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INTRODUCTION
According to their use in a sentence, all the words in English are divided into eight
parts. They are called ‘Parts of Speech’.

XH› "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Jq K͆Çò „¬xx |\÷“, WOwÁ+¬µ…Õx „¬^Î=ò•x߆Çò 8 ƒ•ìQ®=ò•°Qê
qƒ•’lO„¬|_•#q. g\÷<Í ‘Parts of Speech’ JO^ΰ~¡°. Jq
1. Noun

2. Pronoun

3. Verb

4. Adjective

5. Adverb

6. Preposition

7. Conjunction

8. Interjection

English ƒì+¬…Õ D q^•Î=°òQê 8 ƒ•ìQ®=ò•°#ß„æ¬\H
÷ ,© g@xßO\÷…Õ Verb KŒ…ì =òY¼"³°Ø#k.
WOwÁ+¬µ…Õ Verb …è䛽O_¨ =°#O "ŒH›¼O K³„¬æ…è=ò.

„¬îië J~¡Ö=ò`Ë XH› "ŒH›¼=ò K³„¬C@䛽 ‹¬i†³Ø°# 'Verb Form' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°. H›#°H›
=òO^ΰQê Verb Q®°iOz `³•°‹¬°HùO^Î=ò.
What is a Verb?
A Verb is a word used to denote an action, a state or a possession.
(Doing

-

Being

-

Having)

(K͆Çò@ Ð
LO_È°@
Ð
H›ey†ÇòO_È°@)
=°#=ò Z•Á„¬C_È° U^Ë XH› „¬x K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
=°#=ò K͆Çò „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. =°#=ò K͆Çò
„¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@•#° English Grammar …Õ "Verb' JO^ΰ~¡°. W@°=O\÷ Verbs
WOwÁ+µ¬ ƒ•ì+¬…Õ KŒ…ì L#ßq.
=°#=ò `³•°Q®°…Õ K³„¬C ㄬu „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@䛽 WOwÁ+¬µ…Õ J#°"Œ^Î „¬^Î=ò#ßk.
L^¥‚¬ì~¡}䛽 :
'"³ˆ×ÃÁ@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'go'
'KǶKÇ°@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'see'
'u#°@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'eat'
'KÇ^ΰ=ô@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'read'
'P_È°@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'play'
D q^•Î=°òQ®ê =°#=ò U „¬xx Q®°iOz K³„æ¬ =…ÿ##ß#¶, WOwÁ+µ¬ …Õ ^¥xH÷ ‹¬i†³°Ø #
J#°"Œ^Î „¬^Î=ò LO_È°#°.
WH›ø_È =°#=ò XH› =òY¼"³°Ø# q+¬†Ç°=ò Q®=°xOKÇ=…ÿ#°. XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@#°
Verb JO^ΰ~¡° Jx K³„C¬ Hùx†Çò<Œß=ò H›^¥! WOwÁ+µ¬ …Õ „
ã u
¬ Verb 䛽 =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•°O_È°#°.
g\÷<Í 'Conjugative Forms' JO^ΰ~¡°.
D =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•#° Grammar …Õ Present Form, Past Form =°i†Çò Past Participle
JO^ΰ~¡°.
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Hêx Spoken English H÷ ‹¬O|Ok•Oz#O`Ç=~¡ä½› D =ü_È° ~¡¶=ò•#° ‹¬°•ƒ•’=òQê
Q®°iëOKÇ°@䛽 g•°Qê, g\÷x =~¡°‹¬Qê "³ò^Î\÷ ^¥xx I Form Jx†Çò, ï~O_È= ^¥xx II Form
Jx†Çò, =ü_È= ^¥xx III Form Jx†Çò K³„¬CHù#=KÇ°ó#°.
D Course …Õx ㄬu Chapter …Õ ã„¬u KË@ D I, II, III Forms ㄬ†³¶Q®=ò [~¡°Q®°KÇ°<Í
†ÇòO_È°#°. H›#°H› Verb 䛽 Q®• =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•#° ƒìQ®°Qê J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°Hù#=…ÿ#°.

J#Qê Verb †³òH›ø "³ò^Î\÷ ~¡¶„¬=ò.
II Form J#Qê Verb †³òH›ø ï~O_È= ~¡¶„¬=ò.
III Form J#Qê Verb †³òH›ø =ü_È= ~¡¶„¬=ò.
I Form

L^¥‚¬ì~¡}䛽 :
I Form
go
see
eat
buy
do
give

II Form
went
saw
ate
bought
did
gave

III Form
gone
seen
eaten
bought
done
given

D q^•Î=°òQê WOwÁ+µ¬ …Õx „
ã u
¬ Verb 䛽 =ü_È° ~¡¶=ò•°O_È°#°. Jxß Verb •†³òH›ø 3
~¡¶„¬=ò•° =°#䛽 `³e‹²†ÇòO_ÈH›‡é=KÇ°ó. g\÷ ~¡¶„¬=ò•#° ãH›=°=òQê practice ^¥Þ~Œ
<Í~¡°óHù#=KÇ°ó#°.
Verb †³òH›ø I Form, II Form, III Form •…Õ =°#䛽 Confusion L#߆³°_È• D notes
follow JQ®°@ H›+¬“=òQê LO_È°#°. JO^ΰ=•# =òO^ΰQê J‹¬•° "Verb' J#Qê Uq°\÷? ^¥xH÷
Zxß~¡¶„¬=ò•°O_È°#°? U ~¡¶„¬=ò#° U=°O^ΰ~¡°? J#° q+¬†Ç°=ò•° „¬îiëQê J~¡Ö=°Q®°#@°Á
`³•°‹¬°Hù#=…ÿ#°. Verb J#Qê Uq°\Õ `³e‹²Hùx, Verb †³òH›ø I, II, III forms `³•°‹¬°Hùx#
`Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç U form #° Z„¬C_È°, Uq^•ÎOQê L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ<Ë rule `³•°‹¬°Hùx, practice K͆ò
Ç @
H›+¬“=ò Hê^ΰ. KŒ…ì ‹¬°•ƒ•’=òQê Verb †³ ò H› ø ‹¬ i †³ Ø ° # ~¡ ¶ „¬ = ò#° "ŒH› ¼ =ò…Õ
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=KÇ°ó#°.
INTRODUCTION

=°~¡• XH›ª•i ƒìQê J~¡=Ö °Q®°#@°Á KÇ^=Î O_•.

WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ =°#=ò Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò?
J
J
J
J

Parts of Speech JxßO\÷…Õ Verb KŒ…ì =òY¼"³°Ø#k.
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@#° Verb JO^ΰ~¡°.
WOwÁ+¬µ…Õx ㄬu Verb 䛽 =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•°O_È°#°.
D =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•° =~¡°‹¬Qê I Form, II Form, III Form JO^ΰ~¡°

W„¬C_È° Verb †³òH›ø

I Form U q^•Î=òQê L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#° ?
II Form U q^•Î=òQê L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°?
III Form U q^•Î=òQê L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#° ?

XHùøH›ø ^¥xx Q®°iOz q=~¡OQê <Í~¡°óHùO^Î=ò.
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REGULAR ACTION - POSITIVE FORM
=°#=ò ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Hùxß „¬#°•° , J•"Œ@°Qê Hùxß „¬#°•° K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ=ò. =°#
J•"Œ@Á#°, =°#=ò ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J

<Í#° ㄬu ~ËA library H÷ "³ˆ×`Œ#°.
=¶ father „ã u¬ <³• camp "³ˆ×`Œ~¡°.
"Œ~¡° ㄬu <³• meeting H÷ ‚¬ð[~¡° J=ô`Œ~¡°.

J
J
J

"Í°=ò „ã u¬ ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ cricket practise Kͪ•ë=ò.
P"³° ㄬu #=• HùO@°Ok.
=¶ brother KŒ…ì hard work Kͪ•ë_°È .

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã u¬ ~ËA, „ã u¬ "Œ~¡O, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, Z•Á„C¬ _È°, `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê, ª•^•¥~¡}OQê
„¬^Í „¬^Í,=°~¡• =°~¡• ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx subject 'He' 'She' 'It' (III Person, Singular Number) J~ò#„¬C_È° Verb 䛽
's' Qêx 'es' Qêx, 'ies' Qêx KÍ~¡ó=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ㄬu L^ΆǰO

Hindu KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ#°.
I read the Hindu every morning.
"Í°=ò ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O special class H÷
attend J=ô`Œ=ò.
We attend the special class every
Sunday.
=¶ brother ##°ß studies …Õ ƒìQê

2.

3.

4.

7. <Í#° ㄬu L^ΆǰO walk H÷ "³ˆìë#°.
I go for a walk every morning.

8. "Í°=ò ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O test "ã Œª•ë=ò.

My brother encourages me well in my
studies.
=¶ father <Œä›½ ㄬu <³• money „¬O„¬ô

9. =¶ English lecturer KŒ…ì ƒìQê
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

My father sends me money every
month.
P"³° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O birthday [~¡°„¬ô

䛽O@°Ok.

She celebrates her birthday every year.
3

They visit Tirumala in January every
year.

‡ã é`Ç•‚²ìª•ë_°È .

`Œ~¡°.

5.

6. "Œ~¡° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O [#=i…Õ u~¡°=°•
‹¬O^ÎiŪ•ë~°¡ .

We write a test every Sunday.
teach

Our English lecturer teaches us very
well.

10. =¶ mother ã „ ¬ u ‰× x "Œ~¡ O L„¬ " Œ‹¬ O
=ôO@°Ok.
My mother fasts every Saturday.

,

11. "Œ~¡° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =¶ió…Õ income tax
K³eªÁ •ë~°¡ .
They pay income tax in March every
year.

12. "³á*ìQ·…Õ `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê =~¡ÂO „¬_È°`Ç°Ok.
It often rains in Vizag.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1.
2.
3.

13. <Í#° „
ã u
¬ ~ËA P„¦‹
Ô °¬ H÷ |‹¬°•…Õ "³ˆ`× Œ#°.
I go to office by bus every day.

14.

4.

Irfan Pathan KŒ…ì fast Qê bowl Kͪ•ë_°È .
Irfan Pathan bowls very fast.

15. =¶ „ã x² •‡•…˜ Z•Á„C¬ _È° English
=¶\ìÁ_È° `Œ~¡°.

5.
6.

Our Principal always speaks English.

16. H›$‘•â ZH±•„
Ìã ‹¹ XOQË•°H÷ L^Ά°Ç O 10 Q®OII
10 xII•ä›½ =‹¬°ëOk.
The Krishna Express arrives in Ongole
at 10.10 a.m.

17. J`Ç_È° `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê `Ç#
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.

friends

help

He often helps his friends.

7.
8.
9.
10.

18. =¶ Physics lecturer „
ã u
¬ lesson H÷ notes
dictate Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

11.

Our Physics lecturer dictates notes for
every lesson .

12.

19. H›=°•‚¬ð‹¬<£ Hê"³°_™ scenes …Õ ƒìQê act
Kͪ•ë_°È .

13.

Kamal Hassan acts well in comedy
scenes.

20. N KÇO^
ã ƒ
Î ì|° `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê ‡•s“ <Œ†Ç°ä›½•`Ë
KÇi󋬶ëO\ì~¡°.

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14.
15.

<Í#° ㄬu ~ËA diary "ã Œª•ë#°.
"Í°=ò ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O match P_È°`Œ=ò.
=¶ father <Œä› ½ `Ç ~ ¡ K Ç ° Qê advise
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
=¶ brother Z•Á„C¬ _È° class …Õ first rank
‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì_È°.
P"³° north Indian dishes ƒìQê `džǶ~¡°
KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
"Œ~¡° ㄬu ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ tour
x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ .
Trains `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê late Qê #_È°‹¬°ëO\ì~ò.
<Í#° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O =¶ native place H÷
"³ˆ×`Œ#°.
"Í°=ò ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O =¶ father `Ë
discuss Kͪ•ë=ò.
=¶ sister Z„¬C_ȶ #=••° KÇ^ΰ=ô
`ǶO@°Ok.
J`Ç _ È ° ã „ ¬ u important point note
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì_È°.
N "Œ*˜ À „ ~ò Zä› ½ ø=Qê ‚² ì On…Õ

ã ‹
¬ O¬ yª•ë~°¡ .
=¶ P„¦Ô‹¬~Ÿ =°Oz dignity maintain
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
P"³° guests x ƒìQê treat KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
<Í#° ㄬu ~ËA 9 p.m. H÷ ETV …Õ "Œ~¡ë•°
KǶª•ë#°.

Sri Chandra Babu often discusses
with the party leaders.

Practice makes man perfect.

Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° J•"Œ@°…èH,› g•°„¬_HÈ › J‹¬•° K͆°Ç =ò. XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò
W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° XH›~¡° J•"Œ@°…èH› J‹¬•°…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° J‹¬•° Hê„¦Ô ã`ŒQ®#°.
J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=i=¶\ì q#_È°.
"Œ~¡° J‹¬•° taxes K³eÁOKÇ~¡°.

J
J
J

J
J
J

"Í°=ò J‹¬•° money J„¬CK͆ǰ=ò.
P"³° J‹¬•° birth day [~¡°„¬ôHù#^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=ih #=°à_È°.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° J‹¬•° Z„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê J•"Œ@°…èH› Qêx, g•°„¬_HÈ › Qêh, W+¬=“ ò…èH› Qêh =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ J‹¬…„ÿ æ¬ \÷H©
K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Donot / Doesnot + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I', 'We', 'You', 'They' – subject Qê

=ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'do not' =KÇ°ó#°.
'He', 'She', 'It' - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'does not' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
7. <Í#° J‹¬•° \©.q. …Õ `³•°Q®° ‹Ôi†Ç°…˜•
KǶ_È#°.

<Í#° J‹¬•° #=••° KÇ^Î=#°.

1.

I donot read novels at all.

2. "Í°=ò J‹¬•°

work neglect

K͆ǰ=ò.

We donot neglect our work at all.

3. =¶ brother J‹¬•° hard work K͆ǰ_È°.
My brother doesnot work hard.

4. P"³° J‹¬•° Z=i`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È^ΰ.
She does not talk to anybody.

5. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° rules strict Qê ‡•\÷OKÇ~°¡ .
They donot follow rules strictly.

6.

Tamil Nadu Express Ongole station …Õ

PQ®^ΰ.
The Tamil Nad Express does not stop
in Ongole station.
5

I donot watch Telugu serials on
T.V. at all.

8. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=ih care K͆ǰ_È°.
He doesnot care anybody.

9. P"³° J‹¬•° functions H÷ attend J=Þ^ΰ.
She doesnot attend functions at all.

10. "Œ~¡° Pk"Œ~¡O shop open K͆ǰ~¡°.
They donot open the shop on Sunday.

11. <Í # ° J‹¬ • °
f‹¬°HË#°.

non-vegetarian items

I donot take non-veg. items at all.

,

12. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=iH© help K͆ǰ_È°.
He does not help anybody at all.

13. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° =°# „¬O_È°Q®•° [~¡°„¬~¡°.
They donot celebrate our festivals

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° J‹¬•° Hindi movies KǶ_È#°.
2. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° Sunday work K͆ǰ=ò.

at all.

14. <Í#° J‹¬•° W`Ç~¡°• q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË#°.

3. P"³° J‹¬•°
K͆ǰ^ΰ.

guest

•#° ‹¬iQê

treat

I donot interefere in others matter.

4. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° friends `Ë move J=_È°.
15. =¶ officer J‹¬ • °
K͆ǰ~¡°.

dignity maintain

5. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° programmes …Õ ‡•…ç¾#~¡°.

Our officer doesnot maintain dignity
at all.

16. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° money ‡Ú^ΰ„¬ô K͆ǰ~¡°.
They donot save money at all.

17. =¶

Chemistry lecturer

dictate

J‹¬•°

6. J`Ç_È° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê office H÷ ~Œ_È°.
7. <Í#° J‹¬•° smoke K͆ǰ#°.
8. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° guides follow J==ò.

notes

K͆ǰ~¡°.

9. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•°
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.

juniors

encourage

Our Chemistry lecturer doesnot

10. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° ^Í=ôx #=°à_È°.

dictate notes at all.

18. P"³° J‹¬•° |‹¬°•…Õ „
ã †
¬ ¶
Ç }O K͆°Ç ^ΰ.
She doesnot travel by bus at all.

19. =¶ principal J‹¬•° `³•°Q®° =¶\ìÁ_È~¡°.
Our Principal doesnot speakTelugu at
all.

20. P"³° J‹¬•° modern dress ^•ÎiOKÇ^°Î .
She does not wear modern dress at
all.

11. "Œ~¡° regular Qê rent pay K͆ǰ~¡°.
12. J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° x~¡°`Œ•‚¬ì„¬__
È °È .
13. =¶ brother J‹¬•° work Ì„á concentrate
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.
14. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° =‹¬°ë=ô•° J„¬C W=Þ~¡°.
15. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° time waste K͆ǰ=ò.

Z
A rolling stone gathers no mass.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J…"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô ㄬu~ËA news paper KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ"Œ?
g° brother h䛽 ㄬu <³• money „¬O„¬ô`Œ~Œ?

J
J

g°~¡° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O KÇióH÷ "³ˆ×`Œ~Œ?
"Œ~¡° „ã u¬ ª•s g°ä›½ ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì~Œ?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ㄬ‰×ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=°òQê =°#=ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê, J•"Œ@°Qê, „¬^Í „¬^,Í =°~¡• =°~¡• „ã u¬ ~ËA,
„ã u¬ "Œ~¡O, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, Z•Á„C¬ _È°, `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê, K͆òÇ XH› „¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
''''Do / Does + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - subject Qê
He, She,

L#ß„¬C_È° 'DoÑ
It - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬C_È° 'DoesÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
h=ô ㄬu L^ΆǰO

1.

walking

H÷ "³ˆ×`Œ"Œ?

7.

Do you go for a walk every morning?
2.

Does your aunt treat the guests well?

mostly?

father L.I.C.

…Õ „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?

G.T. Express Ongole

8.

"Œ~¡° ㄬu ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
[~¡°„¬ô`Œ~Œ?

Pratidhwani on E-T.V. every Sunday?
9.

g° brother x#°ß studies …Õ encourage
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_¨ ?

Do they celebrate the Annual Day

Does your brother encourage you in

every year?

your studies ?

P"³° g°ä›½

6.

Annual Day

g°~¡° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O E-TV …Õ „ã u
¬ ^•ÎÞx
programme KǶª•ë~Œ?
Do you watch the programme

…Õ PQ®°`Ç°O^¥?

Does the G.T. Express stop in Ongole?
5.

Hindi teach

KÍ‹¬°ëO@°O^¥?

Does she teach you Hindi?

10.

g°~¡° ㄬu"Œ~¡O school …Õ test "ã Œª•ë~Œ?
Do you write a test in the school every
week?

7

Zä› ½ ø=Qê

Do you read English magazines

Does your father work in the L.I.C.?
4.

magazines

g° aunt guests #° ƒìQê treat Kͪ•ë~Œ?

3.

h=ô English
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ"Œ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS
11.

12.

g°~¡° „
ã u
¬ ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ Hã Hï÷ \˜ ZH›ø_È
practise Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Where do you practise cricket every
evening?

1. h=ô ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê ‚² ì O^Î ¶ À „ „¬ ~ ¡ °
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ"Œ ?
2. g°~¡ ° college …Õ games practise
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
3. g° brother U.S.A. …Õ x=t‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
4. P"³° z#ß z#ß H›^ŠÎ•° ã"Œ‹¬°ëO@°O^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O income tax pay
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
6. g° Principal Z„¬ C _È ¶ English …Õ<Í
=¶\ìÁ_È°`Œ~Œ ?
7. H›=°•‚¬ð‹¬<£ ‚²ìOn ‹²x=¶•…Õ ä›•_¨
#\÷‹¬°ëO\ì_¨?
8. WH›ø_È `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê =~¡ÂO „¬_È°`Ç°O@°O^¥ ?
9. g°ä›½ college …Õ English Z=~¡° teach
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡° ?
10. WO_•†Ç°<£ H
ã Hï÷ \˜ \©"°£ …Õ h=ô Z=ix like
Kͪ•ë=ô?
11. h=ô ª•^•¥~¡}OQê U dictionary refer
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ô?
12. „² < ŒH÷ x express XOQË•°H÷ Z„¬ C _È °
=‹¬°ëOk?
13. ZO^ΰ䛽 J`Ç_È° Z•Á„¬ôC_È° time waste
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°?
14. g°~¡° D house H÷ <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç rent pay
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
15. XH› one-day match …Õ XH› bowler
ª•^•¥~¡}OQê Zxß overs bowl
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°?

h=ô ª•^•¥~¡}OQê Z„¬C_È° xã^…Î ªè •ë=ô ?
When do you usually wake up ?

13.

g° father ㄬu<³•
"³ˆ×`Œ~¡° ?

Hyderabad

ZO^ΰ䛽

Why does your father go to Hyderabad
every month ?
14. Mrs. Malathi

g°ä›½ U

subject teach

Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Which subject does Mrs. Malathi teach
you ?
15.

h=ô ㄬu ~ËA college H÷ Z…ì "³ˆ×`Œ=ô ?
How do you go to college everyday ?

16.

g° father h䛽 <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç
„¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡° ?

money

Howmuch money does your father
send you every month ?
17.

g°~¡ ° P„¦ ¬ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ ~ËAH÷ Zxß Q® O @•°
„¬xKͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Howmany hours do you work in your
office everyday ?

18.

g° business Z=~¡° KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡° ?
Who looks after your business ?

19.

ã „ ¬ u ~ËA L^Î † Ç ° O h=ô Uq°
f‹¬°ä›½O\ì=ô ?
What do you take every morning ?

20.

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g° elder brother ZH›ø_È „¬xKÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì_È°?
Where does your elder brother
work ?

Honesty is the best policy.

Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò XH›~°¡ J•"Œ@°…èH› ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê J‹¬…„
ÿ æ¬ \H÷ © K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô J‹¬•° Hindi movies KǶ_È"Œ ?
J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=ih care K͆ǰ_¨ ?

J
J

g°~¡° J‹¬•° Hê…è[…Õ games P_È~Œ ?
P"³° J‹¬•° Z=i`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_È^¥ ?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆ǰx „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~¡°Qêx J…"Œ@° …èH›Qêh, W+¬“O…èH›Qêh, g•°„¬_ÈH›Qêh
J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H©K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't /Doesn't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject -

J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Don't'
J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Doesn't' =KÇ°ó#°.

I, We, You, They
He, She, It

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô J‹¬•° #=••° KÇ^ΰ="Œ ?

6. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° =°# „¬O_È°Q®•° [~¡°„¬~Œ ?

Don't you read novels at all ?

Don't they celebrate our festivals at all?

2. g°~¡° Sunday classes H÷ attend J=~Œ?

7. h=ô J‹¬•° cotten shirts ^•ÎiOKÇ"Œ ?

Don't you attend classes on Sundays?

Don't you wear cotten shirts at all ?

3. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=iH© help K͆ǰ_¨ ?
Doesn't he help others at all ?

4. P"³° J‹¬•° WO\ÕÁ #°O_• |†Ç°@䛽 ~Œ^¥?
Doesn't she come out of the house ?

5.

G.T. Express p~Œ•…Õ

PQ®^¥ ?

Doesn't the G.T. Express stop in
Chirala?

9

8. h=ô J‹¬•° ^Í=ôx #=°à"Œ ?
Don't you believe in God ?

9. D camera „¬x K͆ǰ^¥ ?
Doesn't this camera function ?

10. g°~¡° J‹¬•° non-veg. food f‹¬°HË~Œ ?
Don't you take non-veg. food at all ?

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EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

11. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 H›+„
“¬ _
¬ • „¬xK͆°Ç =ô ?
Why don't you work hard ?

1.

h=ô J‹¬•° sweet like K͆ǰ"Œ ?

2.

g°~¡° J‹¬•° English =¶\ìÁ_È~Œ ?

3.

J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° H›+„
“¬ _
¬ • „¬xK͆°Ç _¨ ?

4.

P"³° J‹¬•° friends Wˆ×¤ä›½ "³ˆ×¤^¥ ?

Why doesn't he concentrate on
studies ?

5.

"Œ~¡° J‹¬•° taxes pay K͆ǰ~Œ ?

15. P"³° ZO^ΰ䛽 Z=i`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_È^ΰ?

6.

D 䛽H›ø Z=ih H›~¡=^¥ ?

7.

J`Ç_È° Z=i =¶\ì q#_¨ ?

8.

h=ô J‹¬•° U q+¬†Ç°=ò „¬\÷“OKÇ°HË"Œ?

9.

g° father x#°ß Ug° J#~Œ ?

12. g°~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽 games practise K͆°Ç ~¡°?
Why don't you practise games ?

13. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 early Qê xã^Î …è==ô ?
Why don't you wake up early in the
morning ?

14. J`Ç_°È ZO^ΰ䛽 studies „
Ì á ‰ã ^
× íÎ KǶ„¬_°È ?

Why doesn't she speak to others ?

16. J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽
attend Hê_È° ?

regular

duty

Why doesn't he attend the duty
regularly ?

17. h=ô ㄬu <³• ZO^ΰ䛽
K͆ǰ=ô ?

money save

10. h=ô J‹¬•° fountain pen use K͆ǰ"Œ?

Why don't you save money every
month ?

18. h=ô job HË‹¬O ZO^ΰ䛽 serious Qê try
K͆ǰ=ô ?
Why don't you try for a job seriously ?

19. D "³òH›ø ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡Ú_È=ôQê Ì„~¡Q®^ΰ ?
Why doesn't this plant grow tall ?

20. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 J‹¬•° Z=i`Ë
K͆ǰ=ô ?

friends

Why don't you make friends with
others ?

11. h=ô P~ËQ®¼O ZO^ΰ䛽 care f‹¬°HË=ô ?
12. ##°ß J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°Hù<ÍO^ΰ䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 try
K͆ǰ=ô ?
13. g°ï~O^ΰ䛽 J`Çxx #=°à~¡° ?
14. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° ZO^ΰ䛽 rules ‡•\÷OKÇ~°¡ ?
15. #H›Æã`Œ•° „¬Q®•° ZO^ΰ䛽 H›#|_È=ô ?

Fortune favours the bold.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'I form of the verb' Q®°iOz
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Simple Present Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form
2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò.
D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

=°#=ò ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê, J•"Œ@°Qê, „¬ ^ Í „ ¬ ^ Í KÍ † Ç ò XH› „¬ x x ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½
The First form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I take coffee every morning.

2. My father sends me money every month.

3. They work hard.
2.

4. My brother always reads books.

NEGATIVE FORM :

=°#=ò J•"Œ@°…èH›, g•°„¬_ÈH›, W+¬“O…èH› J‹¬•° Z„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "donot / doesnot + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I don't smoke at all.

2. My father doesn't tolerate indiscipline.

3. They do not neglect work at all.
3.

4. She doesn't see movies.

QUESTION FORM :

=°#=ò ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê, J•"Œ@°Qê, „¬^Í„¬^Í K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•#°
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Do/Does + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Do you wake up early in the morning ? 2. Does she paint pictures ?
3. Do they conduct tests every week ?

4.

4. Does he ofen go to Vizag ?

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

=°#=ò J•"Œ@° …èH›, ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Don't / Doesn't + I form of the Verb"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Don't you ride a bike ?

2.Doesn't she go to movies at all ?

3. Don't they come to your house at all ?

11

4.

Doesn't she cook well ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

1.

Begin

began

begun

2.

Break

broke

broken

3.

Bring

brought

brought

4.

Build

built

built

5.

Buy

bought

bought

6.

Catch

caught

caught

7.

Chide

chid

chidden

8.

Choose

chose

chosen

9.

Come

came

come

10

Creep

crept

crept

11.

Deal

dealt

dealt

12.

Draw

drew

drawn

13.

Dream

dreamt

dreamt

14.

Drink

drank

drunk

15.

Drive

drove

driven

16.

Eat

ate

eaten

17.

Fall

fell

fallen

18.

Feel

felt

felt

19.

Fight

fought

fought

20.

Find

found

found

Meaning

P~¡Oa•OKÇ°@
„¬Q®°•Qù@°“@
`³KÇ°ó@
xiàOKÇ°@
Hù#°@
JO^ΰHù#°@
p"Œ@°Á Ì„@°“@
Z#°ßHù#°@
=KÇ°ó@
‡ã •ä›½@
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ°@
w†Çò@, …ìQ®°@
H›•Q®#°@
ã`ŒQ®°@
#_È°„¬ô@
u#°@
„¬_È°@
J#°ƒ•’¶u ‡ÚO^ΰ@
‡é~Œ_È°@
H›#°Qù#°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß~°¡ H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
12

There is no success without hardship.

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PAST ACTION
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. J#Qê P „¬x =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È° KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 „¬îië J~ò#k.
J
J

"Í°=ò last Sunday XH› Hindi movie KǶ‰§=ò. J <Í#° x#ß „¬sH›Æ „¦ÔA K³eÁOKŒ#°.
"Œ~¡° last year <³•¶Á~°¡ H÷ shift J~ò<Œ~¡°.
J
<Í#° x#ß train miss J~ò<Œ#°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹²# „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› Yzó`"Ç °³ #Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ „¬îië KÍ‹#² XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"II form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Verb †³òH›ø II form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß =¶ father H÷ letter ã"Œ‰§#°.
I wrote a letter to my father yesterday.

2. "Í°=ò last week exhibition KǶ‰§=ò.
We saw the exhibition last week.

3. =¶ brother last month Delhi "³ˆìÁ_È°.
My brother went to Delhi last month.

4. P"³° last year M.A. pass J~ò#k.
She passed M.A. last year.

5. x#ß <³•¶Á~°¡ …Õ ƒ•ìsQê =~¡ÂO „¬_•#k.
It rained heavily in Nellore yesterday.

6. "Œ~¡° lastmonth P W•°Á Mìm K͉§~¡°.
They vacated that house last month.
13

7. x#ß „²<ŒH÷x ZH±•„
Ìã ‹¹ XH› Q®O@
=zó#k.

late

The Pinakini Express arrived one hour
late yesterday.

8. N Z<£.\÷. ~Œ=¶~Œ=ô 1983 …Õ `³•°Q®°
^͉O× ‡•s“ U~Œæ@° K͉§~¡°.
Sri N.T.Rama Rao formed the Telugu
Desam Party in 1983.

9. N=°u WOk~Œ QêOn• 1984…Õ KÇx‡é
†Ç¶~¡°.
Smt. Indira Gandhi died in 1984.

10. <Í#° x#ß =¶ friend H÷ help K͉§#°.
I helped my friend yesterday.

,
11.

x#ß \ ÷ match …Õ
f‰§_È°.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

Kumble 7 wickets

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Kumble took 7 wickets in the match
yesterday.

12. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° 1996…Õ =òY¼=°Oã u
J~ò<Œ~¡°.
Sri Chandra Babu became the Chiefminister in 1996.
13.

=¶ father last year promotion ‡ÚO^¥~¡°.
My father got a promotion last year.

14.

=¶ cousin last year Intermediate fail
J~ò#k.
My cousin failed in Intermediate last
year.

15. H›…Hÿ ~“› Ÿ x#ß =¶ =°O_È•O…Õ „¬~¼¡ \÷OKŒ~¡°.
The Collector toured in our Mandal
yesterday.

16. "Í°=ò last Sunday =¶ cousin marriage
H÷ attend J~ò<Œ=ò.
We attended our cousin's marriage last
Sunday.

17. <Í#° x#ß leave H÷ apply K͉§#°.
I applied for leave yesterday.

18. P"³° 1994…Õ

S.S.C.

„¬îië KÍ‹²#k.

She completed S.S.C. in 1994.
19.

"Œ~¡° last month family <³•¶Á~¡°H÷ shift
KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°.
They shifted the family to Nellore last
month.

20. x#ß Q®°O@¶~¡° ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ ~Ë_È°Û „
ã =
¬ ¶^ÎO…Õ 12
=°Ok ㄬ†Ç¶}÷䛽•° KÇx‡é†Ç¶~¡°.
12 passengers died in the road

1. <Í#° x#ß text books Hù<Œß#°.
2. "Í°=ò last Sunday picnic "³ˆì¤=ò.
3. =¶ father last month Nellore H÷ transfer
‡ÚO^¥~¡°.
4. P"³° x#ß guests #° KŒ…ì ƒìQê =°~Œ¼^Î
KÍ‹²Ok.
5. "Œ~¡° last year D business start K͉§~¡°.
6. <Í#° x#ß T.V. …Õ cricket match KǶ‰§#°.
7. "Í°=ò last Sunday English test KŒ…ì
ƒìQê ã"Œ‰§=ò.
8. =òY¼=°Oã u x#ß =~¡ ^ Î ã ‡ •O`Œxß
‹¬O^ÎiÅOKŒ~¡°.
9. J`Ç_È° last year B.A. „¬îië K͉§_È°.
10. x#ß \ ÷ match …Õ ‹¬ z <£ >ÿ O _È ¶ •ø~Ÿ
Ì‹OKÇ°s K͉§_È°.
11. =¶ grand father 1997 …Õ KÇx‡é†Ç¶~¡°.
12. <Í#° ~Œãu XH› English novel KÇk"Œ#°.
13. "Í°=ò last time „¬sH›Æ•H÷ ƒìQê prepare
J~ò<Œ=ò.
14. N Z<£.\÷. ~Œ=¶~Œ=ô 360 ‹²x=¶•…Õ
#\÷OKŒ~¡°.
15. x#ß "Œ~¡° =¶ proposal u~¡‹¬øiOKŒ~¡°.
16. "Í°=ò last Sunday meeting cancel
K͉§=ò.
17. "Œ~¡° last month XH› new book publish
K͉§~¡°.

accident near Guntur yesterday.

Work is Worship.

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NEGATIVE FORM
=°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ Hùxß „¬#°•° KÍ‹†
² ò
Ç O_È=ò. XHùøH›ø ª•i
W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬ô_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° x#ß friends x H›•°=…è^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° x#ß <Œä›½ books W=Þ…è^ΰ.

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò last time [#àƒ•’¶q°…Õ ‡•…ç¾#…è^°Î .
=¶ brother last time job H÷ ㄬ†Ç°`ÇßO K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° K͆ǰx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß Qêx, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'did not + I form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° x#ß Hê…èlH÷ "³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ.
I didnot go to college yesterday.

2. "Í°=ò last week English test "
ã Œ†Ç°…è^°Î .
We didnot write English test last week.

3. "Í ° =ò last
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

month mess bill pay

We didnot pay the mess bill last month.

4. =¶

brother last time EAMCET H÷
appear J=Þ…è^ΰ.
My brother didnot appear for the
EAMCET last time.

5. ~Œãu XOQË•°…Õ =~¡ÂO „¬_È…è^ΰ.
It didnot rain in Ongole last night.

15

6. P"³° x#ß computer class H÷ ~Œ…è^ΰ.
She didnot come to the computer
class yesterday.

7. "Œ~¡° last year annual day [~¡°„¬…è^ΰ.
They didnot celebrate the annual day
last year.

8. <Í#° x#ß P letter post K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
I didnot post that letter yesterday.

9. "Í°=ò

last Sunday special class

attend J=…è^ΰ.
We didnot attend the special class last
Sunday.

10. x#ß\÷ match …Õ Kumble P_È…è^ΰ.
Kumble didnot play in the match
yesterday.

,

11. Q®`Ç ZxßH›•…Õ N "³OH›†Ç°¼<Œ†Çò_È° ‡é\©
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
Sri Venkaiah Naidu didnot contest in
the elections last time.

12. ‡é~ò# ª•i P"³° =°=òà•#°
H÷ invite K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

function

She didnot invite us to the function last
time.

13. "Œ~¡° x#ß <Œä›½ P q+¬†Ç°O `³e†Ç°
„¬~¡KÇ…è^ΰ.
They didnot inform me that matter
yesterday.

14. =¶

manager last week <Œä›½ leave
grant K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
Our manager didnot grant me leave
last week.

15. <Í#° x#ß J`Çx =¶@•° #=°à…è^ΰ.
I didnot believe his words yesterday.

16. =¶ father
„¬O„¬…è^ΰ.

last month

<Œä›½

money

My father didnot send me money last
month.

17.

Last time "Œ~¡° =¶ä›½ help K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
They didnot help us last time.

18. <Í # ° last time
f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.

Maths

coaching

I didnot take coaching for Mathematics
last time.

19. x#ß "Œ~¡° shop `³~¡°=…è^ΰ.
They didnot open the shop yesterday.

20. <Í#° ~Œãu \©.q.…Õ #¶¼‹¹ KǶ_È…è^ΰ.
I didnot watch the news on T.V. last
night.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° last
W=Þ…è^ΰ.

time

J`Ç x

letter

reply

2. "Í°=ò last month rent pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
3. =¶ English
f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.

x#ß

lecturer

class

4. "Œ~¡° ‡é~ò# ‰×ÃãH›"Œ~¡O =¶ä›½ ‰×•=ô
ㄬH›\÷OKÇ…è^ΰ.
5. <Í#° x#ß leave H÷ apply K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
6. x#ß meeting …Õ
=¶\ìÁ_È…è^ΰ.

chief guest

‹¬ i Qê

7. P"³° x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ ~Œ…è^ΰ.
8. <Í#° x#ß class …Õ notes ã"Œ†Ç°…è^ΰ.
9. "Œ~¡ ° last time =¶ä› ½ JH› ø _È =‹¬ u
H›eæOKÇ…è^ΰ.
10. <Í#° x#ß •OKŸ f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
11. =¶ brother last year college …Õ KÍ~…¡ ^
è °Î .
12. <Í#° x#ß news
KǶ_È…è^ΰ.

paper

…Õ P ㄬH›@#

13. =¶ Hindi teacher x#ß class …Õ papers
correct K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
14. <Í#° ~Œãu ~ö _•†³¶…Õ "Œ~¡•ë ° q#…è^°Î .
15. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß JH› ø _È
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

work complete

Z

Necessity is the mother of invention.

16

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: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

g°~¡° Q®`Ç <³• house rent pay KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
P"³° x#ß q°=òà•#° party H÷ invite
KÍ‹²#^¥?

J
J

"Œ~¡° Q®`Ç <³• P W•°Á Mìm KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
h=ô x#ß English class H÷ attend
J~ò<Œ"Œ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=°òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i †Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° „¬îië KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
" Did + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Did' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

h=ô x#ß P

letter post KÍ ‹ ² < Œ"Œ?
Did you post that letter yesterday?

2.

g°~¡ ° last
P_•<Œ~Œ?
g° brother
J~ò<Œ_¨ ?

4.

5.

English Madam x#ß class …Õ new
lesson teach KÍ‹²O^¥ ?
Did the English Madam teach a new
lesson in the class yesterday ?

x#ß ~Œãu WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_•#^¥?
Did it rain here last night?

17

7.

x#ß match …Õ
KÍ‹²<Œ_¨?

Laxman century

Did Laxman make a century in the
match yesterday ?

last month M.C.A. join

Did your brother join M.C.A. last
month?

"Œ~¡° last year family Hyderabad 䛽 shift
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?
Did they shift their family to Hyderabad
last year?

Sunday cricket match

Did you play a cricket match last
Sunday?
3.

6.

8.

Last Sunday g°~¡° E-TV
programme KǶ‹²<Œ~Œ?

…Õ

special

Did you watch the special programme
on E-TV last Sunday ?
9.

g°~¡° last week u~¡°=°• visit KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Did you visit Tirumala last week ?

10.

h=ô last week ‹
Ì q°<Œ~Ÿ …Õ ‡•…ç¾x<Œ"Œ?
Did you participate in the seminar last
week ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS
11.

h=ô WO@sà_•†³°\˜ ZH›ø_È KÇkq<Œ=ô ?

Where did you study Intermediate ?
12. g°~¡° D business Z„¬C_È° ‡
ã •~¡Oa•Oz

<Œ~¡° ?
When did you start this business ?
13. h=ô x#ß marriage …Õ P"³ ° ä› ½ Uq°
present KÍ‹²<Œ=ô ?
What did you present her in the
marriage yesterday ?
14. g°~¡° sudden Qê P house ZO^ΰ䛽 Mìm

KÍ‹²<Œ~¡° ?

Why did you vacate that house
suddenly ?
15. ~Œãu g°~¡° U movie KǶ‹²<Œ~¡° ?
Which movie did you see last night?
16. x#ß match …Õ Agarkar Zxß wickets

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô x#ß new dress Hù<Œß"Œ ?
2. g°~¡° D letter x#ß receive KÍ‹°¬ 䛽<Œß~Œ?
3. g°~¡° last Sunday exhibition "³o¤<Œ~Œ?
4. g° brother last year P.G. „¬îië KÍ‹<
² Œ_¨?
5. "Œ~¡ ° last
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?

KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
Howmany questions did you answer
in the examination yesterday?
19. x#ß g°\÷OQ·ä›½ guest Qê g°~¡° Z=ix
invite KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?
Whom did you invite as the guest to
the meeting yesterday?
20. WO`Ç z#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ<Í J`Ç_È° Bank
officer Z…ì J~ò<Œ_È°?
How did he become Bank officer at
such a young age?

month house rent pay

6. g° father last
„¬O„²<Œ~Œ ?
7.

f‹²<Œ_È°?

Howmany wickets did Agarkar take in
the match yesterday?
17. "Œ~¡ ° last year business …Õ ZO`Ç
amount invest KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?
Howmuch amount did they invest in
the business last year?
18. x#ß „¬sH›Æ…Õ h=ô Zxß questions answer

: 94406 16425

month

hä› ½

money

g° friends h䛽 ƒìQê
operate KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?

Last time

co-

8. x#ß g°~¡° ZH›ø_•H÷ "³o¤<Œ~¡° ?
9.

Last time P"³°

Uq° Hù#ßk ?

10. h=ô last month P job H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 resign
KÍ‹²<Œ=ô ?
11. g°~¡° x#ß exam. Z…ì ã"Œ‹²<Œ~¡° ?
12. h=ô Hyderabad #°O_•
=zó<Œ=ô?

Z„¬C_È°

13. J`Ç_È° x#ßh䛽 Uq° K³„²æ<Œ_È° ?
14. h䛽 D watch Z=~¡° present KÍ‹<
² Œ~¡°?
15. Ja•…ì+¬ #=• Z=~¡° "ã Œ‹²<Œ~¡° ?

Speech is silver, Silence is gold.

Z
18

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡
K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

g° father last month h䛽 money „¬O„¬…è^¥ ?
P"³° x#ß q°=òà•#° party H÷ invite K͆ǰ…è^¥?

J
J

J
J

g°~¡° last Sunday g° T~¡° "³ˆ×¤…è^¥ ?
h=ô x#ß J`Çxx H›•°=…è^¥ ?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##°

'Didn't + I form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h=ô college H÷ "³ˆ×¤…è^¥ ?
2.

7.

P†Ç ° # ZxßH› • …Õ ‡é\©

Didn't you go to college yesterday ?

K͆ǰ…è^¥?

Last Sunday g°~¡° T.V. …Õ programme

Didn't he contest in the elections last
time ?

KǶ_È…è^¥ ?

Didn't you watch the programme on
T.V. last Sunday ?

3.

Last time J`Ç_È° h䛽 help K͆ǰ…è^¥
Didn't he help you last time ?

4.

Last month

K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

g°~¡ °

?

house rent pay

Didn't you pay house rent last month ?

5. ~Œãu WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_È…è^¥ ?
Didn't it rain here last night ?

6. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

inform

Didn't they inform you this matter
yesterday ?
19

Lasttime

8. P"³ ° last
Hê…è^¥ ?

year EAMCET

appear

Didn't she appear for the EAMCET last
year ?

9. "Œ~¡° last year Annual Day celebrate
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Didn't they celebrate the Annual Day
last year ?

10. x#ß g°\÷OQ·…Õ g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°O discuss
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Didn't you discuss this matter in the
meeting yesterday?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô x#ß D q+¬ † Ç ° O <Œï H O^Î ° ä› ½
K³„¬æ…è^ΰ ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why didn't you tell me this matter
yesterday ?

12. g°~¡° x#ß marriage H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
Hê…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you attend the marriage
yesterday ?

13. J`Ç_È° last year college …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
join Hê…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't he join college last year ?

14. P"³ ° last week party H÷ q°=òà•#°
ZO^ΰ䛽 invite K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't she invite you to the party
last week ?

15. "Œ~¡° last time WH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

stay

8.

Why didn't they stay here last time ?

16. h=ô x#ß
~Œ…è^ΰ ?

computer class

H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽

Why didn't you come to the computer
class yesterday ?

17. g°~¡ ° =òO^Î ° Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½ J#°=°u
f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you take permission earlier?

18. h=ô school days …Õ
<Í~¡°óHË…è^ΰ ?

grammar ZO^ΰ䛽

Why didn't you learn grammar in your
school days ?

19. h=ô D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ J`Ç x ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O
ZO^ΰ䛽 HË~¡…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you seek his help in this
matter ?

20. x#ß match …Õ Sachin ZO^ΰ䛽 P_È…è^ΰ?

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

x#ß h=ô letter post K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Last week g°~¡° test ã"Œ†Ç°…è^¥ ?
P"³° x#ß doctor #° consult J=…è^¥ ?
"Œ~¡ ° last time g°ä› ½ JH› ø _È =‹¬ u
H›eæOKÇ…è^¥?
g°~¡° last time exams H÷ ‹¬iQê prepare
Hê…è^¥ ?
h=ô x#ß J`Çxx P q+¬†Ç°O J_ÈQ®…è^¥?
g°~¡ ° last Sunday English movie
KǶ_È…è^¥ ?
h=ô x#ß bank #°O_• money withdraw
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
h=ô x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ ?
J`Ç_È° last month exam fee ZO^ΰ䛽
pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
P"³ ° last time birthday ZO^Î ° ä› ½
celebrate KÍ‹¬°HË…è^ΰ ?
x#ß festival H÷ h=ô new dress ZO^ΰ䛽
Hù#…è^ΰ ?
Last time Congress Party P†Ç°#䛽
seat ZO^ΰ䛽 W=Þ…è^ΰ ?
h=ô P q+¬†Ç°O…Õ g° parents advice
ZO^ΰ䛽 follow J=…è^ΰ ?
Last time ㄬ[•° B.J.P. H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 F@°Á
"͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

Why didn't Sachin play in the match
yesterday ?

Man is made by his belief.

Z
20

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'II form of the Verb' Q®°iOz
<Í ~ ¡ ° ó ä › ½ <Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Simple Past Tense JO\ì~¡ ° . nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° „¬îiëKÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'II form of the Verb' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I bought text books yesterday. 2. We celebrated Sankranthi last week.
3. They helped me last time.
3. She passed S.S.C. in 2002.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"did not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I did not meet my friend yesterday. 2. We did not seek his help last time.
3. It didnot rain here last night.
4. He did not come to office last Monday.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Did you write the test well yesterday? 2. Did he draw the salary last week?
3. Did they vacate the house last month ? 4. Did she join college last year?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õ K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

21

1.
2.
3.
4.

Didn't you go to library yesterday ?
Didn't he take coaching last time ?
Didn't they open the shop yesterday ?
Did n't she come to your house yesterday?

,

: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

21

Fly

flew

flown

22.

Forget

forgot

forgoten

23.

Forgive

forgave

forgiven

24.

Freeze

froze

frozen

25.

Get

got

got

26.

Give

gave

given

27.

Go

went

gone

28.

Grow

grew

grown

29.

Hang

hung

hung

Hang

hanged

hanged

30.

Hear

heard

heard

31.

Hide

hid

hidden

32.

Hold

held

held

33.

Keep

kept

kept

34.

Know

knew

known

35.

Learn

learnt

learnt

36.

Leave

left

left

37.

Lend

lent

lent

38.

Light

lit

lit

39.

Lose

lost

lost

40.

Make

made

made

D ~ËA

Meaning

ZQ®°~¡°@
=°~¡z‡é=ô@
H›Æq°OKÇ°@
Q®_ÈÛH›@°“@
‡ÚO^ΰ@
WKÇ°ó@
"³ˆ×ä@
Ì„~¡Q®°@
ã"Í…ì_Èn†Çò@
Liãf†Çò@
q#°@
^¥z=ôOKÇ°@
„¬@°“Hù#°@
LOKÇ°@
`³•°‹¬°Hù#°@
<Í~¡°óHù#°@
=^Îe"͆Çò@
J„¬CQê WKÇ°ó@
"³eyOKÇ°@
‡éQù@°“Hù#°@
`džǶ~¡°K͆Çò@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
22

The action of today becomes the destiny of tomorrow.

,

: 94406 16425

FUTURE ACTION
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬x „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ [~¡°Q®°@ …è^°Î . ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò
#O^ΰ [~¡°Q®°#°.

"Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†Ç°O discuss J ö~„¬ô Degree students classes boycott
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
`ÇÞ~¡…Õ „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO ordinance pass KÍ‹¬°ëOk. J <Í#° ö~„¬ô =¶ friends `Ë picnic "³ˆ×`Œ#°.

J

J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° "Will + I form"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô <³•¶Á~¡° "³ˆ×`Œ#°.
I will go to Nellore tomorrow.

2. "Í°=ò next
Kͪ•ë=ò.

Sunday

g°\÷OQ· U~Œæ@°

We will arrange a meeting next
Sunday.

3. =¶
4.

7. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô h䛽 D q+¬†°Ç O inform Kͪ•ë#°.
I will inform you this matter tomorrow.

8. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³•
J=ô`Œ=ò.

…ÕH÷

shift

We will shift to the new house next
month.

brother next month car HùO\ì_È°.
My brother will buy a car next month.

9. J`Ç_È° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ

P"³° D proposal `Ç„¬æH› X„¬C䛽O@°Ok.

10. =¶ sister ö ~ „¬ ô
J=ô`Œ~¡°.

She will accept to this proposal.

new house

promotion ‡ÚO^ΰ`Œ_È°.
He will get a promotion soon.
interview

attend

5. "Œ~¡ ° =°#ä› ½ JH› ø _È Jxß =‹¬ ` Ç ° •°
H›e檕ë~°¡ .

My sister will attend the interview
tomorrow.

They will provide us all the facilities
there.

11. "Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• XOQË•°…Õ branch open
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

"Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ P W•°Á Mìm Kͪ•ë~¡°.

They will open a branch in Ongole next
month.

6.

They will vacate that house soon.
23

,

12. <Í#° ö~„¬ô

telephone bill pay

Kͪ•ë#°.

I will pay the telephone bill tomorrow.

13. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô

…Õ J`ÇxH÷ XH›
watch present Kͪ•ë=ò.
marriage tomorrow.

Finance Minister =KÍó 28# ‡•~¡"
Á °³ O\˜…Õ
budget

ㄬ"͉×Ì„_È`Œ~¡°.

The Finance Minister will present the
Budget in the Parliament next 28th.

15. <ŒQê~¡°#
û †Çüx=i•\© ªé=°"Œ~¡O _•ãw
„¦¬e`Œ•° ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëOk.
Nagarjuna University will announce
the degree results next Monday.

16. =¶ uncle Dª•i =òx•„¬…˜ ZxßH•› …Õ
‡é\©KªÍ •ë~°¡ .
My uncle will contest in the Municipal
elections this time.

17. =¶ sister
J=ô`Ç°Ok.

next July

…Õ

B.Sc. join

My sister will join B.Sc. next July.

18. =¶ lecturers =¶ „¬sH›Æ• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç
x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ .

tour

Our lecturers will organize a tour after
our examinations.

19. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h䛽 <Œ

note book

Wª•ë#°.

I will give you my note book tomorrow.

20.

Indian Cricket Board
Captain

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

marriage

We will present him a watch in the

14.

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Dª•i Dravid x

KÍ‹¬°ëOk.

The I.C.B. will make Rahul Dravid
captain this time.

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô =¶ native place H÷ "³ˆìë#°.
2. "Í°=ò next Sunday sea-shore H÷
"³ˆ×`Œ=ò.
3. =¶ brother next month M.B.A. entrance
test H÷ appear J=ô`Œ_È°.
4. P"³° Dª•i „¬OKŒ~òf ZxßH•› …Õ ‡é\©
KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
5. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ business start
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
6. "Í°=ò next year D town …Õ house
HùO\ì=ò.
7. <Í#° next year transfer H÷ try Kͪ•ë#°.
8. =¶ father <Œä›½ =KÍó "Œ~¡O money
„¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡°.
9. =°# =òY¼=°Oãu ~ö „¬ô _••bÁ…Õ „ã ^¬ •¥xx
H›•°ª•ë~°¡ .
10. "Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• XOQË•°…Õ XH› new
showroom open Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
11. Ì+Hê=`Ÿ WO_•†Ç¶H÷ next president
J=ô`Œ~¡°.
12. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô g°ä› ½ =¶ x~¡ â † Ç ° O
`³e†Ç°*誕ëO.
13. „
ã ^
¬ •¥x ~ö „¬ô =°# ~ŒRO…Õ „¬~¼¡ \÷ª•ë~°¡ .
14. Intermediate Board D ª•i „¬sH›Æ•°
strict Qê x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëOk.
15. =¶ uncle `ÇÞ~¡…Õ U.S.A. "³ˆ×`Œ~¡°.

Z

An honest man is the noblest work of God.

24

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô college H÷ "³ˆ×¤#°.
J P"³° D ª•i birthday celebrate KÍ‹¬°HË^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° =°#䛽 next time help K͆ǰ~¡°.J =¶ brother Dª•i bank test H÷ appear J=_È°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Will not + I form' =KÇ°ó#°.

*

EXAMPLES
1.

7. "Í°=ò D ‡Ú~¡‡•@° =°~¡• K͆ǰ=ò.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô duty H÷ attend J=#°.
I will not attend the duty tommorow.

2. "Í ° =ò D

town

…Õ

settle

J==ò.

We will not settle down in this town.

3. =¶

brother next week Ongole

~Œ_È°.

My brother will not come to Ongole

4. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ join J=^ΰ.
She will not join college this year.
next time

=°#䛽

help

K͆ǰ~¡°.

They will not help us next time.

6. ö~„¬ô match …Õ Lakshman P_È_È°.
Lakshman will not play in the match
tommrow.
25

8. P"³° D proposal X„¬CHË^ΰ.
She will not accept to this proposal.

9. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô meeting …Õ D q+¬†Ç°O
discuss K͆ǰ~¡°.
They will not discuss this matter in

next week.

5. "Œ~¡°

We will not commit this mistake again.

the meeting tommrow.

10. <Í#° J`Çx q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË#°.
I will not interefere in his matter.

11. "Í°=ò D ª•i P hotel …Õ stay K͆°Ç =ò.
We will not stay in that hotel next time.

12. <Í#° D ª•i J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡#°.
I will not seek his help next time.

,

EXERCISE

13. P"³° next year studies continue K͆°Ç ^ΰ.
She will not continue her studies next
year.

14. "Í°=ò next time J`Çx„Ì á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È ò.
we will not depend on him next time.

15. "Œ~¡° D ª•i
K͆ǰ~¡°.

annual day celebrate

They will not celebrate the annual day
this time.

16.

Next time ZxßH•
› …Õ TDP, BJP H÷ support

K͆ǰ^ΰ.
The TDP will not support the BJP in
the next elections.

17. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°#•#° JH› ø _È
KÍ‹¬°HË~¡°.

receive

They will not receive us there
tomorrow.

18. P"³° ö~„¬ô party H÷ "Œix invite K͆ǰ^ΰ.
She willnot invite them to the party
tomorrow.

19. <Í#°

next time work neglectK͆ǰ#°.
I will not neglect the work next time.

20.

University

Dª•i

exams postpone

K͆ǰ^ΰ.
The university will not postpone the
examinations this time.

: 94406 16425

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°=#°.
2. "Í°=ò next Sunday =¶ T~¡° "³ˆ×¤=ò.
3. =¶ uncle D ª•i Zxß H › • …Õ ‡é\©
K͆ǰ~¡°.
4. P"³° ö~„¬ô =°#`Ë picnic H÷ ~Œ^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 JH›ø_È =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ~¡°.
6. S.V. University next academic year …Õ
entrance tests x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ^ΰ.
7. <Í#° D ª•i coaching f‹¬°HË#°.
8. "Í°=ò next month classes H÷ attend
J==ò.
9. Next summer …Õ "Í°=ò holidays waste
K͆ǰ=ò.
10. =¶ brother WH› P club Hê~¡¼ãH›=¶•…Õ
‡•…ç¾#_È°.
11. [†Ç°ã„¬^Î WH› ‹²x=¶•…Õ #\÷OKÇ^ΰ.
12. ‹¬ z <£ >ÿ O _È ¶ •ø~Ÿ WH› captaincy
JOwH›iOKÇ_È°.
13. "Œ~¡ ° WH› =°#ä› ½ material supply
K͆ǰ~¡°.
14. "Í ° =ò next time J=Hê‰× = ò miss
KÍ‹¬°HË=ò.
15. `³•°Q®° ‹²x=¶ Ja•=¶#°•° NTR #°
=°~¡z‡é~¡°.

Z
Look before you leap.

26

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’=+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô ö~„¬ô English class H÷ attend J=ô`Œ"Œ? J g° brother `ÇÞ~¡…Õ USA "³ˆ×`Œ_¨?
g°~¡° next week g° native place H÷ "³ˆ×`Œ~Œ? J P"³° next month Ongole 䛽 =‹¬°Oë ^¥?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰƒÕ=ô „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall / Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, we - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬C_È° 'shall'
You, He, She It, They - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'will' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note :

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ g° WO\÷H÷ =KÍó^¥?
Shall I come to your house tomorrow
evening?

2.

=°#=ò ö~„¬ô Bank Manager #° consult
J=ô^¥=¶?
Shall we consult the Bank Manager
tomorrow?

3.
4.

<Í # ° =°#ä› ½

lunch order
Shall I order lunch for us ?

=°#=ò next month
appear J=ô^¥=¶ ?

KÍ À ‹ ^¥ ?

L.I.C. test

7.

report submit

P"³° D proposal X„¬C䛽O@°O^¥ ?
Will she accept to this proposal ?

8. "Œ~¡° ~ö „¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†°Ç O discuss
Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
Will they discuss this matter in the
meeting tomorrow ?
9.

Will you submit this report to the
Collector tomorrow ?
27

Will your brother become the Branch
Manager next year ?

ä› ½

Shall we appear for the L.I.C. test next
month ?

5. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô H›…ÿH›“~¡°ä›½ D
Kͪ•ë~Œ ?

6. g° brother next year Branch Manager
J=ô`Œ_¨ ?

ö~„¬ô =òY¼=°Oãu =°# l…ìÁ visit Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Will the Chief-minister visit our district
tomorrow ?

10. =KÍó "Œ~¡O †Çüx=i•\©
ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëO^¥ ?

P.G.

„¦¬e`Œ•°

Will the university announce the P.G.
results next week ?

,
11.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô hHË‹¬O ZH›ø_È wait KÍÀ‹k?
Where shall I wait for you tomorrow?

12.

=°#=ò `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç U
J=ô^¥=ò?

course join

13.

<Í#° h䛽 K³<³ßå #°Oz Uq° `³KÍók?
What shall I bring for you from
Chennai ?

14.

=°#=ò ö~„¬ô guests 䛽 =‹¬u ZH›ø_È
provide KÍ^¥í=ò?
Where shall we provide the
accommodation for the guests
tomorrow?

15.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1.

Which course shall we join next?

h=ô =°~¡… g° Ti #°O_• Z„¬C_È° uiy
=ª•ë=ô?

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

when will you return from your village?
16.

~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È ‹
Ì q°<Œ~Ÿ Z=~¡° x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ ?
Who will organize the seminar there
tomorrow?

17.

18.

=°# ãH÷ïH\˜ team H÷
J=ô`Œ~¡° ?

next captain

Z=~¡°

19.

20.

8.
9.

Who will become the next captain of
our cricket team?

10.
11.

ö~„¬ô WO@~¡¶Þ¼H÷ ZO`Ç=°Ok Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•°
‚¬ð[~¡° J=ô`Œ~¡°?

12.

Howmany candidates will attend the
interview tomorrow?

g°~¡° Dª•i "Í‹¬q Ì‹•=ô•° ZH›ø_È
Q®_È°„¬ô`Œ~¡°?

13.

Where will you spend your summer
holidays this time?

14.

"Œ~¡° new
J=ô`Œ~¡°?

15.

house

…ÕH÷ Z„¬C_È°

shift

When will they shift to the new house?

: 94406 16425

<Í#° 䛕_¨ ö~„¬ô h`Ë <³•¶Á~¡°H÷ =KÍó^¥?
=°#=ò D q+¬†Ç°O "ŒiH›÷ =òO^ΰQê
inform KÍ^¥í=¶?
g°~¡° D town …Õ<Í settle J=ô`Œ~Œ?
WO@sà_•†Ç°\˜ ƒÕ~¡°Û D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ‹²•|‹¹
=¶~¡°æ KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥?
P"³° =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P school H÷ Headmistress J=ô`Œ~Œ?
_•ãw q^¥¼~¡°•œ ° ~ö „¬ô strike …Õ ‡•…ç¾O\ì~Œ?
_•ãw `Ç~ŒÞ`Ç h=ô studies discontinue
Kͪ•ë"Œ?
‹Ôx†Ç°~Ÿ WO@~Ÿ q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O
farewell party celebrate Kͪ•ë~Œ?
g° parents U.S.A. #°O_• Z„¬C_È° uiy
=ª•ë~°¡ ?
h=ô Hyderabad …Õ Zxß~ËA•° LO\ì=ô?
=°#•#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È Z=~¡° receive
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡°?
"Œ~¡° ~ö „¬ô ƒì¼OH±…Õ ZO`Ç amount deposit
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
h=ô D H›O„¬î¼@~Ÿ HË~¡°• Z„¬C_È° „¬îië
Kͪ•ë=ô?
ZxßH•› `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç U ‡•s“ „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@°
KÍ‹¬°ëOk?
h=ô WO@~Ÿ…Õ U ãQ®¶„¹ f‹¬°ä›½O\ì=ô?

