inviteA Christie /rMonPala to a 'hite *ouse GonDerenGe on hate
Grimes anA they suIseCuently exGhangeA aAmiring letters aIout hoH muGh eaGh one haA insEireA the other.
'hile Deminists noH eGho Clintonite aAmonitions against rushing to QuAgment anA Elaying on EreQuAiGeJ the 6eGemIer
AeGision oD the Dourth GirGuit EanelLLHritten Iy a Clinton aEEointeeLLHas still Elaying Iy the Erevious Deminist rules.
The oEinion mentions no DeHer than six times that the AeDenAants in the /rMonPala Gase Here DootIall Elayers. The
oEinion rightly Aoes not mention their raGe :they haEEen to Ie IlaGPJ Hhile /rMonPala is Hhite;. /ut the oEinion Elays
harA on the Deminist stereotyEe that DootIall Elayers are liPely to Gommit raEe anA then Ie shielAeA Iy authoritiesLLanA
this EroteGtive sGreen must Ie riEEeA AoHnZ
AnA Hhat aIout the aGGuserR The 6eGemIer aEEellate ruling Gertainly Aoes not reGorA any susEiGious Eersonal
HeaPnesses oD .s. /rMonPala. As reGently as last 6eGemIerJ it Has against Deminist etiCuette to inCuire. (n DaGtJ along
Hith %A'AJ the same GrimeLDighting Congress oD 155) enaGteA a measure ErohiIiting DeAeral Gourts Drom alloHing
testimony aIout the East sexual EraGtiGes oD allegeA raEe viGtims. -ou GanFt AeDenA aGGuseA raEists or harassers Iy
saying the aGGusers are sluts anA IimIos. That isJ you GanFt say it in DeAeral Gourt. /ut this ErohiIition Has enaGteA in
the era Hhen Deminists AemanAeA that sexual oDDenses Ie Irought to DeAeral Gourt. NoH He settle these matters in
oEinion Eolls.
66
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
.#++(S#N 'AS NE%E+ 7#3N6 G3($T- /- A C#3+T #7 $A'
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity Christy on the IrinP . 01)88)1)J <an1551J %ol. 30J (ssue 1
.aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
The DaGts in the ease Here luriA enough Dor a taIloiA. (n SeEtemIer oD 155)J ElaintiDD Christy /rMonPalaJ a stuAent at
%irginia TeGhJ Has out Eartying until very late. ArounA 2 a.m.J she anA a Demale DrienA EasseA Ieneath the lighteA
HinAoHs oD a Aorm room shareA Iy tHo male stuAents. The Homen haA never met the tHo men IeDoreJ Iut they AeGiAeA
to Eay them a visit. They PnoGPeA on the Aoor anA Here aAmitteA. The Doursome then got into a Gonversation aIout sex.
'hen the other Homan AeGiAeA it Has time to leaveJ /rMonPala stayeA. AGGorAing to one oD the menJ his roommate also
leDt LL anA then he haA Gonsensual sex Hith Christy /rMonPala. AGGorAing to /rMonPalaJ the tHo male stuAents tooP
turns raEing herJ the Dirst roommate turning her over to the other on his Hay out.