Z

If wealth is lost, nothing is lost....

28

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ö~„¬ô =°#=ò "Œix H›•°==^¥í ?
J`Ç_È° =KÍó "Œ~¡O duty H÷ attend J=_¨ ?

J
J

J
J

h=ô ö~„¬ô computer class H÷ ~Œ"Œ ?
P"³° WH› college …Õ KÇ^Î=^¥ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó <³•,
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't / willn't (won't) + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Shalln't'
You, He, She, It, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Won't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note :

EXAMPLES
6. P"³° D proposal X„¬CHù#^¥ ?

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô WH›ø䛽 ~Œ=^¥í ?
Shalln't I come here tomorrow ?

2. =°#=ò next Sunday P programme …Õ
participate K͆ǰ=^¥ í ?
Shalln't we participate in that
programme next Sunday?

Won't you go to office tomorrow?

4. J`Ç_È° D course join J=_¨ ?

29

8. g°~¡° ö~„¬\÷ =~¡ä›½ JH›ø_È wait K͆ǰ~Œ ?
9. P"³ ° next
„¬xK͆ǰ^¥?

year

D

college

…Õ

year?

apply

Won't you apply for the entrance test
this time ?

Won't they settle down in this town?

Won't she work in this college next

Won't he join this course ?
entrance test

7. "Œ~¡° D town …Õ settle J=~Œ ?

Won't you wait there till tomorrow ?

3. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ "³ˆ×¤"Œ ?

5. h=ô Dª•i
K͆ǰ"Œ ?

Won't she accept to this proposal ?

10. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°#•#° JH› ø _È
KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?

receive

Won't they receive us there tomorrow?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô ö~„¬ô =¶`Ë picnic H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why won't you come on picnic with us
tomorrow ?

12. g°~¡° next week =~¡ä›½ WH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È~¡° ?
Why won't you stay here till next week?

13. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ_È° ?
Why won't he co-operate with you in
this matter ?

14. P"³° D medicines ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°Hù#^ΰ?
Why won't she take these medicines?

15. "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 support K͆ǰ~¡°?
Why won't they support us ?

17. "Œ~¡° J`ÇxÌ„á ZO^ΰ䛽 KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°Hù#~¡°?
Why won't they take action against
him?

18. h=ô

next March exams H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
appear J==ô ?
Why won't you appear for the exams
next March ?

H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽

3. g°~¡° next Sunday Ongole H÷ ~Œ~Œ ?
4. h=ô next May …Õ entrance test H÷ appear
J="Π?
5. P"³° D ª•i function H÷ =°#•#° invite
K͆ǰ^¥ ?
6. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô bill pay K͆ǰ_¨ ?
8. h=ô ö~„¬ô ZxßH›•…Õ vote "͆ǰ"Œ ?

Why won't you do that work ?

meeting

2. =°#=ò ~ö „¬ô P function H÷ attend Hê=^¥í?

7. "Œ~¡° D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ =°#H÷ ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iOKÇ~Œ?

16. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 P „¬xK͆ǰ=ô ?

19. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô
J=_È° ?

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°==^¥í ?

attend

Why won't he attend the meeting
tomorrow ?

20. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O tour ZO^ΰ䛽 organize
K͆ǰ~¡° ?
Why won't they organize a tour this
year?

9. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤=ô ?
10. g°~¡ ° next week
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡° ?

meeting

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

11. P†Ç°# D ª•i ZxßH•› …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡é\©
K͆ǰ~¡° ?
12. P"³° D ª•i birthday ZO^ΰ䛽 celebrate
KÍ‹¬°HË^ΰ ?
13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#•#° ZO^ΰ䛽
J=~¡°?

cousult

14. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô seminar …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾#~¡°?
15. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô =°#`Ë TiH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ_È°?

Z
If health is lost, something is lost...

30

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Future form ' (Will + I form of the
verb) Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Simple Future Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1.
Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''Will +
I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.I will buy a camera tomorrow.

2. We will visit Hyd. next month.

3.They will finish this work next week. 4. He will join M.C.A. next June.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.I will not help you in this matter.

2. We will not delay the work tomorrow.

3.They will not settle down in this town. 4. He will not stay here tomorrow.
3.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall/Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Shall I bring you the text books ?

2. Will you join M.C.A. next year ?

3. Will they help you there tomorrow?

4. Shall we visit Mysore next month ?

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense
…Õ ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Shalln't / Won't + I form of the Verb"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.Won't you stay here tomorrow ?

2. Won't he come here next week?

3.Won't they pay the bill next month? 4. Shalln't I wait for you tomorrow ?

31

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

41.

Pay

paid

paid

42.

Prove

proved

proved

43.

Read

read

read

44.

Ride

rode

ridden

45.

Ring

rang

rung

46.

Rise

rose

risen

47.

Run

ran

run

48.

Say

said

said

49.

See

saw

seen

50.

Seek

sought

sought

51.

Sell

sold

sold

52.

Send

sent

sent

53.

Shake

shook

shaken

54.

Shine

shone

shun

55.

Shoot

shot

shot

56.

Sing

sang

sung

57.

Sink

sank

sunk

58.

Sit

sat

sat

59.

Sleep

slept

slept

60.

Smell

smelt

smelt

D ~ËA

Meaning

K³eÁOKÇ°@
x~¡¶„²OKÇ°@
KÇ^ΰ=ô@
ª•ÞsK͆ò
Ç @
ã"³¶yOKÇ°@
L^Î~òOKÇ°@
„¬~¡°ïQ`Ç°ë@
K³„¬C@
KǶKǰ@
HË~¡°Hù#°@
J=òà@
„¬O„¬ô@
H›keOKÇ°@
ㄬHêtOKÇ°@
Hê•°ó@
‡•_È°@
=ò#°Q®°@
䛕~ùó#°@
xãkOKÇ°@
"Œ‹¬#KǶKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
32

If character is lost, everything is lost.

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS
=°#O Hùxß „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ continuous Qê
K͆ÇòKǶO^ΰ=ò. P „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°`ÇëO [~¡°Q®° KǶ#ßq. =°#=ò W„¬C_È° continuous Qê
KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° W„¬C_È° type-writing <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°<Œß#°. J "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ LO@°<Œß=ò.
=¶ lecturers D <³• lessons revise KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°. J J`Ç_È° W„¬C_ùH› H›^ŠÎ ã"Œ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.

J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•x߆Çò XH›~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O,
W„¬C_È°, ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am / Is / Are + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Am, Is, Are J#° D =ü_•O\÷x Present 'Be' forms JO^ΰ~¡°.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Subject – > 'I' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'am + 'ing' form'
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'is + 'ing' form'

Note :

We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'are +'ing'' form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ
KÇ°<Œß#°.

B.L.

K͆Çò

I am doing B.L. in Nellore at present.

2. "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Bank colony …Õ x=t‹¬°ë
<Œß=ò.
We are living at Bank colony at
present.

3. =¶

brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O competitive
exams H÷ prepare JQ® ° KÇ ° <Œß_È ° .
My brother is preparing for the
competitive exams this year.

4. P"³° W„¬C_È° guests •ä›½ =°~Œ¼^Î KÍ‹°¬ #
ë ßk.
She is treating the guests now.

5. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO "Œ~¡° P WO\÷H÷ ~¡¶. 2000 J^³í
K³eÁ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
They are paying a rent of Rs. 2000 for
that house at present.
33

6. D ~ËA
‹¬°ë<Œß~ò.

trains

Jhß P•‹¬ ¼ OQê #_È °

All the trains are running late today.

7. =¶

English lecturer D "Œ~¡O =¶ä›½
grammar teach KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
Our English lecturer is teaching us
grammar this week.

8. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.

friend room

…Õ

stay

I am staying in my friend's room at
present.

9. =¶ Ì„^Îí#߆ǰ¼ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO business KǶ‹¬°
䛽O@°<Œß~¡°.
My elder brother is looking after
business at present.

10. D ~ËA WH›ø_È ƒ•ìs =~¡ÂO „¬_°È KÇ°#ßk.
It is raining here heavily today.

,

11. "Í°=ò D ~ËA q[†Ç°"Œ_È "³ˆ×Ãë<Œß=ò.
We are going to Vijayawada today.

12. P"³° =°…èi†Ç¶`Ë ƒì^•Î„¬_È°KÇ°#ßk.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

She is suffering from malaria.

13. "Í°=ò D

summer …Õ =¶ Hê•h …Õ
water problem face KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
We are facing water problem in our
colony at present.

14. <ŒQê~¡°û# ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH› ‚²ìOn ‹²x=¶…Õ
#\÷‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
Nagarjuna is acting in a Hindi movie
at present.

15. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ^
ã ¥q_£ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ÇOë =°# cricket team
x lead KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
Rahul Dravid is leading our cricket
team at present.

16. "Í°=ò D Ì‹•=ô•…Õ English <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°
<Œß=ò.
We are learning English in these
holidays.

17. =¶ Hê…èl

students D ª•i [#àƒ•’¶q°
programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾O@°<Œß~°¡ .
Our college students are participating
in the Janmabhoomi programme this
time.

18. =¶ sister ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO
‡ÚO^ΰKÇ°#ßk.

Hyd.

…Õ

training

My sister is undergoing training in
Hyderabad now.

19. J`Ç_°È „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH› private school …Õ „¬x
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
He is working in a private school now.
20.

"Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.

material supply

1. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO govt. job HË‹¬O try
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
2. "Í°=ò D ~ËA =¶ class farewell party
[~¡°„¬ô䛽O@°<Œß=ò.
3. =¶ parents ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ village …Õ
LO@°<Œß~¡°.
4. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° D ~ËA H› $ ‘•â l …ìÁ … Õ
„¬~¡¼\÷‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
5. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È XH› shopping
complex xià‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
6. <Í#° W„¬C_È° XH› private company …Õ job
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
7. "Í ° =ò D ~ËA g°\÷ O Q· H ÷ U~Œæ@°Á
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
8. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O J`Ç _ È ° =¶ä› ½ ƒìQê
‹¬‚¬ìH›i‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
9. P"³° W„¬C_È° guest •ä›½ lunch `džǶ~¡°
KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk.
10. "Í°=ò D ~ËA T.V. …Õ match KǶ‹¬°ë
<Œß=ò.
11. =¶ uncle ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ##°ß KÇkq‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
12. "Í°=ò D "Œ~¡O pending files clear
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
13. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P shop …Õ 15 =°Ok „¬x
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
14. J`Ç _ È ° W„¬ C _È ° wedding cards print
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
15. =¶ grandfather ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO „¬îië rest
f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.

They are supplying us material now.

Empty vessels make much noise.

Z

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° W„¬C_È° L^˼Q®O K͆Çò@…è^ΰ.
D ~ËA R.T.C. |‹¬°••° #_È=@O …è^°Î .

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XOQË•°…Õ x=tOKÇ°@…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Hê…èl…Õ HêÁ‹°¬ •ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡=@O …è^°Î .

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=°òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê W„¬C_È°, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ , D ~ËA,
D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=°ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am / Is / Are + not + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am not',
He, She , It - subject Qê L#愬C_È° 'is not'
We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are not' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note :

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° D ~ËA HêÁ‹¬°ä›½ ~Œ=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
I am not coming to the class today.

2. "Í°=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P "Œ¼‡•~¡O K͆°Ç @O …è^°Î .
We are not doing that business at
present.

3. J`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° =¶`Ë LO_È@O…è^ΰ.
He is not staying with us now.

4. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èr…Õ KÇ^=
Î _ÈO…è^°Î .
She is not studying in college this
year.

5. D ~ËA WH› ø _È =~¡  O „¬ _ È @ O…è ^ Î ° .
It is not raining here now.

6. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ@O …è^ΰ.
They are not co-operating with us at
present.
35

7. ‹¬z<£ >ÿO_ȶ•ø~Ÿ D
P_È@O…è^ΰ.

series

…Õ ƒìQê

Sachin Tendulkar is not playing well
in this series.

8. =¶ English Madam D "Œ~¡O
f‹¬°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.

classes

Our English Madam is not taking
classes this week.

9. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ Z^ΰ~ùø
#°@…è^ΰ.
They are not facing any problem here
now.

10. <Í # ° D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O PHê…è r …Õ
„¬xK͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
I am not working in that college this
year.

,

11. "Í°=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P WO\ÕÁ x=tOKÇ@O…è^°Î .
We are not living in that house at
present.

12. =¶ father ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

old scooter

My father is not using that old vehicle
at present.

13. ~Ë*ì W„¬C_È° ‹²x=¶•…Õ #\÷OKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
Roja is not acting in movies now.

14. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P club …Õ
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

programmes

They are not conducting programmes
in that club now.

15. P`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=@O…è^ΰ.
He is not coming here now.

16. P"³° W„¬C_È°
…è^ΰ.

studies continue

K͆ǰ_ÈO

She is not continuing her studies now.

17. "Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

game practise

They are not practising that game at
present.

18. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D =°O^ΰ•° f‹¬°HË=_ÈO
…è^ΰ.
I am not taking these medicines now.

19. =¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
‹¬iQê ã‰×^ÎíKǶ„¬_ÈO…è^ΰ.

studies

Ì„á

My brother is not concentrating on his
studies this year.

20. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

material supply

They are not supplying us the material
at present.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P room …Õ stay K͆ǰ_ÈO
…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È° D books follow J=_ÈO
…è^ΰ.
3. J`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° D course K͆Çò@ …è^ΰ.
4. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =¶ school …Õ
„¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ@O
…è^ΰ.
6. D ïH"Í°~Œ ‹¬iQê „¬xK͆ǰ@O …è^ΰ.
7. "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D WO\÷H÷ rent pay
K͆ǰ_ÈO …è^ΰ.
8. P"³° D ª•i „¬sH›•Æ 䛽 ‹¬iQê prepare
J=@O…è^ΰ.
9. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO books publish K͆ǰ_ÈO
…è^ΰ.
10. <Í#° W„¬C_È° U job H© try K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
11. "Í°=ò D ~ËA „¬O_ÈQ® [~¡°„¬ôHË=@O
…è^ΰ.
12. "Œ~¡ ° business …Õ ‹¬ i Qê accounts
maintain K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
13. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O college …Õ donations
=‹¬¶•° K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
14. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO non-veg. food f‹¬°HË=@O
…è^ΰ.
15. <Í#° W„¬C_È° "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË=@O …è^ΰ.

Z

Failures are the stepping stones of success.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò

h=ô W„¬C_È° …ÿáã|sH÷ "³ˆ×äKÇ°<Œß"Œ?
g° brother W„¬C_È° M.C.A. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨?

J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò XH›~¡°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

J
J

g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ LO@°<Œß~Œ?
P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ‚¬ð‹¬…“ …˜ Õ LO@°#ß^¥?

continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°

D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, W„¬C_È° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Am / Is / Are + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am',
He, She, It - subject Qê L#愬C_È° 'is'
We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note :

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° W„¬C_È° x#°ß disturb KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß<Œ?

7.

Am I disturbing you now ?
2.

Is the Janasatabdi Express running
late today?

"Í°=ò W„¬C_È°time waste KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=¶?
Are we wasting time now?

3.

g°~¡ ° W„¬ C _È °
KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?

results

HË‹¬ O Z^Î ° ~¡ °

8.

Are you waiting for the results now?
4.

g° father WOHê P
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?

company

g° sister D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
KÍ‹¬°ë#ß^¥?

…Õ „¬x
9.

6.

g°~¡° D ~ËA LQêk „¬O_È°Q® [~¡°„¬ô
䛽O@°<Œß~Œ?
Are you celebrating Ugadi today?

37

h=ô ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß"Œ?

English

Ì„á

concentrate

Are you concentrating on English
now?

M. Phil.

Is your sister doing M.Phil. this year?

"Œ~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Group - I „¬sH›•Æ 䛽 prepare
JQ®°KÇ°<Œß~Œ ?
Are they preparing for the Group - I
examination at present?

Is your father still working in that
company ?
5.

[#‰×`Œaí ZH±•ãÌ„‹¹ D ~ËA P•‹¬¼OQê
#_È°‹¬°ë#ß^¥?

10.

J`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° EAMCET H÷
f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß_¨ ?

coaching

Is he taking coaching for the EAMCET
now ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS
11.

W„¬C_È° h=ô WO\÷^ÎQ®¾~¡ Uq°KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô?
What are you doing at home now?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

brother Z…ì KÇ ^ Î ° =ôKÇ ° <Œß _ È ° ?
How is your brother studying ?

1.

13.

h=ô W„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 WH›ø_È x•|_•
=ô<Œß=ô?

3.

2.

Why are you standing here now ?

14. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ \©"£°#° Z=~¡°
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?

lead

4.

Who is leading our cricket team at
present ?

5.

15. "Œ~¡ ° function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á ZH› ø _È
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°?

6.

Where are they making arrangements
for the function ?
16.

17.

18.

ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D

course H÷ ZO`Ç = °Ok
students attend J=ô`Ç°<Œß~¡°?
Howmany students are attending this
course at present ?

g°~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH› <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç ‚¬ð‹¬…“ ˜ „¦A
Ô
=‹¬¶•° KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°?

8.
9.

10.
11.

h=ô ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O ZO`Ç
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô?

12.

salary draw

ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P ‡¦•¼H›“s…Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok „¬x
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
Howmany men are working in that
factory at present?

20.

7.

Howmuch fee are you collecting for
hostel per month at present ?

Howmuch salary are you drawing at
present?
19.

h=ô W„¬ C _È °
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô?

N.I.I.T

…Õ U

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course

Which course are you doing in the
N.I.I.T at present?

13.
14.
15.

h=ô D ~ËA [Þ~¡O`Ë ƒì^•Î„_
¬ °È KÇ°<Œß"Œ?
g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Ì‹•=ô•° enjoy KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?
g° À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°_È° WH›ø_È …ì†Ç°~ŸQê practise
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨?
<ŒQê~¡°û# W„¬C_È° ‚²ìOn films …Õ act
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨?
g° mother W„¬C_È° guests #° treat
KÍ‹¬°ë#ß^¥?
"Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È U^³á<Œ problem face
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?
D "Œ~¡ O "Œ~¡ ° pending files clear
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° parents ZH›ø_È =ôO@°<Œß~¡°?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g°ä›½ material Z=~¡° supply
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°?
"Œ~¡ ° W„¬ C _È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ `Ç Q ® = ô…ì_È °
䛽O@°<Œß~¡°?
h=ô Chemistry H÷ U book refer
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P camp …Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok tH›Æ}
‡ÚO^ΰKÇ°<Œß~¡°?
h=ô W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È Z=i HË‹¬O Z^ΰ~¡°
KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?
K³~á à¡ <£ „¬^q
Î H÷ Dª•i ZO`Ç=°Ok ‡é\©
„¬_È°KÇ°<Œß~¡°?
h䛽 ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È Z=~¡° ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?

Z

Nothing is impossible to a willing heart.

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê XH›~°¡
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO business K͆ǰ@O …è^¥ ?
P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D school …Õ „¬xK͆ǰ@O …è^¥?

J
J

J
J

J`Ç_È° D ~ËA WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=_ÈO…è^¥ ?
"Œ~¡° D <³• class H÷ attend J=@O…è^¥?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D
~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Isn't/Aren't + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject –>

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Aren't I' =KÇ°ó#°. ('Amn't I' ~Œä›•_È^ΰ.)
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Isn't'
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Aren't ' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° „¬xÌ„á ã‰×^Îí KǶ„¬@O…è^¥ ?
Aren't I concentrating on work ?

2. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P Hê…èl…Õ KÇ^=
Î @O
…è^¥ ?
Aren't you studying in that college
this year ?

3. P`Ç_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO job K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
Isn't he doing job at present ?

4. P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° WO\ÕÁ LO_È@O…è^¥ ?
Isn't she staying in your house at
present ?

5. h=ô W„¬C_È° D
…è^¥?

scooter use

K͆ǰ@O

Aren't you using this scooter now ?

6. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D
…è^¥ ?

town

…Õ x=tOKÇ@O

Aren't they living in this town at
present?

7. h=ô ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO U
…è^¥ ?

job

HË‹¬O

try

Aren't you trying for any job at present?

8. J`Ç_È° D ~ËA college H÷ "³ˆ×¤@O…è^¥ ?
Isn't he going to college today ?

9. P"³ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O `³ • °Q® ° ‹² x =¶•…Õ
#\÷OKÇ@O…è^¥ ?
Isn't she acting in Telugu movies at
present ?

10. <Í#° ‹¬iQê „¬x K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
Aren't I working properly ?

39

K͆ǰ@O

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P office …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
„¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why aren't you working in that office
at present ?

12. h=ô D ~ËA college H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤@O
…è^ΰ ?
Why aren't you going to college today?

13. h=ô studies Ì„á ZO^ΰ䛽
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?

concentrate

Why aren't you concentrating on your
studies ?

1.
2.
3.
4.

14. g°~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P WO\ÕÁ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
x=tOKÇ@…è^ΰ ?

5.

Why aren't you living in that house at
present ?

6.

15. J`Ç_È° D "Œ~¡O duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
J=@O…è^ΰ ?

7.

Why isn't he attending the duty this
week ?

16. P"³ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O WH› ø _È ä › ½ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
~Œ=@O…è^ΰ ?
Why isn't she coming here at present?

17. "Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?

business

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why aren't they doing business at
present ?

18. P"³° W„¬C_È° g°`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_È@O…è^ΰ?
Why isn't she staying with you now ?

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

19. D camera ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why isn't this camera functioning ?

20. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO h ïHO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ@O
…è^ΰ ?
Why aren't they co-operating with you
now ?

14.
15.

h=ô D ~ËA Hê…èlH÷ "³ˆ×¤@O…è^¥ ?
g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO "ŒiH÷ material supply
K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
J`Ç _ È ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O U problem face
K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
P"³° W„¬C_È° D medicines f‹¬°HË=@O
…è^¥ ?
"Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O ï ~ á ` Ç ° •ä› ½ loans
W=Þ@O…è^¥?
h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P course K͆ǰ@O
…è^¥ ?
g°~¡ ° ‹¬ i Qê accounts maintain
K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
P†Ç°# ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO new cases take up
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^¥ ?
P"³° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ H›^•Î•° "ã Œ†Ç°@O…è^¥ ?
g° father h䛽 money „¬O„¬@O…è^¥ ?
h=ô D scooter ZO^ΰ䛽 use K͆ǰ@O
…è^ΰ ?
g°~¡° rules ZO^ΰ䛽 follow J=@O…è^°Î ?
"Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO books ZO^ΰ䛽 publish
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
P†Ç°# ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO films …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 act
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
P"³ ° D ~ËA "Œi`Ë Hyderabad
ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤@O…è^ΰ ?

Z

Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Am/Is/Are + Verb + 'ing'
form" Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Present ContinuousTense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ß
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''am / is / are + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I am learning English now.

2. We are waiting for the train now.

3. They are playing a match today. 4. She is staying in the hostel at present.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx
XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "am /is/ are + not + 'ing' form"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I am not using this bicycle now.
2. He is not doing any job at present.
3. They are not helping us at present.
4. We are not facing any problem here at present.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Am/Is/Are + Verb + 'ing' form"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Are you going to college now ? 2. Is she studying B.Sc. this year?
3. Is he suffering from a fever today? 4. Are they living in Nellore at present ?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx
XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @ä› ½ "Isn't/Aren't + verb + 'ing' form"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Aren't you coming with me now ?
2. Isn't she attending the classes this week ?
3. Aren't they doing this business now ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

61.

Speak

spoke

spoken

62.

Spend

spent

spent

63.

Spoil

spoilt

spoilt

64.

Spread

spread

spread

65.

Stand

stood

stood

66.

Steal

stole

stolen

67.

Sting

stang

stung

68.

Strike

stroke

struck

69.

Strive

strove

striven

70.

Swear

swore

sworn

71.

Sweep

swept

swept

72.

Swim

swam

swum

73.

Take

took

taken

74.

Teach

taught

taught

75.

Tear

tore

torn

76.

Tell

told

told

77.

Think

thought

thought

78.

Thrive

throve

thriven

79.

Throw

threw

thrown

80.

Understand

understood

understood

D ~ËA

Meaning

=¶\ìÁ_È°@
Q®_È°„¬ô@, Y~¡°óK͆Çò@
‡•_È°K͆ò
Ç @
"Œ¼„²OKÇ°@
x•|_È°@
^ùOyeOKÇ°@
䛽@°“@
J_È°ÛHù#°@
‡é~Œ_È°@
ㄬ=¶}O K͆Çò@
T_È°ó@
D^ΰ@
f‹¬°Hù#°@
<ÍiæOKÇ°@
zOKÇ°@
K³„¬C@
P…ÕzOKÇ°@
Ja•=$kœ K³O^ΰ@
q‹¬~¡°@
J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°Hù#°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
42

'Drown not thyself to save a drowning man'.

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PAST CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•
†ÇòO^ΰ=ò. P „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K͆Çò@…è^ΰ. Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`Ç Hê•=ò continuous Qê
KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~°¡ •ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° x#ß h HË‹¬O library ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ Z^ΰ~¡° KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ#°.
"Í°=ò last month bank test H÷ coaching f‹¬°HùO@¶O_•<Œ=ò.
=¶ father J„¬C_È° <³•¶Á~°¡ …Õ „¬x KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• <Œ~¡°.
P"³° last year Intermediate KÇ^°Î =ô KǶO_•#k.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß Qêx, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was / Were + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

J#° D ~ï O_•O\÷x Past 'Be' forms JO^ΰ~¡°.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ I, He, She, It (Singular) - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'was' =KÇ°ó#°.
We, You, They (Plural) - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were' =KÇ°ó#°.
'Was' 'Were'

EXAMPLES
1.

"Í°=ò last week exams "ã Œ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò.
We were writing examinations last
week.

2. J`Ç_°È last year hostel …Õ
<Œ_È°.

stay KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•

He was staying in the hostel last year.

3. P"³° J„¬C_È° steno Qê „¬x KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#k.
She was working as a steno then.

4. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß O `Œ P q+¬ † Ç ° O
KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô<Œß~¡°.

discuss

They were discussing that matter
yesterday.
5.

"Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ help KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
They were helping us then.

6.
43

<Í#° x#ß h HË‹¬O

wait KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ#°.
I was waiting for you yesterday.

7. =¶ father J„¬C_È°
<Œ~¡°.

business

KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•

My father was doing business then.

8. "Í ° =ò

last month study classes

attend J=ô`ǶO_•<Œ=ò.
We were attending the study classes
last month.

9. "Í°=ò ~Œãu T.V. …Õ XH›
KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò.

English movie

We were watching an English movie
on T.V. last night.

10. =¶ uncle J„¬C_È° High Court …Õ lawyer
Qê practise KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
My uncle was practising as a lawyer
in the High Court then.

,
11.

"Í°=ò x#ß D time …Õ Circar Express
…Õ ã „ ¬ † Ç ¶ }O KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _•<Œ=ò.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

We were travelling by the Circar Express at this time yesterday.

12. "Œ~¡ ° Q® ` Ç " Œ~¡ O „¬ O _È ° Q® [~¡ ° „¬ ô
䛽O@¶O_•<Œ~¡°.
They were celebrating the festival last
week.

13.

=¶ä›½
teach KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•#k.

Mrs. Malathi

last year Maths

Mrs. Malathi was teaching us Mathematics last year.

14. "Í°=ò last month public examinations
"ã Œ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò.
We were writing public examinations
last month.
15.

J`Ç _ È ° last year KŒ…ì
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.

hard work

He was doing hard work last year.

16. "Í°=ò x#ß „¦O¬ H›<
Æ H£ ÷ U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•
<Œ=ò.
We were making arrangements for the
function yesterday.

17.

[iy#„¬C_È°, J`Ç_È°
fast Qê #_È°„¬ôKÇ°O_•<Œ_È°.

Accident

car

KŒ…ì

He was driving the car very fast when
the accident happened.

18. <Í#° x#ß D book refer KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ#°.
I was refering to this book yesterday.

19. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È°
<Œ~¡°.

rice business

KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•

They were doing rice business then.

20.

Last week <Í#° notes `dž¶
Ç ~¡° KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•

1. <Í#° ~Œã`ÇO`Œ "Í°…çøx L<Œß#°.
2. "Í°=ò x#ß cards distribute KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•
<Œ=ò.
3. J`Ç_È° last year „¬îiëQê studies Ì„á concentrate KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
4. P"³° last month typhoid `Ë ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È
`ǶO_•#k.
5. "Œ~¡° last week South India ‹¬O^ÎiÅ
‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
6. J`Ç_È° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ HêOãïQ‹¹ ‡•s“
Hê~¡¼H›~Që¡ ê „¬xKÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
7. "Œ~¡° last month greeting cards sale
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
8. <Í # ° x#ß D „¬ ô ‹¬ ë H › O HË‹¬ O "³ ` Ç ° ä› ½
`ǶO_•<Œ#°.
9. "Í°=ò last month Physics subject prepare JQ®°KǶO_•<Œ=ò.
10. P"³ ° x#ß O `Œ Ju^•Î ° •ä› ½ =°~Œ¼^Î
KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•#k.
11. P"³° x#ßO`Œ important letters type
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#k.
12. "Í°=ò x#ß P time …Õ T.V. …Õ serial
KǶ‹¬¶ë<Œß=ò.
13. J`Ç_È° last year <³•ä›½ ~¡¶. 4,000 r`ÇO
draw KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
14. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì strict Qê rules
‡•\÷‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
15. <Í#° last year News reporter Qê „¬x
KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ#°.

<Œ#°.
I was preparing notes last week.

Rome was not built in a day.

Z
44

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

"Í°=ò Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ attend J=ô`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D "Œ¼‡•~¡O KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È …è^°Î .

J
J

P"³° J„¬C_È° =¶ WO\ÕÁ „¬x KÍ‹°¬ Oë _È…^è °Î .
<Í#° x#ß h HË‹¬O wait KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß Qêx, Q®`OÇ "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'' Was / Were + not + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

I, He, She, It - subject Qê

L#ß„¬C_È° 'was not'
We, You, They- subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were not' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° x#ß D letters type KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

2.

I was not typing these letters
yesterday.
"Í°=ò WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D problem face

KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

4.

We were not facing this problem then.
h=ô J„¬C_È° money save KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
You were not saving money then.
‹¬z<£ >ÿO_È°•ø~Ÿ Q®`Ç series …Õ ‹¬iQê

5.

Sachin Tendulkar was not playing well
in the last series.
P"³ ° WO`Ç ä › ½ =òO^Î ° D office …Õ

3.

P_È°`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.

„¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

She was not working in this office
then.

6. x#ß WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
It was not raining here yesterday.
45

7. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

weekly tests

They were not conducting the weekly
tests last year.

8. <Í # ° J„¬ C _È ° U subject H©
f‹¬°ä›½O@°O_È…è^ΰ.

tuition

I was not taking tuition for any subject
then.

9. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° college …Õ games practise
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
We were not practising games in the
college then.

10. J`Ç_°È Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O „¬sH›•Æ 䛽 ‹¬iQê
prepare J=ô`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.
He was not preparing well for the
examinations last year.

,

11. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° guides follow J=ô`Ç°O_È
…è^ΰ.

13.

We were not following guides then.
h=ô Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O studies Ì„á ‹¬iQê
concentrate KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
You were not concentrating on your
studies last year.
<Œ friends WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ <Œä›½ help

14.

My friends were not helping me then.
=¶ manager Q® ` Ç "Œ~¡ O office ä› ½

15.

Our manager was not coming to office
last week.
"Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ D business

16.

They were not doing this business
then.
"Í°=ò Q®`Ç <³• study classes 䛽 attend

17.

We were not attending the study
classes last month.
P"³° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hostel …Õ stay

18.

She was not staying in the hostel last
year.
<Í#° x#ß g° HË‹¬O JH›ø_È wait KÍ‹¬°ëO_È

19.

I was not waiting for you there
yesterday.
P"³° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D college …Õ KÇ^°Î =ô

20.

She was not studying in this college
last year.
"Í°=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ studies neglect KÍ‹¬°ëO_È

12.

KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

=‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

J=_ÈO…è^ΰ.

KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.

…è^ΰ.

`ǶO_È …è^ΰ.

…è^ΰ.

We were not neglecting our studies
last time.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O U job Hù~¡ä›½ try
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D problem face
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
3. J`Ç_È° x#ß D book refer KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
4. P"³° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D [|°Ä`Ë ƒì^•Î„_
¬ °È
`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
5. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O strike …Õ ‡•…ç¾O@°O_È
…è^ΰ.
6. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° D town …Õ x=t‹¬°Oë _È…^
è °Î .
7. <Í#° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O NIIT …Õ D course
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
8. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° D oil use KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
9. ~ŒR „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO J„¬C_È° [#àƒ•’¶q°…Õ D
Hê~¡¼ãH›=°=ò#° x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
10. J„¬C_È° D.M.K. ‡•s“ N.D.A „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxH÷
support KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
11. =¶ brother Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O business
KǶ‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È…è^ΰ.
12. <Í # ° J„¬ C _È ° competitive „¬ s H› Æ • ä› ½
prepare J=ô`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.
13. "Í°=ò WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ =¶ personal
matters P†Ç°#`Ë discuss KÍ‹¬°ëO_È
…è^ΰ.
14. =¶ lecturers Q®`ÇO…Õ special HêÁ‹¬°•°
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
15. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O maths tuition
f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È_ÈO…è^ΰ.

United we stand, Divided we fall.

Z
46

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J

g°~¡° Q®`Ç <³• „¬sH›•Æ ° "ã Œ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ~Œ ? J P"³° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ g° WO\ÕÁ LO@¶O_• #^¥?
g° brother J„¬C_È° Delhi …Õ Job KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• <Œ_¨ ?
h=ô x#ß \÷.q. …Õ Hã Hï÷ \˜ =¶¼KŸ KǶ‹¬°Oë _• <Œ"Œ ?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

continuous

Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•# „¬#°•#°

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx U ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° XH› „¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
'' Was / Were + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, He, She, It - subject Qê

L#ß„¬C_È° 'was'
We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° x#ß P

time …Õ xã^·é`Ƕ<Œß<Œ ?
Was I sleeping at that time yesterday?

2.

g°~¡ ° Q® ` Ç " Œ~¡ O
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• <Œ~Œ ?

7.

x#ß WH›ø_È =~¡Â=ò „¬_°È `ǶO_•#^¥ ?
Was it raining here yesterday ?

8. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° x#ß =~¡ O Q® … ˜ l…ìÁ … Õ
„¬~¼¡ \÷‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?

Were you distributing the wedding
cards yesterday ?

Was Sri Chandra Babu touring in
Warangal district yesterday ?

cards

P time …Õ J`Ç_È° important letters type
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_¨ ?

9.

P"³ ° x#ß WO\÷ ^Î Q ® ¾ ~ ¡
@¶O_•#^¥ ?

rest

f‹¬ ° ä› ½ O

Was she taking rest at home
yesterday?

Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ‡•s“ Jƒ•’¼~¡°œ•° WO\÷O\©H©
canvas KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
Were the party candidates canvassing
from door to door last week ?

Was he typing the important letters at
that time ?

47

hall-tickets issue

„¬O„²}©

3. g°~¡° x#ß wedding
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?

5.

"Œ~¡ ° Q® ` Ç " Œ~¡ O
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?

Were they issuing hall-tickets last
week ?

Physics practicals

Were you doing Physics practicals last
week ?

4.

6.

10.

J„¬æ\÷ HêOãQï ‹¹ „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO D „¬^HΊ ê•#°
J=°•° „¬~°¡ ‹¬¶Oë _•#^¥ ?
Was the then Congress government
implementing these schemes ?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. x#ß D time …Õ h=ô WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ Uq°
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

What were you doing at home at this
time yesterday ?
12.

x#ß h=ô P shop …Õ Uq° HùO@¶<Œß=ô ?
What were you buying in that shop
yesterday ?

13. Accident [iy# ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò…Õ Hê~¡°
Z=~¡° drive KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
Who was driving the car when the
accident happened ?
14.

x#ß\÷ =~¡ä›½ P"³° U
‡ÚO^ΰ`ǶO_•#k ?

hospital

…Õ zH÷`•Ç

In which hospital was she undergoing
treatment till yesterday ?

15. g°~¡ ° x#ß <Œ HË‹¬ O ZH› ø _È
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ?

wait

Where were you waiting for me
yesterday?
16.

P „²••Á #° J„¬C_È° Z=~¡° ‡é+²‹¶
¬ Oë _•
<Œ~¡° ?
Who was feeding those children then?

17.

g°~¡ ° P_•\Õi†Ç ° OH÷ "³ o ¤ # „¬ C _È °
g°\÷OQ·…Õ Z=~¡° =¶\ìÁ_°È KǶO_•<Œ~¡°?
Who was speaking in the meeting
when you went to the auditorium ?

18.

"Œ~¡ ° x#ß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ P
„¬_ÈQù@°“KÇ°<Œß~¡° ?

building

Why were they demolishing that
building yesterday ?
19.

P ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# |‹¬°•…Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok

ã †
¬ ¶Ç }=ò KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ?
Howmay passengers were travelling
in the bus at that time ?

20.

J`Ç_È° h`Ë Uq° argue KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°?
What was he arguing with you ?

1. x#ß JO`Œ g°~¡° train …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
2. g°~¡° last year result HË‹¬O hard work
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
3. J`Ç _ È ° WO`Ç ä › ½ =òO^Î ° hä› ½ help
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_¨ ?
4. P"³ ° x#ß P time …Õ special items
`dž¶Ç ~¡° KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ D ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° x~¡Þ‚²ì
‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
6. Last summer …Õ h=ô English grammar
<Í~°¡ äó ½› O@¶O_•<Œ"Œ ?
7. Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O g°~¡° office #° ãHù`Çë building
…ÕxH÷ shift KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
8. x#ß L^Ά°Ç O h=ô ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ´× Oë _•<Œ=ô?
9. x#ß ~Œãu g°~¡° Uq° KŒ…ì ‹Ôi†Ç°‹¹ Qê
KÇi‹
ó ¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ?
10. g°ä›½ Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ Maths
Z=~¡° teach KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ?
11. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ `Ç Q ® = ô…ì_È °
HùO@¶O_•<Œ~¡° ?
12. h䛽 J„¬C_È° Z=~¡° help KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°?
13. Last summer …Õ h=ô U course
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ=ô ?
14. Last year g° business Z=~¡ °
KǶ‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡° ?
15. h=ô x#ß P time …Õ JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
x•|_• =ô<Œß=ô ?

Z

Confidence is the first secret of success.

48

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

P"³° last month hostel …Õ stay
J g°~¡° last year classes H÷ attend
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥?
J=ô`Ç°O_È…è^¥ ?
"Œ~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D "Œ¼‡•~¡O KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È…^è ¥ ? J x#ß h=ô T.V. …Õ match KǶ‹¬¶Oë _È…^è ¥?

J

J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Wasn't/Weren't + Verb + "ing" form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - I, He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Wasn't =KÇ°ó#°.
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Weren't =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h=ô <Œ HË‹¬O wait KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È@O …è^¥?
2.

Weren't you waiting for me yesterday?
h=ô last week classes H÷ attend

J=ô`ǶO_È…è^¥ ?
3.

Weren't you attending the classes last
week ?
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° h䛽 help KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥?
Wasn't he helping you then ?

4. ~Œãu WH›ø_È =~¡âO „¬_È°`ǶO_È…è^¥ ?
5.

Wasn't it raining here last night ?
"Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° D house H÷ rent pay

KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
6.
49

Weren't they paying rent for this house
then ?
x#ß buses u~¡°Q®°`Ç°O_È…è^¥ ?
Weren't the buses plying yesterday ?

7. J`Ç _ È ° last
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^¥?

year job

HË‹¬ O

try

Wasn't he trying for a job last year ?

8. P"³ ° last year Maths H÷
f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È…è^¥ ?

coaching

Wasn't she taking coaching for Maths
last year ?

9. J`Ç_°È J„¬C_È° programmes …Õ participate
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
Wasn't he participating in programmes
then ?

10. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ g°ä›½ study classes
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
Weren't they conducting study classes
to you previously ?

,

11. h=ô WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D
refer KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
12.

13.
14.

15.

16.
17.

18.

book

ZO^ΰ䛽

Why weren't you refering to this book
previously ?
g°~¡° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D course ZO^ΰ䛽

x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?

Why weren't you conducting this
course previously ?
J`Ç _ È ° last year ZO^Î ° ä› ½ job

KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ?

Why wasn't he doing job last year ?
P"³° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ medicines ZO^ΰ䛽

f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È…è^ΰ?

Why wasn't she taking medicines
previously ?
g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° grammar ZO^Î ° ä› ½

<Í~¡°ó䛽O@¶O_È…è^ΰ?

Why weren't you learning grammar
then?
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° money ZO^ΰ䛽 save

KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?

Why wasn't he saving money then ?
P"³° J„¬C_È° g°ä›½ D subject ZO^ΰ䛽
teach KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
Why wasn't she teaching you this
subject then ?
g°~¡° J„¬C_È° games ZO^ΰ䛽 practise

KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ ?

Why weren't you practising games
then ?

19. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ C _È ° h =¶@ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
qO@¶O_È@O…è^ΰ ?
Why wasn't he listening to your words
then ?

20. "Œ~¡° x#°ß J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡ã é`Ç•‚²ì‹¬¶Oë _È
…è^ΰ ?
Why weren't they encouraging you
then ?

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô x#ß P time …Õ JH›ø_È x•|_•
=ôO_È…è^¥?
2. g°~¡ ° last year D books follow
J=ô`ǶO_È…è^¥ ?
3. P"³° x#ß notes ã"Œ‹¬°ëO_È@O…è^¥ ?
4. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ D problem face
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
5. J`Ç_È° last year job KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
6. h=ô last week duty H÷ attend J=ô`ǶO_È
…è^¥ ?
7. P"³° last year D college …Õ KÇ^ΰ=ô
`ǶO_È…è^¥ ?
8. "Œ~¡ ° WO`Ç ä › ½ =òO^Î ° D town …Õ
x=t‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
9. g°~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D scooter ZO^ΰ䛽
use KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
10. J`Ç_È° last year job HË‹¬O ZO^ΰ䛽 try
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
11. "Œ~¡° h䛽 J„¬C_È° salary ZO^ΰ䛽 pay
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
12. h=ô last week library H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
=‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
13. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O ZO^ΰ䛽
HË~¡°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ ?
14. x#ß buses ZO^ΰ䛽 u~¡°Q®°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ ?
15. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° accounts ZO^ΰ䛽 maintain
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È@O…è^ΰ?

Z
Ability is poorman's wealth.

50

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Was/Were + Verb + 'ing'
form" Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Past Continiuous Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''was / were + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I was reading this novel last night.
2. We were traveling in the train last night.
3. She was suffering from malaria last month.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "was /were + not + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I was not using this scooter then.
2. We were not attending the classes last week.
3. She was not staying in our house then.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Was /Were + Verb+'ing' for m' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Were you suffering from a fever last week ?
2. Was it raining here yesterday ?
3. Were they helping you then ?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Wasn't /Weren't + Verb
+ 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Weren't you waiting for us yesterday ?
2. Wasn't he studying in this college last year ?
3. Weren't they coming here then ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

81.

Accompany

accompanied

accompanied

82.

Accumulate

accumulated

accumulated

83

Accuse

accused

accused

84

Accustom

accustomed

accustomed

85

Achieve

achieved

achieved

86

Act

acted

acted

87

Add

added

added

88

Addict

addicted

addicted

89

Address

addressed

addressed

90

Adjust

adjusted

adjusted

91.

Admire

admired

admired

92.

Adopt

adopted

adopted

93.

Adore

adored

adored

94.

Advise

advised

advised

95.

Affix

affixed

affixed

96.

Adulterate

adulterated

adulterated

97.

Advertise

advertised

advertised

98.

Agree

agreed

agreed

99.

Aim

aimed

aimed

100.

Alight

alighted

alighted

D ~ËA

Meaning

"³O@`Ë_È°Qê =KÇ°ó@
䛕_ȃÿ@°“@
xO^Î"³¶„¬ô@
J•"Œ@°„¬_È°@
ª•k•OKÇ°@
#\÷OKÇ°@
H›•°„¬ô@
^ΰ~¡•"Œ@°K͆Çò@
‹¬OƒÕk•OKÇ°@
‹¬iK͆Çò@
"³°KÇ°óHù#°@
^Î`Çë`Ç f‹¬°Hù#°@
P~Œk•OKÇ°@
‹¬•‚¬ð WKÇ°ó
JO\÷OKÇ°
H›bëK͆Çò@
ㄬH›\÷OKÇ°@
X„¬CHù#°@
Q®°iÌ„@°“@, •H›Æ¼=ò
ãH÷OkH÷ kQ®°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
52

Appear like a winner evenif you lose.

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FUTURE CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx HùO`ÇHê•O continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO^ΰ=ò. P „¬#°•°
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ "³ò^Î…áÿ HùO`ÇHê•=ò …èH› KŒ…ìHê•=ò continuous Qê [~¡°Q®° `ǶO_È°#°. W…ì
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~°¡ •ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° WH› #°Oz ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê classes 䛽
‚¬ð[~¡=`ǶO\ì#°.
"Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë ‹¬‚¬ìH›i‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

J

J

J

J

"Í°=ò =KÍ<ó •³ holidays =¶ =îi…Õ
Q®_È°„¬ô`ǶO\ì=ò.
J`Ç_°È WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë stay KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì_È°.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _È°
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + be + Verb + ing form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

J#° ^¥xx 'Future' 'Be' form JO^ΰ~¡°.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "will + be + ing form " =KÇ°ó#°.

Note : 'Be'

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í # ° WH› # °Oz
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.

sincere

Qê „¬ x

2.

I will be working sincerely hereafter.
"Í°=ò =KÍó<³• =¶ Ti…Õ stay

3.

We will be staying at our village next
month.
=¶ sister next year university …Õ

4.

My sister will be studying in the
university next year.
J`Ç _ È ° WH› #°Oz =°#ä› ½ help

5.

He wil be helping us hereafter.
"Œ~¡° next month „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ prepare

KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.

KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ƕ LO@°Ok.

KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.

J=ô`Ç°O\ì~¡°.

They will be preparing for the
examinations next month.
53

6. <Í # ° WH› #°Oz =¶
‡•\÷‹°¬ Oë \ì#°.

uncle advice

7.

I will be following my uncle's advice
hereafter.
"Í°=ò WH›#°Oz ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê rent pay

8.

We will be paying rent regularly
hereafter.
=¶ brother P.G. `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç job H÷ try

9.
10.

KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.

KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.

My brother will be trying for a job after
his P.G.
=KÍó<³• "Œ~¡° teacher post •ä›½
interviews x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
They will be conducting the interviews
for the teacher posts next month.
<Í#° WH›#°Oz ㄬu~ËA new words

<Í~¡°ó䛽O@°O\ì#°.

I will be learning new words every day
hereafter.

,

11. "Í°=ò WH› #°Oz D
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.

new vehicle use

We will be using this new vehicle
hereafter.

12. =¶ father
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

next year business

My father will be doing business next
year.

13. P"³° WH›#°Oz homeopathic medicines
f‹¬°ä›½O@°Ok.
She will be taking Homeopathic
medicines hereafter.

14. "Œ~¡° WH› g°^Î@ strict Qê
maintian KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

accounts

They will be maintaining the accounts
strictly hereafter.

15. "Í ° =ò WH› # °Oz
`Ç°O\ì=ò.

J=ô

rules follow

We will be following the rules
hereafter.

16. =¶ sister next year M.Phil KÍ‹°¬ Oë @°Ok.
My sister will be doing M.Phil next
year.

17. "Œ~¡° WH› g°^Î@ ㄬu"Œ~¡O
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

tests

They will be conducting tests every
week hereafter.

18. <Í#° WH›#°Oz diary ã"Œ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
I will be writing diary hereafter.

19. "Í°=ò =KÍó"Œ~¡O
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.

Chemistry practicals

We will be doing Chemistry practicals
next week.

20. <Í#° WH›#°Oz money save KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì#°.
I will be saving money hereafter.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° WH›#°Oz h䛽 `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê …ÿ@~Ÿ• "ã Œ‹¬¶ë
LO\ì#°.
2. "Í°=ò next two months D game ƒìQê
practise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.
3. =¶ brother WH›#°Oz <Œ ^ÎQ~ö¾® LO\ì_È°.
4. P"³° ~ö „¬ô D time H÷ WH›ø_Èä½› =‹¬°Oë @°Ok.
5. =°# Maths teacher ~ö „¬ô, =°~¡°<Œ_È° =°#
doubts clarify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
6. WH› #°Oz <Í#° Z„¬æ\H÷ „
› C¬ _È° h䛽 inform
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
7. =KÍ ó < ³ • JO`Œ =òY¼=°Oã u Zxß H › •

ã K
¬ Œ~¡O…Õ ‡•…ç¾O\ì~¡°.
8. =KÍó <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•° =¶ cousin
Madras …Õ Engineering KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.
9. <Í#° WH›#°Oz Z䛽ø=Qê G.K. books
refer KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
10. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#HË‹¬O JH›ø_È Z^ΰ~¡°
KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
11. WH› g°^Î@ D mill ƒìQê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO@°Ok.
12. =KÍó <³•O`Œ "Œ~¡° Hù`Çë F@~¡Á list `dž¶
Ç ~¡°
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
13. D course …Õ <Í#° x#°ß guide KÍ‹¬°ëO
\ì#°.
14. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô D time H÷ Bangalore KÍ~¡°
䛽O@¶O\ì=ò.

Z

Where there is a will, there is a way.

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° WH› P H›OÌ„h…Õ work K͆ǰ#°.
J`Ç_°È =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O WH›ø_È KÇ^=Î _È°.

J
J

J
J

continuous

"Í°=ò WH› J`Çx„Ì á P^•¥~¡„_¬ =È ò.
P"³° WH› WH›ø_È stay K͆ǰ^ΰ.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=°ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° continuous Qê
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will not + be + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

subject - Singular, Plural

U^³#
á #¶ " will not + be + 'ing' form" L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° WH›g°^Î@ D ‡Ú~¡‡•@° K͆°Ç #°.
I will not be committing this mistake
hereafter.

2. "Í°=ò WH›#°Oz

work delay K͆ǰ=ò.
We will not be delaying the work
hereafter.

3. =¶ brother =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.

job

My brother wil not be doing this job
next year.

4. P"³ ° WH› #°Oz =°# WO\÷ H ÷ ~Œ^Î ° .
She will not be coming to our house
hereafter.

5. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz J`Çx q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË~¡°.
They will not be interefering in his
matter hereafter.
55

6. <Í#° =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
K͆ǰ#°.

hostel

…Õ

stay

I willnot be staying in the hostel next
year.

7. "Í ° =ò WH› #°Oz D
J==ò.

books follow

We will not be following these books
hereafter.

8. <Í#° WH› g°^Î@ J`ÇxH÷

help K͆ǰ#°.
I will not be helping him hereafter.

9. J`Ç_È° WH› =°#䛽 money „¬O„¬_È°.
He will not be sending us money
hereafter.

10. "Í ° =ò WH› Jx ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O HË~¡ = ò.
We will not be seeking his help
hereafter.

,

11. <Í#° WH› #°Oz J`Çx`Ë

move Hê#°.
I will not be moving with him hereafter.

12. N H›~°¡ }ìxk• WH› g°^Î@ ~Œ[H©†¶
Ç …ÕÁ
KÇ°~¡°Qê¾ ‡•…ç¾#~¡°.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Sri Karunanidhi will not be
participating in politics actively
hereafter.

1.

<Í#° WH› #°Oz \©.q.…Õ P programme
KǶ_È#°.

=KÍ ó ï ~ O_È °
‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•° ‡•H÷ª•ë<`£ Ë =¶¼KŸ P_È^°Î .

2.

"Í°=ò WH› #°Oz class H÷ late Qê ~Œ=ò.

3.

<Í#° WH›#°Oz J|^Îí=¶_È#°.

4.

J`Ç_È° WH›#°Oz "ŒiO\÷H÷ "³ˆ×¤_È°.

14. <Í#° WH›#°Oz D vehicle use K͆ǰ#°.

5.

P"³° WH› #°Oz D medicine f‹¬°HË^ΰ.

I will not be using this vehicle
hereafter.

6.

"Œ~¡ ° =KÍ ó <³ • U
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡°.

7.

<Í#° WH› J`Çx ‹¬•‚¬ð ‡•\÷OKÇ#°.

8.

"Í°=ò WH› "ŒiH÷ co-operate K͆ǰ=ò.

9.

J`Ç_°È =KÍ‹
ó O¬ =`Ç•~¡O studies continue
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.

13.

Indian Cricket Team

The Indian Cricket Team will not be
playing matches against Pakistan next
two years.

15. "Í°=ò WH› #°Oz work neglect K͆°Ç =ò.
We will not be neglecting the work
hereafter.

16. „
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ=ò WH› g°^Î@ D
J=°•°„¬~¡KÇ^ΰ.

scheme

The government will not be
implementing this scheme hereafter.

17. <Í # ° WH› J`Ç x `Ë À ‹ ß ‚ ¬ ì O KÍ † Ç ° #°.
I will not be making friends with him
hereafter.

18. "Œ~¡ ° WH› D

town …Õ x=tOKÇ ~ ¡ ° .
They will not be living in this town
hereafter.

19. ªÏ~¡"£ Q®OQ®¶b next test series …Õ team
x lead K͆ǰ_Ȱ.
Sourab Ganguly will not be leading
the team in the next test series.

20. <Í#° next month …Õ <Œ holidays waste
K͆ǰ#° .

10. "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz P
deposit K͆ǰ~¡°.

programmes

bank…Õ amount

11. <Í#° WH› P shop …Õ Ug° Hù##°.
12. "Œ~¡° WH› P Hê…èr…Õ donations =‹¬¶•°
K͆ǰ~¡°.
13. "Í°=ò WH› D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ risk f‹¬°HË=ò.
14. <Í#° WH› P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ night duty K͆ǰ#°.
15. ö~„¬O`Œ D line …Õ trains #_È°==ô.

I will not be wasting my holidays next
month.

Slow and steady wins the race.

Z
56

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: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

P"³° next year university …Õ
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O@°O^¥?
=°#=ò WH›#°Oz English =¶\ìÁ_È^¥=¶?

J
J

J
J

"Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz regular Qê HêÁ‹°¬ •ä›½
‚¬ð[~¡=ô`Ç°O\ì~Œ?
<Í#° ~ö „¬ô D text book refer KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡
„¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

continuous

Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ôO_È°

D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=°ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ KÍ‹°¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
" Shall / Will + be + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Shall',
You, He, She, It, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Will' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° WH›ø_È W`Çx`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°`Ç°O_Í^¥?

7.

Shall I be talking to him here?

2.

3.

=°#=ò ‹¬ Þ O`Ç Q ê <Ë\˜ • `Ç † Ç ¶ ~¡ °
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=¶ ?

Shall we be preparing the notes of our
own ?
h=ô next year job HË‹¬O ㄬ†Ç°uß

Will the Cheif-minister be discussing
with the party leaders tomorrow?
8.

Will you be trying for a job next year?

5.

6.

57

J`Ç_È° WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë<Í LO\ì_¨?

Will he be staying with us hereafter?
P"³° ö~„¬ô D time …Õ `Ç# „¬ô\÷“#~ËA
celebrate KÍ ‹ ¬ ° ä› ½ O@¶ LO@°O^¥?
Will she be celebrating her birthday
at this time tomorrow ?
"Œ~¡° D ï~O_È° <³••° final „¬sH›Æ• Hù~¡ä›½
prepare J=ô`Ƕ LO\ì~Œ?
Will they be preparing for the final
examinations these two months?

g°~¡° WH›#°Oz „
ã u
¬ Pk"Œ~¡O ‹
Ì q°<Œ~Ÿ•
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
Will you be conducting seminars
every Sunday hereafter?

‹¬°ëO\ì"Œ?

4.

=òY¼=°Oãu ö~„¬ô ‡•s“ <Œ†Ç°ä›½•`Ë
KÇi󋬰ëO\ì~Œ?

9.

"Œ~¡ ° WH› # °Oz
‡•\÷‹°¬ Oë \ì~Œ?

strict

rules

Will they be following the rules strictly
hereafter?
10. Next series …Õ ä›•_¨ Dravid team x
lead KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_¨?
Will Dravid be leading the team in
the next series also?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. D Ì ‹ •=ô•…Õ
KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥=ò?

=°#=ò

Uq°

What shall we be doing these
holidays?
12.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô hHË‹¬O ZH›ø_È wait KÍ‹¬°ëO_Ík?
Where shall I be waiting for you
tomorrow?

13.

=°#=ò =KÍó<³• U
J=ô`Ç°O^¥=ò?

subject prepare

Which subject shall we be preparing
next month?
14.

WH› # °Oz g° "Œ¼‡•~¡ O Z=~¡ °
KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
Who will be looking after your
business hereafter ?

15.

"Œ~¡° =KÍó<³• ZH›ø_È „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
Where will they be working next
month?

16. h=ô WH› # °Oz ZO`Ç
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ô?

salary draw

Howmuch salary will you be drawing
herfeafter?

17. "Œ~¡ ° JH› ø _È Zxß ~ËA•° tH› Æ }
‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì~¡°?
Howmany days will they
undergoing training there?

18. ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È „¬ x x Z=~¡ °
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?

: 94406 16425

be

supervise

Who will be supervising the work
there tomorrow?

19. g°~¡° D Ì‹•=ô•° Z…ì Q®_È°„¬ô`Ç°O\ì~¡°?
How will you be spending these
holidays?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ =~¡ä½› D letters type
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?
2. =°#=ò WH›#°Oz morning class •ä›½
attend J=ô^¥=¶?
3. h=ô WH› # °Oz D medicine
f‹¬°ä›½O\ì"Œ?
4. g°~¡° =KÍó <³• „¬aHÁ ± „¬sH›•Æ ° "
ã Œ‹¬°Oë \ì~Œ?
5. J`Ç _ È ° WH› # °Oz sincere Qê
„¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_¨?
6. "Œ~¡ ° WH› # °Oz D vehicle use
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
7. h=ô WH›#°Oz ㄬu<³…ì money save
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì"Œ?
8. P"³ ° next year S.V. †Çüx=i•\©…Õ
M.Phil KÍ‹¬°ëO@°O^¥?
9. "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz business …Õ accounts
maintain KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
10. WO@~Ÿ q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° =KÍó "Œ~¡O practicals
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
11. Ju^•Î°•ä›½ =°#=ò U~Œæ@°Á ZH›ø_È
KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥=ò?
12. <Í#° WH›#°Oz regular Q®ê WH›ø_È䛽
=‹¬°ëO_Í^¥?
13. g°~¡ ° =KÍ ó ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O ZH› ø _È
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O\ì~¡°?
14. x#°ß D course …Õ Z=~¡ ° guide
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
15. =KÍó "Í‹¬q Ì‹•=ô•…Õ g°~¡° Uq°
<Í~¡°ó䛽O\ì~¡°?

20. h䛽 JH›ø_È Z=~¡° ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì~¡°?
Who will be helping you there ?

Be good, Do good.

Z
58

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô WH›#°Oz night meal f‹¬°HË"Œ ?
J`Ç_È° WH› #°Oz =°#`Ë move J=_¨ ?

J
J

J
J

continuous

g°~¡° WH› #°Oz P WO\ÕÁ x=‹²‹¬¶ëO_È~Œ ?
P"³° WH›#°Oz college …Õ KÇ^Î=_¨ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't/Won't + be + Verb + "ing" form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Shalln't be' =KÇ°ó#°.
You, He, She, It, They –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Won't be' =KÇ°ó#°.
I, We –> Subject

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô next year
KÇ^ΰ=ô`ǶO_È"Œ ?

D

college

…Õ

Won't you be studying in this college
next year ?

2. g°~¡° WH› D town …Õ x=tOKÇ~Œ ?
3. J`Ç_È° WH› WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ_¨ ?
P

Shalln't I be waiting for you there
tomorrow?
Won't they be organizing this firm
hereafter ?

8. h=ô WH› g°^Î@ J`Çx`Ë move J="Œ ?

Won't he be coming here hereafter?
year

wait

7. "Œ~¡° WH› P ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~Œ ?

Won't you be living in this town
hereafter ?

4. J`Ç _ È ° next
„¬xK͆ǰ_¨?

6. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô h HË‹¬ O JH› ø _È
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È=^¥í?

college

…Õ

Won't he be working in that college next
year ?

5. P"³° WH› WH›ø_È LO_È^¥ ?
Won't she be staying here hereafter ?

Won't you be moving with him
hereafter?

9. P†Ç°# WH› politics …Õ ‡•…ç¾#_¨ ?
Won't he be participating in politics
hereafter ?

10. =°#=ò WH›g°^Î@ "ŒiH÷
=^¥í?

help

KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È

Shalln't we be helping them hereafter?
59

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. P"³° next year studies ZO^ΰ䛽 continue
K͆ǰ^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why won't she be continueing her
studies next year ?

12. J`Ç_È° h䛽 JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬‚¬ìH›i
‹¬¶ëO_È_È° ?
Why won't he be co-operating with
you there ?

13. g°~¡° WH›#°Oz J`Çx ‹¬•‚¬ð ZO^ΰ䛽
‡•\÷OKÇ~°¡ ?
14.

Why won't you be following his advice
hereafter ?
P†Ç°# WH›g°^Î@ elections …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽

‡é\© KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ?

16.

Why won't he be contesting in the
elections hereafter ?
"Œ~¡° =°#H÷ WH› ZO^ΰ䛽 help K͆ǰ~¡° ?
Why won't they be helping us
hereafter?
=KÍó<³• g°~¡° HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend

17.

Why won't you be attending the
classes next month ?
"Œ~¡° WH›g°^Î@ P business ZO^ΰ䛽

18.

Why won't they be doing that business
hereafter ?
J`Ç _ È ° WH› g °^Î @ P job ZO^Î ° ä› ½

15.

J=ô`ǶO_È~¡° ?

KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ?

KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È_È°?

Why won't he be doing that job
hereafter ?

19. "Œ~¡° WH›g°^Î@ Hù`Çë L^˼Qê•° ZO^ΰ䛽
recruit KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ?
20.

Why won't they be recruiting the new
jobs hereafter ?
g°~¡ ° WH› # °Oz D crop ZO^Î ° ä› ½

„¬O_•‹¬¶Oë _È~°¡ ?

1. h=ô WH› #°Oz g° brother H÷ money
„¬O„¬ô`ǶO_È"Œ ?
2. g°~¡° WH›g°^Î@ "ŒiH÷ material supply
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~Œ ?
3. J`Ç_°È next year =°#`Ë stay KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È_¨?
4. P"³° WH›#°Oz medicines f‹¬°HË^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz taxes =‹¬¶•° K͆ǰ~Œ?
6. g°~¡° WH› D old vehicle use KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È~Œ?
7. Ganguly WH› One-day matches
P_È°`ǶO_È_¨ ?
8. P"³° WH› `Çq°ˆ× ‹²x=¶•…Õ #\÷OKÇ^¥ ?
9. "Œ~¡ ° WH› =°# q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ *ÕH› ¼ O
KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?
10. P"³° WH› #°Oz =°# WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È^ΰ ?
11. J`Ç_°È WH› #°Oz WH›ø_Èä½› ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ_È°?
12. "Œ~¡ ° WH› #°Oz =°#`Ë ZO^Î ° ä› ½
„¬xK͆ǰ~¡° ?
13. h=ô next week duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
J==ô ?
14. g°~¡° WH›#°Oz P shop …Õ =‹¬°ë=ô•°
ZO^ΰ䛽 Hù#~¡° ?
15. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz programmes ZO^ΰ䛽
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ?

Why won't they be growing this crop
hereafter ?

Z
The harder you work, the luckier you get.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ ''Will + be + verb + 'ing' form"
Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Future Continuous Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ Continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ôO_È° XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''will + be + Verb + 'ing' form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I will be helping you hereafter.
2. We will be writing examinations next month.
3. He will be doing job next year .

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "will +not + be+ Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I willnot be wasting my time hereafter.
2. We will not be coming here hereafter.
3. They will not be doing this business hereafter.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_ȃÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall / Will + be + Verb+'ing' form'
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shall I be refering to this book ?
2. Shall we be making arrangements tomorrow ?
3. Will they be living in Hyderabad hereafter ?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't / Won't + be +
Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shalln't we be using this vehicle hereafter ?
2. Won't you be working here next year ?
3. Won't they be supplying us the material hereafter ?

61

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

101.

allot

alloted

alloted

102.

allow

allowed

allowed

103.

alter

altered

altered

104.

amaze

amazed

amazed

105.

amuse

amused

amused

106.

annoy

annoyed

annoyed

107.

anticipate

anticipated

anticipated

108.

apologize

apologized

apologized

109.

appeal

appealed

appealed

110.

appear

appeared

appeared

111.

appland

applanded

applanded

112.

apply

applied

applied

113.

appoint

appointed

appointed

114.

appreciate

appreciated

appreciated

115.

approach

approached

approached

116.

approve

approved

approved

117.

argue

argued

argued

118.

arrange

arranged

arranged

119.

arrest

arrested

arrested

120.

arrive

arrived

arrived

D ~ËA

Meaning

qƒ•’lOz WKÇ°ó
J#°=°uOKÇ°
=¶~¡°æ
kãQÄ•® =° H›eyOKÇ°
‹¬O`Ë+¬Ì„@°“
„Ô_•OKÇ°
=òO^ΰQê T‚²ìOKÇ°
H›Æ=¶„¬} J_È°Q®°@
=°#q KÍ‹¬°Hù#°
H›#|_È°
"³°KÇ°óHù#°@
W=°àx J_È°Q®°@
x†Ç°q°OKÇ°@
"³°KÇ°óHù#°@
‹¬g°„²OKÇ°@
J#°=°OuOKÇ°@
"ŒkOKÇ°@
ãH›=°„¬~¡KÇ°@
Mÿá^ΰK͆Çò@
=KÇ°ó@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
62

Think like a man of action, act like a man of thought.

,

: 94406 16425

PRESENT PERFECT
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° W„¬C_Í (just) KÍ‹²†ÇòO^ΰ=ò. Hùxß „¬#°•° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^Í
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 (already) KÍ‹²†ÇòO^ΰ=ò. XHùøH›ø ª•i W`Ç~¡°•`Ë
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx WO`Ç =~¡ä›½, W„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ (sofar) Zxß ª•~¡°Á KÍ‹#
² n
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° just W„¬C_Í J`Çxx H›e‰§#°.
"Í°=ò D "Œ~¡ë just W„¬C_Í q<Œß=ò.

J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° just W„¬C_Í Hêx,
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

J
J

"Í°=ò already exam fee pay K͉§=ò.
"Œ~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ D "Œ~¡O 20 files clear KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°.

already

WO`Ç䛽 =òO^³„¬C_Ë Hêx „¬îiëKÍ‹²# „¬#°•#°

D q^•Î=òQê (i) just W„¬C_Í „¬îië KÍ‹²# „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽, (ii) XH› Yzó`Ç"³°Ø# ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#°
‹¬¶zO„¬H› already WO`Ç䛽=òO^³„¬C_Ë „¬îië KÍ‹²# „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 =°i†Çò (iii) =°#=ò
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä›½ (sofar) XH› „¬xx Zxߪ•~¡°Á KÍ‹#² k ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - I, We, You, They, J~ò#„¬C_È° 'have' =KÇ°ó#°.
Subject - He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'has' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° just W„¬C_Í D
䛽<Œß#°.

letter receive

KÍ‹¬°

I have received this letter justnow.

2. "Í°=ò just W„¬C_Í lunch f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.
We have taken lunch justnow.

3. =¶ father just W„¬C_Í |†Ç°@䛽 "³ˆì¤~¡°.
My father has gone out justnow.

She has just woken up.
Pinakini Express just W„¬C_Í =zó#k.
The Pinakini Express has arrived just
now.

6. <Í # ° just W„¬ C _Í J`Ç x H÷
„¬O‡•#°.

message

I have sent him the message justnow.
63

money pay

We have paid him money justnow.

8. =¶ brother
=KŒó_È°.

just

W„¬C_Í

office

#°Oz

My brother has come from office just
now.

9. <Í#° already <Œ application form submit
K͉§#°.

4. P"³° just W„¬C_Í xã^Î …èzOk.
5.

7. "Í°=ò just W„¬C_Í J`ÇxH÷
K͉§=ò.

I have already submitted my
application form.

10. "Í ° =ò already D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ XH›
x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.
We have already taken a decision in
this matter.

,

11. =¶ brother already computer course
„¬îië K͉§_È°.
My brother has already completed the
computer course.

12. =¶ sister already visa 䛽 apply KÍ‹#
² k.
My sister has already applied for the
VISA.

13. "Œ~¡° already meeting 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹²
†Çò<Œß~¡°.
They have already made the
arrangements for the meeting.

14. <Í#° already P movie KǶ‰§#°.
Principal

consult

We have already consulted the
Principal.

16. =¶ lecturers
K͉§~¡°.

already syllabus

„¬îië

Our lecturers have already completed
the syllabus.

17. <Í # ° already =¶
ã"Œ‹²<Œ#°.

father

ä› ½

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° just W„¬C_Í lunch f‹¬°ä›½<Œß#°.
2. "Í°=ò just W„¬C_Í D "Œ~¡ë q<Œß=ò.
3. =¶ |
ã ^Î~Ÿ just W„¬C_Í <Œä›½ phone K͉§_È°.
4. P"³° just W„¬C_Í D item `dž¶
Ç ~¡° KÍ‹O² k.
5. "Œ~¡ ° just W„¬ C _Í
a•Oz<Œ~¡°.

programme

‡ã •~¡O

6. <Í#° already text books Jhß Hù<Œß#°.

I have already seen that movie.

15. "Í°=ò already
J~ò<Œ=ò.

: 94406 16425

letter

I have already written a letter to my
father.

18. <Í#° W„¬æ\=÷ ~¡ä½› _•bÁ 4 ª•~¡°Á visit K͉§#°.
I have visited Delhi four times sofar.

19. ‹¬ z <£ >ÿ O _È ¶ •ø~Ÿ W„¬ æ \ ÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ 364
oneday matches P_•<Œ_È°.
Sachin Tendulkar has played 364
oneday matches so far.

20. †Ç°O_È=üi W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› 60 „
Ì Qá ê #=••°
ã"Œ‹²<Œ~¡°.

7. "Í°=ò already "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†°Ç O inform
K͉§=ò.
8. J`Ç_È° already bill pay K͉§_È°.
9. P"³ ° already
KÍ‹¬°ä›½#ßk.

certificates receive

10. "Œ~¡° already tickets book K͉§~¡°.
11. <Í # ° W„¬ æ \÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ D course …Õ
15 classes H÷ attend J~ò<Œ#°.
12. "Í°=ò W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ ~¡¶. 10,000 =‹¬¶•°
KÍ‹²<Œ=ò.
13. =°#=ò W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ 200 H÷.g° ㄬ†Ç¶}O
KÍ‹²<Œ=ò.
14. =¶ English lecturer W„¬ æ \÷ = ~¡ ä › ½
4 poems teach KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°.
15. J`Ç _ È ° WO`Ç = ~¡ ä › ½ studies HË‹¬ O
~¡¶. 50,000 Y~¡°ó KÍ‹²<Œ_È°.

Yandamuri has written more than 60
novels so far.

Make hay while the sun shines.

Z
64

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê „¬îië K͆°Ç x Hùxß „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° WOHê exam. fee pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
P"³° WOHê Hê…èr…Õ KÍ~¡…è^ΰ.

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò WOHê x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° WOHê P W•°Á MìmK͆ǰ…è^ΰ.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê, WO`Ç =~¡ä½› K͆°Ç x „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#¶ „¬îië K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Have / Has + not + (yet) 'III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

I, We, You, They - Subject Qê
He, She, It, -

=ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have'
Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í # ° D~ËA WOHê
KÇ^Î=…è^ΰ.

newspaper

I have not yet read the newspaper
today.

2. "Í°=ò D <³• WOHê
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

house rent pay

We have not yet paid the house rent
this month.

3. =¶ brother WOHê degree „¬îiëK†
Í °Ç …è^°Î .
My brother has not yet completed his
degree.

4. P"³° WOHê =°=òà•#° party H÷ P‚¬ðÞxOKÇ
…è^ΰ.
She has not yet invited us to the party.

5.
65

Pinakini Express WOHê ~Œ…è^ΰ.
The Pinakini Express has not yet
arrived.

6. <Í#° J`Çx letterH÷ reply WOHê W=Þ…è^ΰ.
I have not yet given reply to his letter.

7. "Í ° =ò WOHê "Œi`Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O
KÇióOKÇ…è^ΰ.
We have not yet discussed this matter
with them.

8. g°~¡ ° WOHê P
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

bank

…Õ

loan clear

You have not yet cleared the loan in
that bank.

9. "Œ~¡° WOHê JH›ø_È |†Ç°•°^Í~¡…è^ΰ.
They have not yet started there.

10. =¶ father <Œä›½ D <³• WOHê
„¬O„¬…è^ΰ.

money

My father has not yet sent me money
this month.

,

11. P"³° WOHê
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

application form submit

She has not yet submitted her
application form.

12. "Œ~¡° WOHê programme ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ…^è °Î .
They have not yet commenced the
programme.

13. <Í # ° WOHê
JO^ΰHË…è^ΰ.

appointment orders

I have not yet received the
appointment orders.

14. "Í ° =ò WOHê
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

function

H÷ U~Œæ@°Á

We have not yet made
arrangements for the function.

the

15. <Í#° WO`Ç =~¡ä›½ Delhi visit K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
I have not visited Delhi sofar.

16. "Í°=ò WO`Ç=~¡ä½› D HË~¡°• …Õ XH› HêÁ‹°¬
䛕_¨ miss Hê…è^ΰ.
We have not missed a class in this
course sofar.

17. J`Ç_È° WO`Ç =~¡ä›½ XH› interview 䛕_¨
attend Hê…è^ΰ.
He has not attended an interview
sofar.

18. <Í # ° WO`Ç =~¡ ä › ½ W@°=O\÷ =¼H÷ ë x
KǶ_È…è^ΰ.
I have not seen such a person sofar.

19. "Í°=ò WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ J`Çxx H›•=…è^ΰ.
We have not met him sofar.

20. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç =~¡ä›½ XH› programme 䛕_¨
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ…è^ΰ.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° WOHê text books Hù#…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò WOHê journey H÷ tickets book
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
3. P"³° WOHê „¬îiëQê HË•°HË…è^ΰ.
4. =¶ father WOHê office #°O_• uiy
~Œ…è^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡° WOHê D ~ËA shop `³~¡°=…è^ΰ.
6. <Í#° WOHê „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ English subject
prepare Hê…è^ΰ.
7. "Í°=ò WOHê function H÷ ready J=…è^ΰ.
8. †Çüx=i•\© WOHê _•ãw „¦e¬ `Œ•° „ã H¬ \
› O÷ KÇ
…è^ΰ.
9. Government WOHê ordinance pass
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
10. "Œ~¡ ° WOHê bank #°Oz money
withdraw K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
11. <Í#° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ =°# C.M. Speech
q#…è^ΰ.
12. "Í ° =ò WO`Ç = ~¡ ä › ½ J`Ç x ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O
HË~¡…è^ΰ.
13. J`Ç_È° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH› „¬sH›Æ 䛕_¨ pass
Hê…è^ΰ.
14. P"³° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH› meeting H÷ 䛕_¨
‚¬ð[~¡°Hê…è^ΰ.
15. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH› instalment 䛕_¨
pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

They have not conducted any
programme sofar.

Prevention is better than cure.

Z
66

,

: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò XH›~°¡ (just) W„¬C_Í Qêx, (already) WO`Ç䛽=òO^³„¬C_Ë Qêx, (ever)
Z„¬C_³á<Œ Qêh …èH› XH›„¬xx (sofar) W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› Zxߪ•~¡°Á KÍ‹#
² k„
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô just W„¬C_Í •OKŸ f‹¬°ä›½<Œß"Œ?
g°~¡° already bill pay KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?

J
J

J`Ç_È° Z„¬C_³á<Œ h䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O KÍ‹²<Œ_¨?
h=ô W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡° J~ò<Œ=ô ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 W„¬C_Í, WO`Çä½› =òO^³„C¬ _Ë, Z„¬C_³<
á Œ,
XH›~¡° KÍ‹²# „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 just W„¬ C _Í Qêx, already
WO`Ç䛽=òO^³„¬C_ËQêx, ever Z„¬C_³á<Œ Qêx sofar WO`Ç=~¡ä›½, W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ XH›~¡° „¬îië KÍ‹²# XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ('just now', 'already', 'ever', 'sofar')
" Have / Has + 'III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Have'
He, She, It, - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

letter receive

6. g°~¡° already D q+¬†°Ç O KÇióOz<Œ~Œ?

Have you received this letter just now?

Have you already discussed this
matter?

h=ô just W„¬ C _Í D
KÍ‹¬°ä›½<Œß"Œ?

2. g°~¡ ° just W„¬ C _Í D „¬ x x „¬ î ië
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Have you finished this work just now?

3. g° father just W„¬C_Í P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ "³o¤<Œ~Œ?
Has your father just gone to office?

4. h=ô

already exam fee pay KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ?
Have you already paid the exam fee?

5. g° brother
†Çò<Œß_¨?

already P.G.

„¬ î ië K Í ‹ ²

Has your brother already completed
his P.G. ?

67

7. h=ô Z„¬ C _³ á < Œ Pã Q ê

visit KÍ ‹ ² < Œ"Œ?
Have you ever visited Agra?

8. g°~¡° Z„¬C_³á<Œ `Çq°ˆ˜<Œ_È° ZH±•ãÌ„‹¹…Õ
ㄬ†Ç¶}OKÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Have you ever travelled by the
Tamilnadu Express?

9. P"³° Z„¬C_³á<Œ q°=òà•#° "ŒiO\÷H÷
P‚¬ðÞxOz#^¥?
Has she ever invited you to her house?

10. "Œ~¡° Z„¬C_³<
á Œ D ‡é\©•…Õ ‡•…ç¾x<Œ~Œ?
Have they ever participated in these
competitions?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› Zxß ª•~¡°Á interview H÷
attend J~ò<Œ=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

1. h=ô Hê…èl #°O_• just W„¬C_Í =zó<Œ"Œ?
2. g°~¡° just W„¬C_Í WH›ø_È䛽 =zó<Œ~Œ ?
3. J`Ç _ È ° already Govt. job ‡ÚOk
†Çò<Œß_¨?
4. P"³° already English Grammar <Í~¡°óHùx
†Çò#ß^¥?
5. "Œ~¡ ° Z„¬ C _³ á < Œ D problem face
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
6. h=ô Z„¬C_³á<Œ D item taste KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ?
7. „²<ŒH÷h ZH±•„Ì ã ‹¹ just W„¬C_Í "³o¤‡é~ò#^¥?
8. "Œ~¡° programme just W„¬C_Í commence
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
9. h=ô already D news qx†Çò<Œß"Œ?
10. g° brother already training „¬îiëKÍ‹²
†Çò<Œß_¨?
11. h=ô W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ D movie Zxߪ•~¡°Á
KǶ‰§=ô?
12. J`Ç_È° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ studies 䛽 ZO`Ç
Y~¡°óKÍ‹²<Œ_È°?
13. =°#=ò W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß H÷…Õg°@~¡°Á
ㄬ†Ç¶}O KÍ‹²<Œ=ò?
14. P"³ ° W„¬ æ \÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ Zxß letters type
KÍ‹²#k?
15. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ Zxß Hê~¡°Û•° „¬O„²}©
KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?

Howmany times have you attended
the interview sofar?
g°~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß instalments pay

KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?

Howmany intalments have you paid
sofar ?

13. D <³•…Õ W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ h=ô ZO`Ç _È|°Ä
Y~¡°ó KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
14.

15.

Howmuch money have you spent this
month sofar ?
g° maths lecturer W„¬ æ \ ÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ Zxß
chapters complete KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?
Howmany chapters has your Maths
lecturer completed sofar ?
q.q.†Ç°‹¹. •H›Æà}Ÿ W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ one day
matches …Õ Zxß Ì‹OKÇs•° KÍ‹²<Œ_È° ?
Howmany centuries has VVS Laxman
made in one-day matches sofar ?

16. N †Ç°O_È=üi W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß #=••°
ã"Œ‹²<Œ_È° ?

18.

Howmany novels has Yandamuri
written sofar?
"Œ~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ ƒì¼OH±…Õ ZO`Ç amount
deposit KÍ‹²<Œ~¡° ?
Howmuch amount have they
diposited in the bank sofar ?
h=ô W„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ Delhi Zxߪ•~¡°Á visit

19.

Howmany times have you visited
Delhi sofar ?
"Œ~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß |°H±• publish

17.

KÍ‹²<Œ=ô ?

KÍ‹²<Œ~¡° ?

Howmany books have they published
sofar ?

20. W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› P†Ç°# Zxߪ•~¡°Á ZxßH•› …Õ
‡é\©K͉§~¡° ?
Howmany times has he contested in
the elections sofar ?

Z

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

68

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô WOHê fee pay K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
g° brother WOHê duty …Õ KÍ~¡…è^¥ ?

J
J

J
J

g°~¡° WOHê orders JO^ΰHË…è^¥ ?
P"³° WOHê office #°Oz ~Œ…è^¥ ?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê( yet ) K͆°Ç x
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Haven't / Hasn't + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject 'I' , We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Haven't ' =KÇ°ó#°.
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Hasn't' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô WOHê lunch f‹¬°HË…è^¥ ?
Haven't you yet taken lunch ?

2. g°~¡° WOHê D <³• rent pay K͆ǰ…è^¥?
Haven't you yet paid house rent this
month ?

3. J`Ç_È° WOHê xã^Î…è=…è^¥ ?
interview

䛕_¨

Haven't you faced even one
interview sofar ?

5.

69

Train WOHê ~Œ…è^¥ ?
Hasn't the train yet arrived ?

Haven't they yet taken a decision
in this matter ?

7. g°~¡° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½

Delhi visit K͆ǰ…è^¥?
Haven't you yet visited Delhi sofar?

8. J`Ç_È° WOHê job ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥ ?

Hasn't he yet woke up ?

4. h=ô WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH›ø
face K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

6. "Œ~¡° WOHê D q+¬†Ç°=ò…Õ decision
f‹¬°HË…è^¥?

Hasn't he yet got a job ?

9. P"³° WOHê degree „¬îië K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Hasn't she yet completed her
degree ?

10. P"³° WOHê college …Õ join J=…è^¥ ?
Hasn't she yet joined college ?

,
'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. h=ô WOHê

books ZO^ΰ䛽 Hù#…è^ΰ ?
Why haven't you yet bought books?
12. g°~¡° WOHê D q+¬†°Ç O ZO^ΰ䛽 discuss

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why haven't you yet discussed this
matter ?
13. J`Ç_°È WOHê D <³• salary ZO^ΰ䛽 draw

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't he yet drawn his salary
this month ?
14. P"³° WOHê "Œix party H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 invite

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't she yet invited them to
the party?
15. Train WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 |†Ç°•°^Í~¡…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't the train yet departed ?
16. "Œ~¡° WOHê P house ZO^ΰ䛽 vacate

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ?
Why haven't they yet vacated that
house ?
17. g°~¡ ° P loan WOHê ZO^Î ° ä› ½ clear

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô WOHê exam fee pay K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
2. g°~¡ ° WOHê Jxß
J=…è^¥?

sujects prepare

3. J`Ç_È° WOHê office #°Oz uiy ~Œ…è^¥?
4. P"³° WOHê items `džǶ~¡° K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° WOHê shop open K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
6. =~¡ÂO WOHê PQ®…è^¥ ?
7. g°~¡° WOHê
Hê…è^¥ ?

new house

8. h=ô WOHê D <³ •
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

…ÕxH÷

shift

report submit

9. g° father D <³• h䛽 WOHê
„¬O„¬…è^¥ ?

money

10. J`Ç_È° WOHê orders JO^ΰHù#…è^¥ ?
11. h=ô WOHê duty …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 KÍ~¡…è^ΰ ?

Why haven't you yet cleared that
loan ?

18. "Œ~¡° WOHê WH›ø_•H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^°Î ?
Why haven't they yet come here ?
19. J`Ç_È° WOHê D ~ËA office H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽

"³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't he yet gone to office
today ?
20. P"³° WOHê D <³• doctor x ZO^ΰ䛽
consult Hê…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't she yet consulted the
doctor this month ?

12. g°~¡° WOHê P
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

work

ZO^ΰ䛽

finish

13. J`Ç_È° WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 licence 䛽
apply K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
14. P"³° WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 ready J=…è^ΰ ?
15. "Œ~¡° WOHê P book ZO^ΰ䛽 publish
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

Z

Don't try to master too many things.

70

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have' or 'Has' + III form of the
Verb Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Present Perfect Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß ‹¬ = °†Ç ° =ò#ä› ½ just W„¬ C _Í Hêh, already WO`Ç ä › ½
=òO^³„¬C_ËHêx …èH› sofar WO`Ç=~¡ä½› XH› „¬xx Zxß ª•~¡°Á KÍ‹#
² n ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"have' or 'has' + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1.I have bought this purse justnow.2. We have already paid the bill.
3. He has written two books sofar. 4. She has already completed the course.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê (yet) „¬îië K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "havenot / hasnot + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
3.

1. I have not yet met him.

2. We have not yet taken lunch.

3. She hasnot yet recovered.

4. They havenot yet taken a decision.

QUESTION FORM :

=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß ‹¬ = °†Ç ° =ò#ä› ½ just W„¬ C _Í H êh, already WO`Ç ä › ½
=òO^³„C¬ _ËHêh, ever Z„¬C_³<
á ŒHêh, sofar WO`Ç=~¡ä½› XH› „¬xx Zxߪ•~¡°,Á ZO`Ç=~¡ä½›
KÍ‹²#n Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Have you finished this work just now? 2. Have you ever visited this place?
3. Has he ever helped you? 4.Have you appeared for the test two times sofar?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê (yet) „¬îiëK͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Haven't / Hasn't + III form of
the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Haven't you yet seen the new movie ? 2. Hasn't he yet got a job ?
3. Hasn't she yet gone to college ?

71

4. Haven't they yet paid the bill ?

,

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

121.

ascend

ascended

ascended

122.

ask

asked

asked

123.

assemble

assembled

assembled

124.

assist

assisted

assisted

125.

associate

associated

associated

126.

assume

assumed

assumed

127.

assure

assured

assured

128.

astomish

astomished

astomished

129.

attach

attached

attached

130.

attack

attacked

attacked

131.

attain

attained

attained

132.

attempt

attempted

attempted

133.

attend

attended

attended

134.

attest

attested

attested

135.

attract

attracted

attracted

136.

avoid

avoided

avoided

137.

babble

battled

battled

138.

bake

baked

baked

139.

bamish

bamished

bamished

140.

beetch

beetched

beetched

D ~ËA

Meaning

Z䛽ø@
J_È°Q®°@
‹¬=¶"͉×=°Q®°@
‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°=òK͆Çò@
‹¬‚¬ì"Œ‹¬=òK͆Çò
T‚²ìOKÇ°@
‚¬ðg°WKÇ°ó@
P‰×ó~¡¼„¬~¡KÇ°@
JO\÷OKÇ°@
„Ì |á _È°, ^¥_•K͆ò
Ç @
‡ÚO^ΰ@
ㄬ†Ç°ußOKÇ°@
‚¬ð[~¡Q®°@
ª•H›¼Æ =òK³„C¬ @
PH›iÂOKÇ°@
x~Ëk•OKÇ°@
=^Î~¡°@
~ù>ÿ“•° Hê•°ó@
|‚²ì‹¬ø~¡}K͆Çò
ã`Í#°æ@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
72

Fame is the perfume of heroic deeds.

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PAST PERFECT
XHùøH›øª•i =°#O XH›~°¡ Q®`OÇ …Õ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië J~ò#
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
ï~O_È° „¬#°•° XH›ö~ KÍ‹²=ôO_È=KÇ°ó …èH› "Í~¡° "Í~¡° =¼ä›½ë•° KÍ‹²=ôO_È=KÇ°ó.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° x#ß WH›ø_È䛽 =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, =¶ brother #° H›e‰§#°.
"Í°=ò x#ß work start KÍÀ‹ =òO^ΰ, "Í°<Í[~¡° J#°=°u f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.
<Í#° camera Hù<Í =òO^ΰ, ^¥xx ƒìQê test K͉§#°.
"Í°=ò J`Çxx H›eÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í, XH› x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ KÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~¡°Qêx „¬îiëKÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ
=òO^ΰQê „¬îië J~ò# XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³#
á #° 'had + III form of the verb' L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° class H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, lesson
ƒìQê prepare J~ò<Œ#°.

5. <Í#° D college …Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ KÇkq<Œ#°.

I had prepared the lesson well before
I came to the class.

I had studied in Nellore before I joined
this college.

2. x#ß "Í°=ò ï~á…èÞÀ‹“+¬<£H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iH÷
"³o¤‡é~ò#k.

train

The train had left before we went to
the railway station yesterday.

3. <Í#° degree …Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^Í
type <Í~¡°óHùx<Œ#°.
I had learned type-writing before I
joined degree.

4. x#ß <Í#°

class H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iöH lecturer
attendance f‹²Hù<Œß~¡°.
The lecturer had taken the attendance
before I went to the class yesterday.

73

6.

guests JO^Î~¡¶ "³o¤# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç J`Ç_È°
rest f‹¬°ä›½<Œß_È°.
He took rest after the guests had gone.

7. KŒ…ì books refer KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç J`Ç_È°
XH› book ã"Œ‰§_È°.
He wrote a book after he had refered
to many books.

8.

count KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç <Í#°
J`ÇxH÷ money pay K͉§#°.
I paid him money after I had counted
all the notes.

Notes

Jhß

,

9.

: 94406 16425

Lesson teach KÍ ‹ ² # `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç =¶
teacher notes dictate K͉§~¡°.
Our teacher dictated the notes after he
had taught the lesson.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

10. =¶ uncle `Ë discuss KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç
<Í#° "Œix H›e‰§#°.

1. h=ô <Œä›½ K³À„æ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í <Í#° D
"Œ~¡ë qx†Çò<Œß#°.

I met them after I had discussed with
my uncle.

11. Jxß U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç, "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷
inform K͉§=ò.

EXERCISE

2. J`Çxx "Œ~¡° ‚¬ð‹²æ@…˜H÷ f‹¬°ä›½ "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷
=òO^Í, J`Ç_È° KÇx‡é†Ç¶_È°.

We informed them after we had made
all the arrangements.

3. <Í#° x#ß interview H÷ "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ,
D book refer K͉§#°.

12. <Í#° WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, =¶
friends room H÷ "³ˆì¤#°.

4. x#ß "Í°=ò theatre …ÕxH÷ "³ˆ¤õ ‹¬iH÷ show
"³ò^Î…ÿá#k.

I had gone to my friend's room before
I came here.

13.

Guest •ä›½ serve KÍÀ‹=òO^ΰ P"³° P
item taste KÍ‹²#k.
She had tasted the item before she
served it to the guests.

14. <Í#° P movie KǶÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ H›^ŠÎ
KÇkq<Œ#°.
I had read the story before I saw the
movie.

15. x#ß =~¡ÂO „¬_Í^¥xH÷ =òO^Í "Œ~¡° WO\÷H÷
KÍ~¡°ä›½<Œß~¡°.
They had reached home before it
rained.

16.

Camera Hù<Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ <Í#° ^¥xx
ƒìQê test KÍ‹²<Œ#°.
I had tested the camera well before I
bought it.

5. x#ß guests =KÍó‹¬iH÷ "Í°=ò Jxß U~Œæ@°Á
KÍ‹²†Çò<Œß=ò.
6. <Í#° WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
manager #° H›e‰§#°.

bank

7. x#ß "Í°=ò auditorium H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ "Œ~¡°
programme ‡
ã •~¡Oa•Oz<Œ~¡°.
8. "Œ~¡° „¬x „¬îiëKÍÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í, "Í°=ò
"ŒiH÷ _È|°Ä K³eÁOKŒ=ò.
9. "Í ° =ò x#ß JH› ø _È |†Ç ° •°^Í ö ~ ^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ, "ŒiH÷ `³e†Ç°„¬iz<Œ=ò.
10. =¶ brother own business start
KÍ À ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Î ° work ƒìQê
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß_È°.

17. <Í#° ~Œãu WO\÷H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ „²•Á•° xã^Î
‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.
Children had slept before I went home
last night.

Sweet are the uses of adversity.

Z
74

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KǶ P ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #䛽
WOHê „¬îië Hêx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê degree …Õ join J=…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D town H÷ shift Hê…è^ΰ.

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D W•°Á Hù#…è^ΰ.
P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä›½ „¬îië K͆ǰx „¬#°•#°‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° „À ~ùø#°KǶ J#Qê x#ß\÷ =~¡ä½› , Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O=~¡ä½› , Q®`Ç
<³• =~¡ä½› , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =~¡ä½› …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡Hï #á #¶ XH›~°¡ „¬îië K͆°Ç x
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + not + (Yet) + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject –> Singular, Plural U^³á##°

'had not (yet) III form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D Hê…èl…Õ KÍ~¡…è^ΰ.
I had not yet joined this college by
then.

2. "Í ° =ò J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê À ‹ “ + ¬ < £ ä › ½
KÍ~¡°Hù#…è^ΰ.
We had not yet reached the station
by that time.

3. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê =¶ä›½ D q+¬†Ç°O
`³e†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ…è^ΰ.
You had not yet informed us this news
by then.

4. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê _¨H›“~Ÿ#°
Hê…è^ΰ.

consult

She had not yet consulted the doctor
by then.

5. J„¬æ¬\÷H÷ WOHê =~¡ÂO PQ®…è^ΰ.
The rain had not yet stopped by then.
75

6. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê D L^˼Q® O
‡ÚO^Î…è^ΰ.
He had not yet got this job by then.

7. <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D scooter Hù#…è^ΰ.
I had not yet bought this scooter by
then.

8. "Í ° =ò J„¬ æ \ ÷ H ÷ WOHê D "Œ¼‡•~¡ O
‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ…^è °Î .
We had not yet started this business
by then.

9. =¶ brother J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê
KÍ‹¬°Hù#…è^ΰ.

marriage

My brother had not yet got married by
then.

10. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê KÇ^ΰ=ô „¬îië K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
She had not yet completed her
studies by then.

,

11. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê Hê~¡¼Hã =› °O ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ
…è^ΰ.
They had not yet commenced the
programme by then.

12. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê <Í#° xã^Î…è=…è^ΰ.
I had not yet woken up by that time.

13. "Í ° =ò J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê D ‹¬ O ‹¬ Ö # °
ª•Ö„O² KÇ…^
è °Î .
We had not yet established this firm
by then.

14. J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê N KÇOã^΃ì|° =òY¼=°Oãu
J=…è^ΰ.
Sri Chandra Babu had not yet become
chief-minister by then.

15. J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê <Í#° D message
JO^ΰHË…è^ΰ.
I had not yet received this message
by then.

16. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê D
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

house construct

We had not yet constructed this
house by then.

17. =¶ lecturers J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê syllabus
„¬îië K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
Our lecturers had not yet completed
the syllabus by then.

18. Z<£ . \÷ . ~Œ=¶~Œ=ô J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê
~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…ÕxH÷ ㄬ"ÍtOKÇ…è^ΰ.
Sri N.T. Rama Rao had not yet entered
into politics by then.

19. „
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ=ò J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê D ordinance
pass K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
The government had not yet passed
this ordinance by then.

20. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê WH›ø_Èä½› KÍ~°¡ Hù#…è^°Î .

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° J„æ¬\÷H÷ WOHê English grammar
<Í~¡°óHË…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê lunch f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
3. =¶ sister J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê M.Phil
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
4. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê licence H÷ apply
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D book publish
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
6. <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê major Hê…è^ΰ.
7. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D work „¬îië
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
8. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ.
9. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê VISA ‡ÚO^Î…è^ΰ.
10. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê U.S.A. "³ˆ×Á…è^ΰ.
11. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê chief guest ‹¬ƒ•’…Õ
=¶\ìÁ_È…è^ΰ.
12. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê cards distribute
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
13. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê items `džǶ~¡°
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
14. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê Manager Office H÷
~Œ…è^ΰ.
15. J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê train q[†Ç°"Œ_È À‹“+¬<£H÷
KÍ~¡°HË…è^ΰ.

They had not yet reached here by
then.

A stitch in time saves nine.

Z
76

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê J~ò# „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

x#ß h=ô JH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ¤õ ‹¬iH÷, "Œ~¡° „¬x ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz<Œ~Œ ?
h=ô station H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½<Í ‹¬iH÷, train "³o¤ ‡é~ò#^¥ ?
g°~¡° JH›ø_È |†Ç°•° ^Íö~=òO^ΰ, "ŒiH÷÷ inform KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?
h=ô Q®=~¡ß"³°O\˜ *샘 ‡ÚO^Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, D Hê…èl…Õ „¬xKÍ‹²<Œ"Œ ?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² ~ï O_È°„¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië KÍ‹#
² „¬xx „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ KÍ‹#² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îiëK‹Í #² XH›
„¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + 'III form of the Verb" L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'Had' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

h=ô WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍ=
ó òO^ΰ
consult J~ò<Œ"Œ?

manager

Had you consulted the Manager
before you came here?

2. J`ÇxH÷

money pay

KÍÀ‹=òO^ΰ

notes

count KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ?
Had you counted the notes before you
paid him money?

3.

4.

77

Computer course join J†Í ° ¼=òO^Î °
course Q®°iOz enquire KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Had you enquired about the computer
course before you joined it?
letter post KÍÀ‹=òO^ΰ h=ô address
check KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ?
Had you checked the address before
you posted the letter?

5. <Í#° K³À„æ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í h=ô D
`³•°‹¬°ä›½<Œß"Œ?

news

Had you known this news before I told
you ?

6. ‹¬ÞO`Ç "Œ¼‡•~¡O ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ\ìxH÷ =òO^ΰ
h=ô work <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß"Œ?
Had you learned the work before you
started your own business?

7. ~Œãu =~¡ÂO „¬_^
Í ¥xH÷ =òO^Í g°~¡° WO\÷H÷
KÍ~¡°ä›½<Œß~Œ ?
Had you reached home before it rained
last night?

8. D x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½<Í =òO^ΰ h=ô g°
father `Ë discuss K͉§"Œ ?
Had you discussed with your father
before you took this decision?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

9.

: 94406 16425

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

11.

Class H÷ =KÍ=
ó òO^ΰ h=ô ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆì¤=ô?
Where had you gone before you came
to the class?
D H›OÌ„h…Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
h=ô ZH›ø_È work KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
Where had you worked before you
joined this company?
D work ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ =òO^ΰ g°~¡° Z=i

12.

Whose permission had you taken
before you started this work?
x#ß h=ô press ^ÎQ®¾~¡ä›½ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ J`Ç_È°

3. g°~¡° station H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷
J~ò#^¥ ?

Zxß

cards ㄲO\˜KÍ‹² †Çò<Œß_È°?
Howmany cards had he printed
before you went to the press?
Clinic H÷ "³ˆõ¤=òO^ΰ Uq° f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ô?
What had you taken before you went
to the clinic?

4. J`Ç_È° degree complete KÍÀ‹ ^¥xH÷
=òO^Í type „¬sH›Æ pass J~ò<Œ_¨ ?

14. <Í#° K³À„æ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í h=ô D q+¬†Ç°O
Z…ì `³•°‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ô?

6. g°~¡° press H÷ "³ˆ¤õ‹i¬ H÷ J`Ç_°È cards print
KÍ‹²<Œ_¨ ?

10.

13.

„¬ià+¬<£ f‹¬°ä›½<Œß~¡°?

15.

How had you known this news before
I told you?
h=ô D job ‡ÚO^Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ h䛽

16.

Who had helped you before you got
this job?
D Hê…è*…˜ Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ h=ô

Z=~¡° ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?

ZH›ø_È KÇkq<Œ=ô?

Where had you studied before you
joined this college?

17. g°~¡° "Œix H›eÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ "Œ~¡°
ZO`Ç amount collect KÍ‹²†Çò<Œß~¡°?
18.

Howmuch amount had they collected
before you met them?
WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó =òO^ΰ h=ô g° father `Ë
Uq° discuss KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
What had you discussed with your
father before you came here?

1.

H÷ =KÍó =òO^ΰ,
prepare J~ò<Œ"Œ ?

Class

lesson

ƒìQê

2. JH›ø_È |†Ç°•°^Íö~=òO^ΰ g°~¡° "ŒiH÷
inform KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?

5. "Œ~¡ ° =KÍ ó ‹ ¬ i H÷ g°~¡ °
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?

train move

work finish

7. g°~¡° D town H÷ shift J†Í°^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
ZH›ø_È x=tOz<Œ~¡° ?
8.

KÍÀ‹ =òO^ΰ h=ô
work ZH›ø_È <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ô ?

Own business start

9. h=ô WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍ=
ó òO^ΰ Z=ix consult
J~ò<Œ=ô ?
10. g°~¡ ° D town H÷ shift J†Í ° ^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ Guntur …Õ Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°
x=tOz <Œ~¡°?

As you sow, so you reap.

Z
78

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê college …Õ KÍ~¡…è^¥ ?
J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D job ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥ ?

J
J

J
J

g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D town H÷ shift Hê…è^¥?
P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê office H÷ "³ˆ×¤…è^¥ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° K³„C¬ KǶ, P ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê J„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä½› „¬îië
K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Hadn't + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Hadn't+III form of the Verb' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. J„¬æ\÷H÷ h=ô WOHê Inter „¬îië K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Hadn't you yet completed Intermediate
by then ?

2. J„¬æ\÷H÷ g°~¡° WOHê D message
JO^ΰHË…è^¥ ?

Hadn't you yet received this message
by then ?

6. J„¬æ\÷H÷ J`Ç_È° WOHê x#°ß H›•=…è^¥ ?
Hadn't he yet met you by then ?

7. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê g°~¡° D
Hê…è^¥?

town

shift

Hadn't you yet shifted to this town by
then ?

3. J„¬æ\÷H÷ P"³° WOHê WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…è^¥ ?

8. J„¬æ@H÷ "Œ~¡° WOHê
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

4. J„¬æ\÷H÷ "Œ~¡° WOHê D business start
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

9. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê h=ô D scooter Hù#…è^¥?

5. J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ h=ô WOHê
f‹¬°HË…è^¥?

10. J„¬æ\÷H÷ "Œ~¡° WOHê D house construct
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?

Hadn't she yet come here by that time?

Hadn't they yet started this business
by then ?
permission

Hadn't you yet taken permission by
then?

79

function

H÷ U~Œæ@°Á

Hadn't they yet made arrangements for
the function by that time ?

Hadn't you yet bought this scooter by
then ?

Hadn't they yet constructed this house
by then ?

,
'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O
ZO^ΰ䛽 inform K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't you yet informed them
this matter ?

12. g°~¡ ° J„¬ æ \ ÷ H ÷ WOHê JH› ø _È ZO^Î ° ä› ½
|†Ç°•°^Í~¡…è^ΰ ?
13.

Why hadn't you yet started there by
then ?
J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê bill ZO^ΰ䛽 pay

14.

Why hadn't he yet paid the bill by then?
P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 office H÷

15.

Why hadn't she yet gone to office by
that time ?
"Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê P work ZO^ΰ䛽

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ?
"³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ ?

„¬îiëK͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

Why hadn't they yet finished the work
by that time ?

16. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê "Œi`Ë D q+¬†Ç°O
ZO^ΰ䛽 discuss K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?

18.

Why hadn't you yet discussed this
matter with them by then ?
g°~¡ ° J„¬ æ \ ÷ H ÷ WOHê cards ZO^Î ° ä› ½
distribute K͆ǰ…è^ΰ?
Why hadn't you yet distributed the
cards by then ?
P†Ç°# J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 file clear

19.

Why hadn't he yet cleared the file by
then ?
P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 P course …Õ

17.

K͆ǰ…è^ΰ?

KÍ~¡…è^ΰ ?

Why hadn't she joined the course by
then?

20. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 JH›ø_•H÷
KÍ~¡…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't they yet reached there
by then ?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D x~¡â†Ç°O
f‹¬°HË…è^¥ ?
2. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê licence ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥ ?
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê xã^Î…è=…è^¥ ?
4. P"³ ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê studies „¬ î ië
K͆ǰ…è^¥?
5. Train J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê station H÷ KÍ~°¡ HË…è^¥?
6. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D book publish
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
7. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D news q#…è^¥ ?
8. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê promotion
‡ÚO^Î…è^¥?
9. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê programme
"³ò^Ε°Ì„@“…è^¥ ?
10. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê bill pay K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
11. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê salary ZO^ΰ䛽 draw
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
12. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê work ZO^ΰ䛽 finish
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
13. J`Ç_°È J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 h䛽 money
„¬O„¬…è^ΰ ?
14. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê "Œix ZO^ΰ䛽 invite
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 JH›ø_È䛽
KÍ~¡°HË…è^ΰ ?

Z

Small deeds done are better than great deeds planned.

80

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ ''Had' + III form of the
Verb" Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Past Perfect Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò „¬îiëKÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië
KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 'Had' + III form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I had finished my work before I went out.
2. We had known the news before you told us.
3. He had gone out before I went there.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° K³„¬CKǶ J„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ WOHê „¬îiëK͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had + not+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I had not yet got this job by then.
2. We had not yet received the message by that time.
3. He had not yet completed his studies by then.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò „¬îië KÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê
KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had + III form of the
Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Had you taken lunch before you came here ?
2. Had you booked the tickets before they came here ?
3. Had you counted the notes before you paid him money ?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° K³„¬CKǶ J„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ WOHê „¬îië K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Hadn't + III form of the
Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Hadn't you yet woke up by that time ?
2. Hadn't he yet got ready by then ?
3. Hadn't they yet commenced the programme by that time ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

140. beetch

beetched

beetched

141. believe

believed

believed

142. bellow

bellowed

bellowed

143. belong

belonged

belonged

144. blend

blended

blended

145. booze

boozed

boozed

146. borrow

borrowed

borrowed

147. boycott

boycotted

boycotted

148. breathe

breathed

breathed

149. cajole

cajoled

cajoled

150. calculate

calculated

calculated

151. cancel

cancelled

cancelled

152. canvas

canvassed

canvassed

153. capture

captured

captured

154. carry

carried

carried

155. cease

ceased

ceased

156. celebrate

celebrated

celebrated

157. certify

certified

certified

158. chant

chanted

chanted

159. cheat

cheated

cheated

160. chew

chewed

chewed

D ~ËA

Meaning

ã`Í#°æ@
#=òà@
~¡OïH"͆Çò@
#=òà@
H›•°„¬ô@
q°ug°i ã`ŒQ®°@
J„¬CQê f‹¬°Hù#°@
|‚²ì‹¬øiOKÇ°@
‰§Þ‹²OKÇ°@
‡Úy_• "³¶‹¬yOKÇ°
…ÿH›øÌ„@“@
~¡^ΰíK͆Çò@
‡ã •^•Í†°Ç „¬_°È @
ª•Þn•#=òKÍ‹°¬ Hù#°
"³¶‹¬°Hùx‡é=ô@
x•°„¬ô@
[~¡°„¬ôHù#°@
„¬ã`Ç=ò WKÇ°ó@
‡•_È°@
"³¶‹¬„¬ôKÇ°ó@
#=°•°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
82

Ability is of little account without opportunity.

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FUTURE PERFECT
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"
Ç °³ #
Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• „¬îiëK†
Í ò
Ç ^ΰ=ò.
P „¬xx Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆Çò^Î"³¶ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO …Õ„¬• q[†Ç°"Œ_È KÍ~¡°ä›½O\ì#°.
"Í°=ò next Monday …Õ„¬• report `dž¶Ç ~¡°Kͪ•ë=ò.
"Œ~¡° g°ä›½ =KÍó 15th …Õ„¬• orders „¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡°.
<Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• D answers Jhß <Í~¡°ó䛽O\ì#°.

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"
Ç °³ #
Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆ò
Ç „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"Ç °³ #Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• J#Qê ~ö „¬ôQêx, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•,
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬•<³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ „¬îië
K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Will have + III form'

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• D #=• KÇk"ͪ•ë#°.

2.

I will have read this novel by tomorrow.
"Í°=ò next week …Õ„¬• D work finish

3.

We will have finished this work by next
week.
g°~¡ ° next Monday …Õ„¬ • orders

4.

You will have received the orders by
next Monday.
=¶ brother next May …Õ„¬• degree „¬îië

Kͪ•ë=ò.

7.

JO^ΰ䛽O\ì~¡°.

8.

Kͪ•ë_°È .

My brother will have completed his
degree by next May.

5. P"³° ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• XOQË•°H÷ uiy =‹¬°Oë k.
She will have returned to Ongole by
tomorrow.

83

6. "Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• …Õ„¬• family <³•¶Á~°¡ H÷ shift
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

9.

They will have shifted their family to
Nellore by next month.
Nagarjuna University next 15th …Õ„¬•
Degree results announce KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
Nagarjuna University will have
announced the Degree results by 15th
of next month.
<Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• g°ä›½ inform

Kͪ•ë#°.

I will have informed you by tomorrow
evening.
"Í°=ò next Sunday …Õ„¬• D cards Jhß
distribute Kͪ•ë=ò.
We will have distributed all these
cards by next Sunday.

,

10. J`Ç_È° next Monday …Õ„¬• duty …Õ join
J=ô`Œ_È°.
He will have joined duty by next
Monday.

11. "Œ~¡ ° next
KÍ‹
À ª•ë~°¡ .

week

…Õ„¬ • D

bill pay

They will have paid the bill by next
week.

12. "Í°=ò next December …Õ„¬• D
clear KÍ‹
À ª•ë=ò.

loan

We will have cleared this loan by next
December.

13. P"³° D ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• D letters
Jhß type KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
She will have typed all these letters
by this evening.

14. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO …Õ„¬•
U~Œæ@°Á Kͪ•ë=ò.

function

We will have made the arrangements
for the function by tomorrow morning.

15. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• D
"ã ŒÀ‹ª•ë#°.

notes

I will have written this notes by
tomorrow evening.

16. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO 9 'O' clock …Õ„¬•
Q®°O@¶~¡° KÍ~¡°ä›½O\ì~¡°.
They will have reached Guntur by 9'O'
clock tomorrow morning.

17. "Í°=ò ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ XH›
x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½O\ìO.
We will have taken a decision in this
matter by tomorrow.

18. "Í°=ò next Monday …Õ„¬• Collector 䛽
report submit Kͪ•ë=ò.
We will have submitted the report to
the Collector by next Monday.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. "Í°=ò

next month
prepare J=ô`Œ=ò.

…Õ„¬• Jxß lessons

2. "Œ~¡° =KÍó "Œ~¡O …Õ„¬• P road repair
KÍ‹
À ª•ë~°¡ .
3. =KÍó =¶ió …Õ„¬• „
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO teacher posts
ƒ•’së KÍ‹
À ‹¬°Oë k.
4. "Œ~¡° D <³…ìY~¡° …Õ„¬• P book publish
KÍ‹
À ª•ë~°¡ .
5. D train ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO 9'O' clock …Õ„¬•
_••bÁ KÍ~°¡ 䛽O@°Ok.
6. =¶ English lecturer D <³ … ìY~¡ ° H÷
syllabus complete Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
7. "Œ~¡° next December …Õ„¬• P house
construct KÍ‹
À ª•ë~°¡ .
8. "Í°=ò ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• g°ä›½ =‹¬°=
ë ô•° deliver
Kͪ•ë=ò.
9. =¶ mother WOHùH› Q®O@…Õ lunch H÷ Jxß
items `dž¶
Ç ~¡° Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
10. =KÍó XH›@= `Ín …Õ„¬• "Í°=ò D W•°Á
Mìm Kͪ•ë=ò.
11. =¶ uncle next December …Õ„¬• U.S.A.
"³o¤‡é`Œ~¡°.
12. =KÍó 5th …Õ„¬• J`Ç_È° salary draw
Kͪ•ë_°È .
13. ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• doctors P"³°#° hospital
#°O_• discharge Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
14. <Í#° g° amount =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O …Õ„¬•
repay Kͪ•ë#°.
15. "Œ~¡ ° next month 10th …Õ„¬• _•ãw
admission list announce Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

Example is better than precept.

Z
84

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QUESTION FORM
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"
Ç °³ #
Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆ò
Ç ^ΰ=ò.
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• XH›~°¡ „¬îië K͆ò
Ç XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• g°~¡° D „¬xx „¬îië Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
=KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O …Õ„¬• J`Ç_°È XOQË•°H÷ uiy =ª•ë_¨ ?
Next June …Õ„¬• P"³° degree „¬îië KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
ö~„¬ô evening …Õ„¬• g°~¡° D bill pay Kͪ•ë~Œ?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°O…Õ„¬• XH›~°¡ „¬îië K͆ò
Ç „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• J#Qê ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬•, =KÍó "Œ~¡O …Õ„¬•, =KÍó
<³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆òÇ XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
I, We - Subject Qê

L#ß„¬C_È° 'Shall have'
You, He, She, It, They - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Will have' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

h=ô ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• x~¡†
â °Ç O f‹¬°ä›½O\ì"Œ?

2.

Will you have taken a decision by
tomorrow ?
g°~¡° next month …Õ„¬• D W•°Á Mìm

3.

Will you have vacated this house by
next month ?
g° brother next Monday …Õ„¬• duty join

Kͪ•ë~Œ ?

J=ô`Œ_¨ ?

4.

5.

85

Will your brother have joined duty by
next Monday?
P"³° next month …Õ„¬• D subject
prepare J=ô`Ç°O^¥?
Will she have prepared this subject
by next month?
"Œ~¡° =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ …Õ„¬• D house
construct Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Will they have constructed the house
by next December?

6. h=ô ª•†Ç°Oã`ÇO…Õ„¬• D
Kͪ•ë"Œ?
7.
8.
9.
10.

letters type

Will you have typed these letters by
this evening?
g°~¡° next week …Õ„¬• orders receive

KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì~Œ?

Will you have received the orders by
next week?
g° lecturers next January …Õ„¬ •
syllabus „¬îië Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Will the lecturers have completed the
syllabus by next January?
g°~¡° next week …Õ„¬• college H÷ report
submit Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Will you have submitted the report to
the college by next week ?
"Œ~¡° ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• cards Jhß distribute

Kͪ•ë~Œ?

Will they have distributed all the cards
by tomorrow ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS
11.

h=ô Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• D
Kͪ•ë=ô?

course

„¬îië

When will you have completed this
course ?
12. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• new house …ÕH÷ shift

J=ô`Œ~¡° ?

When will you have shifted to the new
house?
13. D train Z„¬ æ \÷ …Õ„¬ • Chennai

KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°Ok ?

When will this train have reached
Chennai ?
14. J`Ç_È° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• certificates receive

KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì_È° ?

When will he have received the
certificates ?
15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

: 94406 16425

P"³° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• WH›ø_•H÷ uiy =‹¬°Oë k?
When will she have returned here ?
D <³…ìY~¡° …Õ„¬• g°~¡° ZO`Ç amount
collect Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Howmuch amount will you have
collected by the end of this month ?
Next Saturday …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° Zxß files
clear Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Howmany files will they have cleared
by next Saturday ?
=KÍó 15= `Ín …Õ„¬• h=ô Zxß new
policies book Kͪ•ë=ô ?
Howmany new policies will you have
booked by next 15th ?
=KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° bank …Õ ZO`Ç
amount deposit Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Howmuch amount will they have
deposited in the bank by next
December?
"Œ~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• D ãHù`Çë book publish

Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?

When will they have published this
new book ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• g°~¡° =¶ä›½ g° x~¡â†Ç°O
`³e†Ç°*誕ë~Œ ?
2. WO@sà_•†³°\˜ ƒÕ~ŸÛ "Í° 31 …Õ„¬• „¦e¬ `Œ•°
ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
3. =KÍ ó <³ • …Õ„¬ • J`Ç _ È ° promotion
‡ÚO^ΰ`Œ_¨ ?
4. =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È bridge
xiકë~Œ ?
5. Next Monday …Õ„¬• g°~¡° D bill pay
Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
6. ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• g°~¡° g°\÷OQ·H÷ Jxß
U~Œæ@°Á Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
7. ö~„¬ô 7 p.m. …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° programme
‡ã •~¡Oa•ª•ë~Œ ?
8. D <³• PY~¡° …Õ„¬• g°~¡° Jxß lessons
revise Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
9. h=ô Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• D book KÇk"ͪ•ë=ô ?
10. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• tickets book Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
11. J`Ç_È° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• iHê~ŸÛ work „¬îië
Kͪ•ë_°È ?
12. P"³ ° Z„¬ æ \ ÷ …Õ„¬ • D dress stitch
KÍ‹¬°ëOk ?
13. =KÍó <³• …Õ„¬• g°~¡° …Õ<£ ‡ÚO^ΰ`Œ~Œ?
14. =KÍó "Œ~¡O …Õ„¬• h=ô Zxß lessons
prepare J=ô`Œ=ô ?
15. ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° Zxß copies print
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?

Z

He who follows two hares catches neither.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Will + have + III form of the Verb"
Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Future Perfect Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive
Form 2. Question Form J#° 2 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 2 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• XH›~¡° „¬îië K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 'Will have' + III form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. I will have done this workly tomorrow.
2. We will have completed the course by next week.
3. He will have cleared the file by next Monday.
4. They will have distributed cards by tomorrow.

2.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• XH›~¡° „¬îië K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 'Will have' + III form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Will you have received the orders by next week?
2. Will he have joined the duty by next 5th?
3. Will she have written the novel by next June?
4. Will they have made arrangements by next week?

87

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

161. circulate

circulated

circulated

162. clarify

calrified

calrified

163. climb

climbed

climbed

164. close

closed

closed

165. co-operate

co-operated

co-operated

166. collapse

collapsed

collapsed

167. collect

collected

collected

168. command

commanded

commanded

169. commence

commenced

commenced

170. comment

commented

commented

171. communicate

communicated

communicated

172. compare

compared

compared

173. compel

comepelled

comepelled

174. compete

comepted

comepted

175. compile

compiled

compiled

176. comlain

complained

complained

177. compose

composed

composed

178. conceal

concealed

concealed

178. concentrate

concentrated

concentrated

179. conclude

concluded

concluded

180. confirm

confirmed

confirmed

Meaning

"Œ¼„²O„¬K͆Çò@
q=iOzK³„¬C@
Z䛽ø@
=ü†Çò@
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ°@
„¬_•‡é=ô@
À‹H›iOKÇ°@
P*ìý„²OKÇ°@
P~¡Oa•OKÇ°@
"Œ¼Mì¼#=òK͆Çò
`³e†Ç°*è†Çò
‡é•°ó@
=uë_•K͆òÇ @
‡é\©K͆Çò@
䛕~¡°æK͆Çò@
„¦¬V~Œ¼^ΰK͆Çò@
䛕~¡°æK͆Çò@
~¡‚¬ì‹¬¼=òQê LOKÇ°@
ã‰×^ÎœKǶ„¬ô@
=òyOKÇ°@
Hê†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡°
H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 2 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß
"ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
88

A journey of thousand miles begins with a single step.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò WOH›#°
continuous Qê K͆Çò KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. XH› „¬xx =°#=ò Zxß ~ËA•°Qê, ZO`Ç Hê•OQê, Z„¬æ\÷
#°O_• K͆ò
Ç KÇ°#ßn W`Ç~°¡ •ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz D notes `džǶ~¡° K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß#°.
"Í°=ò <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz D room …Õ LO@°<Œß=ò.
L^ΆǰO #°Oz "Œ~¡° T.V. …Õ match KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
1990 #°Oz =¶ father D business KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz, „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ WOH›#°
Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ß „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

continuous

D q^•ÎOQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx ZO`Ç
Hê•OQêJ#Qê Zxß Q®O@•°Qê, Zxß ~ËA•°, Zxß <³••°, Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have been / Has been + Verb + 'ing' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject –> I, We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'have been',
Subject –> He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'has been' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
English

5. "Œ~¡° <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°Oz D
Hê•h…Õ x=t‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.

I have been learning English
grammar for four months.

They have been living in this colony
for four years.

2. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz bank test H÷
prepare JQ®°KÇ°<Œß=ò.

6. ‡é~ò# ªé=°"Œ~¡O #°Oz WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO
„¬_È°KÇ°#ßk.

We have been preparing for the bank
test for two months.

It has been raining here since
Monday last.

3. =¶ brother 1995 #°Oz POã^•¥ƒì¼OH±
…Õ „¬x KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.

7. <Í#° L^Ά°Ç O 7 Q®OII• #°Oz =¶ friend
HË‹¬O Z^ΰ~¡°KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.

My brother has been working in the
Andhra Bank since 1995.

I have been waiting for my friend
since 7 a.m.

1.

<Í#° <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz
grammar <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°<Œß#°.

4. P"³ ° ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA• #°Oz [Þ~¡ O `Ë
ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È KÇ°#ßk.
She has been suffering from fever for
two days.

89

8. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz
problem face KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.

water

We have been facing water problem
for two months.

,

9. =¶ mother ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz Homeopathic medicines f‹¬°ä›½O@°#ßk.
My mother has been taking
Homeopathic medicines for two
months.

10. <Í#° ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°Oz
job HË‹¬O try KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.

govt.

I have been trying for a government
job for two years.

11. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz
U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.

function

We have been making arrangements
for the function for two days.

12. =¶ father Q®`Ç 8 ‹¬OII•°Qê D business
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
My father has been doing this
business for the past eight years.

13. „¬ k xq°+¬ = ò• #°Oz
ã"³¶Q®°KÇ°#ßk.

telephone

The telephone has been ringing for
ten minutes.

14. J`Ç_È° L^ΆǰO #°Oz P T.V. set repair
K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß_È°.
He has been repairing that T.V. set
since morning.

15. =¶ uncle Q®`Ç 12 ‹¬OII•°Qê lawyer Qê
practise K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß~¡°.
My uncle has been practising as a
lawyer for the past twelve years.