/rMonPala GhargeA that %irginia TeGh Has EroteGting the EerEetrators IeGause they Here DootIall ElayersJ anA her
attorneyJ a longtime Deminist aGtivistJ DileA Dor S8.3 million in AamagesLthe exaGt amount %irginia TeGh haA earneA in
that yearFs Sugar /oHl game. The laHsuit also AemanAeA an inQunGtion NAireGting %irginia TeGh to EroviAe at least Dive
hours oD manAatory sexual assault aHareness eAuGation to stuAent athletes... anA to Iring nationally reGogniMeA sEeaPers
on sexual harassment anA sexual assault issues to its university Dorum at least tHiGe a year.N
(D the Gase looPs liPe the latest Deminist DashionJ it might aEEear on another levelJ hoHeverJ as a tale out oD the #lA
South. /rMonPala AiA not Dile Gharges :oD any PinA; until six months aDter the allegeA event. She GlaimeA not to PnoH
Hho the EerEetrators Here until she reGogniMeA their EiGtures in a DootIall Erogram given to her the DolloHing sEring. At
an aAministrative hearing IeDore sGhool authoritiesJ /rMonPala Has unaIle to reGall muGh oD anything aIout her
assailants exGeEt that they Here IlaGP. To sEare her sensiIilitiesJ /rMonPala Has alloHeA to testiDy Iy teleEhoneJ anA so
avoiA having to DaGe the tHo men she Has aGGusing oD raEe. (snFt this the Eoint Hhere Gregory 2eGP arrives on the sGene
to AeDenA the IlaGP menR Almost. The 'ashington IaseA Center Dor (nAiviAual +ightsLLDresh Drom its suGGess in
vinAiGating 6on SilvaJ the NeH *amEshire Hriting instruGtor DireA Dor using oDDLGolor metaEhors in Glass :Nsexual
harassmentN;LAiA Gome to the AeDense oD the IlaGP stuAents.
/y thenJ hoHeverJ the issue Has not exaGtly raEe. (n DaGtJ the %irginia TeGh hearing AiA not DinA either oD the stuAents
guilty oD raEe. No AisGiElinary measures oD any PinA Here taPen against the roommate Hho leDt early. The other Has
DounA guilty not oD raEe Iut oD Nsexual misGonAuGt.N *e aGPnoHleAgeA that he saiA to /rMonPalaJ N-ouFA Ietter DLLLing
not have any Aiseases.N ADter a seGonA hearingJ this Has GiteA as grounAs Dor uEholAing the Gharge oD NmisGonAuGtJN Dor
HhiGh the stuAent Has ElaGeA on EroIation Dor a year. 'hen the Gase Has Dinally Eut to a granA QuryJ it reDuseA to issue
any inAiGtments against the stuAents. The South is a Iit AiDDerentJ aDter allJ than it Has in Gregory 2eGPFs Aay.

61
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! *istoriG SimEliDiGation
.2X
/$AN9ET$- CA$$(NG .#++(S#N A +A2(ST .A9ES *(. AN #/<ECT #7 3N(%E+SA$
6ETESTAT(#N '*(C* 2+E7(G3+ES *(S G3($T (N 7+#NT #7 $A' EN7#+CE.ENTJ
2+#SEC3T#+SJ <36GESJ AN6 <3+#+S 'E$$ /E7#+E T+(A$.
'ells = .otley 01
BChristina E. AssoGiate 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHV <.6.J 3niversity oD ChiGagoJ 1588. =
Erin Elliott StaDD Attorney ((J .issouri Senate +esearGhV <.6.J 3niversity oD .issouri SGhool oD $aHJ 1558 +einDorGing
The .yth #D The CraMeA +aEist& A 7eminist CritiCue #D +eGent +aEe $egislation 81 /.3.$. +ev. 121 7eIruaryJ 2001
$4NK BGtK
+aEe is a HorA oD Dearsome Gonnotations. (t Galls Dorth visions oD men Hho lurP in AarP alleys anA hallHaysJ in vaGant
lots anA IehinA IushesJ reaAy to sEring anA attaGP the Dirst Demale Hho Easses Iy. (t GonQures uE EiGtures oD Homen Hho
have Ieen Irutally attaGPeA Iy Ieasts in human Dorm anA Hho have AeDenAeA themselves to the Eoint oD Aeath ... . The
BO1,,K raEist is an oIQeGt oD universal Aetestation. n115
<uAge 2losGoHeFs viviA EiGture Eersists toAay. +esearGh Iy <oyGe 'illiams anA 9aren *olmes reveals that the EuIliG
strongly emIraGes the IelieD that raEists are NsiGPJ emotionally AisturIeA men.N n120 .ost EeoEle also Ielieve that men
Gommit raEe out oD sexual Drustration anA an inaIility to Gontrol themselvesJ n121 thus reinDorGing the notion oD their
EsyGhoEathy. (n aAAitionJ most EeoEle GlassiDy raEe in narroH terms. 'illiamsF anA *olmesF researGh revealeA that oD
nine sGenarios :eight oD HhiGh legally GonstituteA raEe;J resEonAents asPeA to GategoriMe the sGenarios as raEe GoulA
agree on only one L the stereotyEiG violent street raEe GommitteA Iy a stranger Hith a HeaEon. n122 TaPen togetherJ
these IelieDs reveal a EuIliG image oD raEists as NEsyGhoEaths lurPing in AarP alleys Haiting to EounGe on any liPely
viGtim anA inDliGt their unGontrollaIle Aesires uEon her.N n123 SoGial sGienGe researGh suggests that this image also
Erevails among memIers oD the legal systemJ inGluAing EoliGe oDDiGersJ n12) EroseGutorsJ n12, QuAgesJ n126 anA Qurors.