16. <Í # ° ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA• #°Oz D #=•
KÇ^ΰ=ôKÇ°<Œß#°.
I have been reading this novel for two
days.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° XH› Q®O@ #°Oz WH›ø_È bus HË‹¬O
wait KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
2. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz pending files
clear KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
3. P"³° 11 'O' clock #°Oz letters type
KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk.
4. =¶ friend KŒ…ì ~ËA•°Qê <Œä›½ help
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
5. =¶ lecturers "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°Oz =¶ä›½
special HêÁ‹¬°•° f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
6. x#ß \ ÷ #°Oz <Í # ° D book refer
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
7, ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz <Í#° English Ì„á
concentrate K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß#°.
8. P"³ ° XH› <³ • ~ËA•°Qê XH› #=•
ã"Œ‹¬°ë#ßk.
9. "Œ~¡° XH› ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O #°Oz =¶ä›½ ƒìQê
‹¬‚¬ìH›i‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
10. <Í # ° J~¡ Q ® O @ #°Oz D serial
KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
11. ‡•s“ Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•° ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz
WO\÷O\÷H÷ ㄬKŒ~¡O KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
12. ªÏ~¡ƒ˜ Q®OQ®¶b Q®`Ç P~¡° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê
ãH÷ïH\˜ P_È°KÇ°<Œß_È°.
13. "Í°=ò ~ï O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz D workshop
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
14. _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°Oz
HêÁ‹¬°•° |‚²ì+¬øi‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
15. =¶ grand father ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê
cancer `Ë ƒì^•Î„_
¬ °È KÇ°<Œß~°¡ .

No pains, No gains.

Z

90

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Zxß~ËA•°Qê K͆°Ç _ÈO…è^Ë, ZO`ÇHê•OQê
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È_ÈO…è^Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° <Œ•°Q®°~ËA•#°O_• Hê…èlH÷ "³ˆ¤× _ÈO…è^°Î .
J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° "Œ~Œ•#°O_• duty H÷ attend J=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
P"³° <Œ•°Q®°~ËA•#°Oz P‚¬ð~¡O f‹¬°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° 1998 #°O_• D town …Õ x=tOKÇ_ÈO …è^ΰ.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`Ç Hê•=òQê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Z„¬æ\÷#°O_• K͆°Ç _ÈO…è^Ë, Zxß~ËA•°Qê K͆òÇ @…è^Ë, ZO`ÇHê•OQê K͆òÇ @…è^Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Have / Has + not + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note : I, We, You, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have,
He, She, It, - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

*

Note :

Q®`Ç HùO`ÇHê•OQê KÍ‹¬¶ë =ô#ß XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 positive …Õ
"have been + 'ing' form" =KÇ°ó#°. Hêx Negative …Õ 'been + 'ing' form …è䛽O_¨
"have / has + not + III form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ~ï O_È°~ËA•#°O_• computer class
H÷ attend J=_ÈO…è^ΰ.

6. "Œ~¡° "Œ~¡O~ËA•#°O_•
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

2. "Í°=ò „¬k~ËA• #°Oz ãH÷ïH\˜
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

7.

I have not attended the computer
class for two days.

practice

We have not practised cricket for ten
days.

3. P`Ç_È° <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz
pay K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

room rent

He has not paid room rent for four
months.

8.

5. =ü_È° <³••°Qê WH›ø_È =~ŒÂ•° „¬_È…è^ΰ.
It has not rained here for three months.

91

They have not opened the shop for
one week.
"Œ~¡° Q®`Ç =ü_È°‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• school
Annual Day celebrate K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They have not celebrated the school
Annual Day for the past three years.
<Í # ° last Monday #°O_• J`Çxx

H›•°=…è^ΰ.

I have not met him since Monday last.

9. "Í°=ò E<£ 1 #°O_• =¶ =î~¡° "³ˆ¤…× ^
è °Î .

4. P"³° x#ß\÷#°O_• =¶WO\÷H÷ ~Œ…è^ΰ.
She has not come to our house since
yesterday.

shop open

10.

We have not gone to our village since
June 1st.
J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• studies Ì„á
concentrate K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
He has not concentrated on his
studies for two months.

,

11. P"³ ° <Œ•°Q® ° ~ËA•#°O_• P‚¬ ð ~¡ O
f‹¬°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
She has not taken food for four days.

12. <Í # ° ï ~ O_È ° <³ • • #°O_•
KǶ_È_ÈO…è^ΰ.

13. "Í°=ò XH› ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O#°O_• J`Çx`Ë move
Hê=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
We have not moved with him for one
year.
exercise

He has not taken exercise for one
week.

15. "Œ~¡° ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_•
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

programmes

They have not conducted the
programmes for two months.

16. <Í#° HùO`ÇHê•O #°Oz J`ÇxH÷ ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ.
I have not helped him for sometime.

17. J`Ç_È° XH› ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O#°O_• ZH›ø_¨
„¬xK͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
He has not worked anywhere for one
year.

18. "Í ° =ò P~¡ ° <³ • •#°O_• P
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

car use

We have not used that car for six
months.

19. HùO`Ç H ê•OQê =¶
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

brothers

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

films

I have not seen films for two months.

14. J`Ç _ È ° "Œ~¡ O ~ËA•#°O_•
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.

: 94406 16425

<Œä› ½

My brothers have not co-operated
with me for sometime.

20. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OII• #°O_• accounts ‹¬iQê
maintain K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They have not maintained the
accounts for the past five years.

1. <Í#° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA• #°Oz Hê…èrH÷ "³ˆ¤@
× O
…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°O_• U
‹¬=°‹¬¼ Z^ΰ~Ëø=@O …è^ΰ.
3. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz J`Ç_È° HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ miss
Hê…è^ΰ.
4. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz P"³° =¶`Ë =¶\ìÁ_@
È O …è^°Î .
5. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°O_• q^•Î°•ä›½
‚¬ð[~¡=@O…è^ΰ.
6. =¶ father ï~O_È° <³•• #°O_• <Œä›½
money „¬O„¬@O …è^ΰ.
7. 1998 #°Oz "Œ~¡° WH›ø_È x=tOKÇ@O
…è^ΰ.
8. ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• N<Œ^•£ one day
matches P_È@O …è^ΰ.
9. P"³° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA• #°O_• Z=i`Ë#¶
=¶\ìÁ_È@O …è^ΰ.
10. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç HùO`Ç Hê•OQê q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½
scholarships K³eÁOKÇ@O…è^ΰ.
11. <Í#° Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• U
competitive exam H© appear Hê…è^ΰ.
12. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• J`Çx q+¬†°Ç O *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
13. =òx‹²‡•e\© "Œ~¡° 4 ~ËA• #°O_• h~¡°
‹¬~¡„¦¬~Œ K͆ǰ@O …è^ΰ.
14. P"³° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O #°O_• H›^•ÎŠ ° "ã Œ†Ç°@O
…è^ΰ.
15. Doctor ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°O_• clinic H÷
~Œ=@O …è^ΰ.

Z

Idle man's brain is devil's workshop.

92

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QUESTION FORM
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ WOH›#¶
continuous Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ=ò. XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx Zxß ~ËA•°Qê, ZO`Ç Hê•OQê, Z„¬æ\÷
#°O_• K͆ò
Ç KÇ°#ßn „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô WH›ø_È Q®O@ #°Oz wait K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß"Œ?
g°~¡° 1998 #°Oz D town …Õ x=t‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?
g° brother ~ï O_È° ‹¬OI #°O_• job KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨ ?
P"³° x#ß\÷ #°Oz [Þ~¡O`Ë ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È KÇ°#ß^¥?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz WOH›#¶ KÍ‹¶
¬ #
ë ß „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx Zxß
~ËA•°Qê, Zxß <³••°Qê, Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê, ZO`Ç Hê•OQê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + been + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject –> 'I' 'We' 'You' 'They' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Have been'
'He', 'She', 'It' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Has been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

*

EXAMPLES
1.

2.

h=ô x#ß\÷ #°O_• D
K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß"Œ ?

notes

`džǶ~¡°

Have you been preparing this notes
since yesterday ?
g°~¡° "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°O_• results HË‹¬O

6. "Œ~¡ ° 1985 #°O_• D ‹¬ O ‹¬ Ö # °
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?
7.

Z^ΰ~¡° KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?

3.

4.

Have you been waiting for the results
for one week ?
g° brother ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_•
Vizag …Õ LO@°<Œß_¨ ?
Has your brother been staying in Vizag
for two years ?

P"³ ° Q® ` Ç <Œ•°Q® ° ~ËA• #°O_•
L„¬"Œ‹¬=òO@°#ß^¥ ?
Has she been fasting for the last four
days?

5.

Q® ` Ç ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA•°Qê WH› ø _È =~¡ Â O
„¬_È°KÇ°#ß^¥ ?
Has it been raining here for the last
two days ?

93

Have they been maintaining this firm
since 1985 ?
h=ô ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• Spoken English

HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡Q®°KÇ°<Œß"Œ ?

8.

Have you been attending the Spoken
English classes for two months ?
h=ô 2002 #°O_• job HË‹¬ O try

KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß"Œ?

Have you been trying for a job since
2002?
9. 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_È• h=ô D scooter
use KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß"Œ ?
Have you been using this scooter for
ten years ?
10. 1995 #°O_• P"³° D school …Õ teacher

Qê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ë#ß^¥ ?

Has she been working as a teacher
in this school since 1995 ?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô ZO`Ç Hê•OQê D L^˼Q® O
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Howlong have you been doing
this job ?
12.

g°~¡ ° ZO`Ç Hê•OQê D WO\ÕÁ
x=t‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?

Howlong have you been living in this
house ?
13. g° sister Z„¬æ\÷ #°O_• K³<ßá…
³ Õ KÇ^°Î =ô

KÇ°#ßk ?

Howlong has your sister been
studying in Chennai ?
14. J`Ç_È° ZO`Ç Hê•OQê cancer `Ë ƒì^•Î„_
¬ °È

KÇ°<Œß_È° ?

Howlong has he been suffering from
cancer ?
15. ZO`Ç Hê•OQê "Œ~¡° D problem face

KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?

Howlong have they been facing this
problem ?
16. h=ô WH›ø_È ZO`Ç À‹„¬\÷ #°O_• wait

KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?

Howlong have you been waiting
here ?
17. ZO`Ç Hê•OQê g°~¡ ° WH› ø _È English

<Í~¡°ó䛽O@°<Œß~¡° ?

Howlong have you been learning
English here ?
18. P"³ ° Z„¬ æ \ ÷ #°Oz movies …Õ act

KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk?

Howlong has she been acting
in movies ?
19. "Œ~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ #°Oz g°ä›½ D material
supply KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
Howlong have they been supplying
you this material ?
20. J`Ç _ È ° ZO`Ç Hê•OQê hä› ½ help

1. g°~¡° Q®`Ç ªé=°"Œ~¡O #°O_• [#àƒ•’¶q°
Hê~¡¼Hã =
› °O…Õ ‡•…ç¾O@°<Œß~Œ ?
2. h=ô ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA• #°Oz D #=•
KÇ^ΰ=ôKÇ°<Œß"Œ ?
3. g° father ï ~ O_È ° <³ • • #°O_• D
medicines f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ ?
4. P"³° L^ΆǰO #°Oz special items
`džǶ~¡° K͆ÇòKÇ°#ß^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡ ° Q® ` Ç "Œ~¡ O ~ËA•°Qê „¬ O _È ° Q®
[~¡°„¬ô䛽O@°<Œß~Œ ?
6. h=ô x#ß\÷ #°O_• D book HË‹¬ O
"³^Î䛽KÇ°<Œß"Œ ?
7. g°~¡° "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°O_• practicals
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?
8. J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• final exams H÷
prepare JQ®°KÇ°<Œß_¨ ?
9. ZO`Ç H ê•OQê g°~¡ ° books publish
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
10. ZO`ÇHê•OQê J`Ç_È° lawyer Qê practise
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È° ?
11. P"³° Z„¬æ\÷ #°O_• g°ä›½ Hindi teach
KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk ?
12. "Œ~¡ ° Z„¬ æ \ ÷ #°O_• strike …Õ
‡•…ç¾O@°<Œß~°¡ ?
13. h=ô D course Z„¬æ\÷ #°Oz KÍ‹°¬ <
ë Œß=ô?
14. ZO`Ç Hê•OQê g°~¡° D =‹¬°ë=ô•° sale
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
15. Dravid Z„¬ æ \ ÷ #°Oz team x lead
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È° ?

KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È° ?

Z

Howlong has he been helping you ?

Every cloud has a silver lining.

94

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`ÇHê•=òQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê q㉧Ou f‹¬°HË=@O …è^¥ ?
g°~¡° ~ï O_È° <³••°Qê bill pay K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz g°ä›½ help K͆ǰ@O …è^¥?
P"³° KŒ…ì ~ËA• #°Oz WH›ø_È LO_È@O…è^¥ ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`Ç Hê•=òQê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`Ç Hê•=òQê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Haven't / Hasn't + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject I, We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Haven't'
He, She, It

J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Hasn't'

=KÇ°ó#°.
=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ~ï O_È° ~ËA• #°O_• classes H÷ attend
Hê=@O…è^¥?

6.

Jan 1st #°O_• h=ô g° T~¡° "³ˆ¤…
× ^
è ¥?
Haven't you gone to your village since
Jan 1st ?
g°~¡° Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê salary draw

2.

Haven't you attended the classes for
two days ?
g°~¡° <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz house rent pay

3.

Haven't you paid house rent for four
months ?
J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz h䛽 help K͆ǰ@O

8. P"³° J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• g° WO\÷H÷ ~Œ=@O …è^¥?

4.

Hasn't he helped you since then ?
P"³° x#ß L^Ά°Ç O #°O_• food f‹¬°HË=@O

9. Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° <³••°Qê WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_È_ÈO
…è^¥?

5.

K͆ǰ@O…è^¥?

…è^¥?

Hasn't she taken food since yesterday
morning ?
"Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê games practise

K͆ǰ@O…è^¥?

K͆ǰ@O…è^¥?

Haven't you drawn salary for the past
two months ?
Hasn't she come to your house since
then ?

…è^¥?

Haven't they practised the games for
the last two months ?
95

7.

10.

Hasn't it rained here for the past four
months ?
Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡ Hê•OQê Ganguly matches

P_È@O …è^¥?

Hasn't Ganguly played matches for the
past one year ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê h=ô
~Œ=@O …è^ΰ ?
12.

13.

14.

class

H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽

Why haven't you come to the class for
the past two days ?
Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê "Œ~¡° shop ZO^ΰ䛽
open K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why haven't they opened the shop for
the last four days ?
Q®`"
Ç Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê J`Ç_°È duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
attend Hê=@O…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't he attended the duty for the
past one week ?
Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê h=ô studies Ì„á ZO^ΰ䛽
concentrate K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why haven't you concentrated on your
studies for the past few months ?

15. P"³° Q®`Ç 10 ~ËA•°Qê Hê…èlH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
"³ˆ×¤@O…è^ΰ ?
16.

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Why hasn't she gone to college for the
past ten days ?
"Œ~¡° Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê classes

ZO^ΰ䛽 x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ@O…è^ΰ ?

Why haven't they conducted the
classes for the past four days ?

17. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê g°~¡° <Œ`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why haven't you co-operated with me
for the past few months ?

18. Q® ` Ç ï ~ O_È ° „¬ ~ Œ¼†Ç ° =ò•°Qê P†Ç ° #
ZO^ΰ䛽 ZxßH›•…Õ ‡é\© K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ?
Why hasn't he contested in the
elections for the past two times ?

19. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê J`Ç_È° ZH›ø_¨ ZO^ΰ䛽
„¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't he worked any where for
the past few months ?

20. J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 "Œi q+¬†°Ç O…Õ
*ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
Why haven't you interefered in their
matter since then ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. ï~O_È° <³••°Qê g° father h䛽 money
„¬O„¬@O…è^¥?
2. ï~O_È° <³••°Qê h=ô movies KǶ_È@O
…è^¥?
3. KŒ…ì ~ËA•°Qê g°~¡° J`Çxx H›•=…è^¥?
4. KŒ…ì ~ËA•°Qê h=ô "ŒiH÷ letters
ã"Œ†Ç°…è^¥?
5. Q®`Ç 6 <³••°Qê g°~¡° bank #°O_• money
withdraw K͆ǰ…è^¥?
6. Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° <³••°Qê "Œ~¡° g°ä›½ salary
K³eÁOKÇ@O…è^¥?
7. x#ß\÷ #°Oz h=ô Ug° f‹¬°HË…è^¥?
8. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz J`Ç_°È h`Ë =¶\ìÁ_@
È O…è^¥?
9. Q®`Ç 10 ~ËA•°Qê h=ô J`Çxx ZO^ΰ䛽
H›•=…è^ΰ?
10. h=ô Jan-1 #°O_• g° T~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽
"³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ?
11. Q® ` Ç 6 <³ • •°Qê g°~¡ ° instalments
ZO^ΰ䛽 pay K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ?
12. Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡ Hê•OQê "Œ~¡° g°ä›½ material
ZO^ΰ䛽 supply K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ?
13. ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°O_• h=ô temple H÷
ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤_ÈO…è^ΰ?
14. <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°O_• g°~¡° monthly report
ZO^ΰ䛽 submit K͆ǰ…è^ΰ?
15. ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°O_• P"³° birthday
ZO^ΰ䛽 celebrate KÍ‹¬°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

Z

Adversity introduces a man to himself.

96

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Have / Has + been + Verb
+ 'ing ' form " Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Present Perfect Continuous
Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form
4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ㇕~¡Oa•Oz ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#°
continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "have / has + been +
Verb + ' ing ' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I have been doing this job for two years.
2. We have been facing this problem for one month .
3. He has been staying with us since July.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`Ç HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 (P „¬xx
ZO`Ç Hê•OQê KÍ † Ç ò @…è ^ Ë) "have / has + not+ III form of the Verb"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I have not met him for two days.
2. We have not come here since Sunday last.
3. He has not sent me money for two months.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ㇕~¡Oa•Oz ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#¶
continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have /
Has + been + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Have you been trying for a job for two years ?
2. Has he been helping you for a long time ?
3. Have they been practising this game since Monday last ?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Haven't / Hasn't + III form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

97

1. Haven't you gone to office for five days ?
2. Hasn't he met you since Monday last ?

,

: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

181. congratulate

congratulated

congratulated

182. conjure

conjured

conjured

183. connect

connected

connected

184. conquer

conquered

conquered

185. consider

considered

considered

186. consist

consisted

consisted

187. conspire

conspired

conspired

188. construct

constructed

constructed

189. consult

consulted

consulted

190. consume

consumed

consumed

191. continue

continued

continued

192. contribute

contributed

contributed

193. convert

converted

converted

194. convey

conveyed

conveyed

195. convince

convineced

convineced

196. create

created

created

197. criticise

criticised

criticised

198. cry

cried

cried

199. cultivate

cultivated

cultivated

200. dance

danced

danced

D ~ËA

Meaning

Ja•#OkOKÇ°@
Qê~¡_™K͆ǰ@
H›•°„¬ô@
[~òOKÇ°, ïQ•°KÇ°
„¬iQ®}÷OKÇ°@
H›ey†ÇòO_È°@
䛽ã@„¬#°ß
xiàOKÇ°@
‹¬OㄬkOKÇ°@
qx†³¶yOKÇ°
Hù#ª•yOKÇ°
KÇO^¥WKÇ°ó@
=¶~¡°ó@
`³e†Ç°*è†Çò@
X„²æOKÇ°@
xiàOKÇ°, ‹¬$+²“OKÇ°
q=°iÅOKÇ°@
U_È°ó@
ª•Q®°K͆ò
Ç @
#$`ǼOK͆Çò@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
98

A good beginning makes a good ending.

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PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ KÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz `³e†Ç°*è†Çò KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. XH› „¬x „¬îië
J~ò#k. ï ~ O_È = „¬ x "³ ò ^Î \ ÷ „¬ x H› O >è =òO^Î ° HùO`Ç H ê•OQê continuous Qê
[~¡°Q®°KǶO_•#k.
J
J
J

<Í#° x#ß =¶ friend room H÷ "³ˆ‹Áõ i¬ H÷, J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° Q®O@•#°O_• lessons KÇ^°Î =ô KǶO_•<Œ_È°.
"Í°=ò x#ß auditorium H÷ "³ˆÁõ ‹¬iH÷, J„¬æ\÷H÷ „¬k xq°‘•• #°Oz chief guest =¶\ìÁ_È°
KÇ°O_•<Œ_È°.
x#ß ‹².†Ç°O. =KÍ‹ó i¬ H÷, J„¬æ\÷H÷ J~¡QO® @ =òO^ΰQê<Í „ã [¬ •° ground …Õ gather JQ®° KÇ°O_•<Œ~¡°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx ZO`ÇHê•OQê
KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ"³¶ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ „¬îië KÍ‹#² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ "³ò^Î\÷ „¬xx ~ï O_È=
„¬xH›O>è =òO^ΰ continuous Qê ZO`Ç Hê•OQê, ZxßQ®O@•°, Zxß ~ËA•°, Zxß <³••° =òO^ΰQê
KÍ‹¬°ë#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + been + Verb + 'ing' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'had been + 'ing' form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
<Í#° x#ß class H÷ "³ˆõÁ ‹¬iH÷, J~¡Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°OKÍ lecturer lesson teach
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.

4. =¶ brother Q®=~¡ß"°³ O@° job ‡ÚO^Í^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê private
school …Õ „¬xKÍ‹°¬ O
ë _•<Œ_È°.

The lecturer had been teaching the
lesson for half-an-hour before I went to
the class yesterday.

My brother had been working in a
private school for two years before he
got the govt. job.

2. "Í°=ò x#ß ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ ground H÷ KÍ~°¡ 䛽<Í
‹¬iH÷ ï~O_È°Q®O@• =òO^ΰ#°O_Í "Œ~¡°
match P_È°`ǶO_•<Œ~¡°.

5. "Í°=ò last week Mysore KÍ~¡°ä›½<Í^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê JH›ø_È =~¡ÂO
„¬_°È `ǶO_•#k.

They had been playing the match for
two hours before we reached the
ground yesterday evening.

It had been raining there for two days
before we reached Mysore last week.

1.

3. "Í°=ò Ongole town H÷ shift J†Í°¼^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ, <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•#°Oz
Q®°O@¶~¡°…Õ x=t‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò.
We had been living in Guntur for four
years before we shifted to Ongole town.
99

6. <Í#° x#ß press H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ XH›
Q® O @ #°O_• J`Ç _ È ° cards print
KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
He had been printing the cards for one
hour before I went to the press.

,

7. "Œ~¡° course "³ò^Ε°Ì„>è“ ^¥xH÷ "Œ~¡O
=òO^ΰ #°O_• admissions f‹¬°ä›½O
@°O_•<Œ~¡°.
They had been taking the admissions
for one week before they commenced
the course.

8. <Í#° last month J`Çxx H›eÀ‹ ^¥xH÷
„¬k~ËA• =òO^ΰ#°O_• J`Ç_°È fever `Ë
ƒì^•Î„_
¬ °È KÇ°<Œß_°È .
He had been suffering from fever for
ten days before I met him last month.

9. <Í#° ~Œãu WO\÷H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½<Í ^¥xH÷ ï~O_È°
Q® O @• =òO^Î ° #°O_Í „² • Á • ° xã ^ Î
‡é`ǶO_•<Œ~¡°.
Children had been sleeping for two
hours before I reached home last night.

10. P"³° Delhi "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ <Œ•°Q®°
<³•• #°Oz WH›ø_È Hindi <Í~°¡ ó 䛽O@¶O_•
#k.
She had been learning Hindi here for
four months before she went to Delhi.

11. <Í#° meeting hall H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°O_• "Œ~¡° P q+¬†°Ç O discuss
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
They had been discussing the matter
for one hour before I went to the
meeting hall.

12. J`Ç_È° x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°Oz "Í°=ò chess P_È°`Ƕ
=ô<Œß=ò.
We had been playing chess for one
hour before he came to our house
yesterday.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ guests =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
ï~O_È° Q®O@• #°Oz =¶ mother items
`dž¶Ç ~¡° KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•#k.
2. Train =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ#°O_Í <Í#°
platform g°^Î wait KÍ‹°¬ O
ë _•<Œ=ò.
3. "Í°=ò x#ß theatre H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iH÷, Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°OKÍ JH›ø_È KŒ• =°Ok queue
…Õ x•|_• L<Œß~°¡ .
4. x#ß Prime Minister =KÍó^¥xH÷ ï~O_È°
Q®O@• =òO^ΰ #°O_• ~ŒR <Œ†Ç°ä›½•°
airport ^ÎQ®¾~¡ wait KÍ‹°¬ O
ë _•<Œ~¡°.
5. x#ß <Í#° college H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iH÷ J„¬æ\÷H÷
ï~O_È° Q®O@• =òO^ΰ #°OKÍ clerk students H÷ hall tickets issue KÍ‹°¬ O
ë _•<Œ_È°.
6. P film shooting ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ ^¥xH÷ <³•
~ËA• =òO^ΰ #°O_• "Œ~¡° H›^¥Š KÇ~ó•¡ °
[~¡°„¬ôKǶO_•<Œ~¡°.
7. J`Çx father retire J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ ï~O_È°
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• =òO^ΰ#°O_Í J`Ç_°È job
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
8. <Í#° x#ß office H÷ "³ˆ¤õ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
#°O_Í P"³° letters type K͆òÇ KÇ°O_•#k.
9. <Í#° x#ß JH›ø_Èä½› "³ˆ¤õ‹i¬ H÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
#°O_• "Œ~¡° function H÷ ready JQ®°
KÇ°<Œß~¡°.
10. <Í#° x#ß class 䛽 "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ J~¡Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°O_• lecturer lesson explain
KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.

Flattery is the food of fools.

Z
100

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`ÇHê•=ò =~¡ä½› XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•# XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz, P „¬xx ZO`Ç Hê•=òQê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßk ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

g°~¡° WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ~ï O_È° Q®O@•°Qê JH›ø_È rest f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_•<Œ~Œ ?
J`Ç_È° D job ‡ÚO^Í ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ 2 ‹¬OII•°Qê private company …Õ „¬x KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_¨ ?
g°~¡° work ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ =òO^ΰ ~ï O_È° Q®O@•°Qê "Œi`Ë KÇi‹ó ¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?

J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬x †³òH›ø Hê•=ò#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`ÇO…Õx ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä›½ continuous Qê
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz P „¬x ZO`ÇHê•OQê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"³¶ „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + been + Verb + ing form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'Had been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô WH›ø_È䛽 =KÍó^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° Q®O@•
=òO^Î ° Qê WO\÷ ^Î Q ® ¾ ~ ¡ home-work
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"Œ?

4.

Had they been issuing the tickets for

Had you been doing home-work for two

one hour before they commenced the

hours before you came here ?

2.

H÷ appear J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° <³••
=òO^ΰQê g°~¡° prepare J=ô`¶Ç O_•<Œ~Œ?
Test

Had you been preparing for the test for
two months before you appeared for the
test ?

3.

=KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰQê g°~¡°
station …Õ wait KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _•<Œ~Œ?

Train

Had you been waiting for one hour at
the station before the train arrived ?

㇕~¡Oa•OKÍ^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^Î ° Qê "Œ~¡ ° tickets issue
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
Programme

programme ?

5.

=KÍ ó ^¥xH÷ ï ~ O_È ° Q® O @•
=òO^Î ° Qê g°~¡ ° JH› ø _È U~Œæ@°Á
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
Guests

Had you been making arrangements for
two hours before the guests came ?

6. D company …Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ P~¡°
<³ • •° =òO^Î ° Qê h=ô Hyd. …Õ
„¬xKÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"Œ?
Had you been working in Hyd. for six
months before you joined this company?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

7. g°~¡° D town H÷ shift HêH›=òO^ΰ ZO`Ç
Hê•OQê Hyd …Õ x=‹²‹¬¶ëO_•<Œ~¡° ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Howlong had you been living in
Hyderabdad before you shifted to this
town ?

8.

=KÍó ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç‹
À „¬\÷ #°O_•
h=ô WH›ø_È wait KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?
Manager

Howlong had you been waiting here
before the manager came ?

9. WH› ø _È Join J†Í ° ¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Î °
ZO`Ç H ê•OQê h=ô JH› ø _È KÇ ^ Î ° =ô
KÇ°O_•<Œ=ô ?
Howlong had you been studying there
before you joined here ?

10. Class H÷ attend J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
ZO`Ç À ‹ „¬ \ ÷ #°Oz h=ô lessons
KÇ^°Î =ô`Ç°O_•<Œ=ô ?
Howlong had you been reading the
lessons before you attended the class ?

11. Final match P_Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ g°~¡° Zxß
~ËA•°Qê game practise KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°?
Howlong had you been practising the
game before you played the final match?

12. Business start KÍÀ‹^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ J`Ç_È°
ZO`ÇHê•OQê „¬x <Í~°¡ äó ½› O@¶O_•<Œ_È°?

1. h=ô class H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ half an hour #°Oz
teacher lesson teach KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
2. D room …ÕxH÷ shift J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
6 <³••°Qê h=ô g° uncle WO\ÕÁ stay
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"Œ?
3. h=ô theatre H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰQê
"Œ~¡° JH›ø_È queue …Õ x•|_• =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?
4. D post …Õ join J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ h=ô
ZO`ÇHê•OQê training ‡ÚO^ΰ`ǶO_•<Œ=ô?
5. g° father retire J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç
Hê•OQê h=ô job KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ=ô?
6. WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ #°O_•
g°~¡° JH›ø_È chess P_È°`ǶO_•<Œ~Œ?
7. g°~¡° JH›ø_•H÷ KÍ~°¡ Hù<Í ^¥xH÷ ~ï O_È° Q®O@•
=òO^Î ° #°O_• JH› ø _È =~¡ Â O
„¬_°È KǶO_•#^¥?
8.

=KÍ ó ^ ¥xH÷ ï ~ O_È ° Q® O @•
=òO^ΰQê "Œ~¡° U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
Minister

9. KÇx‡é†Í° ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê
g° grand father business KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°?
10. National team …ÕxH÷ selection ‡ÚO^Í
^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê Sachin cricket
P_È°`ǶO_•<Œ_È°?

Howlong had he been learning work
before he started business?

Z

A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.

102

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FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô ~ï O_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ° XH› „¬x K͆ò
Ç @ H›O>è =òO^ΰ, "Í~ùH› „¬x ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’"°³ Ø
HùO`Ç Hê•OQê continuous Qê [~¡°Q®°`Ƕ LO@°Ok. =°#=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ° D ï~O_È° „¬#°•°
"Íö~Þ~¡° =¼ä›½ë•° K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó …èH› XH›ö~ ï~O_È° „¬#°•° K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
J
J
J

Ì‹•=ô•° ㄬH›\÷OKÍ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ„¬k ~ËA•°Qê =¶ …ÿH›ó~¡~Ÿ• =¶ä›½ special classes
f‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡°.
<Í#° WO@~¡¶ÞH÷ "³ˆ^Áõ ¥xH÷ "Œ~¡O~ËA• =òO^ΰ #°O_• books refer KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
Independence Day H÷ ï~O_È° ~ËA• =òO^ΰ#°O_Í, "Í°=ò P celebrations HË‹¬O U~Œæ@°Á
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx ZO`ÇHê•OQê
K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ"³¶ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ =°#=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ° XH› „¬x [~¡°Q®°@ H›O>è =òO^ΰ ㇕~¡Oƒ•’"³°Ø
continuous Qê HùO`Ç Hê•OQê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° "Í~ùH› „¬xx Q®°iOz K³„¬C@䛽
"Will have + been + Verb + 'ing' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'will have + been + 'ing' form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

„¬ s H› Æ • ° "³ ò ^Î • †Í ° ¼^¥xH÷ J~¡ Q ® O @
=òO^ΰ #°O_• invigilators q^¥¼~¡°Ö• hall
tickets verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
The invigilators will have been
verifying the student hall-tickets for
half-an hour before they commence the
examination.

2. "Œ~¡° programme "³ò^Ε°Ì„>è^
“ ¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°O_• ‡•‹¹•° issue KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì~¡°.
They will have been issuing the
passes for one hour before they
commence the programme.

3.

103

Promotion =KÍó^¥xH÷ 6 <³•• =òO^ΰQê
<Í#° training ‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì#°.
I will have been undergoing training
for six months before I get a promotion.

4.

Function ‡
ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
#°Oz "Í°=ò function hall decorate

KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.

5.

We will have been decorating the
function hall for one hour before we
start the function.
"Œ~¡° product #° =¶ï~ø\˜…ÕxH÷ q_È°^Ε

KÍÀ‹^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° <³•• =òO^ΰ #°OKÍ
orders book KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
They will have been booking the
orders for two months before they
release the product into the market.

6. ㄬ^Î~¡Å# "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ J~¡Q®O@
=òO^ΰ#°OKÍ ãÀ„H›Æ䛽•° ‚¬ð…˜…Õ ä›•~¡°óx
LO\ì~¡°.
The audience will have been sitting
in the hall for half-an-hour before they
begin the show.

,

7. =¶ father India H÷ uiy =KÍó^¥xH÷ XH›
‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O =òO^Î ° #°O_Í <Í # ° job
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
I will have been doing job for one year
before my father returns to India.

8. Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•O^Î~¡¶ „¬sH›Æ ‚¬ð•°…ÕxH÷
=KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ XH› Q®O@ #°O_Í "Œ~¡°
seating U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. „¬sH›•Æ ° "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ <³•
~ËA• #°Oz =¶ lecturers lessons Jhß
revise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
2.

Doctor clinic H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ Q®O@
#°O_• patients P†Ç°#HË‹¬O Z^ΰ~¡°

3.

Admission list

4.

Train

KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

The patients will have been waiting
for one hour before the doctor comes
to the clinic.

10.

Australia tour

"³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ 15

~ËA• #°Oz Indian Cricket players
Madras …Õ practise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

They will have been making seating
arrangements for one hour before the
candidates come into the exam hall.

9.

: 94406 16425

ㄬH›\÷OKÍ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê "Œ~¡° application forms
verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
|†Ç°•°^Í~¡_¨xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
#°OKÍ ã„¬†Ç¶}÷䛽•° `Ç=° ‹Ô@Á…Õ ä›•~ùóx
LO\ì~¡°.

H÷ |†Ç°•° ^Íö~ ^¥xH÷ XH› Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°O_Í <Í#° WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ files
verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.

5. ö~„¬ô Class H÷ "³ˆõÁ^¥xH÷ XH› Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
#°O_• <Í#° D exercise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.

I will have been verifying the files at
home for one hour before I start for
office.

6. ö~„¬ô function "³ò^Ε†Í°¼^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°OKÍ guests =‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

11. ö~„¬ô guests =KÍó^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° Q®O@•
=òO^ΰ #°O_• mother items `džǶ~¡°
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

7. ~ö „¬ô J`Ç_°È WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
ï~O_È° Q®O@• #°Oz "Í°=ò J`Çx HË‹¬O
Z^ΰ~¡° KǶ‹¬¶ëO\ì=ò.

Office

Mother will have been preparing
items for two hours before the guests
arrive tomorrow.

12. h=ô ö~„¬ô <Œ room H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°OKÍ <Í#° lessons KÇ^ΰ=ô
`Ç°O\ì#°.

8. ‡é\© Jƒ•’¼~¡°•Ö list announce KÍÀ‹ ^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê N KÇOã^΃ì|°
Jƒ•’¼~°¡ •Ö bio-datas verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.

I will have been reading lessons for
one hour before you come to my room.

All that glitters is not gold.

Z
104

11TH DAY - A

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê
‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz HùO`ÇHê•=ò continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz, ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

~ö „¬ô "Í°=ò JH›ø_•H÷ =KÍ‹ó i¬ H÷ g°~¡° XH› Q®O@ =òO^ΰQê U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¶¬ Oë \ì~Œ ?
=°#=ò JH›ø_È䛽 "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° Q®O@•°Qê "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È work KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
h=ô own business ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ ^¥xH÷ 6 <³••° =òO^ΰQê accounts <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°O\ì"Œ ?

J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬x †³òH›ø Hê•=ò
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ÿ…Õ =°#=ò K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx
ZO`ÇHê•OQê K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ"³¶ ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have + been + Verb + ing form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject I, We, J~ò#„¬C_È° "Shall have"
You, He, She, It, they J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Will have'

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° WO\÷H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^Î ° #°O_Í h=ô lessons
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O\ì"Œ?

Will you have been sitting in the hall

Will you have been reading the lessons

4. <Œ\÷ H › ã „ ¬ ^ Î i ÅOKÍ ^¥xH÷ <³ • ~ËA•°
=òO^ΰQê g°~¡° rehearsals KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?

for one hour before I come to your

half an hour before the chief guest
comes?

house?

2. h=ô ö~„¬ô exam hall H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^Î ° #°Oz D book refer
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì"Œ?
Will you have been refering to this book
for one hour before you go to the exam

3.

Will you have been making rehearsals
for one month before you perform the
play?

5.

Doctor clinic H÷

=KÍó ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ Q®O@
#°O_• patients P†Ç ° # HË‹¬ O wait
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?

hall ?

Will the patients have been waiting for

Chief guest =KÍó ^¥xH÷ J~¡QO
® @ =òO^ΰQê

the doctor for one hour before he comes

g°~¡° hall …Õ ä›•~ùóx LO\ì~Œ?

to the clinic?

105

,

6.

Test 䛽 appear J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç

Hê•OQê h=ô lessons revise KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì=ô?
Howlong will you have been revising
the lessons before you appear for the
test?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. ö ~ „¬ ô h=ô WH› ø _•H÷ =KÍ ó ^ ¥xH÷ Q® O @
=òO^Î ° Qê WO\÷ ^Î Q ® ¾ ~ ¡ lessons
KÇ^ΰ=ô`ǶO\ì"Œ?

7. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° room H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
ZO`Ç À ‹ „¬ ô Qê g°~¡ ° matter discuss
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?

2. =°#=ò ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ JH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ¤õ ^¥xH÷
ï ~ O_È ° Q® O @•° =òO^Î ° Qê "Œ~¡ ° test
ã"Œ‹¬¶ëO\ì~Œ?

Howlong will you have been

3. h=ô |†Ç ° @ä› ½ "³ ˆ õ ¤ ^¥xH÷ J~¡ Q ® O @
=òO^ΰQê ready J=ô`Ç°O\ì"Œ?

discussing the matter before I come
to your room tomorrow?

8. =°#=ò "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`ÇÀ‹„¬\÷
#°O_• "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
Howlong will they have been working

4. J`Ç_È° Delhi "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° <³••°
=òO^ΰQê Hindi <Í~¡°ó䛽O@¶O\ì_¨?
5.

"³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ Q®O@
=òO^ΰQê<Í guests =‹¬¶ëO\ì~Œ?
Function

before we go there?

9.

Train =KÍ^
ó ¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç‹
À „¬\÷ #°O_•
clerk tickets issue

KÍ ‹ ¬ ° ë O \ì_È ° ?

6. „¬sH›•Æ ° "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ Zxß
~ËA•°Qê g° lecturers lessons revise
KÍ‹¬¶ëO\ì~¡°?

Howlong will the clerk have been
issuing the tickets before the train
arrives?

10. =°#=ò "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`ÇÀ‹„¬\÷
#°Oz "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È U~Œæ@° KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
Howlong will you have been making
arrangements before the go there?

7.

‡ÚO^Í ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç Hê•O
=òO^ΰQê h=ô tH›Æ} ‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì=ô?
Promotion

8. |‹¬ ° • |†Ç ° •°^Í ö ~ ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç À ‹ „¬ ô
=òO^ΰQê "Œ~¡° tickets W‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?

Z

Concentration is the essence of all knowledge.

106

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ =òO^ΰQê "Had + been + Verb
+ 'ing' form" J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D structure #° grammar …Õ Past
Perfect Continuous Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò 1) Positive Form 2) Question Form
J#° ï~O_È° pasrts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D ï~O_È° parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥O.
1.

Ex :

2.

Ex :

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`ÇHê•=ò =~¡ä›½ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx ZO`ÇHê•OQê
K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had + been + Verb + ' ing ' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.

1. I had been suffering form a head-ache for two hours before I went to sleep
last night.
2. They had been revising the lessons for ten days fefore they appeared for
the exam.
QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`ÇHê•=ò =~¡ä›½ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ZO`ÇHê•OQê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had+ been + Verb +
'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
1. Had you been staying in your uncle's house for two months before you
shifted to this room ?
2. Had she been typing the letters for two hours before you went there ?

D~ËA =°#=ò "Will have + been + Verb + 'ing' form " J#° structure Q®°iOz
䛕_¨ <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D structure #° grammar …Õ Future Perfect Continuous Tense
JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ Positive Form =°i†Çò Question Form J#° ï~O_È° parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D ï~O_È° parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥O.
1.

Ex :

2.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬x [~¡°Q®°@H›O>è =òO^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’"°³ Ø continuous Qê HùO`ÇHê•OQê
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° "Í~ùH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will have + been + Verb +
'ing'form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

1. I will have been taking rest for one hour before you come to my house.
2. She will have been preparing for the test for two months before she appears
for it.
QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬x [~¡°Q®°@ H›O>è =òO^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’"°³ Ø continuous Qê HùO`Ç
Hê•OQê KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _È ° "Í ~ ùH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½
"Will have + been + verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Will you have been waiting for me for one hour before I come there ?
2. Will they have been getting ready for two hours before they go out ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

201. deceive

deceived

deceived

202. decide

decided

decided

203. declare

declared

declared

204. decline

declined

declined

205. decoreate

decoreted

decoreted

206. decrease

decreased

decreased

207. dedicate

dedicated

dedicated

208. defend

defended

defended

209. deliver

delivered

delivered

210. demolish

demolished

demolished

211. denote

denoted

denoted

212. deny

denied

denied

213. depart

departed

departed

214. depend

depended

depended

215. derive

derived

derived

216. describe

described

described

217. deserve

deserved

deserved

218. determine

determined

determined

219. develop

developed

developed

220. diagnize

diagnized

diagnized

Meaning

"³¶‹¬=òK͆Çò@
x‰×ó~òOKÇ°@
ㄬH›\÷OKÇ°@
H©Æ}÷OKÇ°@
J•OH›iOKÇ°@
`Çy¾OKÇ°@
JOH÷`Ç=òK͆Çò@
~¡H÷ÆOKÇ°@
JOkOKÇ°@
<Œ‰×#=òK͆Çò
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
Hê^Î#°@
|†Ç°•°^Í~¡°@
P^•¥~¡„_¬ °È @
=ü•=ò#°O_• Qã ‚® ì² OKÇ°
q=iOKÇ°@
`Çy†ÇòO_È°@
x~¡â~òOKÇ°@
Ja•=$kœK†
Í òÇ @
"Œ¼k•x Q®°iëOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡°
H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 2 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß
"ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
108

Ambition and love are the wings of great actions.

,

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USED TO
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J…"Œ@°Qê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P J•"Œ@° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO…è^ΰ. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆Çò@…è^ΰ. XH›„¬C_È°
ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° z#ß„¬C_È° KŒ…ì ƒìQê KÇk"Í"Œ_•x.
"Í°=ò =¶ ‹¬¶ø•° ~ËA•…Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê P@•° P_Í "Œˆ×¤=ò.
P"³° J„¬C_È° guests #° ƒìQê treat KÍ‹¬°ëO_Ík.
"Œ~¡° XH›ø„¬C_È° XH› z#ß Ti…Õ x=tOKÍ"Œ~¡°.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J…"Œ@°Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_³_• „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ =°# z#ß `Ç#O…Õ, Hê…èl ~ËA•…Õ =°iOïH„¬C_³<á Œ Q®`OÇ …Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH›
J•"Œ@°Q®ê, „¬^„Í ^¬ Í KÍ‹°¬ Oë _³_• XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Used to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†Ç³¶ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note : 'Used to' J#°#k XH› Anomalous Verb. Wk Past Tense …Õ
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°. Present Tense, Future Tense •…Õ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'used to' =KÇ°ó#°. 'Used to'
verb Z•Á„¬C_È° I form …Õ LO_È=…ÿ#°.

*

=¶ã`Ç"Í°
`Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° <Œ Hê…èl ~ËA•…Õ ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …ÿáã|s
H÷ "³•°ëO_Í"Œ_•x.

6.

Smt. Bhanumathi used to act in Tamil
movies also once.

I used to go to library regularly during
my college days.

2. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.

hard work

7.

We used to work hard then.

3.

4.

brother 90's …Õ Delhi …Õ Bank
Manager Qê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
My brother used to work as a Bank
Manager in Delhi during 90' s.

Mrs. Madhavi =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hindi teach

KÍ‹¬°ëO_Ík.

Mrs. Madhavi used to teach us Hindi
then.
5.

"Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì z#ß WO\ÕÁ
x=t‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
They used to live in a small house
once.

109

N=°u ƒ•ì#°=°u XH› „ ¬ C _È ° `Ç q °ˆ×
‹²x=¶•…Õ ä›•_¨ #\÷‹¬°ëO_Ík.

8.

N Z<£ . \÷ . P~Ÿ . =°Oz ã H › = °tH› Æ }
‡•\÷‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ~¡°.
Sri N.T.R. used to maintain good
discipline.
N=°u WOkQêOn• Z䛽ø=Qê English

=¶\ìÁ_Í"Œ~¡°.

Smt. Indira Gandhi used to speak
English mostly.

9. P ~ËA•…Õ ‹¬°h…˜ Q®"Œ‹¬ø~Ÿ =°# ãH÷ïH\˜
\©"£°#° lead KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
Sunil Gavaskar used to lead our
Cricket team in those days.

10. N „².q. #~¡tO‚¬ð~Œ=ô N=°u WOk~Œ
QêOn•H÷ ~Œ[H©†¶
Ç •…Õ ‹¬•‚¬ð•° W‹¬°Oë _Í
"Œ~¡°.
Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao used to advise
Smt. Indira Gandhi in politics once.

,

11. <Í#° XH›„¬C_È° KŒ…ì
KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•x.

heavy

smoke

I used to smoke heavily once.

12.

"Í°=ò J„¬C_È° =¶
respect WKÍó "Œˆ×¤O.

lecturers

H÷ ƒìQê

We used to respect our lecturers then.

13.

=¶ father <Œä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ u <³ •
~¡¶. 2000/Ð „¬O„¬ôKÇ°O_Í"Œ~¡°.
My father used to send me Rs. 2000
every month then.

14. H›„²…˜^Í"£ XH›„¬C_È° ㄬu =¶¼KŸ…Õ ^¥^¥„¬ô
5 qïH\˜• f‹¬°ä›½<Í"Œ_È°.
Kapil Dev used to take five wickets
almost in every match once.

15. "Í°=ò z#ß„¬C_È° ‹¬OãHêOu „¬O_È°Q® KŒ…ì
grand Qê [~¡°„¬ô䛽<Í "Œ~¡=ò.
We used to celebrate Sankranti
festival very grand in our childhood
days.

16. XH› „ ¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ [ •° x*ì~òf Q® •
<Œ†Ç°ä›½•#° Z#°ßHù<Í"Œ~¡°.
People used to elect honest leaders
once.

17.

=¶ Hê…èl ~ËA•…Õ "Í°=ò À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°•`Ë
KŒ…ì ƒìQê enjoy KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò.
We used to enjoy ourselves with our
friends in our college days.

18. <Í#° ‹¬¶ø•° ~ËA•…Õ ã„¬u ‡é\©…Õ KŒ…ì
P‹¬HHë÷ ~› O¡ Qê ‡•…ç¾<"Í Œ_•x.
I used to participate in every
competition very interestingly in my
school days.

19. J`Ç _ È ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° XH› z#ß ‘•„¬ ô …Õ
salesman Qê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
He used to work as a salesman in a
small shop once.

20.

=¶ À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°_È° P#O^£ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì
Z䛽ø=Qê money Y~¡°ó KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
My friend Anand used to spend money
lavishly then.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° KÇ^°Î =ô䛽<Í ~ËA•…Õ early morning
xã^…Î ‹
è °¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•x.
2. "Í°=ò „
ã u
¬ ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ Hã Hï÷ \˜ practise
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.
3. =¶ Head-master J„¬C_È° =°=òà•#°
KŒ…ì severe Q®ê tH÷Æ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
4. =¶ father <Œä›½ z#ß„¬C_È° grammar
teach KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
5. =¶ father XH›„¬C_È° ~ËAH÷ 15 Q®O@•°
work KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
6. "Í°=ò ‹¬¶ø…˜…Õ English =¶\ìÁ_Ȱ䛽<Í
"Œ~¡=ò.
7. =¶ lecturers =¶ä›½ KŒ…ì ƒìQê lessons
explain KÍ‹² K³À„æ"Œ~¡°.
8. „¬ O _•\˜ <³ ã ‚ ¬ ú `Ç # buttonhole …Õ
Z•Á„¬C_È° Q®°…ìa Ì„@°“䛽<Í"Œ~¡°.
9. =¶ grand mother Z•Á„C¬ _ȶ ƒ•’Q=
® n¾`Ç
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O_Ík.
10. "Í°=ò z#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O "Í‹q
¬
Ì ‹ •=ô•° =¶ Ti…Õ Q® _ È ° „¬ ô `Ç ° O_Í
"Œ~¡=ò.
11. <Í#° school classes …Õ Hindi …Õ =°Oz
=¶~¡°ø•° score KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•x.
12. "Í ° =ò students Qê L#ß „ ¬ C _È ° ANR
movies Z䛽ø=Qê KǶ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.
13. <Í#° J„¬C_È° ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O =¶ father `Ë
discuss KÍ‹
À "Œ_•x.
14. =¶ brother XH›„¬C_È° K³_ÈÛ"Œi`Ë À‹ß‚¬ìO
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° ㄬu „¬O_È°Q® KŒ…ì ƒìQê
celebrate KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.

Z

Great talkers are never great doers.

110

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. J#Qê Q®`ÇO…Õ =°#䛽 J•"Œ@° …èH› K͆ǰx„¬#°•°.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° J‹¬••° HêÁ‹°¬ •° miss J†Í°¼"Œ_•xHê^ΰ.
P"³° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° Z=Þi`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_Ík Hê^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÍ"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
"Í°=ò Hê…èl…Õ J‹¬•° games P_Í"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.

Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° XH› ~ ¡ ° Q® ` Ç O …Õ ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê …è H › J•"Œ@°Qê KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _È x „¬ # °•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ J•"Œ@°…èHQ› êx, W+¬O“ …èHQ› êx ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Did not + use to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ' did not + use to + I form'

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° hard work KÍ‹À "Œ_•ß
Hê^ΰ.
2.

I did not use to work hard then.
"Í°=ò school days …Õ guides follow

J†Í°"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.

6. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • °
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
7.

We did not use to waste time at all
then.
N=°u WOk~ŒQêOn• J‹¬•° Z=ih care

8.

Smt. Indira Gandhi did not use to care
anyone.
<Í#° XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° friends `Ë move

We didnot use to follow guides in our
school days.
3.

P ~ËA•…Õ L^˼Q®°•° •OKÇO f‹¬°ä›½<Í
"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
P "³ ° J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° Z=i`Ë#°
=¶\ìÁ_Ík Hê^ΰ.
She did not use to talk to anybody
then.

5. "Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° W`Ç ~ ¡ ° •Ì „ á
P^•¥~¡„_
¬ "Í Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
They did not use to depend on others
once.

111

KÍÀ‹k Hê^ΰ.

J†Í°¼"Œ_•x Hê^ΰ.

Employees did not use to take bribe
in those days.

4.

time waste

9.

I did not use to move with friends
once.
"Í°=ò J„¬C_È° studies neglect KÍ

À‹"Œˆ×¤O Hê^ΰ.

We did not use to neglect our studies
then.
10. =¶ brother z#ß „ ¬ C _È ° Z=i=¶\ì

q<Í"Œ_È° Hê^ΰ.

My brother did not use to listen to any
body's words in his boyhood days.

,
11.

<Í#° J„¬C_È° Z=i q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹°¬ 䛽<Í"Œ_•x Hê^ΰ.

I did not use to interefere in others
matter then.
12. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° Hê…è l …Õ language
classes H÷ attend J†Í°"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
We did not use to attend language
classes in the college then.
13. P"³° J„¬C_È° W`Ç~¡°•`Ë H›eÀ‹k Hê^ΰ.
She did not use to mingle with others
then.
14. =¶ English lecturer J‹¬ • ° `³ • °Q® °

=¶\ìÁ_Í"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.

Our English lecturer did not use to
speak Telugu at all.

15. J`Ç_°È J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° _È|°Ä Y~¡°ó „
Ì >è"
“ Œ_È°
Hê^ΰ.
He did not use to spend money at all
then.
16. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° business …Õ
accounts maintain KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
We did not use to maintain accounts
in business then.
17. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° taxes pay

KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.

18.

19.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

We did not use to pay taxes then.

11.

XH›„¬C_È° †Çò=䛽•° K³_È° J•"Œ@°Á
J•=~¡Kǰ䛽<Í "Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.

12.

Young men didnot use to cultivate
bad habits once.
"Í°=ò J„¬C_È° „¬sH›•Æ …Õ copy KÍ‹
À "Œ~¡=ò

Hê^ΰ.

We did not use to copy in our exams
then.
20. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° essays H› O ~” ¡ ‹ ¬ ë O

KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.

We did not use to byheart the essays
then.

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13.
14.
15.

<Í#° XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° films KǶ‹À "Œ_•x
Hê^ΰ.
"Í°=ò J„¬C_È° D festival celebrate
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° ‹¬iQê duty H÷ attend
J†Í°"Œ_È°Hê^ΰ.
P"³° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° WO\÷…Õ #°O_•
|†Ç°@䛽 =KÍókHê^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° income tax pay
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ.
"Í°=ò J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° private schools H÷
"³ˆõ¤"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
=¶ lecturers J„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° notes
dictate KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ.
XH›„¬C_È° =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ players ‹¬iQê
P_Í"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
<Í # ° J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° #=••° KÇ k "Í
"Œ_•ßHê^ΰ.
"Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° Hê…è l …Õ Ì ‹ q°<Œ~Ÿ … Õ
‡•…ç¾<"Í Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
P Hê…èl…Õ J„¬C_È° donations =‹¬¶•°
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
=¶ brother J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° money save
KÍÀ‹"Œ_È° Hê^ΰ.
"Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° rules follow J†Í °
"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° ‹¬iQê food
f‹¬°ä›½<Í"Œ_È°Hê^ΰ .
"Œ~¡° =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° salary ‹¬iQê pay
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.

Z

Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.

112

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QUESTION FORM
Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQ®ê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•#°
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

g°~¡° XH›„¬C_È° D Ti…Õ x=tOKÍ"Œ~Œ?
g° father J„¬C_È° L.I.C …Õ „¬x KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ?
"Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡=ò KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ~Œ ?
P"³° g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° English teach KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~°¡ Q®`OÇ …Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆ò
Ç „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°
@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›„C¬ _È° ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê XH›~°¡ KÍ‹°¬ Oë _³_• XH› „¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + use to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - Singular, Plural

U^³á##° "Did + use

+ I form" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê
<Í~¡°ó䛽O@°O_Í"Œ~Œ?

grammar

5. "Œ~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ H›ƒ
Á …˜ Õ ª•O‹¬ø$uH›
Hê~¡¼ãH›=°=ò•° x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?

Did you use to learn grammar
regularly then ?

6.

Did they use to conduct the cultural
programmes in the club then ?
h=ô J„¬C_È° private college …Õ „¬x

7.

Did you use to work in a private
college then ?
g°~¡° XH›„¬C_È° book shop #_È°„¬ô`Ç°O_Í

2. g°~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È °
x=t‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?

Hyderabad

…Õ

Did you use to live in Hyderabad
once?
3.

H›=°•‚¬ð‹¬<£ J„¬C_È° Hindi films …Õ
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_¨ ?

act

Did Kamala Hasan use to act in Hindi
films then ?
4.

P"³° J„¬C_È° „¬ãuH›•ä›½ H›^ŠÎ•°
„¬O„¬ô`Ç°O_Í^¥ ?
Did she use to send stories to the
magazines then ?

KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•"Œ ?

"Œ~Œ ?

Did you use to run a book shop once?
8.

h=ô J„¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ u L^Î † Ç ° O ¢ Q ÒO_£ … Õ
exercise KÍ‹°¬ O
ë _Í"Œ_•"Œ ?
Did you use to take exercises in the
ground every morning then ?

10. h=ô J„¬C_È° ãH÷ïH\˜ ƒìQê P_È°KÇ°O_Í
"Œ_•"Œ?
Did you use to play cricket well then ?

113

,
10.

g°~¡° J„¬C_È° Z䛽ø=Qê Mathematics Ì„á
ã‰×^Îœ KǶ„¬ô`Ç°O_Í"Œ~Œ?

Did you use to concentrate on
Mathematics then ?
11. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° leisure hours Z…ì

Q®_°È „¬ô`Ç°O_Í "Œ_•q ?

How did you use to spend your
leisure hours then ?
12.

g°~¡° J„¬C_È° ZH›ø_È x=tOKÍ"Œ~¡° ?

Where did you use to live then ?
13. g° father J„¬C_È° Uq° KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
What did your father use to do then ?
14. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° ~ËAH÷ Zxß Q®O@•° =~Ÿø

KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° ?

Howmay hours did you use to work
in a day then ?
15.

h=ô J„¬C_È° <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç ‹¬O‡•kOKÍ
"Œ_•q ?

Howmuch money did you use to earn
in a month then ?
16. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° Zä› ½ ø=Qê U subject

KÇk"Í"Œ~¡° ?

Which subject did you use to study
mostly then ?
17. Mr. Ramana g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° U subject
teach KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
Which subject did Mr. Ramana use
to teach you then ?
18. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° q°=òà•#° sports …Õ

Z…ì ‡ã é`Ç•‚²ì‹¬°Oë _Í"Œ_È° ?

How did he use to encourage you in
the sports then ?

19. J„¬C_È° g° "Œ¼‡•~¡O Z=~¡°
KǶ‹¬°ä›½O@°O_Í"Œ~¡° ?
20.

Who used to lookafter your business
then ?
h=ô J„¬C_È° Z=i`Ë Z䛽ø=Qê close Qê
move J=ô`Ç°O_Í"Œ_•q ?
With whom did you use to move very
close then ?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô z#ß„¬C_È° P@•° ƒìQê P_È°`Ç°O_Í
"Œ_•"Œ ?
2. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê frieds x meet
J†Í°¼"Œ~Œ ?
3. g° father J„¬ C _È ° hä› ½ ‹¬ • ‚¬ ð •°
W‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?
4. P"³° WO`Ç䛽 =°òO^ΰ English poems
compose KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° quiz programmes
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?
6. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° g° uncle WO\ÕÁ
LO@°O_Í"Œ_•"Œ ?
7. g° aunt J„¬ C _È ° dance school
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?
8. g°~¡° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ Uq°KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°?
9. P"³° J„¬C_È° „²•Á•#°Z…ì ‘é+²‹¬°ëO_Ík ?
10. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ P WO\÷H÷ ZO`Ç
J^³í K³eÁO‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
11. g° brother J„¬C_È° <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç salary
draw KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È° ?
12. 90's …Õ =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ \©"£°#° Z=~¡° lead
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
13. D ‡Ú•O…Õ g°~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ U
„¬O@ „¬O_•OKÍ"Œ~¡° ?
14. h=ô J„¬C_È° English Grammar 䛽
Z䛽ø=Qê U book refer KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•q?
15. h=ô student Qê L#ß„¬C_È° g° father h䛽
<³•ä›½ ZO`Ç money „¬O„¬ô`Ç°O_Í"Œ~¡° ?

Pride goes before a fall.

Z
114

12 DAY
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õ J•"Œ@° …èH› ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° films KǶ‹À "Œ_•q Hê^¥ ?
g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D festival celebrate KÍ‹¬°ä›½<Í"Œ~¡° Hê^¥ ?
h=ô J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° #=••° KÇk"Í"Œ_•q Hê^¥?
"Œ~¡° g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° salary ‹¬iQê pay KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° Hê^¥ ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ J•"Œ@° …èH,› W+¬O“ …èH› ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + use to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##° 'Didn't + use to' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô school days …Õ J‹¬ • °
P_Í"Œ_•qHê^¥?
2.

games

Didn't you use to play games in your
school days?
g°~¡° J„¬C_È° answers by heart KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°

Hê^¥?

Didn't you use to byheart the answers
then ?

3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° ‹¬iQê „¬xKÍÀ‹"Œ_È°Hê^¥?
Didn't he use to work properly then ?

4. P"³° J„¬C_È° Z=i`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_ÍkHê^¥?
5.

6.

Didn't she use to talk to anyone then?
"Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° D „¬ O _È ° Q® celebrate

KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^¥?

Didn't they use to celebrate this festival
then ?
h=ô J„¬C_È° movies KǶ‹À "Œ_•qHê^¥?
Didn't you use to see movies then ?

115

7. g°~¡° J„¬C_È°
Hê^¥?

classes miss

J†Í°¼"Œ~¡°

Didn't you use to miss the classes
then?

8. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° studies Ì„á
KÍÀ‹"Œ_È°Hê^¥?

concentrate

Didn't he use to concentrate on studies
then ?

9. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° regular Qê
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^¥?

taxes pay

Didn't they use to pay taxes regularly
then ?

10. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° college H÷
"³ˆ"¤õ Œ_•qHê^¥?

regular

Didn't you use to go to college regularly
then?

,

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° language classes H÷
ZO^ΰ䛽 attend J†Í°¼"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why didn't you use to attend language
classes then?
h=ô J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 guides follow J†Í°¼

1. h=ô J„¬C_È° answers byheart KÍ‹À "Œ_•q
Hê^¥ ?
2. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D game P_Í"Œ~¡°Hê^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° law practise KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°
Hê^¥ ?
4. P"³° J„¬C_È° gold ornaments ^•ÎiOKÍk
Hê^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ ƒ•ìs „
Ì @°“|_È°•°
Ì„>è“ "Œ~¡°Hê^¥?
6. h=ô J„¬C_È° Z=iÌ„<á Œ P^•¥~¡„_
¬ Í "Œ_•q
Hê^¥ ?
7. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° taxies …Õ „
ã †
¬ ¶
Ç }O KÍ‹
À "Œ~¡°
Hê^¥ ?
8. P†Ç°# J„¬C_È° U q+¬†°Ç =ü „¬\O“÷ Kǰ䛽<Í
"Œ_È°Hê^¥ ?
9. P"³° XH›„¬C_È° modern dresses ^•ÎiOKÍk
Hê^¥ ?
10. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° non-veg. f‹¬°ä›½<Í "Œ~¡°
Hê^¥ ?
11. h=ô J„¬C_È° ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê college H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
"³ˆ"¤õ Œ_•qHê^ΰ ?
12. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° traffic rules ZO^Î ° ä› ½
‡•\÷OKÍ"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ ?
13. P"³° J„¬C_È° g° WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_Ík
Hê^ΰ ?
14. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° life #° ZO^ΰ䛽 enjoy
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ ?
15. h=ô z#ß`Ç#O…Õ g° father =¶@ ZO^ΰ䛽
q<Í"Œ_•qHê^ΰ ?

12.

"Œ_•qHê^ΰ?

Why didn't you use to follow guides
then?

13. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 g° =¶@ q<Í"Œ_È°
Hê^ΰ?
Why didn't he use to listen to your
words then?

14. P"³° J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 ZH›ø_•H© "³ˆ¤k
õ Hê^ΰ?
Why didn't she use to go anywhere
then?

15. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ „¬ O _È ° Q® • °
[iÀ„"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ?
16.

17.

Why didn't they use to celebrate
festivals then?
h=ô college ~ËA•…Õ seminors …Õ

ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾<"Í Œ_•qHê^ΰ?

Why didn't you use to participate in
the seminors in your college days?
g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ regular Qê
accounts maintain KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ?
Why didn't you use to maintain
accounts regularly then?

18. P"³° J„¬C_È° =°# WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_Ík
Hê^ΰ?
19.
20.

Why didn't she use to stay in our house
then?
"Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 loans f‹¬°ä›½<Í

"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ?

Why didn't they use to take loans then?
h=ô XH›„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 money save

KÍ‹À "Œ_•qHê^ΰ?

Why didn't you use to save money
once ?

Z

Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached.

116

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Used to + I form of the Verb"
J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õ HùO`ÇHê•O ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê „¬^„
Í ^
¬ Í KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Used to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I used to write letters to the foreigners then.
2. We used to help one another in our college days.
3. She used to teach us Hindi in our school days.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`ÇHê•OQê ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêx, J•"Œ@°…èH› Qêx =°#=ò K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Didnot + use to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I did not use to go to library in my school days.
2. We did not use to miss the classes then.
3. He did not use to work hard once.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õ HùO`ÇHê•=ò ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêh, J•"Œ@°Qê Qêh KÍ‹°¬ Oë _³_• XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Did + use to + I form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Did you use to play games in your school days?
2. Did he use to stay with you in those days?
3. Did they use to celebrate every festival grandly then ?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`Ç Hê•O J•"Œ@° …èH› ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Didn't+use to + I form of Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Didn't you use to attend the classes regularly at school ?
2. Didn't he use to pay rent regularly then ?
3. Didn't they use to maintain the accounts regularly once ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

221. dictate

dictated

dictated

222. die

died

died

223. differ

differed

differed

224. digest

digest

digest

225. dilute

dilute

dilute

226. diminish

diminished

diminished

227. dine

dined

dined

227. dip

dipped

dipped

228. direct

directed

directed

229. discover

discovered

discovered

230. dismiss

dismissed

dismissed

231. diosperse

dispersed

dispersed

232. dispute

disputed

disputed

233. distribute

disributed

disributed

234. disturb

disturbed

disturbed

235. divert

diverted

diverted

236. divide

divided

divided

237. dominate

dominated

dominated

238. drag

dragged

dragged

239. drown

drowned

drowned

240. ebb

ebbed

ebbed

D ~ËA

Meaning

K³„²æ ã"Œ~òOKÇ°@
KÇx‡é=ô@
"Í~°¡ Ja•ã‡•†Ç°=ò
H›ey†ÇòO_È°@
r~¡â=òK͆Çò@
h~¡°H›e„² „¬•°KÇ#K͆Çò
`Çy¾OKÇ°@
ƒ•Õ[#=òK͆òÇ @
=ò#°Q®°@
^¥iKǶ„¬ô@
H›#°Qù#°@
`ù•yOKÇ°@
K³ki‡é=ô@
`ÇQ®°=ô…ì_È°@
„¬OzÌ„@°“@
P@OH›„¬~¡KÇ°@
=°eÁOKÇ°@
„¬OzÌ„@°“@
Jk•Hê~¡=ò
KÍ…ì~òOKÇ°
D_È°ó@, …ìQ®°@
h\÷…Õ =òxy‡é=ô@
WOH÷‡é=ô@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
118

A little learning is a dangerous thing.

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POSSESSIONS -PRESENT
=°#=ò H›ey†Çò#ß "Œ\÷x Possessives JO^ΰ~¡°.
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O …è^¥ "Íï~=ï~á<Œ H›ey†Çò#ß "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Œä›½ D ~ËA urgent work =ô#ßk.
J`ÇxH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°Oz income =ô#ßk.

J
J

J
J

=¶ä›½ D <³•…Õ public exams =ô#ßq.
P"³°ä›½ XH› gold necklace =ô#ßk.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O …è^¥ "Íï~=ï~á<Œ H›ey†Çò#ß "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

I, We, You, They - Subject Qê

=ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
He, She, It - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä›½ D ~ËA WO@~¡¶Þ¼ L#ßk.

6. <Œä›½ W^Îí~¡° sisters L<Œß~¡°.

I have an interview today.

2. =¶ä›½ D "Œ~¡O

English test

I have two sisters.

=ô#ßk.

7. =¶ä›½ WO\ÕÁ Jxß facilities =ô<Œß~ò.

We have English test this week.

3. =¶ brother 䛽 government Job =ô#ßk.
My brother has a govt. Job.

We have all facilities in our house.

8.

Sachin Tendulkar

䛽 batting …Õ =°Oz

skill =ô#ßk.

4. =¶ sister 䛽 college …Õ =°Oz friends
L<Œß~¡°.

Sachin Tendulkar has good skill in

My sister has good friends in the

9. =¶ cousin H÷ =°Oz knowledge =ô#ßk.

college.

5. "ŒiH÷ D
=ô#ßk.

My cousin has good knowledge.
town

…Õ =°Oz „¬•°ä›½|_•

They have good influence in this town.
119

batting.

10. "ŒiH÷ D
=ô#ßk.

town

…Õ =°Oz

property

They have good property in this town.

,

11. =¶

H÷ teaching …Õ =°Oz
experience =ô#ßk.
uncle

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

My uncle has good experience in
teaching.

12. =¶ä›½ D "Œ~¡O
=ô#ßk.

office

…Õ

inspection

1. <Œä›½ W„¬C_È° English class =ô#ßk.
2. =¶ä›½ Hê…èl…Õ Ì„^Îí …ÿáã|s =ô#ßk.

We have inspection in our office this
week.

13. =¶ä›½ D work …Õ KŒ…ì risk =ô#ßk.
We have much risk in this work.

14. "ŒiH÷ D ~ËA town …Õ meeting =ô#ßk.
They have a meeting in the town today.

15. <Œä›½ D ~ËA 1020 temperature =ô#ßk.
I have a temperature of 1020 today.

16. =¶ä›½ D <³•…Õ public „¬sH›Æ•° =ô#ßq.
We have public examinations this
month.

3. J`ÇxH÷ driving licence =ô#ßk.
4. P"³°ä›½ =°Oz qualifications =ô#ßq.
5. "ŒiH÷ Ti…Õ lands =ô#ßq.
6. Jq°`Œƒ˜|KÇó<£ä›½ =°Oz Ja•=¶#°•°
=ô<Œß~¡°.
7. =¶ä› ½ D town …Õ KŒ…ì =°Ok
|O^•Î°=ô•° =ô<Œß~°¡ .
8. =¶ Hê•h…Õ ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O =¶ä› ½
problem =ô#ßk.

water

9. "ŒiH÷ W„¬C_È° Ì‹•=ô•° =ô<Œß~ò.

17. =¶ brother H÷ =°Oz income =ô#ßk.
My brother has good income.

18. P"³°ä›½ WO\ÕÁ =°Oz ‡ã é`Œ•‚¬ì=ò =ô#ßk.
She has good encouragement in her
house.

19. <Œä›½ D ~ËA P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ
=ô#ßk.

heavy work

I have heavy work in the office today.

20. =¶ä›½ D ª•i KŒ…ì
=ô<Œß~ò.

opportunities

We have many opportunities this time.

10. HêOãQï ‹¹H÷ ‡•~¡"
Á °³ O@°…Õ =°Oz "³°*ìi\©
=ô#ßk.
11. W„¬C_È° <Œ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ~¡¶. 2000 =ô#ßq.
12. =¶ WO\ÕÁ =¶ä›½ internet facility =ô#ßk.
13. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ Oxford Dictionary =ô#ßk.
14. <Œä›½ D~ËA „¬îië rest =ô#ßk.
15. "ŒiH÷ WO\ÕÁ KŒ…ì=°Ok
=ô<Œß~¡°.

servants

Z

What cannot be cured must be endured.

120

PRESENT - NEGATIVE FORM

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

"ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° principles LO_È=ô.
=¶ brother H÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO U income …è^ΰ.

J
J

J
J

=¶ä›½ D "Œ~¡O school …Õ tests …è=ô.
P"³°ä›½ J‹¬•° friends …è~¡°.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Donot / Does not + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "do not have"
Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "does not have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

I, We, You, They –> Subject
He, She, It –>

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä›½ D ~ËA office …Õ work …è^ΰ.
I don't have work in the office today.

2. =¶ä›½ D ~ËA English class …è^ΰ.
We don't have English class today.

3. h䛽 J‹¬•° commonsense …è^ΰ.
You don't have common sense at all.

4. J`ÇxH÷ D ~ËA duty …è^ΰ.
He doesn't have duty today.

5. P"³°ä›½ WH›ø_È J‹¬•° friends …è~¡°.
She doesn't have friends here at all.

7. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ W„¬C_È° _È|°Ä …è^ΰ.
I don't have money with me now.

8. =¶ TiH÷ bus facility …è^ΰ.
We don't have bus facility to our village.

9. =¶ brother H÷ driving licence …è^ΰ.
My brother doesn't have the driving
licence.

10. =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° property …è^ΰ.
We don't have property at all.

11. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° ‹¬=°‹¬¼•° LO_È=ô.
They don't have problems at all.

6. "ŒiH÷ „²•Á•° …è~¡°.
They don't have children.
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EXERCISE

12. <Œä›½ J‹¬•° leisure LO_È^ΰ.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

I don't have leisure at all.

13. =¶ä›½ Hê…èl…Õ J‹¬•° …ÿáã|s …è^ΰ.
We don't have library in our college.

14. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° L^˼Q® J=Hê‰×=ò•° …è=ô.
He doesn't have job opportunities at
all.

1. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ text books …è=ô.
2. =¶ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O inspection …è^ΰ.
3. g°ä›½ D ~ËA meeting …è^ΰ.
4. =¶ brother H÷ govt. job …è^ΰ.

15. P"³°ä›½ J‹¬•° WO\ÕÁ ‹
À ÞKÇ•ó …è^°Î .

5. P"³°H÷ WO\ÕÁ J‹¬•° encouragement …è^°Î .

She doesn't have freedom in her

6. "ŒiH÷ own house …è^ΰ.

house at all.

16. J`ÇxH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO J‹¬•° U P^¥†Ç°O …è^ΰ.
He doesn't have any income at
present.

7. <Œä›½ J‹¬•° job …Õ risk …è^ΰ.
8. =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° transfer LO_È^ΰ.
9. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° common sense …è^ΰ.

17. KŒ…ì =°Ok ƒ•ì~¡ f †Ç ò •ä› ½ WOHê
u<ÍO^ΰ䛽 uO_•…è^°Î .
Many Indians still don't have food to

10. P"³°ä›½ J‹¬•°
…è^ΰ.

eat.

11. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° H›$`Ç[ý`Ç …è^ΰ.

They don't have houses to live in.

19. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ Ì‹•=ô•° …è=ô.
We don't have holidays at present.
business

…Õ

…Õ

knowledge

12. <Œä›½ J‹¬•° business …Õ profit …è^ΰ.

18. "ŒiH÷ LO_ÍO^ΰ䛽 Wˆ×ä…è=ô.

20. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•°
…è^ΰ.

English

experience

13. =¶ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O bonus …è^ΰ.
14. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ QêOn•H÷ J‹¬•° ~Œ[H©†Ç°OQê
experience …è^ΰ.
15. =¶ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼…è^ΰ.

He doesn't have experience in
business.

Z
Self help is the best help.

122

PRESENT - QUESTION FORM

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò XH›~°¡ H›ey†Çò#ß"Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

D ~ËA WH›ø_È h䛽 work =ô#ß^¥?
D"Œ~¡O g°ä›½ Ì‹•=ô•° =ô<Œß†Ç¶?

J
J

J
J

W„¬C_È° h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ money =ô#ß^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ government job =ô#ß^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò H›ey†Çò#ß"Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# W„¬C_È°, D ~ËA, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ , D"Œ~¡O, D<³•,
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
" Do / Does + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

I, We, You, They - subject Qê
He, She, It - subject Qê

=ô#ß„¬ô_È° ' Do +

=ô#ß„¬ô_È° ' Does +

have'

have'

=KÇ°ó#°.

=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h䛽 D~ËA English class =ô#ß^¥?
Do you have English class today?

2. g°ä›½ D "Œ~¡O screening test =ô#ß^¥?
Do you have screening test this week?

3. h䛽 brothers =ô<Œß~Œ?
Do you have brothers?

4. g°ä›½ ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O Ì‹•=ô =ôO@°O^¥?
Do you have a holiday every Sunday?

5. g° brother H÷ vehicle =ô#ß^¥?
Does your brother have a vehicle ?

6. g° WO\ÕÁ g°ä›½ Jxß =‹¬`°Ç •¶ =ô<Œß†¶
Ç ?
Do you have all facilities in your house?
123

7. P"³°ä›½ English …Õ =°Oz
=ô#ß^¥?

knowledge

Does she have good knowledge in
English?

8. "ŒiH÷ D
=ô#ß^¥?

town

…Õ =°Oz

influence

Do they have good influence in this
town?

9. g° father H÷ WOHê KŒ…ì
=ô#ß^¥?

years service

Does your father have still many year
service ?

10. P"³°ä›½ gold ornaments =ô<Œß†Ç¶?
Does she have gold ornaments?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. h䛽 ª•^•¥~¡}OQê
=ôO@°Ok ?

leisure

Z„¬ C _È °

When do you usually have leisure?

12. h䛽 ZO`Ç=°Ok sisters =ô<Œß~¡° ?
risk

H›ey

Why do you have risk unnecessarily?

14. g°ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Zxß
=ô<Œß~ò?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. g°ä›½ ㄬu ~ËA duty LO@°O^¥ ?
2. g°ä› ½ ã „ ¬ u ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O
LO@°O^¥?

Howmany sisters do you have?

13. ZO^ΰ䛽 h=ô J#=‹¬~¡OQê
†ÇòO\ì=ô ?

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subjects

3. g°

inspection

H÷ business …Õ =°Oz
experience L#ß^¥ ?
brother

4. P"³ ° ä› ½ college …Õ =°Oz
L<Χ~Π?

friends

Howmany subjects do you have this

5. "ŒiH÷ ‹¬ÞO`Ç house L#ß^¥ ?

year ?

6. h䛽 W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È U"³°Ø<Œ work L#ß^¥?

15. J`ÇxH÷ ~ËAH÷ Zxß hours duty =ôO@°Ok?
Howmany hour duty does he have in
a day?

16. J`ÇxH÷ <³•H÷ ZO`Ç P^¥†Ç°O LO@°Ok?
Howmuch income does he have in a
month ?

17. P"³°ä›½

…Õ Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•
experience =ô#ßk ?
teaching

Howmany years experience does she
have in teaching?

18. W„¬C_È° h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO`Ç money =ô#ßk?
Howmuch moeny do you have now?

19. g°ä›½ own house ZH›ø_È =ô#ßk?
Where do you have own house?

20. "ŒiH÷ ZO`Ç=°Ok „²•Á•° =ô<Œß~¡°?

7. g°ä›½ D <³•…Õ public exams L<Œß†Ç¶?
8. "ŒiH÷ D town …Õ relations L<Œß~Œ ?
9. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ Physics text book L#ß^¥ ?
10. D ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`ÇO g°ä›½
L#ß^¥ ?

meeting

11. g°ä›½ college …Õ ~ËAH÷ Zxß
LO\ì~ò ?

classes

12. J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 Z•Á„¬C_È° W`Ç~¡°•`Ë
`ÇQê^¥ H›ey=ôO\ì_È° ?
13. g° #•°Q®°i…Õ Z=iH÷ D ~ËA
L#ßk ?

duty

14. g°ä›½ D ~ËA Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 L#ßk ?
15. D ~ËA
L#ßk?

Howmany children do they have?

Haste leads to waste.

Jr. Inter students

H÷ U

test

Z
124

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ H›ey †ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ W„¬C_È° money …è^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO L^˼Q®O …è^¥?

J
J

J
J

g°ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Ì‹•=ô•° …è"Œ ?
"ŒiH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P^¥†Ç°O …è^¥?

Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O XH› ~ ¡ ° H› e y†Ç ò O_È x "Œ\÷ x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D~ËA, D<³•,
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't / Doesn't + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Don't have" =KÇ°ó#°.
He, She, It - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Doesn't have" =KÇ°ó#°.

I, We, You, They - Subject

EXAMPLES
1. h䛽 sisters …è~Œ?
Don't you have sisters?

2. g°ä›½ D~ËA computer class …è^¥?
Don't you have computer class today?

3. h䛽 J‹¬•° common sense …è^¥?
Don't you have common sense at all?

4. g°ä›½ D <³•…Õ J‹¬•° Ì‹•=ô•°…è"Œ?
Don't you have holidays this month?

5. J`Ç x H÷ D ~ËA Uq°

work …è ^ ¥?
Doesn't he have any work today?

6. P"³°H÷ WH›ø_È U problem …è^¥?
Doesn't she have any problem here?

7. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° property …è^¥?
Don't they have property at all?
125

8. "ŒiH÷ „²•Á•° …è~Œ?
Don't they have children?

9. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ W„¬C_È° money …è^¥?
Don't you have money with you now?

10. g° Ti…Õ internet ªÏH›~¡¼O …è^¥?
Don't you have internet facility in your
village?

11. h䛽 ‹¬ï~á# guidance …è^¥?
Don't you have proper guidance?

12. g° brother H÷
…è^¥?

teaching

…Õ

experience

Doesn't your brother have experience
in teaching?

,
'Wh' QUESTIONS

13. g°ä›½ D ~ËA classes ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why don't you have classes today?

14. h䛽 D ~ËA duty ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why don't you have duty today?

15. g° =°^•Î¼ unity ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why don't you have unity among you?

16. J`ÇxH÷ P post 䛽 eligibility ZO^ΰ䛽…è^°Î ?
Why doesn't he have eligibility for that
post ?

17. P"³°ä›½ JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 freedom …è^ΰ?
Why doesn't she have freedom there?

18. "ŒiH÷ D
…è=ô?

festival

H÷ Ì‹•=ô•° ZO^ΰ䛽

Why don't they have holidays for this
festival?

19. h䛽 W„¬C_È° work ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why don't you have work now?

20. "ŒiH÷ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O profits ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?
Why don't they have profits this year?

21. J`ÇxH÷ job ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?
Why doesn't he have a job?

22. P"³°ä›½ g° co-operation ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why doesn't she have your cooperation?

23. J`ÇxH÷ ‹¬i†³Ø°# P^¥†Ç°O ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why doesn't he have sufficient income?

24. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° leisure ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

1. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ English Text Book …è^¥?
2. g° town …Õ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ water problem …è^¥?
3. P"³°ä›½ brothers …è~Œ?
4. J`ÇxH÷ regular income …è^¥?
5. "ŒiH÷ D Ti…Õ own house …è^¥?
6. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•°
…è^¥?

business

…Õ

experience

7. P"³°H÷ J‹¬•°
…è^¥?

science

…Õ

knowledge

8. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° ‡Ú•O#䛽
…è^¥?

water supply

9. <Œä›½ Dª•i J=Hê‰×O …è^¥?
10. =°#䛽 Dª•i election duty …è^¥?
11. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ driving licence ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?
12. "ŒiH÷ „²•Á•° ZO^ΰ䛽 …è~¡°?
13. J`ÇxH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ^•³~á ¼¡ O …è^°Î ?
14. J`ÇxH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 =°Oz qualities …è=ô?
15. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬ • °
LO_È^ΰ?

Sunday work

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why don't they have leisure at all?

Z
A good teacher is worth one thousand priests.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have / Has' • Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D ~ï O_•O\÷x grammar …Õ Anomalous Verbs JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive
Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Vㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have / Has "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

2.

1. I have good friends here.

2. We have a test today.

3. She has a gold necklace.

4. He has good experience in business.

NEGATIVE FORM :

V„
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "don't / doesn't have"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

1. I don't have the driving licence.

2.

We don't have any problem here.

3. He doesn't have a job.

4.

She doesn't have brothers.

QUESTION FORM :

Vㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Do / Does + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Do you have leisure today?

2. Do you have an interview this week?

3. Does he have good income?

4. Does she have a fever now?

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Vㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Don't / Doesn't have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :

127

1. Don't you have any work today?

2. Don't you have rest at all?

2. Doesn't she have classes today ?

3. Doesn't he have money with him now?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

241.

educate

educated

educated

242.

elaborate

elaborated

elaborated

243.

elect

elected

elected

244.

elope

eloped

eloped

245.

emigrate

emigrated

emigrated

246.

emphasize

emphasized

emphasized

247.

enclose

enclosed

enclosed

248.

encourage

encouraged

encouraged

249.

engage

engaged

engaged

250.

enjoy

enjoyed

enjoyed

251.

enlarge

enlarged

enlarged

252.

enroll

enrolled

enrolled

253.

enter

entered

entered

254.

entertain

entertained

entertained

255.

eradicate

eradicated

eradicated

256.

escape

escaped

escaped

257.

escort

escorted

escorted

258.

establish

established

established

259.

estimate

estimated

estimated

260.

exaggerate

exaggerated

exaggerated

D ~ËA

Meaning

KÇ^ΰ=ô K³„²æOKÇ°@
q‹¬ëiO„¬K͆Çò@
Z#°ßHù#°@

ã †
² ò
Ç x`Ë ‡•i‡é=ô@
=•‹¬‡é=ô@
<ùH÷øK³„¬C@
[`ÇK͆Çò@
‡ã é`Ç•‚²ìOKÇ°@
x=°Q®ß"³°Ø†ÇòO_È°@
J#°ƒ•’qOKÇ°@
q‹¬ëiO„¬*è†Çò@
*ìa`Œ…Õ À„~¡°KÍ~¡°ó@
ㄬ"ÍtOKÇ°@
q<Ë^΄¬~¡KÇ°@
~¡¶„¬ô=¶„¬ô@
`Ç„²æOKÇ°Hù#°@
`Ë_È°Qê "³ˆ×ä@
ª•Ö„O² KÇ°@
q•°= x~¡â~òOKÇ°@
Ju‰×†³¶H÷ëQê K³„¬C@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
128

Power comes from sincere service.

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POSSESSIONS - PAST
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

=¶ä›½ x#ß ‹Ì •=ô LO_•#k.
J <Œ^ÎQ~
¾® ¡ x#ß ~¡¶. 500 LO_•#q.
=¶ä›½ x#ß P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ KŒ…ì work =ôO_•#k. J "ŒiH÷ XH›„¬C_È° =°Oz property =ôO_•#k.

J
J

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey †ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'Had' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'had' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß <Œ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ ~¡¶. 5000 LO_•#q.
I had Rs. 5000 with me yesterday.

2.

last Sunday

=ôO_•#k.

<Œä›½ K³<³áß…Õ

Last month

LO_•#q.

=¶ä› ½

public exams

=¶ cousin H÷ J„¬C_È°
LO_•#k.

government job

My cousin had a govt. job then.

5. =¶ä› ½ x#ß
LO_•#k.

office

…Õ

heavy work

We had heavy work in office yesterday.
129

7.

H÷ J„¬ C _È ° =°Oz
LO_•#k.

N.T.R.

popularity

N.T.R. had a good popularity then.

8. XH›„C¬ _È° "ŒiH÷ 100 acres land LO_•#k.

We had public examinations last
month.

4

stable

We had a stable government at centre
once.

interview

I had an interview in Chennai last
Sunday.

3.

6. =°#ä› ½ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° ö H Oã ^ Î O …Õ
government LO_Ík.

They had 100 acres land once.

9. <Œä›½ x#ß
LO_•#k.

Journey

…Õ =°Oz H›OÌ„h

I had a good company on my journey
yesterday.

10. P"³°ä›½ ~Œãu KŒ…ì [Þ~¡=ò LO_•#k.
She had a high fever last night.

,

11. a.*.ÿ „.² H÷ Q®`OÇ …Õ `Çq°ˆ×<Œ_È°…Õ _•.†°Ç O.Hï .
support LO_•#k.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

The B.J.P. had the support of D.M.K. in
Tamil Nadu in the past.

12. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì
LO_Íq.

job opportunities

They had many job opportunities once.

13. =¶ä› ½ last
LO_•#k.

Sunday special class

We had a special class last Sunday.

14. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È°
LO_•<Œ~¡°.

experienced lecturers

We had experienced lecturers then.

15. x#ß =¶ä›½ ‹
Ì •=ô LO_•#k.
We had a holiday yesterday.

16. WOk~Œ, ~Œr"£ Hê•O…Õ HêOãQï ‹¹ ‡•s“H÷
=°Oz support LO_•#k.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

The congress party had the people's
support during the tenure of Indira and
Rajeev.

17.

Last year business
profits

…Õ "ŒiH÷ =°Oz

LO_•#q.

They had good profits in their business

10.
11.
12.

last year.

18. =¶ =°^•Î¼ XH›„C¬ _È° =°Oz unity LO_Ík.

13.

We had good unity among us once.

19. =°# WO_•†Ç°<£ \©O…Õ =°#䛽 XH›„C¬ _È°
=°Oz spin bowlers LO_Í"Œ~¡°.
We had good spin bowlers in our Indian
team once.

20. J`ÇxH›„C¬ _È° =°Oz P^¥†Ç°O LO_•#k.

14.
15.

=¶ä›½ last Sunday EAMCET LO_•#k.
<Œä›½ x#ß Q®°O@¶~¡°…Õ work LO_•#k.
=¶ä›½ last year six subjects LO_•#q.
P"³°H÷ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì ornaments LO_•#q.
J`ÇxH›„C¬ _È° KŒ…ì ‹¬=°‹¬¼•° LO_•#q.
=¶ä›½ last month WH›ø_È heavy rains
LO_•#q.
=¶ä›½ last week u~¡°=°•…Õ =°Oz
^Î~Å¡ #=ò •a•Oz#k.
"ŒiH÷ last year =°Oz harvest („¬O@)
LO_•#k.
=¶ä› ½ last time "Œi co-operation
LO_•#k.
"ŒiH÷ last week Hyderabad …Õ training
classes LO_•#q.
=¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° WO\ÕÁ XH› pet dog LO_Ík.
<Œä›½ WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ Andhra Bank …Õ
Account LO_Ík.
=¶ä›½ x#ß office …Õ XH› urgent meeting
LO_•#k.
XH›„¬C_È° "ŒiH÷ D \º<£…Õ six buildings
LO_•#q.
=¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hê…èl…Õ =°Oz friends
LO_Í"Œ~¡°.

He had good income then.

Too many cooks spoil the broth.

Z
130

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Œä›½ J„¬C_È° D town …Õ J‹¬•° friends …è~¡°. J =¶ä›½ x#ß Hê…èl…Õ H›O„¬î¼@~Ÿ HêÁ‹¬° …è^ΰ.
P"³° 䛽 J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° gold ornaments …è=ô. J =¶ brother H÷ x#ß office …Õ duty …è=ô.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, XH›„C¬ _È°
…èH› Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did not + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject –> Singular, Plural

U^³á##°

"did not + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =¶ä›½ x#ß J‹¬•° leisure …è^ΰ.
We did not have leisure yesterday.

2. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ x#ß J‹¬•° money …è^ΰ.

6. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° own house …è^ΰ.
They did not have own house then.

7. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hê…èl…Õ =°Oz staff …è~¡°.

I did not have money with me

We did not have good staff in our

yesterday.

college then.

3. =¶ä›½ x#ß =¶ colony …Õ power supply
…è^ΰ.
We did not have power supply in our
colony yesterday.

4. =¶ brother H÷ J„¬C_È° D L^˼Q®=ò …è^°Î .
My brother did not have this job then.

5. P"³°H÷ x#ß J‹¬•° q㉧Ou …è^ΰ.
She did not have rest yesterday.

8. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È°
Hê=ô.

entrance tests

We did not have entrance tests then.

9. J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° work LO_Ík Hê^ΰ.
He did not have work at all then.

10. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° study classes LO_Íq Hê=ô.
They did not have study classes then.

11. <Œä›½ J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° ƒ•’†°Ç =òO_Ík Hê^ΰ.
I did not have fear at all then.

131

LO_Íq

,

12. XH› „ ¬ C _È ° =°# ^Í ‰ × O …Õ =°#H÷ Wxß
‹¬=°‹¬¼•°O_Íq Hê=ô.
We did not have all these problems in

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

our country once.

13. J`Ç x H÷ J„¬ C _È °

parents

#°Oz

…è^ΰ.

encouragement

He did not have encouragement from
his parents then.

14. =¶ ~ËA•…Õ =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° D HË~¡°••°
…è=ô.
We did not have all these courses in
Last year =¶ä›½

=°Oz „¬O@•° …è=ô.

We did not have good harvest last
year.

16.

Last year =¶ä›½

J‹¬•° practicals …è=ô.

We did not have preacticals last year.

17. P"³°ä›½ J„¬C_È‹¬•° P WO\ÕÁ
LO_Ík Hê^ΰ.

freedom

She did not have freedom in that
house then.

18. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° business …Õ profits LO_Íq
Hê=ô.
They did not have profits in business
then.

19. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° job opportunities
LO_Íq Hê=ô.
We did not have job opportunities
then.

20. =¶ father ^ÎQ®¾~¡ =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° leniance
LO_Ík Hê^ΰ.
We did not have lenience with our
father then.

2. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È°
Hê^ΰ.

third language

LO_Ík

3. =¶ brother H÷ J„¬C_È° D car …è^ΰ.
4. P"³°H÷ J„¬C_È° Degree qualification …è^ΰ.
5. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° D town …Õ vote ‚¬ì䛽ø…è^°Î .

our days.

15.

1. <Œä›½ last year text books …è=ô.

6. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Ì‹•=ô•° Z䛽ø=Qê LO_Íq
Hê=ô.
7. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ P time …Õ camera …è^ΰ.
8. =¶ä›½ x#ß office …Õ meeting …è^ΰ.
9. J`ÇxH÷ XH›„C¬ _È° WH›ø_È J‹¬•° |O^•Î°=ô•°
…è~¡°.
10. P"³ ° ä› ½ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • °
knowledge 䛕_¨ …è^ΰ.

minimum

11. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° WH›ø_È ‡Ú•O …è^ΰ.
12. <Œä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° computer
J=Qꂬì# …è^ΰ.

course

•Ì „ á

13. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hê…èr…Õ lab facilities …è=ô.
14. J„¬C_È° L^˼Q®°•ä›½ loan ªÏH›~¡¼O…è^ΰ.
15. x#ß P >ÿØ"£°…Õ <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡
…è^ΰ.

driving licence

Z

A thing of beauty is a joy forever.

132

,

: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h䛽 x#ß interview =ôO_•#^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ last month training =ôO_•#^¥?

J
J

J
J

g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì property =ôO_Í^¥?
P"³°ä›½ x#ß fever =ôO_•#^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡=ò, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
" Did + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ' Did + have'

=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ money =ôO_•#^¥?
Did you have money with you
yesterday?

2.

Last Sunday

g°ä› ½

special class

=ôO_•#^¥?
Did you have a special class last
Sunday?

3.

Last month

g°ä› ½

public exams

=ôO_•#"Œ?
Did you have public exams last month?

4.

Last year

J`Ç x H÷ =°Oz

income

=ôO_•#^¥?
Did he have good income last year?

5. P"³°ä›½ x#ß P„¦‹
Ô °¬ …Õ g°\÷OQ®° LO_•#^¥?
Did she have a meeting in the office
yesterday?
133

6. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì property LO_•#^¥?
Did they have good property then?

7. h䛽 J„¬C_È° close firends =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?
Did you have close friends then?

8. g°ä›½ J„¬C_È°
LO_•<Œ~Œ?

college

…Õ =°Oz

staff

Did you have good staff in the college
then?

9. g° brother H÷ J„¬C_È°
=ôO_•#^¥?

government job

Did your brother have a govt. job then?

10. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O
=ôO_Í^¥?

holiday

Did they have a holiday every Sunday
then?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. hä› ½ last
LO_•#k?

Sunday interview

ZH› ø _È

Where did you have the interview last
Sunday?

12. g°ä›½ last year Zxß subjects =ôO_•#q?
How many subjects did you have last
year?

13. x#ß h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO`Ç moeny LO_•#k?
How much moeny did you have with
you yesterday?

14. g°~¡ ° x#ß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ J`Ç x `Ë `Ç Q ê^¥
H›ey†Çò<Œß~¡° ?
Why did you have a quarrel with him
yesterday?

15. x#ß h䛽 holiday ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_•#k?
Why did you have a holiday yesterday?

16. Q®`Ç ‡•~¡"
Á °³ O\˜…Õ HêOãQï ‹¹ä½› ZO`Ç =°Ok
‹¬ƒ•’°¼•° LO_•<Œ~¡°.
Howmany members did the congress
party have in the last Parliament?

17.

last month h account …Õ

: 94406 16425

ZO`Ç amount

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h䛽 x#ß <Œ`Ë work LO_•#^¥ ?
2. g°ä›½ last Sunday exam LO_•#^¥ ?
3. J`ÇxH÷ XH›„C¬ _È° ‡•s“ „¬^q
Î =ôO_Í^¥ ?
4. P"³°ä›½ x#ß high temperature LO_•#^¥?
5. "ŒiH÷ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì
LO_•<Œ†Ç¶ ?

problems

6. h䛽 last year =°Oz income LO_•#^¥?
7. g°ä›½ XH›„¬C_È° "Œi =°^Îí`Ç° LO_Í^¥ ?
8. J`Ç x H÷

z#ß„¬ C _È ° `Ç e Á ^ Î O ã _ È ° •
encouragement LO_Í^¥ ?

9. g°ä›½ J„¬C_È°
LO_Í^¥ ?

drinking water facility

10. "ŒiH÷ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° D toun …Õ =°Oz
influence LO_•#^¥ ?

=ôO_•#k?

11. g°ä›½ last time training ZH›ø_È LO_•#k?

Howmuch amount did you have on
your account last month?

12. NH› $ +¬ â ^ Í = ~Œ†Ç ò •° `Ç # court …Õ
ZO`Ç=°Ok poets #° H›ey†ÇòO_•<Œ_È°?

18. WO`ÇH›=òO^ΰ g° ‘•„¬ô…Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok
Workers =ôO_•i?
Howmany workers did you have in
your shop then?

19. h䛽 J„¬C_È° <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç income =ôO_Ík?
Howmuch income did you have per
month then?

20. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° Zxß ZH›~Œ• ƒ•’¶q° LO_Ík?
Howmany acres land did they have
then?

13. g°ä›½ last month Zxß
LO_•<Œ~ò ?

working days

14. x#ß P time …Õ h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO`Ç
LO_•#k ?

money

15. ~Œãu g°ä›½ party U hotel …Õ LO_•#k ?

Z

Neither a borrower nor a lender be.

134

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

x#ß h䛽 computer class …è^¥?
P"³°ä›½ x#ß J‹¬•° rest …è^¥?

J
J

J
J

g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° own house …è^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° D L^˼Q®O …è^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õ =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Didn't + have"

=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g°ä›½ classes …è"Œ?
Didn't you have classes yesterday?

2.

Last week h䛽 office …Õ duty …è^¥?
Didn't you have duty in the office last
week?

3. J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° D job …è^¥?
Didn't he have this job then?

4. P"³°H÷ x#ß WO\ÕÁ work Ug°…è^¥?
Didn't she have any work in the house
yesterday?

5. "ŒiH÷ XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° property …è^¥?
Didn't they have property at all once?

6. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ x#ß money …è^¥?
Didn't you have money with you
yesterday?
135

7. g°ä›½ P ~ËA•…Õ
Hê"Œ?

entrance tests

LO_Íq

Didn't you have entrance tests in those
days?

8. "ŒiH÷ last year business …Õ profits …è"Œ?
Didn't they have profits in the business
last year?

9. g°ä› ½ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° L^˼Q® J=Hê‰× = ò•°
LO_ÍqHê"Œ?
Didn't you have job opportunities once?

10. "Œi ^ÎQ®¾~¡ x#ß tickets …è"Œ?
Didn't they have tickets with them
yesterday?

,

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

11. x#ß h䛽 duty ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why didn't you have duty yesterday?

12. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ P time …Õ licence ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why didn't you have the licence with
you at that time?

13. g°ä›½ x#ß JH›ø_È
…è^ΰ?

programme

ZO^ΰ䛽

Why didn't you have a programme there
yesterday?

14. g°ä›½ last Sunday school …Õ test ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ?
Why didn't you have test in the school
last Sunday?

15. h䛽 J„¬C_È° D
…è^ΰ?

post

H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 J~¡Ý`Ç

Why didn't you have eligibility for this
post then ?

16. J`ÇxH÷ last
~Œ…è^ΰ?

year promotion

ZO^ΰ䛽

Why didn't he have a promotion last
year?

17. "Œi =°^•Î¼ J„¬C_È° unity ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

18. g°ä›½ last month exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç ‹
Ì •=ô•°
ZO^ΰ䛽 …è=ô?

12.

19. Last time J`ÇxH÷ "Œi support ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ?
Why didn't he have their support last
time?
20.

g°ä›½ J„¬C_È°
Hê=ô ?

g°ä›½

office

…Õ

inspection

…è^¥?

Why didn't they have unity among them
then?

Why didn't you have holidays after the
exams last month?

Last year

13.
14.
15.

Last Sunday

g°ä›½

office

…Õ

meeting

…è^¥ ?
x#ß h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ P time …Õ money …è^¥?
g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° Sanskrit subject LO_Ík
Hê^¥?
"ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° WH›ø_È U problem …è^¥?
x#ß h䛽 J‹¬•° leisure …è^¥?
g° TiH÷ J„¬C_È° bus =‹¬u LO_Ík
Hê^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ J#°ƒ•’=O
…è^¥?
g°ä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° "Œ¼‡•~¡ O O…Õ profits
ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_ÍqHê=ô?
J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° regular income ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ?
h student days …Õ h䛽 close friends
ZO^Î°ä› …è~¡°?
h=ô last time "Œi ‹¬‚¬ìHê~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽
H›ey†ÇòO_È…è^ΰ?
x#ß P"³°ä›½ ZO^ΰ䛽 rest …è^ΰ?
Last time "ŒiH÷ D J=Hê‰×O ZO^ΰ䛽
~Œ…è^ΰ?
x#ß h=ô lunch ZO^ΰ䛽 H›ey†ÇòO_È
…è^ΰ?

night duties ZO^ΰ䛽O_Íq

Why didn't you have night duties then?

Z

A true friend is one soul in two bodies.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Had" Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Had' #° grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb JO\ì~¡°. nxx Past tense …Õ L„¬†¶
³ yª•ë=ò.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

=°#=ò Q® ` Ç O …Õ H› e y†Ç ò O_•# "Œ\÷ x Q® ° iOz ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

2.

"Had"

1. I had an interview last Sunday.

2. We had holidays last month.

3. He had many problems once.

4. They had heavy work yesterday.

NEGATIVE FORM :

=°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Did not + have"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I did not have class work yesterday. 3. He did not have rest yesterday.
2. We did not have any problem then. 4. They didn't have this property
once.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

=°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Did +
have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Did you have work yesterday?

2. Did you have good opportunities once?

3. Did he have training last month?4. Did they have good harvest last time ?
4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

=°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Didn't + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Didn't you have class yesterday?
2. Didn't he have this job then?
3. Didn't she have good company on journey yesterday?
4. Didn't they have income once ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

261. examine

examined

examined

262. exchange

exchanged

exchanged

263. excuse

excused

excused

264. exercise

exercised

exercised

265. exceed

exceeded

exceeded

266. exhibit

exhibitted

exhibitted

267. exist

existed

existed

268. expand

expanded

expanded

269. expose

exposed

exposed

270. express

expressed

expressed

271. extend

extended

extended

272. fabricate

fabricated

fabricated

273. facilitate

facilitated

facilitated

274. fade

faded

faded

275. fail

failed

failed

276

fascinated

fascinated

277. fast

fasted

fasted

278. fear

feared

feared

279. feign

feigned

feigned

280

felicitated

felicitated

fascinate

felicitate

D ~ËA

Meaning

„¬sH÷ÆOKÇ°@
Wzó„¬ôKÇ°óHù#°@
=°xßOKÇ°@, H›Æq°OKÇ°@
Jƒ•’¼‹²OKÇ°@
JuãH›q°OKÇ°@
ㄬ^ÎiÅOKÇ°@
rqOz†ÇòO_È°@
q‹¬ëiO„¬K͆Çò@
|†Ç°•°„¬~¡KÇ°@
`³e†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ°@
q‹¬ëiOKÇ°@
H›eæOKÇ°@
‹¬°•ƒ•’=òK͆òÇ @
HêOu‚Ôì#=°Q®°@
q„¦¬•=°Q®°@
W+¬“„¬_È°#@°Á K͆Çò@
L„¬"Œ‹¬=òO_È°@
ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_°È @
#\÷OKÇ°@
Ja•#OkOKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
138

Where there is light, there is a shadow.

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POSSESSIONS - FUTURE
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Œä›½ ö~„¬ô college …Õ special class LO@°Ok. J P"³°ä›½ ö~„¬ô q㉧Ou LO@°Ok.
=¶ä›½ exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç ‹Ì •=ô•° LO\ì~ò.
J "ŒiH÷ D ª•i =°Oz profits LO\ì~ò.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey †ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have" L„¬†³¶ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶

"Will have"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô P„¦ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ
LO@°Ok.

special duty

You will have a bright future.

I will have special duty in the office
tomorrow.

2. =¶ä›½ =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O Hê…èl…Õ
LO@°Ok.

function

We will have function in the college
next Sunday.

3. =¶ brother H÷
LO@°Ok.

6. g°ä› ½ selection `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç
LO@°Ok.

training

You will have training after the
selection.

7. "ŒiH÷ D
LO\ì~ò.

season

…Õ =°Oz

sales

next year promotion

They will have good sales in this
season.

My brother will have a promotion next
year.

8. =¶ä›½ =KÍó <³• school …Õ P@• ‡é\©•°
LO\ì~ò.

4. "ŒiH÷ =KÍó
LO\ì~ò.

139

5. h䛽 =°Oz ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë LO@°Ok.

…Õ

public exams

We will have sports competitions in our
school next month.

They will have public examinations
next March.

9. g°ä›½ „¬sH›Æ• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç Ì‹•=ô•° LO\ì~ò.

March

You will have holidays after the
examinations.

,

10. h䛽 D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ =¶
LO@°Ok.

co-operation

You will have our co-operation in this
matter.

11. g°ä›½ =°~¡• WOHùH› J=Hê‰×O LO@°Ok.
You will have another opportunity.

12. J`ÇxH÷ JH›ø_È KŒ…ì troubles LO\ì~ò.
He will have many troubles there.

13. "ŒiH÷ next year KŒ…ì syllabus LO@°Ok.
They will have heavy syllabus next
year.

14. <Œä›½ next year increment LO@°Ok.
I will have increment next year.

15. =°#䛽 =KÍó E<£…Õ Municipal elections
LO\ì~ò.
We will have Municipal elections next
June.

16. g°ä› ½ next
LO@°Ok.

month

JH› ø _È

seminar

You will have a seminar there next
month.

17. =¶ brother 䛽 next Sunday Hyderabad
…Õ g°\÷OQ· LO@°Ok.
My brother will have a meeting in
Hyderabad next Sunday.

18. P"³°ä›½ ö~„¬ô H›O\÷H÷ operation LO@°Ok.
She will have an operation to her eye
tomorrow.

19. "ŒiH÷ next
LO@°Ok.

year =°Oz Q® ° ië O „¬ ô
They will have good
recognition next year.

20. <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô KŒ…ì leisure LO@°Ok.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ <Œ help
LO@°Ok.
2. g°ä› ½ JH› ø _È =°Oz programmes
LO\ì~ò.
3. =¶ brother H÷ next month Delhi …Õ
interview LO@°Ok.
4. g°ä›½ next year WOHùH› ï~O_È° subjects
LO\ì~ò.
5. P"³°ä›½ D medicine ^¥Þ~Œ quick relief
LO@°Ok.
6. =¶ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È =°Oz entertainment
LO@°Ok.
7. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È KŒ…ì >ÿØ"£° LO@°Ok.
8. hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ "Œi ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ì Hê~¡ O
LO@°Ok.
9. =¶ä›½ D ~ËA Hê…èl…Õ staff meeting
LO@°Ok.
10. h䛽 life …Õ Jxß comforts LO\ì~ò.
11. h䛽 God blessings LO\ì~ò.
12. J`ÇxH÷ ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O…Õ WH› #°Oz =¶
support LO@°Ok.
13. "ŒiH÷ D ª•i KŒ…ì fã="³°#
Ø punishment
LO@°Ok.
14. h䛽 future …Õ J`Çx =•# KŒ…ì troubles
LO\ì~ò.
15. g°ä›½ D ª•i =°Oz remuneration
LO@°Ok.

I will have much leisure tomorrow.

Time and tide wait for none.

Z

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Œä›½ ö~„¬ô office …Õ duty =ôO_È^ΰ.
h䛽 WH› transfer =ôO_È^ΰ.

J
J

=¶ä›½ next week classes =ôO_È=ô.
J`ÇxH÷ WH› U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^ΰ.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will not + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ' will not + have'

=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô U work =ôO_È^ΰ.

6. h䛽 =°~¡… D J=Hê‰×O LO_È^ΰ.

I will not have any work tomorrow.

2. =¶ä›½ =KÍóPk"Œ~¡O test =ôO_È^ΰ.
We will not have test next Sunday.

3. =¶ brother H÷ WH› promotion =ôO_È^ΰ.
My brother will not have a promotion.

4. =¶ä›½ exams `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç Ì‹•=ô•° =ôO_È=ô.
We will not have holidays after the

141

again.

7. =¶ä›½ WH› increment =ôO_È^ΰ.
We will not have any increment.

9. g°ä›½ WH› work …Õ risk =ôO_È^ΰ.
You will not have any risk in the work.

10. P"³°H÷ WH› JH›ø_È U problem =ôO_È^ΰ.
She will not have any problem there.

exams.

5. J`ÇxH÷ WH› =¶

You will not have this opportunity

co-operation

=ôO_È^ΰ.

11. "ŒiH÷ next season …Õ sales =ôO_È=ô.

He will not have our co-operation

They will not have sales in the next

hereafter.

season.

,

11. "ŒiH÷ ö ~ „¬ ô Hê•h…Õ power supply
=ôO_È^ΰ. They will not have power

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

supply in the colony tomorrow.

12. <Œä›½ D ª•i election duty =ôO_È^ΰ.
I will not have election duty this time.

13. =¶ä› ½ next
=ôO_È^ΰ.

year language paper

1.
2.
3.
4.

We will not have language paper next
year.

14. g°ä›½ JH›ø_È U trouble =ôO_È^ΰ.
You will not have any trouble there.

15. "ŒiH÷ next year entrance test =ôO_È^ΰ.
They will not have the entrance test

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

next year.

16. <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô J‹¬•° leisure =ôO_È^ΰ.

10.

I will not have leisure at all tomorrow.

17. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È g°\÷OQ· =ôO_È^ΰ.

11.

You will not have meeting there

12.

tomorrow.

18. =¶ä›½ D ª•i Z䛽ø= profits =ôO_È=ô.
We will not have much profit this time.

19. J`ÇxH÷ next time =¶ support LO_È^ΰ.
He will not have our support next time.

20. h䛽 WH›#°Oz D business …Õ Z䛽ø=
income =ôO_È^ΰ.

13.
14.
15.

<Œä›½ WH› U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^ΰ.
=¶ä›½ Next year D subject LO_È^ΰ.
g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô English class LO_È^ΰ.
_•ã w q^¥¼~¡ ° í • ä› ½ WH› g°^Î @
supplementary „¬sH›Æ•° LO_È=ô.
P"³°ä›½ WH› P WO\ÕÁ freedom LO_È^ΰ.
P q+¬†°Ç O…Õ <Œä›½ U ƒì^•Î¼`Ç LO_È^°Î .
h䛽 JH›ø_È ö~„¬ô U =‹¬u LO_È^ΰ.
WH› "Œi =°^μ unity LO_È^ΰ.
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O #°O_• 10th class "ŒiH÷
11 papersLO_È=ô.
D scheme ^¥Þ~Œ =°#䛽 U „
ã †
¬ ¶
³ [#O
LO_È^ΰ.
=°#䛽 ö~„¬ô town …Õ power supply
LO_È^ΰ.
WOHùH› 50 ‹¬OII• =~¡ä›½ =°#䛽 =°#
‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ ‹¬°<Œg° ƒ•’†°Ç O LO_È^°Î .
J`ÇxH÷ D `Ç„¬CH÷ U tHÆê LO_È^ΰ.
P"³°ä›½ next time D payment LO_È^ΰ.
"ŒiH÷ D project =•# U q^•Î"°³ #
Ø
#+¬“=ò LO_È^ΰ.

You will not have much income in this
business hereafter.

Still water runs deep.

Z
142

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h䛽 ö~„¬ô special class =ôO@°O^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O promotion =ôO@°O^¥?

J
J

g°ä›½ next week exams =ôO\ì†Ç¶?
"ŒiH÷ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È meeting LO@°O^¥ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
" Shall + have" or " Will + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
I, We Subject Qê

=ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Shall + have'
You, He, She, It, They, Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° will +

have'

=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =°#=ò D ~ËA ~ŒãuH÷ hotel …Õ dinner
H›ey†ÇòO^¥=¶?
Shall we have dinner at hotel tonight?

2. =°#=ò HùO`Ç‹
À „¬ô rest H›ey†ÇòO^¥=¶?
Shall we have rest for a while?

3. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô holiday LO@°O^¥?
Will you have a holiday tomorrow?

4. "ŒiH÷ next week inspection =ôO@°O^¥?
Will they have inspection next week?

5. J`Ç x H÷ D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O
=ôO@°O^¥?

promotion

Will he have a promotion this year?

6. P"³°ä›½ P WO\ÕÁ ‹
À ÞKÇ•ó LO@°O^¥?
Will she have freedom in that house?
143

7. "ŒiH÷ D season …Õ =°Oz
LO\ì†Ç¶?

sales

Will they have good sales in this
season?

8. hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô P„¦ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ
LO@°O^¥?

work

Zä› ½ ø=Qê

Will you have heavy work in the office
tomorrow ?

9. h䛽 JH›ø_È =°Oz =‹¬u LO@°O^¥?
Will you have good accommodation
there?

10. "ŒiH÷ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O䛕_¨ =°Oz profits
LO\ì†Ç¶?
Will they have good profits this year
also?

,

11. h䛽 ö~„¬ô duty ZH›ø_È =ôO@°Ok?

EXERCISE

Where will you have the duty
tomorrow?

12. g° brother H÷ transfer Z„¬C_È° =ôO@°Ok?
When will your brother have the
transfer?

13. g°ä›½ next year Zxß subjects =ôO\ì~ò?
Howmany subjects will you have next
year?

14.

next year

hä› ½ ZO`Ç

increment

=ôO@°Ok?
Howmuch increment will you have
next year?

15. Dª•i J=Hê‰×O Z=iH÷ LO@°Ok?
Who will have the opportunity this
time?

16. g°ä›½ „¬sH›Æ•° Z„¬C_È° LO\ì~ò?
When will you have the examinations?

17.

Next month

g°ä› ½ g°\÷ O Q· ZH› ø _È

LO@°Ok?
Where will you have the meeting next
month ?

18. h䛽 ö~„¬ô liesure Z„¬C_È° LO@°Ok ?
When will you have leisure tomorrow?

19. g°ä›½ exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç Zxß~ËA•° ‹
Ì •=ô•°
LO\ì~ò?
Howmany holidays will you have after
the examinations?

20. ö~„¬ô =°# section …Õ
=ôO@°Ok ?

night duty

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Z=iH÷

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. hä› ½ selection `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç training
LO@°O^¥?
2. g°ä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È U^³ á < Œ problem
LO@°O^¥ ?
3. J`ÇxH÷ next week Chennai …Õ interriew
LO@°O^¥ ?
4. P"³°ä›½ JH›ø_È "Œi ‹¬‚ì¬ Hê~¡O LO@°O^¥?
5. "ŒiH÷ next month elections LO\ì†Ç¶?
6. hä› ½ D field …Õ =°Oz future
=ôO@°O^¥ ?
7. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È U^³á<Œ programme
LO@°O^¥ ?
8. P†Ç°#䛽 next month examination duty
=ôO@°O^¥ ?
9. P"³ ° ä› ½ D medicines =•# caugh
#°Oz relief LO@°O^¥ ?
10. "ŒiH÷ Dª•ï~<
á Œ„
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@° KÍ‹
À
"³°*ìi\© LO@°O^¥ ?
11. g°ä›½ =°~¡• Z„¬C_È° holidays =ôO\ì~ò?
12. h䛽 training `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç posting ZH›ø_È
LO@°Ok ?
13. "ŒiH÷ ö~„¬ô U „¬sH›Æ =ôO@°Ok?
14. g°ä›½ Group-I „¬sH›Æ䛽 Zxß optional
subjects LO\ì~ò ?
15. EAMCET Jƒ•’¼~°¡ •Ö 䛽 counselling Z„¬C_È°
LO@°Ok ?

Who will have the night duty in our
section tomorrow ?

Pen is mightier than sword.

Z
144

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ö~„¬ô h䛽 work LO_È^¥?
J`ÇxH÷ next year promotion LO_È^¥?

J
J

J
J

g°ä›½ next month ‹Ì •=ô•° LO_È"Œ ?
P"³°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^¥?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³• …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Won't + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Shalln't + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
You, He, She, It, They - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Won't have" L„¬¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note :

EXAMPLES
1. h䛽 ö~„¬ô class work LO_È^¥?
Won't you have class work tomorrow?

2. g°ä›½ exams `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç Ì‹•=ô•° LO_È"Œ?
Won't you have holidays after the
exams?

3. J`ÇxH÷ next year transfer LO_È^¥?
Won't he have a transfer next year?

4. P"³°H÷ Dq+¬†Ç°O…Õ "Œi ã‡é`Œ•‚¬ìO
LO_È^¥ ?
Won't she have their encouragement in
this matter?

5. "ŒiH÷ Dª•i =°Oz

profits LO_È"Œ?
Won't they have good profits this time?

145

6. h䛽 next time JH›ø_È J=Hê‰×=ò LO_È^¥?
Won't you have an opportunity there
next time?

7. g°ä›½ selection `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç training LO_È^¥?
Won't you have training after the
selection?

8. J`ÇxH÷ =°Oz ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë LO_È^¥?
Won't he have a bright future?

9. P"³°H÷ JH›ø_È "Œi ‹¬‚¬ìHê~¡O LO_È^¥?
Won't she have their co-operation
there?

10. "ŒiH÷

next Sunday meeting LO_È^¥?
Won't they have meeting next Sunday?

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EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

11. h䛽 ö~„¬ô duty ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È^ΰ?
Why won't you have duty tomorrow?

12. g°ä› ½ next
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È=ô?

season

…Õ

sales

Why won't you have sales in the next
season?

13. J`Ç x H÷ D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

promotion

Why won't he have a promotion this
year?

14. P"³°H÷ JH›ø_È ‹
À ÞKÇ•ó ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ?
15. "ŒiH÷ next year recruitments ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È=ô?
Why won't they have recruitments next
year?

16. h䛽 JH›ø_È "Œi support ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why won't you have their support
there?

17. g°ä›½ Dª•i =°Oz „¬O@ ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ?
Why won't you have good harvest this
time?

18. "Œi =°^•Î¼ ‹¬‚ì¬ Hê~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ?
Why won't they have co-operation
among them?
team

2. g°ä› ½ Dª•i
LO_È"Œ?

…Õ

summer

classes

3. J`ÇxH÷ ö~„¬ô duty LO_È^¥?
4. P"³°H÷ P job …Õ Z@°=O\÷ risk LO_È^¥?
5. g°ä›½ next year D subject LO_È^¥?
6. P†Ç°#䛽 JH›ø_È Ug° trouble LO_È^¥?

Why won't she have freedom there?

19. =KÍó series …Õ Ganguly H÷
ª•Ö#"³°O^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ?

1. h䛽 ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È work LO_È^¥?

…Õ

Why won't Ganguly have room in the
team in the next series?

7. "ŒiH÷ Dª•i g°`Ë discussions LO_È"Œ?
8. h䛽 Dª•i P post ä› ½ competition
LO_È^¥?
9. "ŒiH÷ JH›ø_È =‹¬`Ç°•° LO_È"Œ?
10. hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

programme

11. g°ä› ½ Dª•i admission test
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
12. P†Ç°#H÷ Dª•i =°Oãu =~¡O¾ …Õ ª•Ö#=ò
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
13. P"³°ä›½ JH›ø_È "Œi
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

company

14. "ŒiH÷ D „¬ ^ Š Î H › = ò ^¥Þ~Œ
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È=ô?
15. g°ä› ½ =KÍ ó season 䛽
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

(`Ë_È°)

benefits

water supply

20. ö~„¬ô g°ä›½ Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why won't you have a holiday
tomorrow?

Z

Fools build houses and wisemen live in them.

146

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Will have' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

2.

1. I will have leisure tomorrow.

2. We will have inspection next month.

3. He will have a bright future.

4. They will have a meeting tomorrow.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

"Will have "

"Won't have "

1. I won't have any trouble from them.
2. We won't have any risk there.
3. He won't have their support next time.
4. She won't have any recognition there.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall
have / Will have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Shall I have leave tomorrow?

2. Shall we have dinner tonight?

3. Will you have comforts there?

4. Will they have exams next month?

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't / Won't + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Won't you have leisure tomorrow? 2. Won't you have a goal?
3. Won't she have help from them?

147

3. Won't they have job opportinities in
future ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

281

fetch

fetched

fetched

282

fill

filled

filled

283

finish

finished

finished

284

fix

fixed

fixed

285

flatter

flattered

flattered

286

float

floated

floated

287

flourish

flourished

flourished

288

flow

flowed

flowed

289

follow

followed

followed

290

found

founded

founded

291

frame

framed

framed

292

frighten

frightened

frightened

293

fry

fried

fried

294

fulfil

fulfilled

fulfilled

295

gabble

gabbled

gabbled

296

gallop

gallopped

gallopped

297

gamble

gambled

gambled

298

gape

gaped

gaped

299

gargle

gargled

gargled

300

gather

gathered

gathered

D ~ËA

Meaning

‡é~ò`³KÇ°ó@
xO„¬ô@
=òyOKÇ°@
‹²Ö~¡„¬~¡KÇ°@
‡ÚQ®_È°@
`Í•°@
Ja•=$kœKO³ ^ΰ@
ㄬ=‚²ìOKÇ°@
J#°‹¬iOKÇ°@
ª•Ö„O² KÇ°@
U~¡æ~¡KÇ°@
ƒ•’†°Ç „Ì @°“
"Í~òOKÇ°@
<³~¡"Í~¡°ó@
=^Î~¡°@, ãÀ„•°@
"ÍQ®OQê „¬iïQ`Ç°ë@
E^Î=¶_È°@
P=ôeOKÇ°@
„¬ôH÷øeOKÇ°@
À‹H›iOKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
148

Great talkers are not great doers.

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'BE' FORMS - PRESENT - AM, IS, ARE
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° XH› English lecturer x.
N J|°í…˜ H›…ì"£° =°# ãÌ„‹²_³O\˜.

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò W„¬C_È° exam hall …Õ L<Œß=ò.
"Í°=ò D ~ËA KŒ…ì busy Qê L<Œß=ò.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê W„¬C_È°, ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° L#ß
XH› Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 Present 'Be' forms J~ò#
"Am/ Is/ Are" •#° L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "am"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "is"
We, you, they Subject Qê

L#ß„¬ô_È° "are" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° XH› _•ãw q^¥¼iÖx.

6.