n121 .any raEe BO1,6K viGtims GharaGteriMe their exEerienGe as something other than raEe IeGause they Here not
viGtimiMeA in aGGorAanGe Hith EuIliG EerGeEtions oD raEe. n128
68
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! *istoriG SimEliDiGation
AT& >-ou Ietter DuGPing not have any Aiseases?
*A%(NG SEX '(T*#3T A C#N6#. AN6 T*EN /E(NG SCA+E6 #7 ST6S (S N#T GEN6E+
.#T(%ATE6
+aIPin 51
B<eremy EroDessor oD government at Cornell 3niversity Christy on the IrinP . 01)88)1)J <an1551J %ol. 30J (ssue 1
.aster7($E 2remierK BGtK
(t Has too muGh to exEeGt a DeAeral QuAge to taPe on all oD the iAeologiGal Iaggage loaAeA onto %A'A in one Gase. (n
the /rMonPala GaseJ 6istriGt <uAge <aGPson $. 9iser AutiDully reGorAeA that the AeDenAant haA DaileA to use a GonAom
anA haA aDterHarAs saiAJ N-ou Ietter DLLing not have any AiseasesN anA GonGluAeA that this Has eviAenGe that the allegeA
raEe Has motivateA Iy Nanimus IaseA on the viGtimFs genAerN anA thereDore Gonstitutive oD a seEarate oDDense. /ut even
aDter EroGeeAing this Dar Hith the strange logiG oD %A'AJ <uAge 9iser still helA the statute unGonstitutional. *e DounA
that Congress haA no authority to enaGt a measure Aealing Hith orAinary Aaily interaGtionsJ even Hhen NviolenGeN Has
GhargeA. The states Gan Aeal Hith suGh matters.
65
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
9 ! *istoriG SimEliDiGation
AT& AllegeA @ /iaseA
2NC
1. -#3+ C+(T(C(S. .A9ES N# SENSE ! >A$$EGE6$-? (S EXACT$- T*AT L AN
A$$EGAT(#N /- #NE 2A+T- A/#3T T*E #T*E+ '(T*#3T T*E 2+ES3.2T(#N #7
G3($T #+ (NN#CENCE.
$oy 06
B/renAan AllegeA SanGheM assault reEorteAly haEEeneA aDter he leDt the 5L0 AEril 21J 2006K BGtK
BhttE&44HHH.IrenAanloy.Gom4200640)4allegeALsanGheMLassaultLhaEEeneALatLtheL5L0.htmlK
(Um not hinting that she is a >liar? any more than ( am hinting that SanGheM is a raEist. 'E S(.2$- 6# N#T 9N#'.
This has nothing Hhatsoever to Ao Hith sGhool loyalty. (t HoulA Ie >Aisgusting anA irresEonsiIle? to assume anything
W either that SanGheM GommitteA a GrimeJ or that he AiAnUt. 'hiGh is EreGisely Hhy (Um not Aoing that. ( AonUt PnoH
Hhere you see me Eosting that ( thinP sheUs lyingJ Iut youUre AeDinitely reaAing something into my HorAs that simEly
isnUt there. (D youUre oDDenAeA Iy my use oD HorAs liPe >allegeAlyJ? Hell guess HhatJ thatUs Hhat this is W an
A$$EGAT(#N. (t HoulA Ie >Aisgusting anA irresEonsiIle? Dor me to N#T use the HorA >allegeAly? Hhen (Um talPing
aIout an allegeA Grime Hhere no Gharges have even Ieen DileAZ SeriouslyJ get realJ your GritiGism totally laGPs merit .