Cricket XH›

P‹¬H÷ëH›~¡"³°Ø# P@.

I am a degree student.

Cricket is an interesting game.

2. "Í°=ò D ‡¦•¼H›s“ „¬x"Œ~¡=ò.

7. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È° HêÁ‹¹ ~¡¶=ò…Õ L<Œß=ò.

We are the workers of this factory.

3. =¶ father XH› bank officer.
My father is a bank officer.

4. =¶ mother XH› Q®$‚²ì}÷.
My mother is a house-wife.

5.

India XH›

Qù„¬æ ^͉×=ò.

India is a great country.

We are in the class-room now.

8. =¶ grandfather W„¬C_È°
L<Œß~¡°.

hospital

My grandfather is in the hospital now.

9. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Delhi …Õ L<Œß~¡°.
They are in Delhi at present.

10. =¶ father W„¬C_È° P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ L<Œß~¡°.
My father is at his office now.

149

…Õ

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EXERCISE

11. „²•Á•° "Í°_Èg°^Î L<Œß~¡°.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Children are upstairs.

12. [O`Ç°=ô•° J_Èq…Õ LO\ì~ò.
Animals are in the forest.

13. <Í#° W„¬C_È° KŒ…ì happy Qê =ô<Œß#°.

1. <Í#° XH› bank L^˼yx.
2. ªÏ~¡"£ Q®OQ®¶b =°# team captain.
3. N KÇOã^΃ì|° T.D.P. J^•Î¼ä›½Æ _È°.

I am very happy now.

4. N A.P.J. Abdul Kalam =°# ~ŒR„¬u.
14. "Í°=ò D ~ËA KŒ…ì busy Qê L<Œß=ò.
We are very busy today.

6. =¶ elder sister XH› post graduate.

15. =¶ cousin KŒ…ì ªé=°i.

7.

My cousin is very lazy.

9. =¶ parents „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =¶ =îi…Õ =ô<Œß~°¡ .

They are very poor.

17. D~ËA "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQêL#ßk.
The weather is cold today.
question paper

Mr. Rao =¶ Physics lecturer.

8. ‚
Ì ìá ^Î~Œƒì^ΰ XH› Qù„¬æ KŒiã`Œ`ÇàH› #Q®~=
¡ ò.

16. "Œ~¡° KŒ…ì c^Î"Œ~¡°.

18. D ~ËA
L#ßk.

5. =¶ uncle XH› heart specialist.

KŒ…ì H›+¬“OQê

10. _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° W„¬C_È°
=ô<Œß~¡°.

Physics lab

…Õ

11. u~¡°„¬u XH› †Ç¶ã`Œ ‹¬Ö•=ò.
12. H›=°…˜‚¬ð‹¬<£ XH› Qù„¬æ #@°_È°.

The question paper is very difficult
today.

13. `³•°Q®°^͉O× XH› ‡ã •Of†Ç° ‡•s“.
14. U‹¬°Hã ‹
© °¬ ë JO^ÎiH© „
ã ƒ¬ •’°=ô.

19. h=ô KŒ…ì |•‚Ôì#OQê =ô<Œß=ô.
You are very week.

15. ‡ã •¦ <£• XH› ‡•‰§ó`¼Ç ^͉=× ò.

20. =¶ grandmother J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê L<Œß~¡°.
My grand mother is ill.

Z
A great deal of talent is lost for want of a little courage.

150

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬ô_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èx ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° D college student x Hê#°.
J`Ç_È° D~ËA duty …Õ …è_È°.

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò D town …Õ =ôO_È=ò.
P"³° =¶ class teacher Hê^ΰ.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò …èx ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò …èx XH›
Present 'Be' Forms J~ò#

Position, Place or Condition

"Am not / Is not / Are not"

*

‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "am not"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "is not"
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "are not"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° XH› govt. employee x Hê#°.
I am not a government employee.

2. "Í°=ò D Hê…èl q^¥¼~¡°Ö•O Hê^ΰ.
We are not the students of this college.

3. D ㄬ=¶^¥xH÷ Hê~¡}O <Í#° Hê^ΰ.
I am not responsible for this accident.

4. =¶ father XH› lawyer Hê^ΰ.
My father is not a lawyer.

5. P"³° <Œ class mate Hê^ΰ.
She is not my class-mate.

6.

T.D.P. *ìf†Ç° ‡•s“ Hê^ΰ.
The T.D.P. is not a national party.

151

7. "Œ~¡° ƒ•ì~¡f†Çò•° Hê~¡°.
They are not Indians.

8. <Í#° h servant x Hê#°.
I am not your servant.

9. J…ì =¶\ìÁ_È_¨xH÷ <Í#° „¦¬î…˜x Hê#°.
I am not a fool to speak so.

10. =¶ cousin post graduate Hê^ΰ.
My cousin is not a post-graduate.

11. P"³° W„¬C_È° J H›ƒ
Á ˜ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼~Œ•° Hê^ΰ.
She is not a member of that club now.

12. =¶ father D~ËA duty…Õ …è~¡°.
My father is not on duty today.

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EXERCISE

13. P"³° W„¬C_È° WO\ÕÁ …è^ΰ.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

She is not at home now.

14. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° D town…Õ …è~¡°.
They are not in this town now.

16. "Í°=ò D ~ËA busy Qê …è=ò.
We are not busy today.

17. P"³ ° D ~ËA

2. "Í°=ò ^•Î#=O`Ç°•=òHê=ò.
3. J`Ç_È° D factory worker Hê^ΰ.

active

Qê …è ^ Î ° .

She is not active today.

18. D course g°ä›½ L„¬†³¶Q®H›~¡O Hê^ΰ.
This course is not useful to you.

19.

1. <Í#° P party ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È#° Hê#°.

Physics ‹¬°•ƒ•’"°³ #
Ø subject Hê^ΰ.
Physics is not an easy subject.

4. P"³° =¶ class teacher Hê^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡° POã^•Î°•° Hê~¡°.
6. <Í#° D ~ËA free Qê …è#°.
7. "Í ° =ò ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P
‹¬ƒ•’°¼•=ò Hê^ΰ.

committee

…Õ

8. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë Ç „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO…Õ P†Ç°# =°OãuHê^ΰ.

20. D item ~¡°zQê …è^ΰ.
This item is not delicious.

9. P"³° D hospital …Õ nurse Hê^ΰ.
10. "Œ~¡° D ãQê=° F@~¡°Á Hê~¡°.
11. <Í#° WH›ø_È happy Qê …è#°.
12. "Í°=ò ªé=°~¡°•O Hê^ΰ.
13.

Sanskrit H›+¬“"³°Ø# subject Hê^ΰ.

14. P camera W„¬C_È° <Œ`Ë…è^ΰ.
15. J`Ç_È° x*ì~òf „¬~¡°_È°Hê^ΰ.
16. "Œ~¡° =°# ^Í‰× ‡Ï~¡°•° Hê~¡°.
17. J`Ç_È° <Œ friend Hê^ΰ.
18. Pt+¹ <³ã‚¬• ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç team …Õ …è_È°.
19. Wk =¶ ‹¬ÞO`Ç W•°ÁHê^ΰ.
20. "Œ~¡° <Œ well-wishers Hê^ΰ.

Z
Attention is one's first duty.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô D Hê…èl q^¥¼iÖ"Œ?
g° father XH› lawyer Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?

J
J

g°~¡° D P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ L^˼Q®°…ì?
P"³° D ~ËA J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ß^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß XH› Position, Place or Condition Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
Present 'Be' Forms J~ò#
"Am / Is / Are" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "am"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "is"
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "are" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
6. h=ô ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O
q^¥¼iÖ"Œ?

1. h=ô Engineering q^¥¼iÖ"Œ?
Are you an engineering student?

Are you a student of Andhra

2. g°~¡° D Hê•h "Œ‹¬°…ì?
Are you the residents of this colony?

3. g° father XH› businessman Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?
Is your father a businessman?

4. g° brother U.S.A. …Õ Software Engineer
Qê †Çò<Œß~Œ?
Is your brother a Software Engineer in

English lecturer

Is Mrs. Malathi your lecturer in English?
153

University?

7. P"³° D ~Ë[O`Œ J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ß^¥?
Is she sick today?

8. T\©…Õ climate KÇ•ÁQê =ôO@°O^¥?
Is the climate cold in Ooty?

9. g° father D~ËA busy Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?
Is your father busy today?

the U.S.A.?

5. N=°u =¶•u g°
=ô<Œß~Œ?

Andhra University

10. D ~ËA match interesting Qê =ô#ß^¥?
Is the match interesting today?

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EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

11. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° Principal Z=~¡°?
Who is your Principal at present?

12. D ~ËA HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° H÷ h=ô ZO^Î ° ä› ½
J~ò<Œ=ô?

late

Why are you late to the class today ?

13. g° parents Z…ì =ô<Œß~¡°?
How are your parents?

14. W„¬C_È° time ZO`Ç?
What time is it now?

15. g° HêÁ‹¬°…Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok girls =ô<Œß~¡°?
Howmany girls are there in your class?

16. g° elder brother =†Ç°‹¬°• ZO`Ç?
How old is your elder brother?

17. D <Œ•°yO\÷…Õ h ‹¬¶ø@~Ÿ Uk?
Which is your scooter among these
four?

18. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° grand-father ZH›ø_È L<Œß~¡°?
Where is your grand-father now ?

19. D ~ËA `ŒsY° Uq°?
What date is it today?

20. h=ô D ~ËA ZO^ΰ䛽 dull Qê =ô<Œß=ô ?.
Why are you dull today?

1. g°~¡° XH› school teacher Qê L<Œß~Œ ?
2. h=ô XH› Muslim =°`Ç‹°¬ _Ö •"Œ ?
3. J`Ç_È° XH› IAS Officer Qê L<Œß~Œ ?
4. P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P~ËQ®¼OQê L#ß^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° g° |O^•Î°=ô…ì ?
6. h=ô D club Secretary Qê L<Œß"Œ ?
7. g° father D "Œ~¡O camp …Õ L<Œß~Œ ?
8. P"³° XH› ‚²ìOn actress Qê L#ß^¥ ?
9. g° elder sister _¨H›“~Œ ?
10. D W•°Á g° ‹¬ÞO`Ç^Í<Œ ?
11. g° native place Uk ?
12. g° family …Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok =ôO\ì~¡° ?
13. h=ô Z=i g°^Î HË„¬OQê =ô<Œß=ô ?
14. h hobbies Uq°\÷ ?
15. D new film Z…ì =ô#ßk ?

Z
A man should live within his income.

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡°
…è#@°=O\÷ XH› Position, Place or Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

Wk g° own house Hê^¥ ?
g° father XH› govt. employee Hê^¥ ?

J
J

Sanskrit ‹¬°•ƒ•’"°³ #
Ø ƒ•ì+¬ Hê^¥ ?

J
J

<Í#° h ‰ã †
õ ¶³ a•…ì+²x Hê^¥?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#=ò …è#@°=O\÷ XH›
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

Position, Place, Condition

Q®°iOz

D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° …èx XH›
Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Isn't / Aren't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I' Subject Qê L#ß#¶ Aren't =KÇ°ó#°. Amn't L„¬†³¶yOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° Isn't
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° Aren't =KÇ°ó#°.

Note :

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô Mr. <Œ~Œ†Ç°} Qêi 䛽=¶~¡°_•q
Hê^¥?
Aren't you the son of Mr. Narayana?

2. g°~¡° D ^ׇ͉Ï~¡°•° Hê^¥?
Aren't you the citizens of this country?

3. J`Ç_È° h class-mate Hê^¥?
Isn't he your class-mate ?

4. D~ËA Pk"Œ~¡O Hê^¥?
Isn't it Sunday today ?

5. "Œ~¡° g° |O^•Î°=ô•° Hê~Œ?
Aren't they your relatives ?

6. h=ô D~ËA duty …Õ …è"Œ?
Aren't you on duty today ?
155

7. g° father W„¬C_È° WO\ÕÁ …è~Œ?
Isn't your father at home now?

8. P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È ‹¬O`Ë+¬OQê …è^¥?
Isn't she happy there at present ?

9. "Œ~¡° ^•Î#=O`Ç°•° Hê~Œ?
Aren't they rich?

10. D~ËA cricket match interesting Qê …è^¥?
Isn't the cricket match interesting today?

11. h=ô govt. employee Hê^¥?
Aren't you a govt. employee ?

12. g° brother h䛽 helpful Qê =ôO_È_¨?
Isn't your brother helpful to you?

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EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

13. D~ËA Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽Hê^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why isn't it a holiday today?

1. h=ô D Hê…èl student q Hê^¥?

14. Ganguly team …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽…è_È°?

2. g°~¡° XOQË•° =òx‹²‡•e\÷ F@~¡°Á Hê~Œ?

Why isn't Ganguly in the team?

15. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° D

town

…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽…è~¡°?

Why aren't they in the town at present?

16. J`Ç_È° D~ËA

duty

…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽…è_È°?

Why isn't he on duty today?

Qê ZO^ΰ䛽

Why aren't you close with your father?

school Head mistress

9. "Œ~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Jk•Hê~¡O…Õ …è~Œ?
11. D~ËA g°\÷OQ·…Õ J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽…è_È°?

Why aren't they united?
serious

8. P"³° W„¬C_È° P
Hê^¥?

10. h=ô J`ÇxH÷ ‹¬xß‚²ì`Ç°_È=ôHê^¥?

19. "Œ~¡° SH›=°`ǼOQê ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_È~¡°?
20. h=ô work …Õ
LO_È=ô?

5. "Œ~¡° öH~¡ˆ×"Œ~¡° Hê^¥?
7. g° father W„¬C_È° `³•°Q®°^͉O× ‡•s“…Õ …è~Œ?

Why aren't you bold?
close

4. P"³° g° own sister Hê^¥?
6. h=ô government employee q Hê^¥?

17. h"³O^ΰ䛽 ^•³~á ¼¡ OQê LO_È=ô?
18. h=ô g° father `Ë
=ôO_È=ô?

3. J`Ç_°È W„¬C_È° P ‡•s“ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È° Hê^¥?

QêZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why aren't you serious at work?

21. KÇ O ã ^ Î ° _È ° ‹¬ ¶ ~¡ ° ¼_È ° JO`Ç
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È_È°?

bright

12. "Œ~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ g°ä›½ ZO^ΰ䛽 J#°ä›••OQê
…è~¡°?
13. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 XH› job …Õ ‹²Ö~¡OQê LO_È=ô?

Why isn't the moon so bright as the
sun?

14. P†Ç°# students `Ë ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È_È°?

strict

15. India …Õ [<Œƒ•ì Ì„~¡°Q®°^Ε ZO^ΰ䛽
control …Õ LO_È^ΰ?

22. ‹¬=òã^΄¬ô h~¡° ~¡°zQê ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why isn't the sea water tasty?

Z
Money is a good servant but a bad master.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Am, Is, Are' • Q®°iOz
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D =ü_•O\÷x grammar …Õ Present Tense 'Be' forms JO\ì~¡ ° .
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :


ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ L#ß XH› Position,
Place, Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "am / is / are " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

2.

1. I am a clerk in this office.

2. We are in the play - ground now.

3. He is our M.L.A.

4. They are very busy today.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° …èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "am not / is not / are not " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

1. I am not an innocent man.

2. He is not in the town today.

3. They are not helpful to us.

4. This book is not useful to us.

QUESTION FORM :

„¬‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° L#ß XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Am / Is / Are " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Are you an officer here?

2. Is he on duty now?

3. Are they poor ?

4. Is she a foreigner ?

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :


ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ …èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Isn't / Aren't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Aren't you an employee?

2. Isn't she your sister?

3. Aren't they degree students ? 4. Isn't he at home today ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

301

gaze

gazed

gazed

302

giggle

giggled

giggled

303

glorify

glorified

glorified

304

glow

glowed

glowed

305

grant

granted

granted

306

grasp

grasped

grasped

307

greet

greeted

greeted

308

grip

gripped

gripped

309

groan

groaned

groaned

310

grope

groped

groped

311

guess

guessed

guessed

312

gulp

gulped

gulped

313

hack

hacked

hacked

314

halt

halted

halted

315

happen

happened

happened

316

hasten

hastened

hastened

317

hate

hated

hated

318

heal

healed

healed

319

hear

heard

heard

320

help

helped

helped

D ~ËA

Meaning

`Íi‡•~¡K¶
Ç KÇ°@
=ò‹²=ò‹²Qê #=ôÞ@
‡ÚQ®_È°@
^ÎQ®^ÎQ® "³°i†Çò@
^Άǰ`Ë WKÇ°ó@
ãQ®‚²ìOKÇ°@
=O^Î#=ò K͆Çò@
„²_•H÷e aQ®|@°“@
=ü•°Q®°@
`Ç_È°=òHù#°@
T‚²ìOKÇ°@
Q®°@°ä›½ø# ãq°OQ®°@
=òH›ø•°Qê #~¡ä›½@
P„¬ô@, x•°„¬ô@
‹¬Oƒ•’qOKÇ°@
`ÇÞ~¡„¬~¡KÇ°@
^ÍÞ+²OKÇ°@
ƒìQ®°K͆Çò, ã=¶#°æ@
q#°@
‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°„¬_È°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
158

A mother is worth hundred teachers.

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'BE' FORMS - PAST - WAS, WERE
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° last year degree q^¥¼iÖx.
=¶ father J„¬C_È° XH› bank officer.

J
J

"Í°=ò 1985…Õ Vizag …Õ L<Œß=ò.
P"³° last week hospital …Õ =ôO_•#k.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò
(Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 Past 'Be' forms J~ò#
"Was / Were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "was"
Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

'I, He, She, It' Subject
We, you, they

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° last year XH› WO@~Ÿ q^¥¼iÖx.
I was an Intermediate student last year.

2. J„¬C_È° N N.T.R. =°# =òY¼=°OãuQê
LO_•<Œ~¡°.
3.

7. P"³° J„¬C_È° =¶ hostel warden.
She was our hostel warden then.

WOk~ŒQêOn• J„¬ C _È ° =°#
„ã ^¬ •¥#=°Oãu.

8. <Í#° x#ß P time …Õ library …Õ L<Œß#°.

Smt.

Mr. Rao =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° „
ã x² •‡•…˜.
Mr. Rao was our Principal then.

5. ƒì|¶ ~Œ*è O ã ^ Î ã „ ¬ ª •^£ =°# "³ ò ^Î \ ÷
~ŒR„¬u.
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad was our first
Prime-Minister
159

Kurnool was the capital city of our
state then.

Sri N.T.R. was our Chief-Minister then.

Smt. Indira Gandhi was our Primeminister then.

4.

6. H›~¶
¡ ß•° J„¬C_È° =°# ~ŒR ~Œ[^•¥x.

I was in the library at that time
yesterday.

9. "Í°=ò last week =¶
LO_•<Œ=ò.

native place

…Õ

We were at our native place last week.

10. =°# =òY¼=°Oãu x#ßO`Œ _•bÁ…Õ L<Œß~°¡ .
The Chief-minister was in Delhi
yesterday.

,

11. "Í°=ò x#ß D
L<Œß=ò.

time

…Õ „¬sH›Æ ‚¬ð•°…Õ

We were in the examination hall at this

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

time yesterday.

12. =¶ father last week camp …Õ =ôO_•<Œ~¡°.
My father was on camp last week.

13. "Í ° =ò z#ß„¬ C _È °
=ôO_•<Œ=ò.

Hyderabad

…Õ

We were in Hyderabad in our childhood days.

14. =°#

Indian team last month Australia

Our Indian team was on tour in
Australia last month.
Accident time

2. =¶ father J„¬C_È° P ‹¬¶ø…˜ ‚
Ì ì_£=¶‹¬~“ QŸ ê
LO_•<Œ~¡°.
3. H›„²…˜^Í"£ J„¬C_È° =°# team captain..
4. <Í#° J„¬C_È° XH› z#ß„²•Á"Œ_È#°.

tour …Õ =ôO_•#k.

15.

1. x#ß Pk"Œ~¡=ò.

…Õ <Í#°

Bus stop

^ÎQ®¾~¡

L<Œß#°.
I was at the bus stop at the time of
accident.

16. <Í#° x#ß KŒ…ì busy Qê LO_•<Œ#°.
I was very busy yesterday.

17. "Í°=ò XH›„¬C_È° KŒ…ì c^Î"Œ~¡=ò.
We were very poor once.

18. x#ß match KŒ…ì interesting Qê =ô#ßk.
The cricket match was very interesting
yesterday.

19. P"³° x#ß J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê LO_•#k.
She was sick yesterday.

20. x#ß Manager <ŒÌ „ á KŒ…ì HË„¬ O Qê
LO_•<Œ_È°.

5. XH›„C¬ _È° WO_•†Ç¶ KŒ…ì c^Î ^͉=
× ò.
6. "Œ}÷N P~ËA•…Õ XH› ㄬ=òY #\÷.
7. WO@~Ÿ…Õ Sanskrit <Œ second language.
8. N N.T.R. TDP ª•Ö„ä¬ ½› _È°.
9. N ‰×OH›~Ÿ^ΆǶˆ˜ ‰×~¡à J„¬C_È° =°# ~ŒR
Q®=~¡ß~Ÿ.
10. =¶ grandfather J„¬C_È° =¶ =îi ‹¬~æ¡ OKŸ.
11. <Í#° x#ß office H÷ …è\˜ J~ò<Œ#°.
12. <Í#° z#ß„¬C_È° KŒ…ì „²iH÷"Œ_È#°.
13. "Œ~¡° XH›„C¬ _È° KŒ…ì ^•Î#=O`Ç°•°.
14. P"³° x#ß WO\ÕÁ XO@iQê LO_•#k.
15. x#ß English question paper KŒ…ì easy
Qê LO_•#k.

The manager was very angry with me
yesterday.

Z
A live ass is better than a dead lion.

160

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° J„¬C_È° D office …Õ L^˼yx Hê#°.
=¶ brother x#ß duty …Õ …è_È°.

J
J

"Í°=ò last year D town …Õ …è=ò.
P"³° x#ß P time …Õ WO\ÕÁ …è^ΰ.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was not / Were not" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "was not"
Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "were not " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

'I, He, She, It' – > Subject
We, You, They – >

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J„¬C_È° D Hê…èl ‹¬¶“_³O\˜x Hê^ΰ.
I was not a student of this college then.

2. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° class mates Hê^ΰ.
We were not class-mates then.

3. =¶ father J„¬C_È° businessman Hê^ΰ.
My father was not a business man
Mr. Rao J„¬C_È°

=¶ „
ã x
² •„¬…˜ Hê^ΰ.

Mr. Rao was not our Principal then.

5. N KÇOã^΃ì|° J„¬C_È° =òY¼=°Oãu Hê^ΰ.
Sri Chandra Babu was not the Chief-

161

President then.

8. x#ß Ì‹•=ô …è^ΰ.
Yesterday was not a holiday.
They were not Indian citizens once.

10. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° JO`Ç `³e"³á#"Œ_È° Hê^ΰ.
He was not so clever then.

11. "Œ~¡° XH›„C¬ _È° ^•Î#=O`Ç°•° Hê^ΰ.
They were not rich once.

minister then.

6.

Mrs. Sonia Gandhi was not the party

9. "Œ~¡° XH›„C¬ _È° ƒ•ì~¡`Ç ^Í‰× ‡Ï~¡°•° Hê~¡°.

then.

4.

7. ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn• J„¬C_È° ‡•s“ J^•Î¼ä›½Æ ~Œ•°
Hê^ΰ.

D H›OÌ„h L^˼y Hê^ΰ.

12. P~ËA•…Õ XOQË•° XH› Ì„^Îí town Hê^ΰ.

He was not an employee of this

Ongole was not a big town in those

company last year.

days.

last year J`Ç_È°

,

EXERCISE

13. J„¬C_È° J`Ç_°È <Œä›½ JO`Ç ‹¬xß‚ì² `ÇO Hê^ΰ.
He was not so intimate to me then.

14. =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ \©"£° J„¬C_È° JO`Ç |•"³°Ø#k
Hê^ΰ.

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D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° J„¬C_È° D H›ƒ
Á …˜ Õ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È#° Hê#°.

Our cricket team was not so strong

2. N "Œ*˜„
À ~ò J„¬C_È° =°# „
ã ^
¬ •¥x Hê^ΰ.

then.

3. Q®OQ®¶b J„¬C_È° team captain Hê^ΰ.

15. x#ß cricket match P‹¬H÷ëH›~¡OQê …è^ΰ.
The circket match was not interesting
yesterday.

16.

last month D

5. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° =¶ Hê•h "Œ‹¬°•° Hê~¡°.

W•°Á MìmQê …è^ΰ.

This house was not vacant last month.

17. P ~ËA•…Õ "Œ¼‡•~¡°•° Jqhu„¬~¡°•°
Hê~¡°.
Businessmen were not corrupted in

6. =¶ father J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•i Hê^ΰ.
7. "Í°=ò X Class …Õ classmates Hê^ΰ.
8. J„¬C_È° |OQê~¡O ^•Î~¡ Z䛽ø=Qê …è^°Î .
9. =¶ Q®`Ç „ã x² •‡•…˜ strict Hê^ΰ.

those days.

18. x#ß dinner …Õ items ~¡°zQê …è=ô.

10. x#ß =¶ journey comfortable Qê …è^ΰ.

The items were not delicious in dinner
yesterday.

19. x#ß function …Õ U~Œæ @ °Á
ªÏH›~¡¼OQê …è=ô.

4. P"³° last year =¶ class teacher Hê^ΰ.

guests

ä› ½

The arrangements in the function were

11. x#ß JH›ø_È
…è^ΰ.

programme interesting

12. P"³° J„¬C_È° WO`Ç weak Qê …è^ΰ.
13. x#ß H›$‘•âZH±•„Ì ã ‹¹ late Hê…è^ΰ.

not comfortable to the guests

14.

yesterday.

20. J„¬C_È° „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•° "ŒiH÷ J#°ä›••OQê
…è=ô.

last year chairman

„¬ ^ Î q H÷ P†Ç ° #

‡é\©…Õ …è~¡°.
15.

Last year J`Ç_È° P firm …Õ partner Hê^ΰ.

Circumstances were not favourable to
them then.

Z
A liar is seldom trusted.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D factory …Õ workers Qê =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?
x#ß programme interesting Qê =ôO_•#^¥?

J
J

x#ß h=ô leave …Õ =ôO_•<Œ"Œ?
P"³° XH›„C¬ _È° g° WO\ÕÁ LO_•#^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# Position, Place or Condition ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽 Past 'Be' forms J~ò#
"Was / Were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I, He, She, It' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "was"
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô last year degree q^¥¼iÖ"Œ?
Were you a degree student last year?

2. g°~¡° WO@sà_•†³°\˜…Õ
=ôO_•<Œ~Œ?

class mates

7. J„¬ C _È ° N.T.R. =°# =òY¼=°Oã u Qê
LO_•<Œ~Œ?
Was N.T.R. our Chief-minister then?

Were you class-mates in Intermediate?

8. h=ô J„¬C_È° P H›OÌ„h…Õ accountant Qê
=ôO_•<Œ"Œ?
Were you an accountant in that

3. g° father XH›„C¬ _È° politics …Õ =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?

company then?

Was your father in politics once?

4. P"³° x#ß P~ËQ®¼OQê LO_•#^¥?
Was she sick yesterday?

5. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° c^Î"Œ~Œ?
Were they poor once?

6. XH›„¬C_È° XOQË•° z#ß town Qê LO_Í^¥?
Was Ongole a small town once?
163

9.

Last month

=~¡ ä › ½ P W•°Á MìmQê

LO_•#^¥?
Was that house vacant till last month?

10. x#ß exam hall …Õ
LO_•<Œ~Œ?

invigilator strict

Was the invigilator stirict in the exam
hall yesterday ?

,

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. POã^•Î„
ã ^
¬ ‰Í ˜ "³ò^Î\÷ =òY¼=°Oãu Z=~¡° ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Who was the first Chief-minister of
Andhra Pradesh?
h=ô x#ß HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° ä› ½ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ absent

13.

Why were you absent from the class
yesterday?
P time …Õ h=ô library ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO^ΰ䛽

14.
15.

J~ò<Œ=ô?

=ô<Œß=ô?

Why were you near the library at that
time?
Last Sunday g°~¡° ZH›ø_È =ô<Œß~¡°?
Where were you last Sunday?
x#ß exams …Õ question paper Z…ì

=ôO_•#k ?

1. x#ß g°~¡° busy Qê LO_•<Œ~Œ ?
2.

Last week h=ô Chennai LO_•<Œ"Œ ?

3. x#ß h=ô special duty …Õ LO_•<Œ"Œ ?
4. g° father XH›„¬C_È° g° Ti ‹¬~¡æOKŸQê
LO_•<Œ~Œ ?
5. JH›ø_È "Œ~¡° h䛽 helpful Qê LO_•<Œ~Œ?
6. h=ô J„¬C_È° VVM College q^¥¼iÖ"Œ ?

17.

How was the question paper in the
examination yesterday?
N.T.R. =°Oã u =~¡ ¾ O …Õ ZO`Ç = °Ok
ministers =ôO_•<Œ~¡° ?
Howmany ministers were there in
N.T.R's cabinet?
^ùOyeO„¬|_•# bag …Õ ZO`Ç amount

=ôO_•#k ?

10. x#ß circus show Z…ì =ôO_•#k ?
11. x#ß h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 leave …Õ L<Œß=ô ?

18.

Howmuch amount was there in the
stolen bag?
Last month P"³° hospital …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽

16.

LO_•#k ?

Why was she in the hospital last
month?

19. 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• Hã `÷ OÇ =°# ~ŒRO…Õ Zxß
universities =ôO_•#q ?
20.

Howmany universities were there in
our state ten years ago?
x#ß g° annual day function H÷ chief
guest Z=~¡°?
Who was the chief-guest to your

7. x#ß h=ô class H÷ late J~ò<Œ"Œ ?
8. g° father XH›„¬C_È° railway employee Qê
LO_¨<Œ~Œ ?
9.

Last week h=ô camp …Õ

LO_¨<Œ"Œ ?

12. x#ß match …Õ Indian team …Õ ZO`Ç
=°Ok bowlers LO_•<Œ~¡° ?
13. J`Ç _ È ° P
=ô<Œß_È° ?

time

…Õ JH› ø _È ZO^Î ° ä› ½

14. XH›„¬C_È° D house Z=ik ?
15. J„¬C_È° g° Branch Manager Z=~¡° ?

Z

annual day function yesterday ?

Wise men love truth where as fools shun it.

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
=°#=ò =ôO_È x XH› Position, Place or Condition Q® ° iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

x#ß cricket match P‹¬H÷ëH›~¡OQê …è^¥ ?
x#ß g° ㄬ†Ç¶}O comfortable Qê …è^¥?

J
J

J
J

x#ß absenties list …Õ J`Çx À„~¡° …è^¥?
h=ô x#ß duty …Õ …è"Œ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ =°#=ò LO_Èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx LO_Èx, …èx XH› Position,
Place, Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Wasn't / Weren't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject I, He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Wasn't'
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Weren't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô last
q Hê^¥?

year

P

offfice

…Õ

accountant

Weren't you an accountant in that office
last year?

2. h=ô x#ß staff meeting …Õ …è"Œ?
Weren't you in the staff meeting
yesterday?

3. x#ß ‰×x"Œ~¡=ò Hê^¥?
Wasn't it Saturday yesterday ?

4. XH›„¬C_È° P†Ç°# P firm H÷ owner Hê^¥?
Wasn't he the owner of that firm once ?

5. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° c^Î"Œ~¡° Hê^¥?
Weren't they poor once?
165

6. x#ß P time …Õ <Í#° JH›ø_È …è<Œ?
Wasn't I there at that time yesterday ?

7. "Œ~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È busy Qê …è~Œ?
Weren't they busy there yesterday?

8. x#ß question paper easy Qê …è^¥?
Wasn't the question paper easy
yesterday ?

9. x#ß party …Õ dinner ƒìQê …è^¥?
Wasn't the dinner delicious in the party
yesterday?

10. P†Ç°# x#ß office H÷ late Hê…è^¥?
Wasn't he late to the office yesterday ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. x#ß h=ô English class …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 …è=ô?
Why weren't you in the English class
yesterday?

12. J`Ç_È° h䛽 JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
…è_È°?

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helpful

Why wasn't he helpful to you there?

13. P"³° x#ß

function …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?
Why wasn't she in the function
yesterday ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. x#ß programme ƒìQê …è^¥?
2. D chapter last year syllabus …Õ …è^¥?
3. x#ß JH›ø_È U problem …è^¥?
4.

Olden days

…Õ =°#^͉×O…Õ Jqhu…è^¥?

5. QêOn• Qêi ‹²^¥œO`Œ•° ‹¬i†³°Ø #qHê"Œ?

14. hÀ „ ~¡ °

6. ‡ã •*ÿä½› •“ ° xiàOKÇ@O J„¬æ\÷ „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ŒÞxH÷
ª•^•Î¼„_¬ …È ^è ¥?

15. x#ß ‡é\©…Õ h"³O^ΰ䛽 …è=ô?

7. J„¬æ\ÕÁ „¬O*샘 ‹¬=°‹¬¼ KŒ…ì H÷Á+¬“"³°Ø#k
Hê^¥?

first list …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ …è ^ Î ° ?
Why wasn't your name in the first list?

Why weren't you in the competition
yesterday?

16. x#ß\÷ match …Õ Ganguly ZO^ΰ䛽 …è_È°?
Why wasn't Ganguly in yesterday's
match?

17. x#ß ZO^ΰ䛽 Ì‹•=ô Hê^ΰ?
Why wasn't it a holiday yesterday?

8. P ‹¬O^Î~Ä¡•O…Õ J`Ç_°È ‹¬O`Ë+¬OQê…è_¨?
9. WOk~ŒQêOn• =°Oãu=~¡O¾ …Õ M.S.R ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_°È
Hê^¥?
10. Ongole XH› „ ¬ C _È °
Hê^¥?

Guntur

l…ìÁ … Õxk

18. P ~ËA•…Õ _È|°Ä䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 q•°=…è^ΰ?

11. h=ô x#ß P time …Õ WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?

Why wasn't money valuable in those
days?

12. P ~ËA•…Õ money ‹¬ O ‡•kOKÇ @ O
ZO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬°•ƒ•’O Hê^ΰ?

19. W„¬æ\÷ ~ËA•O`Ç "ÍQ®OQê J„¬æ\÷ ~ËA•°
ZO^ΰ䛽 …è=ô?

13. D rules Jhß XH›„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?

Why weren't those days so fast as these
days?

14. P"³° x#ß journey …Õ *ìãQ®`ÇëQê ZO^ΰ䛽O_È
…è^ΰ?

20. XH›„æ\
¬ ÷ WO_•†Ç¶ D<Œ\÷ WO_•†Ç¶ JO`Ç
|•OQê ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?

15. h=ô x#ß JH›ø_È ‹¬i†³Ø°# ‹¬=°†Ç¶xH÷
ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?

Why wasn't yester-India so strong as
today's India?

Z

When love and skill work together, a masterpiece is expected.

166

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'was / were' • Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'was / were' D ï~O_•O\÷x grammar …Õ Past Tense 'Be' forms JO\ì~¡ ° . nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "was / were " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I was sick yesterday.

2. We were on tour last week.

3. He was our group leader then. 4. They were absent from the class yesterday.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Was not / Were not " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I was not an employee then.

2. He was not on duty yesterday.

3. We were not aware of it then. 4. They were not Indians once.
3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "was / were " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Were you on strike last week?

2. Was she ill then?

3. Was he in the hospital last month ? 4. Were they at work at that time?
4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Wasn't / Weren't " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Weren't you a hostler last year?
2. Wasn't he in the restaurant at that time?
3. Weren't they poor once?
4. Wasn't she in your house then ?

167

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

321

hike

hiked

hiked

322

hire

hired

hired

323

hiss

hissed

hissed

324

hoist

hoisted

hoisted

325

horrify

horrified

horrified

326

hug

hugged

hugged

327

hunt

hunted

hunted

328

hurl

hurled

hurled

329

Identify

identified

identified

330

ignore

ignored

ignored

331

illtreat

illtreated

illtreated

332

imagine

imagined

imagined

333

impart

imparted

imparted

334

import

imported

imported

335

impose

imposed

imposed

336

impress

impressed

impressed

337

inaugurate

inaugurated

inaugurated

338

include

included

included

339

increase

increased

increased

340

indicate

indicated

indicated

D ~ËA

Meaning

Ì„~¡Q®°@
J^³í䛽 f‹¬°Hù#°@
|°‹¬Hù@°“@
Ì„áH÷Z`Ç°ë@
ƒ•’†°Ç „Ì @°“@
HÒyeOKÇ°Hù#°@
"Í\ì_È°@
^ùiÁOKÇ°
Q®°~¡°ëOKÇ°Hù#°@
x~¡ÁH›Æ¼=òK͆Çò@
x~Œ^•Î~}¡ K͆ò
Ç @
T‚²ìOKÇ°@
ƒÕk•OKÇ°@
kQ®°=°u K͆Çò@
qk•OKÇ°@
=°#‹¬°…Õ =òã^Î"͆Çò@
‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ°@
H›•°„¬ôHù#°@
Ì„OKÇ°@
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
168

Prosperity makes friends and adversity tries them.

,

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'BE' FORMS - FUTURE - WILL BE
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô
ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° next year officer Qê =ôO\ì#°.
next two weeks <Í#° =¶ =îi…Õ LO\ì#°.

J
J

N Ì+Hê=`Ÿ next President Qê LO\ì~¡°.
"Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë<Í LO\ì~¡°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’=+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
=°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_ȃÕ=ô Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
Future 'Be' form J~ò# "Will be" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "will be"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° next
LO\ì#°.

6. P"³° g°ä›½ next year Head-mistress Qê
LO\ì~¡°.

I will be the Branch Manager next year.

She will be your Head-mistress next
year.

year Branch Manager

2. "Í°=ò next year final year q^¥¼~¡°Ö•°Qê
LO\ì=ò.
We will be the final year students next
year.

3. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ã^¥q_£ =°# \©O next captain.
Rahul Dravid will be the next captain
of our team.

4. ö~„¬ô match winner J`Ç_Í.
He will be the winner of the match
tomorrow.

5. WH›#°Oz P†Ç°# h䛽 ‹¬O~¡H›Æ䛽_È°.
He will be your guardian hereafter.
169

7. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô.
Tomorrow will be a holiday.

8. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D >ÿØO…Õ g°\÷OQ®°…Õ LO\ì#°.
I will be in the meeting at this time
tomorrow.

9. "Í°=ò WOHùH› ï~O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•° D
\º<£…Õ<Í LO\ì=ò.
We will be in this town two more years.

10. ö~„¬ô E-TV…Õ XH›
=ôO@°Ok.

special programme

There will be a special programme on
E.TV tomorrow.

,

11. =KÍ ó "Í ‹ ¬ q …Õ water
fã=OQê LO@°Ok.

problem

KŒ…ì

Water problem will be severe next
summer.

12. Ì‹•H›Æ<£ `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç 15 ~ËA•
=ôO@°Ok.

training

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. N=°u =°OA• =¶ Hê…è l H÷
Principal Qê =ôO\ì~¡°.

next

There will be a 15 day training after
the selection.

2. ö~„¬\÷ =¶¼KŸ…Õ ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ã^¥q_£ ïHÌ„“<£Qê
=ôO\ì_È°.

13. "Í°=ò WH› administration …Õ KŒ…ì strict
Qê LO\ì=ò.

3. 2008 =~¡ä›½ N=°u ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn•
HêOãQï ‹¹ ‡•s“ J^•Î¼ä›½Æ ~ŒeQê LO\ì~¡°.

We will be very strict in administration
hereafter.

14. =KÍó ~ï O_È° <³••° D ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ =~ŒÂ•°
LO\ì~ò.
There will be rains in this area next two
months.

15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô KŒ…ì busy Qê LO\ì#°.
I will be very busy tomorrow.

16. ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQê LO@°Ok.
The weather will be cold here
tomorrow.

17. "Í°=ò h䛽 JH›ø_È KŒ…ì
=ôO\ì=ò.

helpful

We will be helpful to you there.

18. ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ staff meeting =ôO@°Ok.
There will be a staff meeting in the
office tomorrow.

19. =KÍó ~ï O_È° <³••° =¶q°_• ^•Î~¡ KñH›Qê
LO@°Ok.
The price of mango will be cheap next
two months.

20. ~ö „¬ô ‡•s“ KŒ…ì grand Qê =ôO@°Ok.
The party will be very grand tomorrow.

4. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D >ÿØ"£°H÷ _ȶ¼\©…Õ LO\ì#°.
5. "Í°=ò WH›#°Oz
LO\ì=ò.

sincere

interesting

paper easy

work

6. ö ~ „¬ ô match KŒ…ì
=ôO@°Ok.
7. Dª•i question
=ôO@°Ok.

…Õ

8. "Œ~¡° WH› =¶ WO\ÕÁ<Í LO\ì~¡°.
9. "Í ° =ò WH› # °Oz KŒ…ì
LO\ì=ò.
10. J`Ç_È° P committee H÷
Qê LO\ì_È°.

careful

next Chairman

11. <Í#° h䛽 WH›ø_È helpful Qê =ôO\ì#°.
12. =¶ brother
LO\ì_È°.

next year university

…Õ

13. N=°u =¶•u 2008 =~¡ä›½ D scool …Õ
Head-mistress Qê LO\ì~¡°.

Z

One man's meat is another man's poison.

170

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô duty …Õ LO_È#°.
P"³° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È free Qê LO_È^ΰ.

"Í°=ò next year D town …Õ LO_È=ò.
"Œ~¡° WH› h䛽 helpful Qê LO_È~¡°.

J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò, ‹¬•Ö =ò, ‹²u
Ö
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬•
Ö =ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will not + be" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##°

"Will not be"

=KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D time H÷ WO\ÕÁ LO_È#°.
I won't be at home at this time
tomorrow.

2. "Í°=ò next year D college q^¥¼~¡°•Ö °Qê
LO_È=ò.
We won't be the students of this
college next year.

3.

Next series H÷ Ganguly =°# team
captain Qê LO_È_È°.
Ganguly won't be the captain of our
team in the next series.

4. ö ~ „¬ \ ÷ match …Õ
LO_È_È°.

referee

Qê J`Ç _ È °

He won't be the referee in the match
tomorrow.

171

5. P"³° WH› P
LO_È~¡°.

school Head-mistress

She won't be the Head-mistress of that
school hereafter.

6. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô =ôO_È^ΰ.
Tomorrow will not be a holiday.

7. <Í#° WH› P party member Qê LO_È#°.
I won't be a member of that party
hereafter.

8. "Í°=ò WH› D town …Õ LO_È=ò.
We won't be in this town hereafter.

9. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô duty …Õ LO_È_È°.
He won't be on duty tomorrow.

10. "Í°=ò WH› J`ÇxH÷ helpful Qê LO_È=ò.
We won't be helpful to him hereafter.

,

11. <Í#° WH› careless Qê LO_È#°.

EXERCISE

I won't be careless hereafter.

12. "Í°=ò WH› P firm partners Qê LO_È=ò.
We won't be partners of that firm
hereafter.

13. D interview `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç g°ä›½
LO_È^ΰ.

training

There won't be any training after this
interview.

14. ZxßH›• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç J`Ç_È° P
LO_È_È°.

post

…Õ

He won't be in that post after the
elections.

15. WH› D "Œ¼‡•~¡=ò …샕’^¥†Ç°H›OQê
LO_È^ΰ.
This business won't be profitable
hereafter.

16. ö~„¬\÷ programme …Õ U =¶~¡°æ LO_È^ΰ.
There won't be any change in
tomorrow's programme.

17. 58 ‹¬OII =†Ç°‹¬°• `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç P†Ç°# service
…Õ LO_È~¡°.
He won't be in service after 58 years
of age.
She won't be with us hereafter.
party

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° WH› J`Çx`Ë close Qê LO_È#°
2. "Í°=ò WH› office H÷ late J==ò.
3.

P"³° next year hostel …Õ LO_È^ΰ.

4. J`Ç_È° next elections H÷ ‡é\©…Õ LO_È_È°.
5. "Œ~¡° WH› D field …Õ LO_È~¡°.
6.

Next year

g°ä› ½

syllabus heavy

LO_È^ΰ.
7. ~ŒƒÕ†Í° ~ËA•…Õ _È|°Ä ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ_OÈ
easy Qê LO_È^ΰ.
8. g°ä›½ JH›ø_È U q^•Î"°³ #Ø objection LO_È^°Î .
9. ~ö „¬ô =°# town …Õ power supply LO_È^°Î .
10. <Í#° WH› "Œi care taker Qê LO_È#°.
11. D ï~O_È° <³•…Õ D ㇕O`ÇO…Õ =~¡ÂO
LO_È^ΰ.
12. ö~„¬ô work …Õ delay LO_È^ΰ.

18. P"³° WH› =°#`Ë LO_È^ΰ.
19. P†Ç°# WH› P
LO_È~¡°.

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president

He won't be the president of the party
hereafter.

20. U q^•Î"°³ #Ø damage H÷ <Í#° ƒì^•Î°¼_È°Qê
LO_È#°.

13.

JQ® ° @ä› ½ hä› ½ D
knowledge KŒ•^ΰ.

Group-I officer

14. JH›ø_È D =°O^ΰ•° •a•OKÇ=ô.
15. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô D time H÷ office …Õ LO_È~¡°.

I won't be responsible for any damage.

Z
An industrious man is sure to get on.

172

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøøª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬Ê†Ç°`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô ª•Ö#=ò
(Position), ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place), ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

ö~„¬ô h=ô town …Õ LO\ì"Œ ?
"Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô busy Qê LO\ì~Œ

J
J

P"³° WOH› g° `Ë<Í LO@°O^¥ ?
g°~¡° ö~„¬ô D time H÷ exam hall …Õ LO\ì~Œ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô
condition #° Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.

place, position,

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò,
=°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_ȃÕ=ô position, place or condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽 Future
'BE' Form J~ò#
' Will + be' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Will be' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ö~„¬ô leave …Õ LO\ì"Œ ?

7. h=ô ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ WO\÷ ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ LO\ì~Œ?

Will you be on leve tomorrow ?

2. g°~¡ ° <Œä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
LO\ì~Œ ?

Will you be at home tomorrow

helpful

Will you be helpful to me in this matter?

3. g° father next week camp …Õ LO\ì~Œ?
Will your father be on camp next week?

4. h=ô next year
LO\ì"Œ ?

University student

Will you be a university student next
year ?

5. P"³° WH› g°`Ë<Í LO@°O^¥ ?
Will she be with you hereafter ?

6. "Œ~¡° WH› #°OK³á<Œ careful Qê LO\ì~Œ?
Will they be careful hereafter ?
173

evening?

8. P†Ç ° # next time
‡é\©…Õ LO\ì~Œ ?

chairman

„¬ ^ Î q H÷

Will he be in the competition for the
post of the chairman next time ?

9. ö~„¬ô office …Õ staff-meeting LO@°O^¥?
Will there be staff-metting in the office
tomorrow ?

10. P†Ç°# P party H÷
LO\ì~Œ ?

next president

Will he be the next president of the
party ?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. ö~„¬ô D time H÷ g°~¡° ZH›ø_È LO\ì~¡° ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Where will you be at this time
tomorrow?

12.

H÷ next
LO\ì~¡° ?

India

president

Qê Z=~¡ °

1.
2.

Who will be the next President of
India?

13. h=ô next month Hyderabad …Õ Zxß
~ËA•° LO\ì=ô ?
Howmany days will you be in
Hyderabad next month ?

14. P book price ZO`Ç =ôO@°Ok ?
What will be the price of that book ?

15. ã H ù`Ç ë H› q °\© … Õ ZO`Ç = °Ok ‹¬ ƒ •’ ° ¼•°
LO\ì~¡° ?
Howmany members will be there in
the new committee ?

16. g° next programme Uq° =ôO@°Ok ?
What will be you next programme ?

17.

Group-I Main exam. Z„¬C_È°

LO@°Ok?

When will be the Main exam. for

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Group-I posts ?

18.

University „¬sH›Æ•°
When

will

Z„¬C_È° LO\ì~ò ?

be

the

university

examinations ?

19. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ôO^ΰ䛽 =ôO@°Ok ?
Why will there be a holiday tomorrow?

20.

Next meeting Z„¬C_È°

12.

=ôO@°Ok ?

When will be the next meeting ?

13.
14.
15.

Next year h=ô hostel
Next series

…Õ LO\ì"Œ ?

Lakshman team

…Õ

=ôO\ì_¨ ?
ö~„¬ô J`Ç_È° free Qê LO\ì_¨ ?
ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È entertainment programmes
LO\ì†Ç¶ ?
g° parents WH› #°Oz g° `Ë<Í =ôO\ì~Œ?
"Œ~¡° D ª•i „¬sH›•Æ time …Õ strict Qê
LO\ì~Œ ?
g°~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô D time H÷ journey …Õ
=ôO\ì~Œ?
ö~„¬ô working day <Œ ?
ƒ•’q+¬Ê†Ç°`Ç°…ë Õ computing …Õ progress
LO@°O^¥ ?
D products 䛽 ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ demand H÷
LO@°O^¥ ?
S.S.C. H÷ next year #°Oz Zxß subjects
LO\ì~ò ?
Hã ù`Çë =°Oãu =~¡O¾ …Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok =°Oã`°Ç •°
LO\ì~¡° ?
h ㄬ†Ç°`Œß• „¦¬e`ÇO Z…ì =ôO@°Ok ?
g° college H÷ next principal Z=~¡° ?
Next world cup ãH÷ïH\˜ ‡é\©•° ZH›ø_È
LO\ì~ò ?

Z

Great thoughts always come from pure heart.

174

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò =ôO_Èx XH›
Position, Place or Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô ö~„¬ô free Qê LO_È"Œ ?
"Œ~¡° WH› =°#`Ë LO_È~Œ?

J
J

J
J

g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ J`ÇxH÷ helpful Qê LO_È~Œ?
J`Ç_È° =KÍó ZxßH›•ä›½ ‡é\©…Õ LO_È_¨?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› Postion, Place, Condition #° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx LO_Èx, XH› Position,
Place, Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't / Won't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject I, We J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Shalln't'
You, He, She, It, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Won't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note :

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ö~„¬ô WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ LO_È"Œ?

7. =KÍ ó World
LO_È_¨?

Won't you be at home tomorrow?

2. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô 5
LO_È~Œ?

pm

`Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç

office

…Õ

Won't you be in the office after 5 pm
tomorrow?

3. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô duty …Õ LO_È_¨?
Won't he be on duty tomorrow ?

4. P"³ °

next year hostel …Õ LO_È ^ ¥?
Won't she be in the hostel next year?

5. "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 JH›ø_È helpful Qê LO_È~Œ?
Won't they be helpful to us there?

6. h=ô WH› g°^Î@ =¶`Ë LO_È"Œ?
Won't you be with us hereafter?
175

Cup team

…Õ

Ganguly

Won't Ganguly be in the team for the
next World Cup?

8. ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^¥?
Won't there be any problem there
tomorrow?

9. Wk ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH› L„¬†³¶Q®H›~¡"³°Ø#
course Qê LO_È^¥?
Won't it be a useful course in future?

10. India ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‰×H=
ë÷ O`Ç"°³ #
Ø ^͉O× Qê
LO_È^¥?
Won't India be a powerful nation in
future?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 successful Qê
LO_È=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why won't you be successful in future?

12. D course g°ïHO^ΰ䛽 useful Qê LO_È^°Î ?
Why won't this course be useful to you?

13. ƒ•’q+¬¼`°Ç …ë Õ soft -ware H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 _•=¶O_£
=ôO_È^ΰ?
Why won't there be demand for software in future?

14. J`Ç_°È ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°Oz
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È_È°?

position

…Õ

Why won't he be in a good position in
future?

15. P"³° P~ËQ®¼OQê ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È^ΰ?
Why won't she be healthy?

16. "Œ~¡° Dª•i ‡é\©…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È~°¡ ?
Why won't they be in the competition
this time?

17. h=ô ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ "Œ¼‡•~¡~O¡ Q®O…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È=ô?
Why won't you be in the business field
in future?

18. D book =°#ä› ½
=ô„¬†³¶Q®„¬_È^ΰ?

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why won't this book be useful to us?

19. Next year #°O_• degree course ZO^ΰ䛽
‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê =ôO_È^°Î ?
Why won't the Degree course be easy
from next year on words?

20. "Œ~¡ ° D ~¡ O Q® O …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ ‹² Ö ~ ¡ O Qê
LO_È~¡°?
Why won't they be constant in this field?

1. h=ô ö~„¬ô camp …Õ LO_È"Œ?
2. P†Ç°# P
LO_È~Œ?

college

next Principal

3. P"³° next year D dept …Õ LO_È^¥?
4. "Œ~¡° WH› P Ti…Õ LO_È~Œ?
5. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô P game …Õ LO_È~Œ?
6. ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ ƒ•ì~¡`^Ç ‰Í O× …Õ Jqhu LO_È^¥?
7. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô =ôO_È^¥?
8. J`Ç_°È WH› h ƒ•ìQ®ª•Þq°Qê LO_È_¨?
9. P†Ç°# WH› P post …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È_È°?
10. h=ô ö ~ „¬ ô
=ôO_È=ô?

discussions

…Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½

11. g°~¡° WH› P club …Õ members Qê ZO^ΰ䛽
=ôO_È~¡°?
12. "Œ~¡° WH› g°^Î@ ZO^ΰ䛽 H›e‹²=ôO_È~¡°?
13. h=ô WH› g°^Î @ <Œ`Ë ZO^Î ° ä› ½
co-operative Qê LO_È=ô?
14. J`Ç_È° P „¬^Îq…Õ Z䛽ø= Hê•O ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È_È°?
15. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 =~ŒÂ•° =ôO_È=ô?

Z

The hands that help are holier than the lips that pray.

176

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'won't be' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
nxx grammar …Õ Future Tense 'Be' form JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form
3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i
revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 Future "be" form J~ò# "will be " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I will be a law graduate next year.
2. We will be in the conference hall tomorrow.
3. He will be alright after the treatment.
4. They will be good at English after the coaching.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "will not be " (won't be) L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I won't be in this section next year.
2. We won't be present in the party tomorrow.
3. He won't be troublesome in future.
4. They won't be in power after the next elections.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall / Will + be " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shall we be here to - night?

3. Will he be successful in his attempt?

2. Will you be careful next time? 4. Will they be in the U.S.A. perminently?
4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't / Won't + be " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shalln't we be strict with them?

2. Won't you be harmful to them there?

3. Won't the match be on live relay? 4. Won't they be strong after this victory ?
177

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

341

inform

informed

informed

342

injure

injured

injured

343

inquire

inquired

inquired

344

insist

insisted

insisted

345

inspect

inspected

inspected

346

inspire

inspired

inspired

347

intend

intended

intended

348

interefere

interefered

interefered

349

interrupt

interrupted

interrupted

350

introduce

introduced

introduced

351

invade

invaded

invaded

352

invent

invented

invented

353

invite

invited

invited

354

join

joined

joined

355

juggle

juggled

juggled

356

jump

jumped

jumped

357

kick

kicked

kicked

358

kidnap

kidnapped

kidnapped

359

kill

killed

killed

360

kiss

kissed

kissed

D ~ËA

III Form

Meaning

`³e†Ç°*è†Çò@
Qê†Ç°„¬_È°@
qKŒiOKÇ°@
x~¡•Ä O^•Î„~¬ K
¡ °Ç @
`ÇxvK͆Çò@
ãÀ„ö~„²OKÇ°@
`Ç•OKÇ°@
*ÕH›¼OKÍ‹¬°Hù#°@
J_È°ÛHù#°@
„¬iKdžǰ=òK͆Çò@
^ÎO_³`Ç°ë@
ãHù`ÇëQê H›#°Qù#°@
P‚¬ðÞxOKÇ°@
KÍ~¡°@
Qê~¡_™K͆Çò@
^ΰ=ò䛽@, ^¥@°@
`Ç#°ß@
|•`ÇŒø~¡=òQê
=°#°+¬µ•<³`Ç°ëHùx‡é=ô
KÇO„¬ô@
=ò^ΰíÌ„@°“Hù#°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
178

A good name is got by many actions and lost by one.

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'BE' FORMS - PRESENT PERFECT- HAVE BEEN / HAS BEEN
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition)
…Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê L#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

"Í°=ò 1995 #°O_• D town …Õ L<Œß=ò.
"Œ~¡° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OI • #°O_• U.S.A. …Õ =ô<Œß~¡°.

J
J

J
J

P"³° KŒ…ì Hê•OQê J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê L#ßk.
<Í#° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OI •°Qê D Hê…èl…Õ lecturer Qê L<Œß#°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬•Ö =ò (Place) ‹²u
Ö (Condition)
…Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê L#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß XH› Position, Place or Condition …Õ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê ,
Zxß ~ËA•°, Zxß <³••°, Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê L#ßk ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'Have been' / 'Has been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "Have been"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "Has been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
'I, We, You, They ' Subject

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê D
college student Qê =ô<Œß#°.

6. <Í#° Q®`Ç 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê D H›O„
Ì h
L^˼yQê =ô<Œß#°.

2. "Í°=ò 1995 #°O_• D Hê•h "Œ‹¬°•°Qê
=ô<Œß=ò.

7. N †Ç ° O.\÷ . H› $ +¬ â ƒ ì|° Q® ` Ç ï ~ O_È °
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê „
ã H¬ ê‰×Ol…ìÁ H›…Hÿ ~“› °¡ Qê
=ô<Œß~¡°.

I have been a student of this college
for four years.

3.

We have been the residents of this
colony since 1995.
N KÇOã^΃ì|° 1994 #°O_• T.D.P.

J^•Î¼ä›½Æ •°Qê L<Œß~°¡ .

Sri Chandra Babu has been the
President of the T.D.P. since 1994.

4. N=°u =¶•f^Íq Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OII•°Qê =¶
Hê…èl „ã x² •‡•…˜Qê =ô<Œß~°¡ .
Mrs. Malathi Devi has been our
Principal for the past five years.

5. "Œ~¡° KŒ…ìHê•OQê =¶ ‡Ú~¡°Q®°# =ô<Œß~°¡ .
They have been our neighbours for a
long time.

179

I have been an employee of this
company for the past ten years.

Sri M.T. Krishna Babu has been the
Collector of Prakasam District for the
past two years.

8. <Í#° 1985 #°Oz D H›ƒ
Á ˜ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_•Qê
=ô<Œß#°.
9.

I have been a member of this club
since 1985.
=¶ cousin KŒ…ì Hê•OQê K³ < ³ ß å … Õ

LO@°<Œß_È°.

My cousin has been in Chennai for a
long time.

,

10. <Œ z#ß`#
Ç O #°O_• =¶
Q®°~¡°=ô.
11.

12.

father

<Œä›½

My father has been my teacher since
my childhood.
z#ß„æ¬\÷ #°O_• Harish =°i†Çò <Í#°
close friends Qê =ô<Œß=ò.
Harish and I have been close friends
since childhood.
Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê "Í°=ò KŒ…ì busy

Qê =ô<Œß=ò.

We have been very busy for the past
one week.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # °
2.
3.
4.

13. KŒ…ìHê•OQê P"³° J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ßk.
14.

She has been ill for a long time.
Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê P†Ç°# leave

=ô<Œß~¡°.

…Õ

He has been on leave for the past four
days.

15. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQê
L#ßk.
The weather has been cold for the last
one week.

16. J„¬æ¬\÷#°Oz P†Ç°# <Œg°^Î HË„¬OQê
=ô<Œß~¡°.
17.
18.

19.
20.

He has been angry with me since then.
P"³° 10 ~ËA•°Qê hospital …Õ =ô#ßk.
She has been in the hospital for ten
days.
Q®`HÇ ùkí~ËA•°Qê "Œ~¡° <Œä›½ KŒ…ì helpful

Qê =ô<Œß~¡°.

They have been helpful to me for a few
days.
J„¬æ\÷#°Oz J`Ç_È° active Qê =ô<Œß_È°.
He has been active since then.
P case Q®`Ç 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê qKŒ~¡}…Õ

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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

z#ß ` Ç # =ò #°O_• =¶
grandparents `Ë<Í L<Œß#°.
"Í°=ò KŒ…ì Hê•OQê D state …Õ<Í
LO@°<Œß=ò.
Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê degree students
stricke …Õ L<Œß~¡°.
Q®`Ç 15 ‹¬OII•°Qê P†Ç°# lawyer Qê
L<Œß~¡°.
x#ß\÷ #°Oz P"³° =¶ WO\ÕÁ<Í L#ßk.
"Œ~¡° Q®`Ç 25 ‹¬OII•°Qê =¶ town …Õ
leading businessmen Qê L<Œß~¡°.
N KÇOã^΃ì|° `Ç# college ~ËA• #°O_Í
~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…Õ L<Œß~¡°.
<Í#° 1995 #°O_• D ‹¬O‹¬…Ö Õ L^˼yx.
Q®`Ç 4 ‹¬OII•°Qê P case ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë…Õ L#ßk.
"Í°=ò Q®`Ç HùO`Ç Hê•OQê troubles …Õ
L<Œß=ò.
P"³° Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê HË=¶…Õ L#ßk.
P ‹¬O‹¬Ö ª•Ö„O² z# <Œ\÷ #°O_• P†Ç°#
^¥xH÷ chairman Qê L<Œß~¡°.
Q®`Ç 20 ‹¬OII•°Qê J`Ç_°È "ŒiH÷ #=°àH›"°³ #
Ø
À‹=䛽_È°Qê L<Œß_È.
J`Ç_È° Q®`Ç 20 ‹¬OII•°Qê `³•°Q®°^͉×O
Hê~¡¼H›~¡ë Qê L<Œß_È°.
Q®`Ç 25 ‹¬OII•°Qê „¬tó=° ƒÿOQê…˜ …Õ
H›=ü¼x‹¬°“ ‡•s“ Jk•Hê~¡=ò…Õ L#ßk.