10
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
A77 ANS'E+S
AT& Shelters
23/$(C 73N6(NG C#L#2TS S*E$TE+S
.iGGio 0,
BG. 9ristian Assistant 2roDessor oD $aHJ 3niversity oD 6enver Sturm College oD $aH )2 *ous. $. +ev. 231 SummerJ
200, $4NK BGtK
The shelters Here Gash Eoor organiMations. ThusJ shelter DounAers relieA uEon the gooAHill oD Homen anA Gommunity
memIers Dor staDDingJ organiMational volunteersJ anA material resourGes. Ahrens anA SGheGhter situate the
GonservatiMation oD the shelter movement anA ultimately the IattereA HomenFs movement Hith the inDlux oD EuIliG
money L anA DunAing Drom large DounAations. 203 As Ioth authors noteAJ the inDusion oD money Drom nonDeminist
organiMations or Drom DunAing sourGes AevoiA oD a Deminist GonsGiousness resulteA in BO281K Pey struGtural Ghanges.
20) 'omenFs AAvoGates :'A; L a IattereA HomenFs shelter in St. 2aulJ .innesota L Has oDDereA money Drom the DeAeral
government that Has DunneleA through the loGal 6istriGt AttorneyFs oDDiGe. As a GonAition oD the grantJ the outsiAe
agenGies suggesteA that 'A GonsiAer Ghanging its nameJ 'omenFs AAvoGatesJ to something less inDlammatory. 20,
11
Texas 2006 GA State Thiele
Constitutive Criminology
A77 ANS'E+S
AT& CommoAiDiGation
2AC
$AC9 #7 A$TE+NAT(%E #N$- +E(N7#+CES S377E+(NG ! %(CT(.S .3ST *A%E S#.E
C#.2ENSAT(#N E%EN (7 (TS .#NE-
/enAer 50
B$eslie AssoGiate 2roDessorJ SyraGuse 3niversity College oD $aH 7rontier #D $egal Thought (ii& 7eminist :+e;Torts&
Thoughts #n The $iaIility CrisisJ .ass TortsJ 2oHerJ AnA +esEonsiIilities. 1550 6uPe $.<. 8)8 SeEtemIerJ 1550 $4NK
BGtK
3ntil He Aevise other legal remeAies that resEeGt all the realities oD these inQuries anA seeP to alleviate these harmsJ hoH
Gan He Ilame Gommon BO81,K laH tort or tort viGtims Dor DolloHing our soGial norms anA translating intangiIle inQuries
into the materialist language oD our GultureJ the language oD AollarsR #ur soGiety measures the value oD everything in
terms oD Aollars LL laIorJ EroEertyJ rightsJ harmsJ IreaGhes oD EromisesJ even inQureA relationshiEs. Some Iemoan
valuing liDeJ inQuriesJ or Eain in AollarsJ Iut IeGause He Gonstantly Dail to Aevise another meAiumJ He Dall IaGP into the
language oD money. (D He imElore Gourts not to Aemean the harm Iy aHarAing moneyJ then He EroviAe Nno
GomEensationN at all. /y taPing an allLorLnothing aEEroaGhJ the legal systemJ anA GonseCuently the tort systemJ has
DorGeA ElaintiDDs into Erayers Dor money Aamages to GomEensate these intangiIle inQuries. 6enying legal reGognition oD
the harm Iy Dailing to aHarA money or Aevise alternative NGomEensationN senAs negative messages to ElaintiDDs aIout
the imEortanGe or value oD their livesJ autonomyJ anA the range oD their suDDering. 'hen our QustiGe system Dails in this
DashionJ it risPs losing the Gonsent oD the governeA.
12