=ô#ßk.

That case has been under trial for ten
years.

One must hope for better times.

Z
180

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò HùO`Ç Hê•OQê =°#=ò
LO_Èx XH› position, place, condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA• #°Oz duty …Õ …è#°. J "Í°=ò HùO`Ç Hê•OQê J`ÇxH÷ helpful Qê …è=ò.
Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê P „¬^HΊ =› ò J=°•°…Õ…è^°Î . J J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• "Œ~¡° WH›ø_È …è~°¡ .

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO HùO`ÇHê•OQê XH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› position, place, condition Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 Q®`Ç HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + not + been"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
L#ß„¬C_È° "have not been".
Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "has not been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

I, We, You, They –> Subject Qê
He, She, It –>

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê town …Õ …è#°.
I have not been in the town for two
days.

2. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê duty …Õ …è=ò.

6. D car Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê use …Õ …è^ΰ.
7.

We have not been on duty for the past
one week.

3. J`Ç _ È ° Q® ` Ç Hùxß ~ËA•°Qê =¶`Ë
‹¬xß‚²ì`ÇOQê LO_È@O…è^ΰ.

8.

He has not been close with us for the
past few days.

4. P"³° x#ß\÷ #°Oz WO\ÕÁ …è^ΰ.

9.

She has not been at home since
yesterday.

5. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡OQê =¶`Ë LO_È@O…è^°Î .
They have not been with us for the past
one year.
181

10.

This car has not been in use for the past
two months.
Sachin Q®`Ç ~
ï O_È° series •…Õ =°Oz form

…Õ…è_È°.

Sachin has not been in good form for
the past two series.
Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê =¶ hostel …Õ food

ƒìQ®°O_È@O…è^ΰ.

The food has not been good in our
hostel for the past one week
Q®`Ç Hùxß ~ËA•°Qê =¶ä›½ U problem …è^ΰ.
There has not been any problem to us
for the past few days.
Q®`Ç 10 ~ËA•°Qê =¶ colony …Õ water
supply …è^ΰ.
There has not been water supply in our
colony for the past ten days.

,

11. D ~ËA L^Ά°Ç O #°O_• P†Ç°# office …Õ
…è~¡°.
He has not been in the office since
morning.

12. Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê =¶ ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ
‹¬i†³Ø°# =~ŒÂ•° …è=ô.
There have not been sufficient rains in
our area for the past two years.

13. Q® ` Ç Hùkí ~ËA•°Qê =¶ "Œ¼‡•~¡ O
…샕’^¥†Ç°H›OQê …è^°Î .
14.

Our business hasnot been profitable for
the past few days.
HùO`ÇHê•OQê J`Ç_°È =¶ä›½ helpful Qê …è_°È .
He hasnot been helpful to us for some
time.

15. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê P"³° P~ËQ®¼O ƒìQê …è^ΰ.
Her health hasnot been good for the
past few months.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

16. J`Çx `ÇO_
ã • =°~¡}O ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ #°Oz J`Ç_°È
‹¬O`Ë+¬OQê …è_È°.

8.

He hasnot been happy since his father's
death.

9.

17. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ æ \ ÷ #°Oz =¶`Ë =°OzQê
(‹¬‚ì¬ $^¥Ä•=O`Ë) =ôO_È@O …è^°Î .

10.

They havenot been in good terms with
us since then.
Q®`Ç ï~O_È° series • #°O_• Ganguly team

11.

Ganguly hasnot been in the team for
the last two series.

12.

18.

…Õ…è_È°.

19. XH› ^Ή§|í Hê•OQê „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë Ç q^¥¼q^•¥#O…Õ
standard LO_È@O…è^ΰ.
There hasnot been any standard in the
education system for a decade.

20. Q®`Ç Hùkí ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê `³•OQê}
‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ Ja•=$kœ…^è °Î .
There hasnot been any development in
Telangana area for a few years.

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13.
14.
15.

<Í#° ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê free Qê …è#°.
x#ß L^ΆǰO #°Oz =¶ colony …Õ
power supply …è^ΰ.
Q®`Ç Hùxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê P college …Õ
ãH›=°tH›Æ}…è^ΰ.
Q®`Ç Hùxß ~ËA•°Qê J`Ç_°È active Qê …è_°È .
Q®`Ç ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê Q®°[~Œ`Ÿ…Õ „¬i‹²Öu
J^ΰ„¬ô…Õ…è^ΰ.
1995 #°Oz Ì ‚ á ì ^Î ~ Œƒì^£ …Õ =°`Ç
„¦¬°~¡Â}•°…è=ô.
Q®`Ç Hùkí <³••°Qê P product 䛽 demand
…è^ΰ.
Q® ` Ç 6 <³ • •°Qê D medicines
^ù~¡H›@O…è^ΰ.
"Œi father =°~¡}O #°O_• "Œ~¡° WH›ø_È
LO_È@O…è^ΰ.
Q® ` Ç Hùxß ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~Œ•°Qê WH› ø _•
"Œ`Œ=~¡ } O
=¼=ª•†Ç ° =ò#ä› ½
J#°ä›••OQê…è^ΰ.
Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê P"³° P~ËQ®¼ „¬i‹²Öu
ƒìQê …è^ΰ.
Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OII•°Qê P†Ç°# ~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…Õ
…è~¡°.
J„¬æ\#÷ °O_• "Œ~¡° partners Qê …è~¡°.
P†Ç°# HùO`ÇHê•OQê P post …Õ …è~¡°.
P"³° x#ß\÷ #°O_• ‹¬æ $‚¬ì…Õ …è~°¡ .

Z

The hand that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the world.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò XH›~°¡ L#ß Position, Place, Condition …Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê
LO@°<Œß~Ë ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô 4 ‹¬OII•°Qê WH›ø_È L^˼yQê =ô<Œß"Œ? J g°~¡° Q®`Ç 10 ‹¬OII•°Qê D town …Õ =ô<Œß~Œ?
KŒ…ìHê•OQê P"³° J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ß^¥? J "Œ~¡° 2001 #°O_• D field …Õ =ô<Œß~Œ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~°¡ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =ô#ß XH› Position, Place, Condition …Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê =ôO@°#ß
q+¬†Ç°O Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~°¡ =ô#ß XH› Position, Place,
Condition …Õ Z„¬æ\÷ #°O_• =ôO@°<Œß~Ë „
ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + been"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ

I, We, You, They –> Subject Qê
He, She, It –>

L#ß„¬C_È° 'Have been'
Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Has been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê D
student Qê =ô<Œß"Œ?

college

6. 2001 #°O_• P†Ç°# g° ㄲx•‡•…˜Qê
=ô<Œß~Œ?

Have you been a student of this college
for four years?

Has he been your Principal since 2001?

2. g°~¡ ° 1995 #°O_• D
LO@°<Œß~Œ?

town

…Õ<Í

Have you been in this town since 1995?

3. g° father ï ~ O_È ° ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~Œ•°Qê
J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô<Œß~Œ?
Has your father been ill for two years?

4. P"³° P~¡° <³••°Qê g°`Ë<Í =ô#ß^¥?
Has she been with you for six months?

5. "Œ~¡° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê busy Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?
Have they been busy for four days?

183

7. J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• g°~¡° D WO\ÕÁ<Í L<Œß~Œ?
Have you been in this house since then?

8. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz J`Ç_È° h䛽
=ô<Œß_¨?

helpful

Has he been helpful to you since then?

9. z#ß„æ\
¬ ÷ #°O_• g°i^Î~í ¶¡ „Ìã O¦ _£•Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?.
Have you been friends since childhood
days?

10. <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQê
=ô#ß^¥?
Has the climate been cold for four days?

,

11. h=ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê D ‹¬O‹¬Ö…Õ L^˼yQê
=ô<Œß=ô?
Howlong have you been an employee
of this firm?

12. g°~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê D town …Õ L<Œß~¡°?
Howlong have you been in this town?

13. ZO`ÇHê•OQê P"³° J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ßk?
Howlong has she been ill?

14. ZO`Ç H ê•OQê
‹¬xß‚²ì`Ç°•°?

g°~¡ °

XH› i HùH› ~ ¡ °

Howlong have you been close to each
other?

15. "Œ~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê "Œ¼‡•~¡ ~¡OQ®O…Õ
L<Œß~¡°?
Howlong have they been in the
business field?

16. P†Ç°# P ‹¬O‹¬äÖ ½› ZO`ÇHê•OQê K•³~á à¡ <£Qê
=ô<Œß~¡°?
Howlong has he been the Chairman of
that firm?

17. Wxß ~ËA•°Qê g°~¡ ° ZH› ø _È L<Œß ~ ¡ ° ?
Where have you been all these days?

18. Wxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê g°ä›½
Z=~¡° =ô<Œß~¡°?

guardian

Who has been your guardian all these
years?

19. Wxß ~ËA•°Qê h=ô JH›ø_È XO@iQê Z…ì
=ô<Œß=ô?
How have you been alone there all
these days?

20. g° cousins ZO`Ç H ê•OQê
=ô<Œß~¡°?

U.S.A. …Õ

Howlong have your cousins been in the
U.S.A?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. g° father Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê D
bank manager Qê L<Œß~Œ?
2. h=ô ~ï O_È° Q®O@• #°O_• WH›ø_Í =ô<Œß"Œ?
3. g°~¡° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê H›q°\© "³°O|~Ÿ•Qê
=ô<Œß~Œ?
4. P†Ç°# 1990 #°O_• g° Ti ‹¬~æ¡OKŸQê
=ô<Œß~Œ?
5. P"³° Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê hospital …Õ
=ô#ß^¥?
6. "Œ~¡° L^ΆǰO #°O_• laboratory …Õ
=ô<Œß~Œ?
7. x#ß\÷ #°O_• "Œ`Œ=~¡}O WH›ø_È KÇ•QÁ ê
=ô#ß^¥?
8. Q®`Ç ï~O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê J`Ç_È° D
office incharge Qê =ô<Œß_¨?
9. g°~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê J`Çx`Ë ‹¬xß‚²ì`ÇOQê
=ô<Œß~¡°?
10. h=ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê D H›q°\© ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È°Qê
L<Œß=ô?
11. g° father ZO`Ç H ê•OQê politics …Õ
L<Œß~¡°?
12. P"³° ZO`ÇHê•OQê g°`Ë =ô#ßk?
13. P†Ç°# ZO`ÇHê•OQê D profession …Õ
=ô<Œß~¡°?
14. "Œ~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê WO_•†Ç¶…Õ =ô<Œß~°¡ ?
15. h=ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê J`Çx À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°_•Qê
=ô<Œß=ô?

Z

A prophet is not honoured in his own country.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have been / Has been" •
Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. Have been / Has been J#° nxx grammar …Õ Present Perfect
'Be' form JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form J#° 3
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 3 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° L#ß XH› Position, Place or Condition …Õ ZO`Ç
Hê•OQê LO@°#ßn ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò`Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have been / Has been"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I have been here since 7 'O' clock.
2. We have been on special duty for three days.
3. He has been ill for a long time.
4. She has been with us since July last.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° …è#@°=O\÷ XH› Position, Place,
Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "havenot been / has not been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I havenot been in the town for two days.
2. We have not been in the office since morning.
3. She hasnot been well for one week.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò=ô#ß XH› position, place, condition •…Õ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê =ôO@°#ßn
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have been / Has been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Have you been busy for one week ?
2. Have they been here since morning ?
3. Has he been your Principal for four years ?
4. Has she been sick since yesterday ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

361

knock

knocked

knocked

362

lack

lacked

lacked

363

lag

lagged

lagged

364

lament

lamented

lamented

365

laugh

laughed

laughed

366

lessen

lessened

lessened

367

levy

levied

levied

368

lick

licked

licked

369

dread

dreaded

dreaded

370

dissolve

dissolved

dissolved

371

conceive

conceived

conceived

372

congeal

congealed

congealed

373

condole

condoled

condoled

374

elapse

elapsed

elapsed

375

emancipate

emancipated

emancipated

376

foozle

foozeled

foozeled

377

confound

confounded

confounded

378

certify

certified

certified

379

prove

proved

proved

380

praise

praised

praised

D ~ËA

Meaning

`Ç@°“@
Hù~¡=|_•=ôO_È°@
"³#°H›|_•†ÇòO_È°@
~Ëk•OKÇ°@
#=ôÞ@
`Çy¾OKÇ°@
qk•OKÇ°@
<Œä›½@, Q®`ǰ䛽@
ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_°È @
H›~¡yOKÇ° h\÷…Õ
`Ç•OKÇ°@
Q®_ÈÛH›@°“@
qKŒ~¡=ò `³•°„¬ô@
Hê•=ò fi‡é=ô@
q=òH÷ëK͆Çò@
„¬xx ‡•_È°K͆ò
Ç @
ƒã •’=°„¬~K
¡ °Ç @
H÷`Œ|° WKÇ°ó@
|°°A=ô K͆Çò@
"³°KÇ°óHù#°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 3 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
186

A proud mind and a poor purse are illmet.

,

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SHALL
=°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ Hùxß „¬#°•° K͆°Ç =…ÿ ##° L^Í‰í ¼× =ò H›ey †ÇòO^ΰ=ò. XHùøH›øª•i
W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È° KÇ°#ß„¬ô_È° =°#=ò (I, we) ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ P „¬#°•#° K͆ò
Ç L^Í‰í ¼× =ò#°
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô leave apply Kͪ•ë#°. J "Í°=ò D ª•i ^΋~¬ Œ „¬O_È°Q® =¶ Ti…Õ [~¡°„¬ô䛽O\ì=ò.
"Í°=ò D town …Õ<Í settle J=ô`Œ=ò. J <Í#° next month scooter HùO\ì#°.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° <Í#° (I) , …èH› "Í°=ò (we), =°#=ò XH› „¬xx K͆Çò
L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° (idea) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

J
J

WKÇ@ =° # =ò `Ç„¬æH› K͆Çò„¬#°•° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@…è^ΰ . öH=•O XH› „¬xx
K͆Çò L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@. 'Shall' J#° form öH=•O I, We J#° subjects 䛽
=¶ã`Ç"Í° =KÇ°ó#°.
'<ŒÑ L^Íí‰×¼=ò '<Í#°Ñ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@ Ð 'I shall'
'=¶Ñ L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° "Í°=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@ Ð 'We shall'
*

Note :

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô Ì ‹ q°<Œ~Ÿ … Õ ‡•…ç¾ O \ì#°.

6.

I shall participate in the seminar.

2.

We shall discuss this matter in the
meeting tomorrow.

"Í°=ò =KÍó "Œ~¡O "³°‹
Ø ¶
¬ ~Ÿ visit Kͪ•ë=ò.
We shall visit Mysore next week.
7.

3. <Í#°=KÍó <³• computer course join
J=ô`Œ#°.
I shall join the computer course next
month.
4.

"Í°=ò =KÍó [#=i…Õ family Hyderabad
H÷ shift Kͪ•ë=ò.
We shall shift our family

5.

<Í#° =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O =¶
WO\÷H÷ invite Kͪ•ë#°.

friends x

9.

I shall invite my friends to my house
next Sunday.
187

8.

to

Hyderabad next January.

"Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô g°\÷ O Q· … Õ D q+¬ † Ç ° O
KÇiªó •ë=ò.
<Í#° =KÍó "Œ~¡O <Œ L^˼Q®O Q®°iOz
XH› x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½O\ì#°.
I shall take a decision about my
studies next week.
"Í°=ò =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O <³•¶Á~°¡ …Õ branch
open Kͪ•ë=ò.
We shall open a branch in Nellore next
year.
<Í#°`ÇÞ~¡…Õ Delhi "³ˆ×`Œ#°.
I shall leave for Delhi soon.

10. "Í°=ò =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O q[†Ç°"Œ_È…Õ
settle J=ô`Œ=ò.
We shall settle down in Vijayawada
next year.

,

11. <Í#° =KÍó "Œ~¡O bank test H÷ appear
J=ô`Œ#°.

13.

I shall appear for the bank test next
week.
"Í°=ò next Monday bank Manager
#° consult J=ô`Œ=ò.
We shall consult the Bank Manager
next Monday.
<Í#° next week leave H÷ apply

14.

I shall apply for leave next week.
"Í°=ò =KÍó Uㄲ…˜…Õ annual day

12

Kͪ•ë#°.

[~¡°„¬ô`Œ=ò.

We shall celebrate the annual day
next April.

15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O
`³e†Ç°*誕ë#°.
16.

I shall inform them this news tomorrow .
"Í°=ò ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È guests 䛽 =‹¬u

U~Œæ@° Kͪ•ë=ò.

We shall provide accommodation
for the guests there tomorrow.
17. <Í#° next time P job HË‹¬O ㄬ†Ç°`ÇßO

Kͪ•ë#°.

I shall try for that job next time.

18. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³• P W•°Á Mìm Kͪ•ë=ò.
19.

We shall vacate that house next
month.
<Í#° ö~„¬ô SBI …Õ ~¡¶. 50,000/Ð

_•‡•l\˜ Kͪ•ë#°.

I shall deposit Rs. 50,000/- in the
SBI tomorrow.
20.

"Í°=ò ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·H÷ Jxß U~Œæ@°Á
Kͪ•ë=ò.
We shall make all the arrangements
for the meeting tomorrow.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 help
Kͪ•ë#°.
2.
"Í ° =ò =KÍ ó "Œ~¡ O H© Þ *˜ ‡é\©
x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë=ò.
3. <Í#° =KÍó <³• ãHù`Çë course …Õ join
J=ô`Œ#°.
4. "Í°=ò `ÇÞ~¡…Õ WH›ø_È W•°Á construct
Kͪ•ë=ò.
5. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô x#°ß P„¦‹
Ô °¬ …Õ H›•°ª•ë#°.
6. "Í°=ò =KÍó "Œ~¡O „Ì O_••OQ· files clear
Kͪ•ë=ò.
7. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x `Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O
=¶\ìÁ_È°`Œ#°.
8. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³• 5 # =¶ ‡•„¬ birthday
KŒ…ì grand Qê celebrate Kͪ•ë=ò.
9. <Í#° =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò Q®°O@¶~¡° A.C.
Hê…èl…Õ join J=ô`Œ#°.
10. "Í°=ò =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ…Õ Hù`Çë WO\ÕÁH÷
shift J=ô`Œ=ò.
11. <Í#° ö~„¬ô marriage …Õ J`ÇxH÷ XH› watch
present Kͪ•ë#°.
12. "Í°=ò =KÍó "Í‹¬q…Õ tour x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë=ò.
13. <Í#° next summer …Õ English grammar
<Í~¡°ó䛽O\ì#°.
14. "Í ° =ò D ª•i function H÷ =¶
|O^•Î°=ô•O^Îih P‚¬ðÞxª•ë=ò.
15. <Í#° D ª•i ZxßH›•…Õ BJP H÷ F@°
"ͪ•ë#°.

Z

Cut your coat according to the cloth.

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
=°#䛽 XH›„¬x K͆Çò L^Íí‰×¼=ò …è䛽O_È°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È"Œix H›•°=#°.
J "Í°=ò =KÍó"Œ~¡O P programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾#=ò.
"Í°=ò "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË=ò. J <Í#° next May …Õ EAMCET H÷ appear J=#°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xK͆ò
Ç L^Í‰í ¼× =ò
…èH›‡é=ô@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß =¼H÷ë (speaker) <Í#° …èH› "Í°=ò (I , We)
`Œ#° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Shall + not + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, We, Subject Qê

L#ß„¬ô_È° =¶ã`Ç"Í° 'Shall notÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

2.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô
J=#°.

attend

6. "Í°=ò Dª•i "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË=ò.

I shall not attend the computer class
tomorrow.
"Í°=ò =KÍó <³• D course …Õ join J==ò.
We shall not join this course next
month.

We shall not interefere in their matter
this time.

computer class

3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ `Ë_È°Qê <³•¶Á~¡° "³ˆ×¤#°.
4.

I shall not accompany them to Nellore
tomorrow.
"Í°=ò D ª•i annual day celebrate

K͆ǰ=ò.

7. <Í#° WH› J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡#°.
8.

I shall not seek his help hereafter.
"Í ° =ò D ª•i g°\÷ O Q· postpone

9.

We shall not postpone the meeting
this time.
<Í # ° next year D Hê…è l …Õ work

We shall not celebrate the annual day
this time.

5. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x `Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° =ò
=¶\ìÁ_È#°.
I shall not talk to him this matter
tomorrow.
189

10.

K͆ǰ=ò.

K͆ǰ#°.

I shall not work in this college next
year.
"Í°=ò ö~„¬ô strike …Õ ‡•…ç¾#=ò.
We shall not participate in the strike
tomorrow.

,

11. <Í#° =KÍó <³• =¶

native place H÷ "³ˆ×¤#°.

I shall not go to my native place next
month.

12. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È "Œi HË‹¬ O
K͆ǰ=ò.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

wait

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ duty H÷ attend J=#°.

We shall not wait for them there

2. "Í°=ò D <³• house rent pay K͆ǰ=ò.

tomorrow.

13. <Í#° =KÍó <³• =¶
„¬O„¬#°.

brother

money

3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "Œi`Ë K³<³áß "³ˆ×¤#°.
4. "Í°=ò D ª•i

work delay K͆ǰ=ò.

I shall not send money to my brother
next month.

14. "Í°=ò D ª•i P hotel …Õ stay K͆°Ç =ò.
We shall not stay at that hotel this time.

15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô Hê…èlH÷ ~Œ#°.
I shall not come to college tomorrow.

16. "Í ° =ò next
Q®_È„¬=ò.

month holidays

WH›ø_È

We shall not spend our holidays here

6. "Í°=ò D ª•i farewell party celebrate
K͆ǰ=ò.
7. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D q+¬†Ç°O J`ÇxH÷ K³„¬æ#°.
8. "Í°=ò WH› J`Çxx #=°à=ò.
9. <Í#° WH› J`Çx`Ë move J=#°.

next month.

17. <Í#° D ª•i test H÷ apply K͆ǰ#°.
I shall not apply for the test this time.

18. "Í°=ò D ª•i J`ÇxH÷
W=Þ=ò.

money

J„¬CQê

EAMCET

䛽

coaching

I shall not take coaching for the
EAMCET this time.

20. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È
K͆ǰ=ò.

10. "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ U
W=Þ=ò.

trouble

11. <Í#° D book refer K͆ǰ#°.

We shall not lend him money this time.

19. <Í#° Dª•i
f‹¬°HË#°.

5. <Í#° degree `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç studies continue
K͆ǰ#°.

work continue

We shall not continue the work there

12. "Í°=ò D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ "ŒiH÷
K͆ǰ=ò.

support

13. <Í#° WH› <Œ time waste K͆ǰ#°.
14. "Í°=ò WH› "ŒiÌ„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È ò.
15. "Í°=ò Dª•i tournments x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ=ò.

Z

tomorrow.

Spare the rod and spoil the child.

190

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
<Í#° …èH› =°#=ò XH› „¬xx K͆ǰ^ΕKÇ° L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ letter ã"ŒÀ‹^¥ ?
<Í#° =KÍó <³• h䛽 money „¬OÀ„^¥?

J
J

=°#=ò =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O picnic "³ˆ×^¥=¶?
<Í#° h䛽 shop #°O_•book f‹¬°ä›½=KÍ^ó ¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
<Í#° …èH› =°#=ò XH› „¬xx K͆ǰ^ΕKÇ° L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ö~„¬ô, =KÍó"Œ~¡O, =KÍó<³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß =¼H÷ë …èH› =¼ä›½ë•° (<Í#° …èH› =°#=ò) XH› „¬xx K͆ǰƒÕ=ô L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Shall

J#° D form 'I' =°i†Çò 'We' J#° subjects 䛽 =¶ã`Ç"Í° L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° P„¦Ô‹¬°H÷ =KÍó^¥?
Shall I come to your office tomorrow?

2. =°#=ò next Sunday picnic "³ˆ×^¥=¶?
Shall we go on a picnic next Sunday?

3. =°#=ò next Monday
consult J=ô^¥=¶?

manager

Shall we consult the Manager next
Monday?

4. <Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷
KÍÀ‹^¥?

inform

Shall I Inform them this matter
tomorrow?

5. =°#=ò

next Sunday farewell party
celebrate KÍ^¥í=¶?
Shall we celebrate the farewell party
next Sunday?

191

6. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h HË‹¬O WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡
KÍÀ‹^¥?

wait

Shall I wait for you at home tomorrow?

7. <Í#° ö~„¬ô <³•¶Á~¡°H÷ h䛽 `Ë_È°Qê =KÍó^¥?
shall I accompany you to Nellore
tomorrow?

8. =°#=ò next
KÍ^¥í=¶?

month Mysore visit

Shall we visit Mysore next month?

9. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ marriage …Õ XH›
watch present KÍ^¥í=¶?
Shall we present him a watch in the
marriage tomorrow?

10. =°#=ò D ª•i function H÷
H›…ÿH›“~Ÿ#° invite KÍ^¥í=¶?

guest

Shall we invite the Collector as guest
to the function this time?

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: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô hHË‹¬O ZH›ø_È wait KÍÀ‹k?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Where shall I wait for you tomorrow?

2. =°#=ò new house …ÕH÷ Z„¬C_È°
J=ô^¥=ò?

shift

When shall we shift to the new house?

3. <Í#° h䛽 Chennai #°O_• Uq° `³Kk
óÍ ?
What shall I bring for you from
Chennai?

4. =°#=ò next U course join J=ô^¥=ò?
Which course Shall we join next?

5. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° father H÷ Uq° K³À„æk?
What shall I tell your father tomorrow?

6. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ ZO`Ç
KÍ^¥í=ò?

money pay

Howmuch money shall we pay him
tomorrow?

7. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô Hyderabad …Õ U ‚¬ìÙ@…˜…Õ
stay KÍ^¥í=ò?
In which hotel Shall we stay in
Hyderabad tomorrow ?

8. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È Z=ix
J=ô^¥=ò?

consult

Whom shall we consult there
tomorrow?

9. =°#=ò MBA H÷ ZH›ø_È apply KÍ^¥í=ò?
Where shall we apply for MBA?

10. =°#=ò al<³‹¹…Õ ZO`Ç amount invest
KÍ^¥í=ò?

1. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô classes boycot KÍ^¥í=¶?
2. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ D message „¬OÀ„^¥?
3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô evening show H÷ =°#H÷ tickets
book KÍÀ‹^¥?
4. =°#=ò next month D
KÍ^¥í=¶?

house vacate

5. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h䛽 D q+¬†Ç°O Q®°~¡°ë KÍÀ‹^¥?
6. =°#=ò

next week invitation cards

distribute KÍ^¥í=¶?

7. <Í#° D book f‹¬°Hù<Í^¥?
9. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ƒì¼OH± #°O_• money withdraw
KÍÀ‹^¥?
10. <Í#° D point dairy …Õ note KÍ‹°¬ Hù<Í^¥?
11. =°#=ò house
KÍ^¥í=ò?

work

Z„¬ C _È °

start

12. <Í#° g° WO\÷H÷ Z„¬C_È° =KÍók?
13. =°#=ò =°# „² • Á • #°
‹¬¶ø…ÕÁ admit KÍ^¥í=ò?
14. ö~„¬ô

next year

U

䛽 =°#=ò =‹¬u ZH›ø_È
provide KÍ^¥í=ò ?

15.

guests

Next Sunday

=°#=ò ZH›ø_•H÷

"³ˆ×^¥=ò?

Howmuch amount shall we invest in

Z

the business?

A stitch in time saves nine.

192

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
=°#=ò K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°==^¥í?
<Í#° =°~¡• WH›ø_•H÷ uiy ~Œ=^¥í?

J
J

=°#=ò ö~„¬ô P function H÷ attend Hê=^¥í ?
=°#=ò D test H÷ appear Hê=^¥í?

Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° ƒ•’ q +¬ ¼ `Ç ° ë … Õ =°#=ò KÍ † Ç ° x XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° <Í#° (I) …èH› "Í°=ò , =°#=ò (we) J#Qê
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß =¼H÷ë (speaker) `Œ#° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We =¶ã`Ç"Í° Subject

Qê LO_È°#°. H›#°H› "Shalln't " =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=^¥í?
Shalln't I come here tomorrow?

2. =°#=ò ö ~ „¬ ô "Œi`Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O
KÇióOKÇ=^¥í?
Shalln't we discuss this matter with
them tomorrow?

3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O K³„¬æ=^¥í?
Shalln't I tell him this matter tomorrow?

4. =°#=ò ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x H÷
K͆ǰ=^¥í?

money pay

Shalln't we pay him money tomorrow?

5. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _•H÷ "³ ˆ × ¤ = ^¥í ?
Shalln't we go there tomorrow?

193

6. <Í#° D letter post K͆ǰ=^¥í?
Shalln't I post this letter?

7. =°#=ò D q+¬†Ç°O "ŒiH÷ `³•°„¬=^¥í?
Shalln't we inform them this matter?

8. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô bank #°O_•
K͆ǰ=^¥í?

money draw

Shalln't I withdraw money from the
bank tomorrow?

9. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô g°HË‹¬ O JH› ø _È
K͆ǰ=^¥í?

wait

Shalln't we wait there for you tomorrow?

10. <Í#° J`ÇxH÷ help K͆ǰ=^¥í?
Shalln't I help him?

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: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_•H÷ =°#=ò ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ¤=
× ^ΰ?í

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why shalln't we go there tomorrow?

12. ö~„¬ô <Í#° duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend Hê=^ΰí?
Why shalln't I attend the duty
tomorrow?

13. P programme …Õ "Í ° =ò ZO^Î ° ä› ½
‡•…ç¾#=^ΰ?í
Why shalln't we participate in that
programme?

14. ö~„¬ô g°`Ë <Í<³O^ΰ䛽 ~Œ=^ΰí?
Why shalln't I come with you
tomorrow?

15. ~ö „¬ô "Í°=ò JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 stayK͆°Ç =^ΰ?í
Why shalln't we stay there tomorrow?

16. =°#O ö ~ „¬ ô "Œˆ× ¤ ` Ë
P_È=^ΰí?

match

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why shalln't we play match against
them tomorrow?

17. <Í # ° "Œi`Ë Dq+¬ † Ç ° O ZO^Î ° ä› ½
=¶\ìÁ_È=^ΰí?
Why shalln't I talk to them this matter?

18. =°#=ò J`Ç x H÷
„¬O„¬=^ΰí?

money

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

1. <Í#° D photograph J`ÇxH÷ KǶ„¬=^¥í?
2. =°#=ò Dª•i "ŒiÌ„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È ^¥í?
3. <Í#° D letters type K͆ǰ=^¥í?
4. =°#=ò D HË~¡°• KÍ~=
¡ ^¥í?
5. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ phone K͆ǰ=^¥í?
6. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D bill pay K͆ǰ=^¥í?
7. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô "Œix invite K͆ǰ=^¥í?
8. =°#=ò JH›ø_È "Œix ‹¬OㄬkOKÇ=^¥í?
9. <Í#° ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ `Ë_È°Qê "³ˆ×¤=^¥í?
10. =°#=ò May …Õ test H÷ appear J==^¥í?
11. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È J`Ç x x ZO^Î ° ä› ½
H›•°==^ΰí?
12. =°#=ò J`Çxx D q+¬†Ç°O ZO^ΰ䛽
J_ÈQ®=^ΰí?
13. <Í#° ö~„¬ô P file ZO^ΰ䛽 `Í=^ΰí?

Why shalln't we send him money?

19. =°#=ò P WO\ÕÁH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 shift Hê=^ΰí?
Why shalln't we shift to that house?

20. =°#=ò D ª•i "Œi ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO ZO^ΰ䛽
HË~¡=^ΰí?
Why shalln't we seek their help this
time?

14. =°#=ò JH› ø _È
f‹¬°HË=^ΰí?

dinner

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

15. <Í#° D medicine ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°HË=^ΰí?

Z

A bad workman complains of his tools.

194

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Shall' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Shall' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç L^͉œ ¼× =ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall + I form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°. I, We - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° =¶ã`Ç"Í° 'shall' =KÇ°ó#°.
Ex :

1. I shall meet you tomorrow.
2. We shall celebrate the Farewell Party next Sunday.
3. I shall appear for the I-CET next May.
4. We shall organize a tour next month.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç H› ‡é=ô@#° (L^͉œ ¼× =ò …èH)› negative sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall not + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I shall not continue my studies next year.
2. We shall not stay here tomorrow.
3. I shall not join this course.
4. We shall not seek his help in this matter.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç L^͉œ ¼× =ò#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall
+ I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shall I consult the Manager tomorrow?
2. Shall we visit Mysore next month?
3. Shall I come here tomorrow?
4. Shall we play a friendly match next Sunday?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz (L^͉œ ¼× =ò …èH)› negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shalln't I wait for you tomorrow?
2. Shalln't we invite them to the party next week?
3. Shalln't I bring books for you?
4. Shalln't we stay here tonight?

195

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

381.

lift

lifted

lifted

382.

lighten

lightened

lightened

383.

listen

listened

listened

384.

live

lived

lived

385.

locate

located

located

386.

maintain

maintained

maintained

387.

manage

managed

managed

388.

marry

married

married

389.

mediate

mediated

mediated

390.

mend

mended

mended

391.

mention

mentioned

mentioned

392.

merge

merged

merged

393.

mingle

mingled

mingled

394.

miss

missed

missed

395.

mix

mixed

mixed

396.

moan

moaned

moaned

397.

mock

mocked

mocked

398.

mourn

mourned

mourned

399.

move

moved

moved

400.

murmer

murmered

murmered

D ~ËA

Meaning

Ì„áïH`Ç°ë@
ƒ•ì~¡=ò#° `ÇyO¾ KÇ°
q#°@
x=tOKÇ°@
‹¬Ö•=ò#° H›#°Q®ù#°
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ°@
[i„²OKÇ°@
q"Œ‚¬ì=¶_È°@
=°^•Î¼‹¬=Ö ò K͆ò
Ç
‹¬iK͆Çò@
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
XH›\÷ K͆Çò@
H›•°„¬ôHù#°@
Q®°i `Ç„¬ôæ@,
JO^ΰHË…èH› ‡é=ô@
H›•°„¬ô@
"³°•ÁQê U_È°ó@
ZQ®`Œo K͆Çò@
‰ÕH÷OKÇ°@
H›keOKÇ°@
Qù}°Q®°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
196

Despair gives courage to a coward.

,

: 94406 16425

WILL
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ `Ç„æ¬ H› K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x x~¡~â òOKÇ°HùO^ΰ=ò. XHùøH›ø
ª•i W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ `Ç„æ¬ H› K͆ò
Ç XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

1 <Í#° D ª•i `Ç„æ¬ H› prize Qï •°ª•ë#°.
2. "Í°=ò =KÍ ó<³• `Ç„¬æH› loan clear KÇªÍ •ë=ò.
3. P"³° D ª•i =°#•#° `Ç„æ¬ H› P‚¬ðÞx‹¬°Oë k. 5. ªÏ~¡"£ Q®OQ®¶b =°~¡• captain J=ô`Œ_È°.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó
<³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° `Ç„æ¬ H› definite Qê K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

U^³á##° "Will + I form" =KÇ°ó#°.
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz XH› Q®\“÷ x~¡†
â °Ç O f‹¬°Hùx P „¬xx `Ç„æ¬ H›
K͆Çò@Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@.
Subject Singular, Plural

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D „¬sH›Æ…Õ `Ç„¬æH›

pass J=ô`Œ#°.
I will pass this examination definitely.

2.

"Í°=ò Yzó`ÇOQê D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽
support Kͪ•ë=ò.
We will support you in this matter.

3. h=ô `Ç Þ ~¡ … Õ appointment
JO^Îΰ䛽O\ì=ô.

team

ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn• =°~¡• J"Í°n• #°O_•
‡•~¡"Á °³ O\˜ä½› ‡é\© Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

Mrs.

Mrs. Sonia Gandhi will contest to the
Parliament from Amethi again.
197

7. ZxßH›• H›g°+¬<£ `ÇÞ~¡…Õ ZxßH›• `Ín•#°
ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëOk.
8.

The Election Commission will
announce the election dates soon.
D train ~ö „¬ô L^Ά°Ç O 10 Q®OII•ä›½ _••bÁ

9.

This train will reach Delhi at 10 a.m.
tomorrow.
"Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô J`Çxx hospital …Õ admit

10.

They will admit him to hospital
tomorrow.
"Œ~¡° =KÍ ó<³• ãHù`Çë product #° =¶ï~ø\˜

next

Rahul Dravid will become the next
captain of the Indian team.

5.

They will complete this course next
December.

orders

You will receive the appointment
orders soon.

4. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ã^¥q_£ Indian
captain J=ô`Œ_È°.

6. "Œ~¡° =KÍó _•‰×O|~¡°…Õ D HË~¡°• „¬îië
Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°Ok.

Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

…ÕxH÷ q_È°^Ε Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

They will release a new product into
the market next month.

,

11. =¶ "Í°<Í[~Ÿ ö~„¬ô

Vizag camp "³ˆ×`Œ~¡°.
Our Manager will go on camp to
Vizag tomorrow.

12. =òY¼=°Oãu _••…ÕÁ…Õ ~ö „¬ô „ã ^¬ •¥x`Ë ~ŒR
‹¬=°‹¬¼•° KÇióª•ë~°¡ .

13.

The C.M will discuss the state
problems with the P.M. in Delhi
tomorrow.
D world cup ‡é\©•…Õ =°# Indian
team
finals H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°Ok.
The Indian team will reach the finals
in this world cup tournments.

14. H›=ü¼x‹¬°“ ‡•s“ "Œ~¡° =KÍ ó ªé=°"Œ~¡O
‚Ì ìá ^Î~Œƒì^£…Õ ƒ•ìs ~Œ¼b x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ .
The Communist parties will organise
a huge ralley in Hyderabad next
Monday.

15. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ Ì„^Îí
amount „
Ì @°“|_• „Ì _È`Œ~¡°.
They will invest a big amount in the
business this year.
16. =¶ uncle retire J†Ç ° # `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç
business start Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
My uncle will start business after his
retirement.
17. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ XH› English dictionary
publish Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
They will publish a new English
Dictionary soon.
18. C.B.I. P öH‹¬° ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
The C.B.I. will investigate the case.
19. ö~„¬ô H›…ÿH›“~¡° programme #° inaugurate

Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

20.

The Collector will inaugurate the
programme tomorrow.
ㄬƒ•’°`ÇÞO `ÇÞ~¡…Õ ordinance pass

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô `Ç„¬æH› „¬sH›Æ „¦ÔA pay Kͪ•ë#°.
2. "Í ° =ò D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ hä› ½ `Ç „ ¬ æ H›
‹¬‚ì¬ H›iª•ë=ò.
3. =¶ father ~ö „¬ô =¶ „ã x
² •„¬…#
˜ ° consult
J=ô`Œ~¡°.
4. P"³° ö~„¬ô `Ç# 21= „¬ô\÷“# ~ËA [~¡°„¬ô
䛽O@°Ok.
5. "Œ~¡° =KÍó<³• bank loan clear Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
6. ö~„¬ô annual day celebrations …Õ "Í°=ò
XH› <Œ\÷H› „
ã ^
¬ iΠŪ•ë=ò.
7. Lª•àx†Ç¶ †Çüx=i•\© E<£ 16#
B.Ed., entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëOk.
8. ö~„¬ô =¶ WO\÷H÷ guests =ª•ë~°¡ .
9. =¶ brother next year USA "³ˆìë_È°.
10. =¶ father D ª•i =òx‹²„…¬ ˜ ZxßH•› …Õ
‡é\©KªÍ •ë~°¡ .
11. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô 7 p.m H÷ programme
‡ã •~¡Oa•ª•ë~°¡ .
12. "Í°=ò next Sunday Hindi test "ã Œª•ë=ò.
13. =¶ father next June …Õ =¶ brother x
B.Tech …Õ admit Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
14. <Í # ° x#°ß =°~¡ • ö ~ „¬ ô ª•†Ç ° Oã ` Ç O
H›•°ª•ë#°.
15. English lecturer ~ö „¬ô =°#䛽 new poem
explain Kͪ•ë~°¡ .

KÍ‹¬°ëOk.

The government will pass the
ordinance soon.

Z

Birds of the same feather gather together.

198

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz XH› (firm decision)
|•"³°Ø# x~¡â†Ç°O ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ#°.
P"³° D proposal X„¬ôCHË^ΰ.

"Í°=ò D ª•i „ã †
¬ °Ç `ÇßO…Õ fail J==ò.
P†Ç°# D ª•i Z•H›<Æ …£ Õ ‡é\© K͆°Ç ~¡°.

J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬x Q®°iOz (firm
decision) XH› |•"³°Ø# x~¡â†Ç°=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz XH› Q®\“÷
x~¡â†Ç°O`Ë K³„¬C@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + not + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
U^³ á # #¶

Subject Singular, Plural

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

''''Will + not + I form of the verbÑÑÑÑ

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D mistake =°~¡• K͆ǰ#°.

6. "Í°=ò D ª•i P‡•s“H÷ vote "͆ǰ=ò.

I will not commit this mistake again.

2. "Í°=ò D J=Hê‰×=ò#° =^ΰ•°HË=ò.

7.

We will not lose this opportunity.

3. =¶ brother WH›
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.

studies continue

My brother will not continue his
studies.

4. =¶ cousin h
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.

proposal

J‹¬•°

8. "Í°<Í[~¡° h䛽 XH› •H›Æ ~¡¶‡•†Ç°• H›O>è
Z䛽ø= loan sanction K͆ǰ~¡°.

accept

9.

My cousin will not accept to your
proposal.

5. "Œ~¡° D <³• P house vacate K͆ǰ~¡°.
They will not vacate that house this
month.
199

We will not vote for that party this time.
h=ô ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ "Œi #°Oz U problem
face K͆ǰ=ô.
You will not face any problem from
them in future.

10.

The Manager will not sanction you
more than Rs. 1 lakh loan.
=¶ sister next year college …Õ KÇ^°Î =^ΰ.
My sister will not study in the college
next year.
g°~¡ ° picnic "³ ˆ × Ã ¤ @ ä› ½ principal
permission W=Þ~¡°.
The Principal will not give you
permission to go on a picnic.

,

11.

Manager D~ËA

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ ~Œ~¡°.

The Manager will not come to office

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

today.

12. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
ƒ•’së K͆°Ç ^ΰ.

Group-2 posts

1.

The government will not fill up the
Group - 2 posts this year.

13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È g°#°Oz Ug° demand
K͆ǰ~¡°.

2. POã^•¥†Çüx=iÅ\© Dª•i entrance test
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ^ΰ.
3. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô

14. "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷ JH›ø_È U =‹¬u
K͆ǰ=ò.

provide

5. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô strike 䛽 =°^Îí`Ç° W=Þ~¡°.

We will not provide them any

6. J`Ç_È° WH› D scooter use K͆ǰ_È°.

accommodation there tomorrow.

7.

16. =¶ father WH› business KǶ‹¬°HË~¡°.
My father will not look after business
hereafter.
ANR WH› films …Õ act K͆ǰ~¡°.

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡°.

They will not organize a tour this year.

19. "Í°=ò WH› =‹¬°ë=ô•° credit 䛽 J=°à=ò.
We will not sell goods on credit.

20. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô D q+¬†Ç¶xß
f‹¬°Hù#~¡°.

serious

8.

Next test match …Õ Shehwag P_È_È°.

9. ~ö „¬ô =°# l…ìÁ…Õ |‹¬°••° #_È==ô.
10. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ=ò P G.O. #° L„¬‹¬O‚¬ìiOKÇ°
HË^ΰ.
12. ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ <Í#° <Œ Ja•ã‡•†Ç°O
express K͆ǰ#°.
13. "Œ~¡° =KÍó "Œ~¡O class x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡°.
14. =¶

They will not consider this matter
seriously.

D course …Õ admission

11. WO_•†Ç°<£• QêOn•rx Z„¬æ\H÷ © =°~¡z‡é~¡°.

ANR will not act in films hereafter.
tour

principal h䛽

W=Þ~¡°.

They will not publish guides hereafter.

18. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O

…Õ

4. =¶ father <Œä›½ D <³• money „¬O„¬~¡°.

15. "Œ~¡° WH› guides publish K͆ǰ~¡°.

17.

college function

indiscipline tolerate K͆ǰ=ò.

They will not demand anything from
you there tomorrow.

D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
syllabus change K͆ǰ^ΰ.

Intermediate Board

D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ ##°ß
encourage K͆ǰ~¡°.
friends

15. =¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
‡ÚO^Î_È°.

promotion

Z
The child is father of the man.

200

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: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
=°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ H›
(definite) K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

h=ô D ª•i definite Qê pass J=ô`Œ"Œ ? J g°~¡° =KÍó <³• definite Qê money repay Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
P"³° D proposal `Ç„¬æH› X„¬C䛽O@°O^¥ ? J N KÇOã^΃ì|° =°~¡• ‹².ZO. J=ô`Œ~Œ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ `Ç„æ¬ H› K͆ò
Ç XH› „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° `Ç„¬æH› K͆Çò XH› „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – You, He, She, It, They

J~ò#„¬C_È°

'will +I form of the verb'

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô next year studies continue Kͪ•ë"Œ?

6. N KÇOã^΃ì|° =°~¡• =°# CM J=ô`Œ~Œ?

Will you continue your studies next
year ?
g°~¡° D town …Õ<Í settle J=ô`Œ~Œ ?
Will you settle down in this town ?
g° brother next month U.S.A. "³ˆ`× Œ_¨?
Will your brother go to the U.S.A. next
month ?
g° sister D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O degree „¬îië

Will Sri Chandra Babu become our
C.M. again ?
D tournments …Õ Indian team definite
Qê finals H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°O^¥ ?
Will the Indian team reach the finals
in this tournments definitely ?
g°~¡° ö~„¬ô definite Qê bill pay Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
Will you pay the bill definitely tomorrow?
q.q.Z‹¹. •H›;}Ÿ D series …Õ ä›•_¨ ƒìQê
shine J=ô`Œ_¨ ?
Will V.V.S. Lakshman succeed in this
series also ?

2.
3.
4.

KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
5.

201

Will your sister complete her degree
this year ?
g° friends D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 `Ç„¬æH› cooperate Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
Will your friends co-operate you in this
matter ?

7.

8.
9.

10. \÷._•.„,² a.*.ÿ „² H÷ Dª•i 䛕_¨ =°^Î`í °Ç
W‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
Will the TDP support the BJP this time
also ?

,

11. h=ô Head-master #° Z„¬C_È°
J=ô`Œ=ô ?
12.

13. N KÇOã^΃ì|° D ª•i ZH›ø_È ‡é\©
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
14.
15.

Where will Sri Chandra Babu contest
this time ?
g°~¡° future …Õ ZH›ø_È settle J=ô`Œ~¡° ?
Where will you settle down in future ?
"Œ~¡° <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ branch Z„¬C_È° open

Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
16.

17.

When will they open the branch in
Nellore ?
"Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô P work H÷ ZO`Ç money
demand Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Howmuch money will they demand for
that work tomorrow ?
ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È =°#•#° Z=~¡° receive

KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡° ?
18.

19.

20.

EXERCISE

consult

When will you consult the Headmaster ?
g°~¡° next Sunday ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ`× Œ~¡° ?
Where will you go next Sunday ?

Who will receive us there tomorrow ?
Next Sunday g° function Z=~¡ °
inaugurate Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Who will inaugurate the function next
Sunday ?
ö~„¬ô interview H÷ ZO`Ç =°Ok candidates
attend J=ô`Œ~¡° ?
Howmany condidates will attend the
interview tomorrow ?
g°~¡° next year college H÷ ZO`Ç amount
donate Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Howmuch amount will you donate for
the college next year ?

: 94406 16425

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô college function …Õ <Œ\÷H› play
Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
2. h=ô next month scooter HùO\ì"Œ ?
3. g°

x#°ß
admit Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
father

next year B.Tech

…Õ

4. P"³ ° next year ä› • _¨ Vizag …Õ<Í
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡ ° =°#ä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô material supply
Kͪ•ë~Œ?
6. =òY¼=°Oãu ö~„¬ô =°# l…ìÁ „¬~¡¼@#䛽
=ª•ë~Œ ?
7. N=°u ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn• „ã ^¬ •¥x J=ô`Œ~Œ?
8. g°~¡ ° =KÍ ó "Œ~¡ = ò seminar …Õ
‡•…ç¾O\ì~Œ ?
9. g° brother next month job H÷ resign
Kͪ•ë_¨ ?
10. "Œ~¡° x#°ß WOHùH› ª•i #=òà`Œ~Œ ?
11. g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°=òÌ„á x~¡â†Ç°O Z„¬C_È°
f‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡° ?
12. h=ô D ª•i Z=iH÷ F@° "ͪ•ë=ô ?
13. `Í[ next U film direct Kͪ•ë_°È ?
14. g° father hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô ZO`Ç
„¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡° ?

Man doesnot live by bread alone.

money

Z
202

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ö~„¬ô =°#=ò "Œix H›•°==^¥í ?
J`Ç_È° =KÍó "Œ~¡O duty H÷ attend J=_¨ ?

J
J

J
J

h=ô ö~„¬ô computer class H÷ ~Œ"Œ ?
P"³° WH› college …Õ KÇ^Î=^¥ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó <³•,
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Willn't (won't) + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
You, He, She, It, They - subject Qê

L#ß„¬C_È° 'Won't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. g°~¡° <Œä›½ D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ help K͆ǰ~Œ?
Won't you help me in this matter?

2. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ "³ˆ×¤"Œ ?
Won't you go to office tomorrow?

8. g°~¡ ° WH› J`Ç x q+¬ † Ç ° =ò *ÕH› ¼ O
KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?
hereafter?

Won't he join this course ?

4. P"³° D proposal X„¬CHù#^¥ ?
Won't she accept to this proposal ?

5. "Œ~¡° D town …Õ settle J=~Œ ?
Won't they settle down in this town?
receive

Won't they receive us there tomorrow?
203

Won't you wait there till tomorrow ?

Won't you interefere in his matter

3. J`Ç_È° D course join J=_¨ ?

6. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°#•#° JH› ø _È
KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?

7. g°~¡° ö~„¬\÷ =~¡ä›½ JH›ø_È wait K͆ǰ~Œ ?

9. h=ô Dª•i
K͆ǰ"Œ ?

entrance test

apply

Won't you apply for the entrance test
this time ?

10. P"³ ° next
„¬xK͆ǰ^¥?

year

D

college

…Õ

Won't she work in this college next
year?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11 h=ô ö~„¬ô =¶`Ë picnic H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why won't you come on picnic with us
tomorrow ?

12. g°~¡° next week =~¡ä›½ WH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È~¡° ?
Why won't you stay here till next week?

13. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ_È° ?
Why won't he co-operate with you in
this matter ?

14. P"³° D medicines ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°Hù#^ΰ?
Why won't she take these medicines?

15. "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 support K͆ǰ~¡°?
Why won't they support us ?

16. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 P „¬xK͆ǰ=ô ?
17. "Œ~¡° J`ÇxÌ„á ZO^ΰ䛽 KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°Hù#~¡°?
Why won't they take action against
him?

18. h=ô next March exam H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 appear
J==ô ?
Why won't you appear for the exams
next March ?
meeting

H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽

2. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô T.V. …Õ cricket match KǶ_È~Œ?
3. g°~¡° next Sunday Ongole H÷ ~Œ~Œ ?
4. h=ô next May …Õ entrance test H÷ appear
J="Π?
5. P"³° D ª•i function H÷ =°#•#° invite
K͆ǰ^¥ ?
6. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô bill pay K͆ǰ_¨ ?
7. "Œ~¡° D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ =°#H÷ ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iOKÇ~Œ?
8. h=ô ö~„¬ô ZxßH›•…Õ vote "͆ǰ"Œ ?

Why won't you do that work ?

19. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô
J=_È° ?

1. h=ô WH› studies continue K͆ǰ"Œ?

attend

Why won't he attend the meeting
tomorrow ?

20. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O tour ZO^ΰ䛽 organize
K͆ǰ~¡° ?

9. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤=ô ?
10. g°~¡ ° next week
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡° ?

meeting

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

11. P†Ç°# D ª•i ZxßH•› …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡é\©
K͆ǰ~¡° ?
12. P"³° D ª•i birthday ZO^ΰ䛽 celebrate
KÍ‹¬°HË^ΰ ?
13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#•#° ZO^ΰ䛽
J=~¡°?

cousult

14. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô seminar …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾#~¡°?
15. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô =°#`Ë TiH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ_È°?

Why won't they organize a tour this
year?

Z
Half a loaf is better than no bread.

204

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Will' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Will' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ `Ç„æ¬ HK
› †
Í ò
Ç XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will
+ I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

2.

1. I will help you in this matter.

2. We will organize a tour next month.

3. She will join MBA next June.

3. He will participate in the seminar next Sunday.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
…Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽"Won't + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

negative sense

1. I won't stay here tomorrow.

2. We won't settle down in this town.

3. He won't come here next week.

4. They won't accept to this proposal.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ `Ç„¬æH›K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Will you post this letter?
2. Will you visit Tirumala next month?
3. Will you complete the course next December?
4. Will they vacate the house next month?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense
…Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽"Won't + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Won't you come here tomorrow?
2. Won't you stay here tonight?
3. Won't you join college next year?
4. Won't they pay the bill tomorrow?

205

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

401.

narrate

narrated

narrated

402.

neglect

neglected

neglected

403.

nod

nodded

nodded

404.

nominate

nominated

nominated

405.

obey

obeyed

obeyed

406.

oblige

obliged

obliged

407.

obtain

obtained

obtained

408.

occupy

occupied

occupied

409.

occur

occured

occured

410.

offer

offered

offered

411.

omit

omitted

omitted

412.

ooze

oozed

oozed

413.

open

opened

opened

414.

operate

operated

operated

415.

opine

opined

opined

416.

oppose

opposed

opposed

417.

owe

owed

owed

418.

pardon

pardoned

pardoned

419.

participate

participated

participated

420.

pass

passed

passed

D ~ËA

Meaning

q=iOz K³„¬C
x~¡ÁH›Æ¼=ò K͆Çò
`Ç•= J#°=°uOKÇ°
x†Ç°q°OKÇ°@
q^•Í†°Ç `ÇQê LO_È°@
|^ΰœ_³á †ÇòO_È°@
‡ÚO^ΰ@
PãH›q°OKÇ°@
‹¬Oƒ•’qOKÇ°@
WKÇ°ó@
q_•zÌ„@°“@
Hê~¡°@
`³~¡KÇ°@
#_•„²OKÇ°@
ƒ•ìqOKÇ°@
=¼uö~H÷OKÇ°@
|°°}„¬_• =ôO_È°@
H›Æq°OKÇ°, =°xßOKÇ°
‡•…ç¾#°@
Q®_È„¬ô@, ^¥@°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
206

Hope and expectation are a fool's income.

,

: 94406 16425

MAY
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç J=Hê‰×=ò (Possibility) #° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬x [~¡Q=
® KÇ°ó,
[~¡Q®H›‡é=KÇ°ó. ‹¬O^Í‚¬ì=òQê (doubtful) K³„¬CKÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô =¶ brother `Ë K³<³áß "³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó.
P"³° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „¬îiëQê HË•°HË=KÇ°ó.

J
J

"Í°=ò |‚¬•‰§ =KÍó <³• D W•°Á Mìm K͆°Ç =KÇ°.ó
D ~ËA ~ŒãuH÷ H˪•ë l…ìÁ…Õ =~¡ÂO „¬_È=KÇ°ó.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° XH› „¬xx K͆Çò J=Hê‰×=ò
(Possibility) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"May + I form of the Verb" =KÇ°ó#°.
öH=•O XH› „¬xx K͆Çò J=Hê‰×=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@ (doubtful).
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##° "May + I form" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô

office H÷ late Qê ~Œ=KÇ°ó.
I may come to office late tomorrow.

2. "Í°=ò |‚¬•‰§ D \º<£…Õ<Í
Hê=KÇ°ó.

settle

We may settle down in this town.

3. =¶ brother Dª•i
‡ÚO^Î=KÇ°ó.

teacher post

My brother may get the teacher post
this time.

4. "Œ~¡° |‚¬•‰§ =°#䛽 JH›ø_È =‹¬u
H›eæOKÇ=KÇ°ó.
They may provide us accommodation
there.

5. D ~ËA

G.T. Express late Qê ~Œ=KÇ°ó.
The G.T. Express may arrive late
today.

207

6. P"³° |‚¬•‰§ D

proposal

X„¬CHË=KÇ°ó.

She may accept to this proposal.

7. D ª•i |‚¬•‰§ Congress öHOã^ÎO…Õ
ã „ ¬ ƒ •’ ° `Ç Þ O U~Œæ@° KÍ † Ç ° =KÇ ° ó .
The Congress may form the govt. at
centre this time.

8. "Œ~¡ ° |‚¬ • ‰§ D "Œ~¡ O …Õ
JO^ΰHË=KÇ°ó.

orders

They may receive the orders this
week.

9. P"³° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „¬îiëQê HË•°HË=KÇ°ó.
She may recover completely soon.

10. "Œ~¡° |‚¬•‰§ ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ· "Œ~ò^¥
"͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
They may postpone the meeting
tomorrow.

,

11. <Í#° |‚¬•‰§ =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O K³<ßá³ "³ˆ¤×=KÇ°ó.
I may go to Chennai next Sunday.

12. "Œ~¡° |‚¬•‰§ ~ö „¬ôª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ q[†Ç°"Œ_È
KÍ~¡°HË=KÇ°ó.
They may reach Vijayawada tomorrow
evening.

13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 Ì‹•=ô ㄬH›\÷OKÇ=KÇ°ó.
They may declare a holiday for us
tomorrow.

14. |‚¬•‰§ ~ö „¬ô, =°~¡°<Œ_È° H˪•ë l…ìÁ•…Õ
=~¡ÂO„¬_È=KÇ°ó.
It may rain in the coastal districts
tomorrow and day after tomorrow.

15. "Œ~¡ ° D „¬ x H÷ ‹¬ ° =¶~¡ ° 4000~¡ ¶ .
demand K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
They may demand Rs. 4000 for this
work.

16. N "³OH›†°Ç ¼<Œ†Çò_È° =°~¡• ‡•s“ „
Ìã ‹²_O³ \˜
J==KÇ°ó.
Sri Venkaiah Naidu may become party
President again.
17. Degree `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç =¶ brother |‚¬•‰§ job

H÷ try K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
My brother may try for a job after his
Degree.
18.

=¶ cousin =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ…Õ
"³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó.

USA

My cousin may leave for the USA next
December.

19. J`Ç _ È ° g°ä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.

help

He may help you in this matter.

20. "Œ~¡ ° |‚¬ • ‰§ J`Ç x x
x†Ç°q°OKÇ=KÇ°ó.

clerk

They may appoint him a clerk.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° |‚¬•‰§ Dª•i „¬sH›Æ second class
…Õ pass Hê=KÇ°ó.
2. "Í°=ò |‚¬•‰§ D ~ËA D „¬x „¬îië
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
3. =¶ father D "Œ~¡ O <Œä› ½ money
„¬O„¬=KÇ°ó.
4. P"³° K³<³áß…Õ =KÍó "Œ~¡O heart specialist
x consult Hê=KÇ°ó.
5. ö~„¬ô match …Õ |‚¬•‰§ ~Œ‚¬ì…˜ ã^¥q_£
team x lead K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
6. D ª•i 䛕_¨ T.D.P. öHOã^ÎO…Õ B.J.P. H÷
=°^Îí`Ç° W=Þ=KÇ°ó.
7. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ `Ç=° x~¡†
â °Ç O „
ã H¬ \
› O÷ KÇ=KÇ°ó.
8. ö ~ „¬ ô _•ã w q^¥¼~¡ ° Ö • ° HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° •°
|‚²ì+¬øiOKÇ=KÇ°ó.
9. |‚¬ • ‰§ Indian team =KÍ ó PQ® ‹ ¬ ° “ … Õ
WOQêÁO_£ „¬~¡¼\÷OKÇ=KÇ°ó.
10. Ex†Ç°~Ÿ _¨H›“~¡°Á WOHùH› "Œ~¡O strike
Hù#ª•yOKÇ=KÇ°.ó
11. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO †Çò=䛽• HË‹¬O XH›
„¬^ŠÎH›O ㄬ"͉×Ì„@“=KÇ°ó.
12. XH›\÷ ï~O_È° <³••…Õ P†Ç°# L^˼QêxH÷
~Œr<Œ=¶ K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
13. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ WO_•†Ç¶ä›½ uiy ~Œ=KÇ°.ó
14. |‚¬ • ‰§ "Œ~¡ ° P‹¬ Ö • O…Õ `Ç Þ ~¡ … Õ XH›
shopping complex xiàOKÇ=KÇ°ó.
15. =¶ brother `Ç# vizag tour cancel
KÍ‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó.

Z

Borrowed garments donot fit well.

208

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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx K͆ǰH› ‡é=KÇ°ó#x (doubtful) Qê T‚²ìOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

P"³° D ª•i „¦O¬ H›<Æ ä£ ½› =°#•#° invite K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó. J <Í#° ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ "³ˆ×ÁH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
"Í°<Í[~Ÿ h䛽 permission W=ÞH›‡é=KÇ°ó. J "Œ~¡° D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ =°#䛽 ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iOKÇH› ‡é=KÇ°.ó


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç H›‡é=KÇ°ó#x
T‚²ìOz K³„¬C@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç H›‡é=KÇ°#ó x doubt
Qê K³„¬C@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''May + not + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ''''May + not + I form of the verbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

EXAMPLES
6. "Œ~¡° D town …Õ settle HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô Hê…èlH÷ ~ŒH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
I may not come to college tomorrow.

…Õ

7, N "³OH›†°Ç ¼<Œ†Çò_È° Dª•i ZxßH•› …Õ
‡é\© K͆ǰ‡é=KÇ°ó.

We may not participate in the
programme next week.

Sri Venkaiah Naidu may not contest
in the elections this time.

2. "Í ° =ò next week
‡•…ç¾#H›‡é=KÇ°.ó
3.

They may not settle down in this town.

English lecturer

f‹¬°Hù#H›‡é=KÇ°ó.

programme

ö ~ „¬ ô =°#ä› ½ HêÁ ‹ ¬ °

The English lecturer may not take our
class tomorrow.

4. =¶

cousin D ª•i `Ç # birthday
celebrate KÍ‹¬°HËH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
My cousin may not celebrate her birth
day this time.

8. "Í°<Í[~¡° ö~„¬ô h䛽
‡é=KÇ°ó.

leave grant

K͆ǰH›

The Manager may not grant you a
leave tomorrow.

9. =¶ uncle D proposal X„¬CHËH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
My uncle may not accept to this
proposal.

5. D train time H÷ q[†Ç°"Œ_È KÍ~H¡ ‡› é=KÇ°ó.

10. =¶ sister D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O studies continue
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

This train may not reach Vijayawada
in time.

My sister may not continue her studies
this year.

209

,

11. ö~„¬ô =¶¼KŸ…Õ ‹¬z<£ P_ÈH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
Sachin may not play in the match
tomorrow.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12. "Œ~¡° D ª•i tour x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
They may not organize the tour this
time.

13. J`Ç _ È ° g°ä› ½ D
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ

He may not co-operate with you in this
matter.

14.

~ö „¬ô |‚¬•‰§ q^•Î°•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡°
HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

N.G.O.s

The N.G.O.s may not attend the duty
tomorrow.

15. "Œ~¡ ° D ª•i „¬ O _È ° Q® ä › ½ Ì ‹ •=ô•°
ㄬH›\÷OKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
They may not declare holidays for the
festival this time.

16. P"³° D ª•i function 䛽 =°#•#° invite
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
She may not invite us to the function
this time.

17. "Œ~¡° ~ö „¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†°Ç O discuss
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
They may not discuss this matter in
the meeting tomorrow.

18. N H›~¡°}ìxk• WH› g°^Î@ politics …Õ
active Qê participate K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
Sri Karunanidhi may not participate
in politics actively hereafter.

19. P"³° WH› P "Œ¼k• #°O_• HË•°HËH›‡é=KÇ°.ó
She may not recover from that
disease.

20. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È

stay

1. <Í#° D ª•i exam ‡•‹¹HêH›‡é=KÇ°.ó
2. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È work K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
3. =¶ brother
HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

next year college join

4. P"³° ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 ~ŒH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
5. "Œ~¡ ° =°#•#° JH› ø _È
KÍ‹¬°HËH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

receive

6. ö~„¬ô buses #_È=H›‡é=KÇ°ó.
7. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 D q+¬†Ç°=ò inform
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
8. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

help

9. D ~ËA =~¡ÂO „¬_ÈH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
10. =¶ sister Dª•i „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡°
HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
11. J`Ç_È° D job H÷ try K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
12. J`Ç_È° =°~¡• =°#•#° H›•°=H›‡é=KÇ°ó.
13. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O \©K~Ç Ÿ ‡é‹¬°•“ ° ƒ•’së
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
14. †Çüx=i•\© D ª•i
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

entrance test

15. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô shops open K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.

They may not stay here tomorrow.

Familiarity breeds contempt.

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QUESTION FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç @䛽 J#°=°ux (permission) Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° WH› WO\÷H÷ "³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
<Í#° W„¬C_È° J`Çxx H›•°= =KÇ°ó<Œ ?

J
J

"Í°=ò D HË~¡°• K͆°Ç =KÇ°<ó Œ ?
<Í#° ö~„¬ô g°`Ë JH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç @䛽 J#°=°ux
HË~¡°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH› „¬xx K͆òÇ @䛽 J#°=°u (permission)
‡ÚO^ΰ@#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"May + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural

U^³á##°

'May + I form"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
6. "Í ° =ò ä› • _¨ ö ~ „¬ ô g°`Ë
~Œ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

1. <Í#° D HË~¡°• join J==KÇ°ó<Œ?
May I join this course ?

2. <Í # ° g° WO\ÕÁ ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA•°
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

stay

May I stay two days in your house ?

3. =°#=ò ä› • _¨ ö ~ „¬ ô
‡•…ç¾#=KÇ°<
ó Œ?

seminar

…Õ

May we participate in the seminar
tomorrow ?

4. <Í # ° W„¬ C _È ° g° #°O_• Ì ‹ •=ô
f‹¬°Hù#=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I take leave from you now ?

5. "Í°=ò 䛕_¨ D H›Áƒ˜…Õ
‡ÚO^Î=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

membership

May we get membership in this club ?
211

picnic

ä› ½

May we come on picnic with you
tomorrow ?

7. h À„~¡°, Jã_È‹¬° `³•°‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I know your name and address ?

8. "Í ° =ò D ~ËA g°
KÍ‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

vehicle use

May we use your vehicle today ?

9. <Í#° D …ÿ@~Ÿ KÇ^ΰ= =KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I read this letter ?

10. =°#=ò ö ~ „¬ ô "ŒiH÷ =°#
K³„¬æ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

opinion

May we express our opinion to them
tomorrow?

,

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11. <Í#° …ÕxH÷ ~Œ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

EXERCISE

May I come in ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12. =°#=ò D ƒì¼OH± … Õ
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

loan

apply

May we apply for a loan in this bank ?

13. <Í#° J`Ç_È° P•‹¬¼OQê ~Œ=\ìxH÷ reason
`³•°‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I know the reason for his late
coming ?

14. "Í°=ò manager Qêi`Ë =¶\ìÁ_=
È KÇ°ó<Œ?
May we speak to the Manager ?

15. <Í#° non-veg food f‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I take non-veg food ?

16. =°#=ò 5
"³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó<Œ?

pm

`Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç WO\÷ H ÷

May we go home after 5 p.m. ?

17. <Í#° h ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I seek your help ?

18. "Í ° =ò WH› ø _È HùOK³ O À ‹ „¬ ô
f‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

rest

May we take rest here for a while ?

19. <Í # ° D ~ËA Ì ‹ •=ôä› ½
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ?

apply

May I apply for leave today ?

20. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È°
J==KÇ°ó<Œ ?

Principal

consult

1. <Í#° XH› Q®O@ rest f‹¬°HË=KŒó ?
2. =°#=ò Manager chamber …ÕxH÷
"³ˆ×¤=KŒó ?
3. <Í # ° D document Ì „ á ‹¬ O `Ç H › O
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
4. "Í°=ò D Ì‹•=ô•#° qx†³¶yOKÇ°
Hù#=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
5. <Í#° D HË~¡°• K͆°Ç =KÇ°<
ó Œ?
6. =°#=ò admission q=~¡ = ò•°
`³•°‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
7. <Í#° loan H÷ apply K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
8. "Í°=ò P temple visit K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
9. <Í # ° D album …Õ photographs
KǶ_È=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
10. =°#=ò ä› • _¨ quiz competition …Õ
‡•…ç¾#=KÇ°<
ó Œ?
11. <Í # ° D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ interefere
Hê=KÇ°ó<Œ?
12. "Í°=ò D compartment …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
13. <Í#° D item taste K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
14. =°#=ò JH› ø _•H÷ U time …Õ<³ á < Œ
"³ˆ×Á=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
15. <Í#° 䛕_¨ report submit K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ?

May we consult the Principal now ?

Variety is the spice of life.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'May' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'May' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form J#° 3 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D 3 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç J=Hê‰×=ò#° Q®°iOz (Possibility) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"May + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°. nxx Doubtful Future JO\ì~¡°.
Ex :
1. I may go to Hyderabad next week.
2. We may win the match tomorrow.
3. He may get the post this time.
4. They may receive the orders soon.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° XH›„¬xx K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó#x (Doubtful)
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "May not + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. He may not help in this matter.
2. She may not continue her studies next year.
3. They may not come here tomorrow.
4. You may not get the opportunity this time.
3.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç @䛽 XH›~°¡ WOHùH›i J#°=°ux (Permission) ‡ÚO^ΰ@
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "May + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. May I read this letter?
2. May we go home now?
3. May I speak to the Manager?
4. May we stay here tonight?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

421. peel

peeled

peeled

422. peep

peeped

peeped

423. perform

performed

performed

424. permit

permitted

permitted

425. perturb

perturbed

perturbed

426. pick

picked

picked

427. play

played

played

428. please

pleased

pleased

429. polish

polished

polished

430. possess

possessed

possessed

431. postpone

postponed

postponed

432. pour

poured

poured

433. praise

praised

praised

434. pray

prayed

prayed

435. preach

preached

preached

436. predict

predicted

predicted

437. prefer

prefered

prefered

438. prepare

prepared

prepared

439. prescribe

prescribed

prescribed

440. preside

presided

presided

Meaning

`Ë•° =•KÇ°@
`ùOyKǶKÇ°@
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ°@
J#°=°uOKÇ°@
KÇeO„¬ K͆Çò@
f‹¬°Hù#°, Z#°ßH›ù#°
P_È°@
W+¬“„¬_È°, ^ΆǰK͆Çò@
"³°~¡°Q®°, #°#°„¬ôK͆Çò
H›ey†ÇòO_È°
"Œ~ò^¥"͆Çò@
ã‡é†Çò@
‡ÚQ®_È°@
‡ã •iÖOKÇ°@
L„¬^ÍtOKÇ°@
*Õ‹¬¼=ò K³„¬C@
‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç WKÇ°@
ó
`džǶ~¡° K͆Çò@
=òO^ΰQê ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
J^•Î¼H›`Æ Ç =‚²ìOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 3 parts KÇ^=Î O_•!
g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
214

What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her.

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CAN
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (ability) #° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

"Í°=ò D ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° ‹¬•ƒ•’=òQê „¬i+¬øiOKÇ Q®•=ò.
<Í#° ~ËA䛽 „¬k Q®O@•° „¬xK͆ǰQ®•#°.
"Œ~¡° Dª•i "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ =°Oz profits ‡ÚO^ÎQ•® ~¡°.
=¶ brother English ƒìQê =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•_È°.

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•…Õx „¬#°•x߆ü
Ç ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx
K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (ability) #° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò#°
(ability) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Can + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'CanÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° WOwÁ+¬µ fluent Qê =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•#°.
I can speak English fluently.

6. N =°<Ëà‚¬ì<£‹²OQ· Hêjà~¡° ‹¬=°‹¬¼#°
„¬i+¬øiOKÇQ®•~¡°.

2. "Í ° =ò Jxß subjects ï ~ O_È ° <³ • •…Õ
prepare HêQ®•=ò.

Sri Manmohan Singh can solve the
Kashmir problem.

We can prepare all the subjects within
two months.

7. <Í#° D „
ã ‰¬ ßוxßO\÷H÷ answer K͆°Ç Q®•#°.

3. <Í#° h ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° J~¡ÖOKÍ‹¬°HËQ®•#°.
I can understand your problem.

4.

Oral practice ^¥Þ~Œ g°~¡ ° English
improve KÍ‹¬°HËQ®•~¡°.
You can improve English through oral
practice.

5. ‹¬z<£ >ÿO_ȶ•ø~Ÿ ㄬ„¬OKÇO…Õ U ƒº•~Ÿ
<³á<Œ Z^ΰ~ùø#Q®•_È°.
Sachin Tendulkar can face any bowler
in the world.
215

I can answer all these questions.

8. "Í°=ò D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ J`Çxx convince
K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
We can convince him in this matter.

9. P"³° U q+¬†°Ç OÌ„<
á <
á³ Œ argue K͆°Ç Q®•^ΰ.
She can argue on any matter.

10. "Œ~¡ ° D work <Œ•°Q® ° ~ËA•…Õ
„¬îiëK͆ǰ Q®•~¡°.
They can complete this work in four
days.

,

11. =¶ q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° D ª•i 90% =¶~¡°ø•°
score K͆ǰQ®•~¡°.
Our students can score 90% of marks
this time.

12. =¶

mother U item S<Œ KŒ…ì ƒìQê
prepare K͆ǰQ®•^ΰ.
My mother can prepare any item very
well.

13. J`Ç_°È ~ËAH÷ ~¡¶. 200 ‹¬O‡•kOKÇQ•® _È°.
He can earn Rs. 200 per day.

14. "Í°=ò ~ËAH÷ 20 Hù`Ç„
ë ^
¬ ¥•° <Í~°¡ óHËQ®•=ò.
We can learn twenty new words every
day.

15. "Œ~¡° business …Õ ~¡¶. 5,00,000 =~¡ä›½
invest K͆ǰQ®•~¡°.
They can invest upto Rs. 5,00,000 in
the business.

16. <Í#° „².l q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½ 䛕_¨
teach K͆ǰQ®•#°.

English

I can teach English even to the P.G.
students.

17. =°<Ë^•³~á ¼¡ O`Ë =°#O U^³<á Œ ª•k•OKÇQ•® O.
We can achieve anything with our will
power.

18.

Hard work `Ë <Í#° <Œ •HÆê¼xß KÍ~¡Q®•#°.
I can reach my goal through hard work.

19. <Í#° U „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •<³<
á Œ ^•³~á ¼¡ OQê Z^ΰ~Ëø
Q®•#°.
I can face any circumstances
courageously.

20. P~¡° <³••…Õ "Œ~¡° D building xiàOKÇ
Q®•~¡°.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° xq°‘•xH÷ 60 „¬ ^ ¥•° type
K͆ǰQ®•#°.
2. "Í°=ò WH›ø_È h䛽 help K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
3. h=ô D „¬sH›Æ easy Qê ‡•‹¹ HêQ®•=ô.
4. J`Ç_È° <Œ•°Q®° ƒ•ì+¬•° ^•¥~Œˆ×OQê
=¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•_È°.
5. =°#=ò train …Õ u~¡°„¬uH÷ S^ΰQ®O@•…Õ
KÍ~¡°HËQ®•=ò.
6. <Í#° h䛽 D amount <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•…Õ
uiy K³eÁOKÇQ®•#°.
7. S.P. U ƒ•ì+¬…Õ<³<á Œ ‡•@•° ‡•_ÈQ•® _È°.
8. <Í # ° "ŒiH÷ D q+¬ † Ç ° O explain
K͆ǰQ®•#°.
9. "Í°=ò h䛽 D ~ËA ~¡¶. 10,000 adjust
K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
10. <Œ•°Q®° <³••…Õ g°~¡° „¬îië English
<Í~¡°óHù#Q®•~¡°.
11. P\Õ…Õ "³ˆÃ× .¤ H›$‘•â express JO^ΰHËQ®•=ô.
12. ï~O_È° ~ËA•…Õ "Í°=ò D cards Jhß
distribute K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
13. "Œ~¡ ° D season …Õ =°Oz profits
‡ÚO^ÎQ®•~¡°.
14. <Í#° 24 Q®O@•¶ „¬xK͆ǰQ®•#°.
15. D tournments …Õ =°# Indian team
easy Qê cup ïQ•=Q®•^ΰ.

They can build this building in six
months

Character is destiny.

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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›iH÷ XH› „¬x K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (ability) …èH›‡é=ô@ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô g°`Ë village H÷ ~Œ…è#°.
P†Ç°# =°#䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ…è_È°.

J
J

"Í°=ò WH› D old house …Õ x=tOKÇ…=è ò.
P ‡•s“ Dª•i„ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@° K͆°Ç …è^°Î .


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç …èH‡› é=ô@ Q®°iOz
K³„¬CKÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH›„x¬ x K͆òÇ ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (lack
of ability) …èH›‡é=ô@ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Cannot + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶

"Cannot + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° English fluent Qê =¶\ìÁ_È…è#°.
I cannot speak English fluently.

2. "Í°=ò D problem face K͆ǰ…è=ò.
We cannot face this problem.

3. =°#=ò J`Çx`Ë "ŒkOKÇ…è=ò.
We cannot argue with him.

4. J`Ç_È° D „¬sH›Æ easy Qê ‡•‹¹ Hê…è_°È .
He cannot pass this examination
easily.

5. P"³° |‹¹…Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}÷OKÇ…è^ΰ.
She cannot travel by bus.

6. <Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O
K͆ǰ…è#°.
I cannot help you in this matter.
217

7. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç #+¬O“ ƒ•’iOKÇ…~è °¡ .
They cannot bear this much loss.

8. =°#O P‚¬ð~¡O …è䛽O_¨ rqOKÇ…è=ò.
We cannot live without food.

9. h=ô English medium …Õ lessons follow
Hê…è=ô.
You cannot follow the lessons in
English medium.

10. g°~¡° ##°ß "³¶‹¬yOKÇ…è~¡°.
You cannot deceive me.

11. <Í#° ~ËAH÷ 10 Q®OII•H›O>è Z䛽ø= work
K͆ǰ…è#°.
I cannot work more than ten hours in
a day.

,

12. =°#=ò D ‹² \ © … Õ J`Ç x
H›#°Qù#…è=ò.

address

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

We cannot find his address in this city.

13. HËzOQ· …è䛽O_¨ h=ô D
‡ÚO^Î…è=ô.

test

…Õ

rank

You cannot get rank in this test without
coaching.

14. <Í#° J‹¬•° J==¶#O ƒ•’iOKÇ…#
è °.
I cannot bear insult at all.

15. =°#=ò J`Ç x x D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
X„²æOKÇ…è=ò.
We cannot convince him in this matter.

16. P†Ç°# _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°•Ö 䛽
teach K͆ǰ…è_È°.

Mathematics

He cannot teach Mathematics to the
Degree students.

17. "Œ~¡ ° D „¬ x ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA•…Õ „¬ î ië
K͆ǰ…è~¡°.
They cannot complete this work in two
days.

18. <Í#° D ~ËA duty H÷ attend Hê…è#°.
I cannot attend the duty today.

19. D question <Í#° answer K͆ǰ…è#°.
I cannot answer this question.

20. `Çe^
Á OÎ _
ã °È • ‡ã é`Œ•‚¬ìO …èä½› O_¨ rq`ÇO…Õ
„²•Á•° Ì„áH÷ ~Œ…è~¡°.
Children cannot come up in life without
thier parents' encouragement.

1. <Í#° D ª•i „¬sH›…Æ Õ 90% H›O>è Z䛽ø=
=¶~¡°ø•° score K͆ǰ…è#°.
2. "Í°=ò D z#߂𬠕°…Õ function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á
K͆ǰ…è=ò.
3. g°~¡ ° =¶ help …è ä › ½ O_¨ D work
complete K͆ǰ…è~¡°.
4. =¶ grandfather JO`Ç^ζ~¡O #_È=…è~¡°.
5. ~Œ‚¬ • …˜ ã ^ ¥q_£ fast Qê runs score
K͆ǰ…è_È°.
6. q.q.†Ç°‹¹. •H›Æà}Ÿ ƒºeOQ· K͆ǰ…è_È°.
7. =¶ Maths lecturer doubts clarify
K͆ǰ…è_È°.
8. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x H÷ amount adjust
K͆ǰ…è#°.
9. Hardwork …è ä › ½ O_¨ =°#=ò life …Õ
success Hê…è=ò.
10. P"³° XO@iQê P WO\ÕÁ LO_È…è^ΰ.
11. "Œ~¡ ° Dª•i business …Õ profits
‡ÚO^Î…è~¡°.
12. \÷._•.„.² support …è䛽O_¨ a.*ÿ.„²². ~ŒRO…Õ
‹Ô@°Á ïQ•°=…è^ΰ.
13. D z#ß WO\ÕÁ =°#=ò x=tOKÇ…è=ò.
14. Highway g°^Î J`Ç_°È car drive K͆°Ç …è_°È .
15. <Í#° h =¶@ #=°à…è#°.

Z

A little learning is a dangerous thing.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (ability) ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J

g°~¡° D problem #° ^•³~á ¼¡ OQê face K͆°Ç Q®•~Œ?
J`Ç_È° U vehicle J~ò<Œ drive K͆ǰQ®•_¨?•

J
J

h=ô ~ËAH÷ „¬k Q®O@•° „¬xK͆°Ç Q®•"Œ?
P"³° U q+¬†Ç°=òÌ„á<³á<Œ argue K͆°Ç Q®•^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
(ability) #° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Can+ I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject – Singular, Plural

U^³á##°

"Can + I form"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. D competition …Õ <Í # °
ïQ•°=Q®•<Œ ?

prize

Can I win a prize in this competition ?

2. =°#=ò D <³• target reach J=Q®•=¶?
Can we reach the target this month ?

3. g°~¡° =¶ä›½ English
K͆ǰQ®•"Œ ?

Grammar teach

Can you teach us English Grammar ?

4. g°

brother D attempt …Õ Group-I
Officer J=Q®•_¨ ?
Can your brother become a Group-I
Offier in this attempt ?

5. g° sister
K͆ǰQ®•^¥?

pictures

ƒìQê

Can your lecturers complete your
syllabus this month ?

7. N KÇO^
ã ƒ
Î ì|° =°~¡• „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@°
K͆ǰQ®•~Œ ?
8.
9.

paint

Can your sister paint the pictures well?
219

6. g° lecturers D <³•…Õ g° syllabus „¬îië
K͆ǰQ®•~Œ ?

10.

Can Sri Chandra Babu form the
government again ?
g°~¡° D ª•ï~<
á Œ succeed J=Q®•~Œ ?
Can you succeed atleast this time ?
2007…Õ =°# Indian players =°#䛽
World Cup f‹¬°ä›½~ŒQ®•~Œ ?
Can the Indian players bring the World
Cup in 2007 ?
h=ô D box #° Ì„áH÷ lift K͆ǰQ®•"Œ ?
Can you lift this box ?

,
'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. h=ô Zxß languages =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•=ô ?
12.

Howmany languages can you speak?
h=ô D ª•i English …Õ Zxß marks
score K͆ǰQ®•=ô ?
Howmany marks can you score in
English this time ?

13. <Œ ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° Z=~¡° J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°HËQ®•~¡°?
14.

Who can understand my problem ?
D Ì„^Îí city …Õ =°#=ò J`Çxx ZH›ø_È

"³^ÎH› Q®•=ò ?
15.

Where can we search for him in this
big city ?
g° brother <³ • ä› ½ ZO`Ç money

‹¬O‡•kOKÇQ•® _È° ?
16.

Howmuch money can your brother
earn in a month ?
h=ô xq°‘•xH÷ Zxß words type

K͆ǰQ®•=ô ?
Howmany words can you type in a
minute ?

17. =°#=ò ZxßH›• „¦¬e`Œ•° =òO^ΰQê Z…ì
guess K͆ǰQ®•=ò ?
How can we guess the election results
earlier ?

18. D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ =°#O W„¬ C _È ° UO
K͆ǰQ®•=ò ?
19.

What can we do in this matter now ?
P ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° WH› #°Oz Z=~¡° maintain

K͆ǰQ®•~¡°?
Who can maintain that firm hereafter?

20. =°#=ò W„¬C_È° D „
ã =
¬ ¶^ÎO #°O_• Z…ì
`Ç„²æOKÇ°HËQ®•=ò ?
How can we escape from this danger
now ?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô <Œä›½ D doubt clarify K͆ǰQ®•"Œ?
2. =°#O <³ • ~ËA•…Õ Jxß subjects
prepare J=Q®•=¶ ?
3. g° brother D ª•i EAMCET …Õ rank
‡ÚO^ÎQ®•_¨ ?
4. g° younger brother business
KǶ‹¬°HËQ®•_¨ ?
5. <Œ „
ã ‰¬ ß×ä½› h=ô ‹¬=¶^•¥#O K³„æ¬Q•® "Œ ?
6. h=ô D letter =¶ brother 䛽 JO^Î*è†Ç°
Q®•"Œ ?
7. g° sister English fluent Qê
=¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•^¥?
8. P"³° XH›ø`Í JO^Î~¡° guests •#° treat
K͆ǰQ®•^¥ ?
9. g°~¡° WO`Ç #+¬O“ ƒ•’iOKÇQ•® ~Œ ?
10. J`Ç _ È ° D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ =°#ä› ½ help
K͆ǰQ®•_¨ ?
11. P†Ç°# U subject ƒìQê teach K͆ǰ
Q®•~¡°?
12. =°#=ò D „¬ô‹¬Hë O› ZH›ø_È ‡ÚO^ÎQ•® =ò?
13. D ‹¬=°‹¬¼ #°O_• x#°ß Z=~¡° Hꇕ_È
Q®•~¡°?
14. D structure Ì„á h=ô Zxß sentences
frame K͆ǰQ®•=ô ?
15. g° brothers co-operation …è䛽O_¨ h=ô
D ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° Z…ì maintain K͆ǰQ®•=ô ?

Where love is, there God is.

Z

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° K͆ǰ…èH›‡é=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô D questions answer K͆ǰ…è"Œ?
J`Ç_È° maths teach K͆ǰ…è_¨?

J
J

J
J

g°~¡° D test pass Hê…è~Œ ?
"Œ~¡° =°#䛽 =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ…è~Œ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬`°Ç …ë Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èH‡› é=ô (XH› „¬xx
K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH‡› é=ô@) XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Cann't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ "Cann't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô English fluent Qê =¶\ìÁ_È…è"Œ?
Cann't you speak English fluently?

2. g°~¡ ° <Œä› ½ D~ËA
K͆ǰ…è~Œ?

money adjust

car drive

KÍ † Ç ° …è " Œ?

Cann't you drive this car?

4. J`Ç _ È ° =°#ä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
K͆ǰ…è_¨?

7. h=ô J`Çx`Ë ‡é\©„¬_È…è"Œ?

help

5. P"³ ° WH› ø _È XO@iQê LO_È … è ^ ¥?
Cann't she stay here alone?

8. g°~¡° D~ËA D work finish K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
Cann't you finish this work today?

9. h=ô spectacles …è䛽O_¨ KǶ_È…è"Œ?

Cann't he help us in this matter?

221

Cann't they solve this problem?

Cann't you compete with him?

Cann't you adjust me money today?

3. h=ô D

6. "Œ~¡° D problem solve K͆ǰ…è~Œ?

Cann't you see without spectacles?

10. P"³° WH› D "Œ¼k• #°O_• HË•°HË…è^¥?
Cann't she recover from this disease?

11. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô match ïQ•°=…è~Œ?
Cann't they win the match?

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: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

12. <Í<³O^ΰ䛽 job ‡ÚO^Î…è#°?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why cann't I get a job?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

13. =°#"³°O^ΰ䛽 match ïQ•°=…è=ò?
Why cann't we win the match?

14. h=ô rank ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡ÚO^Î…è=ô?
Why cann't you secure a rank?

15. J`Ç_³O^ΰ䛽 #_È°=…è_È°?
Why cann't he walk?

16. P"³° ZO^ΰ䛽 =¶\ìÁ_È…è^ΰ?
Why cann't she speak?

17. "Œï~O^ΰ䛽 „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO U~Œæ@°K͆°Ç …è~°¡ ?
Why cann't they form the government?

18. h=ô J`Çxx ZO^ΰ䛽 X„²æOKÇ…è=ô?
Why cann't you convince him?

19. h"³O^ΰ䛽 „¬i‘•ø~¡O H›#°Qù#…è=ô?
Why cann't you find the solution?

20. =°#"³°O^ΰ䛽 H›‘•“•° Jk•H›q°OKÇ…=
è ò?
Why cann't we overcome difficulties?

21. h=ô D „¬sH›Æ ZO^ΰ䛽 pass Hê…è=ô?
Why cann't you pass this test?

22. <Í#°

lessons ZO^ΰ䛽 follow Hê…è#°
Why cann't I follow the lessons ?

?

23. =°#"³°O^ΰ䛽 success Hê…è=ò ?
Why cann't we succeed ?

24. h"³O^ΰ䛽 ^•Î#=O`Ç°_•q Hê…è=ô ?
Why cann't you become a richman ?

25. g°ï~O^ΰ䛽 "Œix ZkiOKÇ…è~¡° ?
Why cann't you oppose them ?

26. "Œï~O^ΰ䛽 D problem solve K͆ǰ…è~¡°?

h=ô D work D ~ËA „¬îië K͆ǰ…è"Œ?
g°~¡° D problem face K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
J`Ç_°È Dª•i prize ïQ•°=…è_¨?
P"³° bus …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O K͆ǰ…è^¥?
"Œ~¡° WO`Ç rent bear K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
=°#=ò D subject <³• ~ËA•…Õ prepare
Hê…è=¶?
7. g°~¡° D case ïQ•°=…è~Œ?
8. P†Ç°# Dª•i `Ç# „ã u
¬ ƒ•’ KǶ„¬…_
è ¨?
9. Ganguly =°~¡ • team …Õ ª•Ö # =ò
‡ÚO^Î…è_¨?
10. India =KÍó World Cup ZO^ΰ䛽 Qï •°=…è^°Î ?
11. g°~¡° J`Çx`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽 argue K͆ǰ…è~¡°?
12. P"³° ZO^ΰ䛽 "Œix X„²æOKÇ…è^ΰ?
13. J`Ç_È° money ZO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ…_
è °È ?
14. "Œ~¡° syllabus in time …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬îië
K͆ǰ…è~¡°?
15. h"³O^ΰ䛽 early morning xã^Î…è=…è=ô?
16. <Í#° D test ZO^ΰ䛽 pass Hê…è#° ?
17. =°#=ò •H›Æ ¼O ZO^ΰ䛽 ª•k•OKÇ…=
è ò?
18. g°ï~O^ΰ䛽 loan clear K͆ǰ…è~¡° ?
19. J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 HË•°HË…è_È° ?
20. "Œï~O^ΰ䛽 „¬O^³O ïQ•°=…è~¡° ?

Why cann't they solve this problem ?

Z
Set your sail according to the wind.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Can' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Can' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (capacity)
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Can + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
2.

1. I can speak English fluently.

2. We can solve this problem easily.

3. He can do any work.

4. They can win the match today.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç …èH› ‡é=ô@#° (ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
…èH›‡é=ô@) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Cann't + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
3.

1. I cann't understand Hindi.

2. We cann't face this problem.

3. He cann't get rank this time.

4. They cann't do anything.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (capacity)
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Can + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Can he lead the team towards success?
2. Can you guess the result?
3. Can we achieve our target?
4. Can they clear the loan this month?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz (ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#°
…èH›‡é=ô@ Q®°iOz) negative sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Cann't + I form of the verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Cann't you complete the course this month?
2. Cann't you provide us some work?
3. Cann't he clear this loan ?
4. Cann't they make arrangements?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

441.

press

pressed

pressed

442.

presume

presumed

presumed

443.

pretend

pretended

pretended

444.

prevent

prevented

prevented

445.

print

printed

printed

446.

prove

proved

proved

447.

proceed

proceeded

proceeded

448.

proclaim

proclaimed

proclaimed

449.

produce

produced

produced

450.

prohibit

prohibitted

prohibitted

451.

prolong

prolonged

prolonged

452.

promote

promoted

promoted

453.

pronounce

pronounced

pronounced

454.

propagate

propagated

propagated

455.

propose

proposed

proposed

456.

prorogue

prorogued

prorogued

457.

protect

protected

protected

458.

provide

provided

provided

459.

provoke

provoked

provoked

460.

publish

published

published

D ~ËA

Meaning

J}KÇ°@, J^ΰ=ò@
T‚²ìOKÇ°@
#\÷OKÇ°@
J_È°ÛHù#°@
JKÇ°ó"͆Çò@
|°°A=ô KÍ‹¬°Hù#°@
=òO^ΰ䛽‡é=ô@
ㄬH›\÷OKÇ°@
L`ÇæuëK͆Çò@
xÀ+k•OKÇ°@
‡Ú_•yOKÇ°@
L#ß`Ç„¬^Îqx WKÇ°ó
LKÇ•ó iOKÇ°@
ㄬKŒ~¡O K͆Çò@

ã u
¬ ‡•kOKÇ°@
`Œ`ŒøeH›=òQê "Œ~ò^¥ "͆Çò@
Hꇕ_È°@, ~¡HOÆ÷ KÇ°@
WKÇ°ó, H›eæOKÇ°
HË„¬=ò „¬ô\÷“OKÇ°@
ㄬKǰiOKǰ@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
224

Debt is the worst poverty.

,

: 94406 16425

SHOULD
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
=°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# qk• (duty) …èH› ƒì^•Î¼`Ç•#° (responsibility)
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° ö~„¬ô election duty H÷ attend J"Œe.
=°#=ò life …Õ XH› aim H›ey†ÇòO_¨e.

J
J

J
J

"Í°=ò D<³• WO\÷„¬#°ß K³eÁOKŒe.
\©K~Ç •Ÿ Hùxß principles ‡•\÷OKŒe.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•…Õ ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx
K͆°Ç =•‹²# qk• (duty) …èH› ƒì^•Î¼`Ç•#° (responsibility) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# qk•
(duty) …èH› ƒì^•Î¼`Ç (responsibility) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Should + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'shouldÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

<Í#° ㄬu~ËA 10 a.m. H÷ duty H÷ attend
J"Œe.
I should attend the duty at 10 a.m.
everyday.

2. "Í°=ò ㄬu"Œ~¡O H›…ÿH›“~ŸH÷
K͆Ƕe.

report submit

We should submit the report to the
collector everyweek.

3. g°~¡°

application form `Ë certificates
enclose K͆Ƕe.
You should enclose the certificates
with the application form.

4. "Œ¼‡•~¡‹¬°ë•° ㄬƒ•’°`ŒÞxH÷
KǶ‡•e.

accounts

Businessmen should show the
accounts to the government.
225

5. L^˼Q®‹°¬ •ë ° ~ËAH÷ 8 Q®O@•° „¬xK͆¶
Ç e.
Employees should work eight hours
in a day.

6. _¢ =á³ ~Ÿ• JO^Î~°¡ licence H›eyLO_¨e.
All the drivers should possess the
licence.

7. q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° =°Oz Hã =
› °tH›}
Æ ‡•\÷OKŒe.
Students should maintain good
discipline.

8. =°#O x*ì~òf Q® • <Œ†Ç ° ä› ½ •#°
Z#°ßHË"Œe.
We should elect honest leaders.

9. =°#=ò „¬ @ “ } ì•…Õ
‡•\÷OKŒe.

traffic rules

We should follow the traffic rules in
the towns.

,

10. =°#=ò `ÇeÁ^ÎOã_È°•#° QÒ~¡qOKŒe.
We should respect our parents.

11. =°#=ò =°# ^͉×O HË‹¬O „¬xK͆Ƕe.
We should work for our country.

12. g°~¡° g° À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°•ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKŒe.
You should co-operate with your
friends.

13.

parents

„²•Á•O^Îih ‹¬=¶#OQê

treat

K͆Ƕe.
Parents should treat all the children
equally.

14. <Œ†Ç°ä›½•° ㄬ[•ä›½
K͆Ƕe.

sincere

Qê À‹=

Leaders should serve the people
sincerely.

15. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ orders #° =°#O obey K͆Ƕe.
We should obey to the government
orders.

16. =°#=ò =°Oz J•"Œ@°Á J•=~¡°óHË"Œe.
We should cultivate good habits.

17. ƒ•’ä½› •ë °

temple …Õ x‰×Å|íO ‡•\÷OKŒe.
Devotees should maintain silence in
the temple.

18. WO_•†Ç¶…Õ ‹
¢ •ëÔ ° ª•Oã„^
¬ ¥†Ç° ^ΰ‹¬°•ë °
^•ÎiOKŒe.
Women should wear traditional dress
in India.

19. =°#O c^Î"ŒiH÷ ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆Ƕe.
We should help the poor.

20. ‹Ôx†Ç°~Ÿ• `Ç=° Ex†Ç°~Ÿ•x
K͆Ƕe.

encourage

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hardwork K͆Ƕe.
2. =°#=ò =zó #
qx†³¶yOKÇ°HË"Œe.

J=Hê‰× = ò#°

3. g°~¡° „²Hß÷H± "³ˆÃ× ¤@䛽 principal permission
f‹¬°HË"Œe.
4. J`Ç_È° `Ç# `Ç=òàx KÇkqOKŒe.
5. P"³° health care f‹¬°HË"Œe.
6. "Œ~¡° D <³…ìY~¡°…Õ„¬• tax K³eÁOKŒe.
7. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\H÷ „
› C¬ _È° =¶ä›½ q+¬†°Ç O inform
K͆Ƕe.
8. =°#O =°# culture x QÒ~¡qOKŒe.
9. =°#=ò =°# „
Ì ^Î•í ‹¬•‚¬ð•#° ‡•\÷OKŒe.
10. _¨H›~“ °¡ Á `Ç=° =$uëH÷ „¬îië <Œ¼†Ç°O K͆¶
Ç e.
11. =°#=ò ƒ•’Q=
® O`Ç°x ^Ά°Ç Hù~¡ä½› ‡ã •~¡#
Ö
K͆Ƕe.
12. g°~¡° P`Çàq‰§Þ‹¬O develop KÍ‹¬°HË"Œe.
13. ^•Î#=O`Ç°•° c^Î"ŒiH÷ ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO K͆¶Ç e.
14. „²•Á•° =°Oz moral stories KÇ^Î"Œe.
15. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° "Œi
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œe.

The seniors should encourage their
juniors.

Art is long, Life is short.

knowledge

x

improve

Z
226

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx „¬#°• Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

=°#=ò time waste K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
=°#=ò „¬xx postpone K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.

J
J

J
J

†Çò=䛽•° W`Ç~°¡ •Ì„á depend Hê䛕_È^ΰ.
parents „²••
Á #° disappoint K͆°Ç 䛕_È^°Î .

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° K͆ǰ䛕_Èx „¬#°• Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Should + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx Subject

Singular, Plural U^³á##¶

"Should + not + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =°#=ò =°# work neglect K͆°Ç 䛕_È^°Î .
We should not neglect our work.

2. W`Ç~¡°•° …ÕxH÷ ~Œä›•_È^ΰ.

6. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° classes miss Hê䛕_È^ΰ.
Students should not miss the classes.

7. „²••Á ° K³_°È J•"Œ@°Á J•=~¡K°Ç HË ä›•_È^°Î .

Others should not come inside.

3. =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° • q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ *ÕH› ¼ O
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ.

Children should not cultivate bad
habits.

8. =°#O L^˼Q®°•ä›½ •OKÇO W=Þ䛕_È^ΰ.

We should not interefere in others'
matter.

We should not offer bribe to
employees.

4. =°#=ò =°# À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°•#° "³¶‹¬yOKÇ
䛕_È^ΰ.

9. =°#=ò =°# `Ë\÷"Œix J==¶xOKÇ
䛕_È^ΰ.

We should not deceive our friends.

5. =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•
䛕_È^ΰ.

227

We should not insult our fellowmen.

K͆ǰ

10. =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ W|ÄOk H›•°Q®*è†Ç°
䛕_È^ΰ.

We should not disturb other's work.

We should not cause trouble to others.

work disturb

,

11. =°#=ò =°# Q® ° iOz Qù„¬ æ Qê
K³„¬CHË䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not boast of ourselves.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12. g°~¡° W`Ç~°¡ •Ì„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ äÈ •› _È^°Î .
You should not depend on others.

13. q^¥¼~¡°•œ ° ~Œ[H©†¶
Ç •…Õ ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^°Î .
Students should not participate in
politics.

14. ¢‹Ôë•° =°# ‹¬O‹¬ø$ux =°~¡°=䛕_È^ΰ.
Women should not forget our culture.

15. =°#=ò Jk•Hê~¡°•=òO^ΰ =°# „¬ik•
^¥@䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not cross our limit before
the officers.

16. q^¥¼~¡ ° Ö • ° „¬ s H› Æ • …Õ
‡••æ_äÈ •› _È^°Î .

copy

Students shluld not indulge to
copying in the examinations.

17.

q^¥¼~¡°•Ö =°^•Î¼ U „¬H‡Æ› •`ÇO
KǶ„¬ä›•_È^ΰ.

Teachers

Teachers shluld not show partiality
among the pupils.

18. =°#=ò „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ rules JuãHq
› °OKÇä•› _È^°Î .
We should not voilate government
rules.

19. ‹Ôx†Ç°~Ÿ• Ex†Ç°~Ÿ•#° x~¡°`Œ•‚¬ì„¬~K
¡ Ç
䛕_È^ΰ.
Seniors should not discourage
juniors.

20. =°#=ò ‹¬O‡•^Î#Hù~¡ä›½ =°#^͉§xß
q_•z "³ˆä¤× •› _È^°Î .

1. <Í#° <Œ _ȶ¼\©H÷ late Qê "³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^ΰ.
2. =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°• x~¡â†Ç¶•#° q=°iÅOKÇ
䛕_È^ΰ.
3. =°#=ò self - confidence HË…Õæ䛕_È^ΰ.
4. g°~¡° work delay K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
5. Permission …è䛽O_¨ g°~¡° church …ÕxH÷
ㄬ"ÍtOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
6. =°#=ò q°ug°i ㄬ=iëOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
7. ƒ
ã 사ìà}°•° =¶Oª•‚¬ð~¡=ò u#䛕_È^°Î .
8. =°#=ò =°# ^͉×=ò#° ^ÍÞ+²OKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
9. =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° • q=°~¡ Å •ä› ½
ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_äÈ •› _È^°Î .
10. Employees „
ã [¬ •#°Oz •OKÇO f‹¬°Hù#
䛕_È^ΰ.
11. Businessmen ‹¬i†³Ø°# licence …è䛽O_¨
"Œ¼‡•~¡O K͆°Ç 䛕_È^°Î .
12. Two-wheeler Ì„á =òQ®°¾~¡° =¼ä›½ë•° ride
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
13. =°#=ò P~ËQ® ¼ =ò x~¡ Á H › Æ ¼ =ò KÍ † Ç °
䛕_È^ΰ.
14. licence …è䛽O_¨ drivers vehicles drive
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
15. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° q•°"³á# ‹¬=°†Ç¶xß =$^•¥
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.

We should not leave our country for
earning.

Nothing succeeds like success.

Z
228

,

: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# ƒì^•Î¼`Ç (Responsibility)
H›~¡ë=¼=ò (duty) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

g°~¡° P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ daily ten hours work K͆Ƕ…ì?
h=ô abroad …Õ KÇ^"Î Œ•O>è TOEFL qualify J"Œ…ì?
=°#=ò exam hall …Õ J_•y#„¬ô_È° hall ticket KǶ‡•…ì?
"Œ~¡° D test 䛽 appear Hê"Œ…ì ?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# ƒì^•Î¼`Ç
(Responsibility) H›~¡ë=¼=ò (duty) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# ƒì^•Î¼`Ç,
H›~¡ë=¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Should+ I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural

U^³á##°

'Should+ I form'

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° =òO^ΰQê
Hê"Œ…ì?

Principal

consult

Should I consult the Principal first?

2. =°#=ò ã „ ¬ u "Œ~¡ O
K͆Ƕ…ì?

report submit

Should we submit the report every
week?

3. g°~¡° D <³• penalty K³eÁOKŒ…ì?
Should you pay penalty this month?

6. g°~¡° D application ö~„¬ô „¬O„¬=…ÿ<Œ?
Should you send this application form
tomorrow?

7. =°#=ò text books refer K͆ǰ=…ÿ<Œ?
Should we refer to the text books?

8. "Œ~¡° D <³• 10 …Õ„¬• nomination file
K͆Ƕ…ì?
Should they file the nomination before
10th of this month?

4. =°#=ò =òO^ΰQê manager permission
f‹¬°Hù#=…ÿ<Œ?

9. XH› business K͆ò
Ç @䛽 =°#=ò licence
H›eyLO_¨…ì?

Should we take the Manager's
permission first?

Should we possess the licence to do
some business?

5. <Í#° D document Ì„á sign K͆Ƕ…ì?
Should I sign to this document ?

229

10. ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È䛽 g°`Ë <Í#° 䛕_¨ ~Œ"Œ…ì?
Should I too come there with you
tomorrow?

,

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

1. =°#=ò W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È Uq° K͆Ƕe?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

What should we do here now?

2. g°~¡° D report ZH›ø_È submit K͆Ƕe?
Where should you submit this report?

3. <Í#° h䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 help K͆Ƕe?
Why should I help you?

4. =°#=ò =òO^ΰQê "ŒiH÷ ZO`Ç deposit
pay K͆Ƕe?
Howmuch amount should we pay
them as deposit first ?

5. D #+¬O“ "Í°=ò ZO^ΰ䛽 ƒ•’iOKŒe?
Why should we bear this loss?

6. =°#=ò application `Ë Zxß
[`Ç„¬~¡KŒe?

copy

•°

Howmany copies should we enclose
with the application form?

7. h=ô J#=‹¬ ~ ¡ O Qê J`Ç x q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
ZO^ΰ䛽 *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË"Œe?
Why should you interefere in his
matter unnecessarily?

8. g°~¡° office …Õ ~ËA䛽 Zxß Q®O@•°
„¬xK͆Ƕe?
Howmany hours should you work in
the office in a day?

9. =°#O ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È Z=ix consult J"Œe?
Whom should we consult there
tomorrow?

10. =°#=ò licence HË‹¬O ZH›ø_È
K͆Ƕe?

apply

Where should we apply for the
licence?

1. h=ô ö~„¬ô election duty H÷ attend J"Œ…ì?
2. =°#=ò =KÍ ó " Œ~¡ O exam fee pay
K͆Ƕ…ì?
3. g°~¡ ° ã „ ¬ u ~ËA accounts maintain
K͆Ƕ…ì?
4. =°#=ò guests 䛽 =‹¬u H›eæOKŒ…ì?
5. g°~¡° next Sunday =~¡ä›½ WH›ø_È stay
K͆Ƕ…ì?
6. h=ô D~ËA D work finish K͆Ƕ…ì?
7. =°#=ò ㄬu lesson H÷ notes prepare
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ…ì?
8. "Í ° =ò ã „ ¬ u important point note
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ…ì?
9. =°#=ò bank …Õ chalan f‹¬°HË"Œ…ì?
10. g°~¡° interview H÷ original certificates
f‹¬°Hùx"³ˆì¤…ì?
11. =°#O next month JH›ø_È Zxß~ËA•°
work K͆Ƕe?
12. =°#O WOHê Zxß ~ËA•° training
‡ÚO^¥e?
13. =°#O ralley x~¡ Þ ‚² ì OKÇ ° @ä› ½ Z=i
J#°=°uf‹¬°HË"Œe?
14. g°~¡ ° training camp ä› ½ Z„¬ C _È °
KÍ~¡°HË"Œe?
15. <Í # ° D medicine ~ËAH÷ Zxߪ•~¡°Á
f‹¬°HË"Œe?

Z

Cowards die many times but a vallant dies only once.

230

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
=°#=ò K͆ǰ䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° D test H÷ appear Hê䛕_È^¥?
J`Ç#° WH›ø_È stay K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?

J
J

J
J

g°~¡° J#°=°u …è䛽O_¨ Ì‹•=ô f‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
"Œ~¡° KÇ~•ó¡ …Õ ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^¥?


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shouldn't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ "Shouldn't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° …ÕxH÷ ~Œä›•_È^¥?
Shouldn't I come in?

7. XH› ¢ ï H á ‹ ¬ ë = ‹¬ < Œ¼‹² x
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?

Shouldn't a nun get married?

2. "Í°=ò D programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't we participate in this
programme?

3. =°#=ò D q+¬ † Ç ° O |‚² ì ~¡ ¾ ` Ç = ò
K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't we reveal this matter?

4. =°#=ò =¶Oª•‚¬ð~¡=ò f‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't we take non-veg food?

5. XH› ‹¬<Œ¼‹² HËiH›•° H›ey†ÇòO_È䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't a saint possess desires?

6. <Í#° q=~Œ•° `³•°‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't I know the details?
231

q"Œ‚¬ ì O

8.

Office hours

…Õ =°#=ò |†Ç ° @

u~¡Q®ä›•_È^¥?
Shouldn't we move out during office
hours?

9. g°~¡ ° J#°=°u…è ä › ½ O_¨ |†Ç ° @ä› ½
"³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^¥ ?
Shouldn't you go out without
permission?

10. =°#=ò P q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ *ÕH› ¼ =ò
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't we interefere in that matter?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. <Í#° D meeting H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
Hê䛕_È^ΰ?

attend

Why shouldn't I attend this meeting?

12. =°#=ò D
Hê䛕_È^ΰ?

course

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

join

Why shouldn't we join this course?

13. P†Ç ° # ZxßH› • …Õ ZO^Î ° H› ½ ‡é\©
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't he contest in the
elections?

14. P"³° WH›ø_È䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œä›•_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't she come here?

15. "Œ~¡ ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?

money

demand

Why shouldn't they demand money?

16. P „¬ x h"³ O ^Î ° ä› ½ KÍ † Ç ° ä› • _È ^ Î ° ?
Why shouldn't you do that work?

17. =°#=ò ZO^ΰ䛽

claim K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't we claim it?

18. =°#=ò XH› i HùH› ~ ¡ O
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ°HË䛕_È^ΰ?

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why shouldn't we co-operate with one
another?

19. XH› widow =°~¡• ZO^ΰ䛽
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ?

marriage

Why shouldn't a widow get married
again?

20. =°#=ò J<Œ¼†Ç ¶ xß
ZkiOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ?

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ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why shouldn't we oppose injustice?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. =°#=ò Principal chamber …ÕxH÷ enter
Hê䛕_È^¥?
2. g°~¡° guides follow J=䛕_È^¥?
3. =°#=ò D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ own decision
f‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
4. =°#=ò J#°=°u …è䛽O_¨ |†Ç°@䛽
"³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^¥?
5. <Í#° W„¬C_È° D course KÇ͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
6. =°#=ò licence …è䛽O_¨ business start
K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
7. g°~¡° q^¥¼~¡°œ• #°Oz donations collect
K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
8. =°#=ò govt. rules #° Juã H › q °OKÇ
䛕_È^¥?
9. "Œ~¡° administration q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
10. h=ô seminar …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^°Î ?
11. =°#=ò =°# opinion ZO^ΰ䛽 express
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?
12. <Í#° Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ?
13. =°#=ò D test H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 appear
Hê䛕_È^ΰ?
14. g°~¡° High Court …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 appeal
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
15. =°#=ò D tickect Ì„á express train …Õ
ZO^ΰ䛽 ㄬ†Ç¶}=ò K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?

Z

Courage is always a means of success.

232

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Should' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Should' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ qk•Qê, ƒì^•Î¼`ÇQêK͆ò
Ç XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Should + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. We should maintain discipline.

2. You should possess the licence.

3. He should seek their permission. 4. They should pay the bill regularly.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Should not + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

1. We should not blame others.

2. You should not neglect the work.

3. He should not do like that.

4. They should not cause trouble.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ qk•Qê, ƒì^•Î¼`ÇQê K͆°Ç =•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Should + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Should we attend the special duty tomorrow?
2. Should you consult the Manager today?
3. Should he come here?
4. Should they pay penalty?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ K͆ǰ䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shouldn't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Shouldn't we know the matter?
2. Shouldn't we interefere in this matter?
3. Shouldn't he appear for this test?
4. Shouldn't they participate in this seminar?

233

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

461.

pull

pulled

pulled

462.

pulverize

pulverized

pulverized

463.

purchase

purchased

purchased

464.

purify

purified

purified

465.

push

pushed

pushed

466.

qualify

qualified

qualified

467.

quench

quenched

quenched

468.

quote

quoted

quoted

469.

raise

raised

raised

470.

rape

raped

raped

471.

reach

reached

reached

472.

realize

realized

realized

473.

reap

reaped

reaped

474.

receive

received

received

475.

recite

recited

recited

476.

recognize

recognized

recognized

477.

recommend

recommended

recommended

478.

record

recorded

recorded

479.

recover

recovered

recovered

480.

rectify

rectified

rectified

D ~ËA

Meaning

…ìQ®°@
‡Ú_• K͆òÇ @
H›ù#°@
‰×Ã^Îœ=ò K͆Çò@
ã`ˆÇò@, <³@°“@
J~¡Ý`Ç ‡ÚO^ΰ@
^΄²æH› f~¡°ó@
L^΂¬ìiOKÇ°@
Ì„áïH`Ç°ë@
j•=ò K³~¡KÇ°@
KÍ~¡°Hù#°@
`³•°‹¬°H›ù#°@
„¬O@HˆÇò@
JO^ΰHù#°@
X„¬CHù#°@
Q®°iëOKÇ°@
‹²‡•¦ ~¡‹°¬ Kdž
Í ò
Ç @
ã"Œ‹²Ì„@°“@
uiy ‡ÚO^ΰ@
‹¬ik^ΰí@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
234

Better lose a jester than a friend.

,

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MUST
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
XH›~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê (compulsory) KÍ‹² f~¡=•‹²# „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ö~„¬ô <Í#° J`Çxx Yzó`ÇOQê H›e‹² f~Œe. J g°~¡° Yzó`ÇOQê =òO^ΰQê "Í°<Í[~Ÿ J#°=°u f‹¬°HË"Œe.
J`Ç_°È D ª•i exam pass J~ò f~Œe. J"Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê licence H›ey†ÇòO_¨e.

J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê (compulsory) KÍ‹²
f~¡=•‹²# „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° Yzó`ÇOQê, `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê
(compulsory) KÍ‹² f~¡=•‹²# XH›„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Must+ I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'MustÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

235

<Í#° D ~ËA D
f~Œe.

work complete

KÍ‹²

I must complete this work today.
"Í ° =ò MCA admission ‡ÚO^Î ° @ä› ½
entrance test 䛽 appear J~òf~Œe.
We must appear for the entrance test
to get admission to MCA.
g°~¡° WO@~¡¶Þ¼ ‹¬=°†Ç°O…Õ originals
submit KÍ‹²f~Œe.
You must submit the originals at the
time of interview.
MBA course 䛽 J`Ç_°È donation pay KÍ‹²

f~Œe.

He must pay donation for MBA course.
P"³° "³O@<Í _¨H›~“ #
Ÿ ° consult J~òf~Œe.
She must consult the doctor
immediately.

6. "Œ~¡° customers #° satisfy KÍ‹²f~Œe.
They must satisfy the customers.

7. <Í#° D "Œ~¡O Yzó`ÇOQê =¶ T~¡°
"³o¤f~Œe.
I must go to my village this week.

8. =°#=ò D J=Hê‰×=ò#° qx†³¶yOKÇ°
䛽xf~Œe.
9.

We must avail ourselves of this
opportunity.
g°~¡° ㄬu important point note KÍ‹¬°Hùx

f~Œe.

You must note every important point.

10.

Indian team finals KÍ~¡°@䛽 D ~ËA
match ïQezf~Œe.
The Indian team must win the match
today to reach the finals.

,

11.

Court orders

ã „ ¬ H ê~¡ O "Œ~¡ ° P W•°Á

MìmKÍ‹²f~Œe.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

They must vacate the house according
to the court orders.

12. "Í°=ò D ~ËA WH›ø_È |†Ç°•°^Íif~Œe.
We must start here today.

13. P"³° WOHùH› "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°
LO_•f~Œe.

hospital

…Õ

She must stay in the hospital one more
week.

14. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô HË~¡°“䛽 ‚¬ð[~¡°
J~òf~Œe.
They must attend the court tomorrow.

15. q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° „
ã u
¬ q+¬†°Ç O `³•°‹¬°Hùx f~Œe.
Students must know everything.

16. D <³•…Õ "Œ~¡° loan clear KÍ‹²f~Œe.
They must clear the loan this month.

17. `Ç e Á ^ Î O ã _ È ° •° „² • Á • #° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê
educate KÍ‹²f~Œe.
Parents must educate their children.

18. h=ô h honesty x prove KÍ‹°¬ Hùxf~Œe.
You must prove your honesty.

19. XH› =°Oz teacher Jxß L`Çë=° •H›Æ}ì•°
H›ey†ÇòO_¨e.
A good teacher must possess all good
qualities.

20. „
ã u
¬ ‚²ìO^ΰ=ô ƒ•’Q=
® n¾`Ç KÇkqf~Œe.
Every Hindu must read the Bhagavad
Gita.

1. <Í#° `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê Hindi <Í~¡°óHùxf~Œe.
2. "Í°=ò Yzó`ÇOQê D course complete
KÍ‹²f~Œe.
3. h=ô `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê penalty K³eÁOzf~Œe.
4. =°#O `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê Principal permission
f‹¬°Hùxf~Œe.
5. =°#O Z…ìï Q á < Œ ª•†Ç ° Oã ` Ç O …Õ„¬ •
Q®°O@¶~¡° KÍ~¡°HË"Œe.
6. P†Ç°# D ~ËA `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê WH›ø_È䛽
=zóf~Œe.
7. P"³° Z…ìïQ<á Œ D "Œ¼k• #°Oz HË•°HË"Œe.
8. =°#=ò next Monday …Õ„¬• amount
deposit KÍ‹²f~Œe.
9. g°~¡ ° D ã „ ¬ † Ç ° `Ç ß O …Õ `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê
succeed J"Œe.
10. h=ô Z…ìïQá<Œ "Œix D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ
convince K͆Ƕe.
11. =°#O Hùxß ‹²^¥œO`Œ•ä›½ H›@°“|_• LO_¨e.
12. D game …Õ =°#O "Œix F_•Oz f~Œe.
13. =°#O Z…ìïQá<Œ „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ =òO^ΰ D
book publish KÍ‹²f~Œe.
14. ã „ ¬ u =ò‹² Á O `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê =°Hêø
‹¬O^ÎiÅOKŒe.
15. =°#=ò Z…ìïQá<Œ D ª•i best rank
ª•k•OKŒe.

Z
Bad workmen quarrel with their tools.

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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô f‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ.
=°#=ò Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D J=Hê‰×O =^ΰ•°HË䛕_È^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D „¬sH›Æ fail J=䛕_È^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D match F_•‡é䛕_È^°Î .

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ K͆ǰ䛕_Èx „¬#°• Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx
„¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Must + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural U^³#
á #¶ "Must + not + I form of the verb" L„¬†¶³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

*

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ D „¬sH›Æ
J=䛕_È^ΰ.

fail

I must not fail in this examination.

2. =°#=ò Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° • …Õ#¶ D
J=Hê‰×=ò ‡ÚQù@°“HË䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not lose this opportunity.

3. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ class miss
Hê䛕_È^ΰ.
You must not miss the class tomorrow.

4. J`Ç_È° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D q+¬†Ç°O
`³•‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ.
He must not know this matter.

5. P"³° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D
JOwH›iOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.

proposal

She must not accept to this proposal.
237

6. h=ô Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶
waste K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.

time

You must not waste time.

7. =°#O Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶ ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ì #O
HË…Õæ䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not lose patience.

8. =°#O Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶ =°#
‹²^¥œO`Ç=ò•#° KÇO„¬ôHË䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not kill our principles.

9. g°~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D q+¬†Ç°O
|‚²ì~¡¾`ÇO K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
You must not reveal this matter.

10. =°#O Z@°=O\÷ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶
x~¡°`Œ•‚¬ì„¬_äÈ •› _È^°Î .
We must not lose heart.

,

11. =°#O U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#°
J|^ÎœO K³„¬æ䛕_È^ΰ.

parents

䛽

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

We must not tell lies to our parents.

12. <Œ†Ç°ä›½•° U „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ Jk•Hê~¡O
^ΰiÞx†³¶Q®O K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.

1. <Í#° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
studies neglect K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.

Leaders must not misuse their power.

13. Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ ~ö „¬ô Australia =°#Ì„á
ïQ•°=䛕_È^ΰ.
Australia must not win the match
against India tomorrow.

14. Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ =°#O _È|°Ä
J„¬C K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not borrow money.

15. \©KÇ~Ÿ• Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ „¬sH›Æ•…Õ
copying 䛽 J#°=°uOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
Teachers must not allow copying in the
examinations.

16. Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° =°#O ö~„¬ô
programme postpone K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.

2. =°#=ò U „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#° F@q°x
JOwH›iOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
3. h=ô U „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#° enemies #°
`Ç䛽ø=Qê estimate K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
4. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°…Õ#° WH›ø_•H÷
~Œä›•_È^ΰ.
5. P"³° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° P
attend J=䛕_È^ΰ.

function

䛽

6. "Œ~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#° D place q_•z
"³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^ΰ.

the

7. <Í#° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ "ŒiH›O>è "³#°H›
„¬_È䛕_È^ΰ.

17. =°#=ò Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶ ~Œr
„¬_È䛕_È^ΰ.

8. =°#=ò Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#° ^•³~á ¼¡ O
HË…Õæ䛕_È^ΰ.

We

must

not

postpone

programme tomorrow.

We must not compromise to the
circumstances.

18. J`Ç_È° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D ZxßH›•…Õ
ïQ•°=䛕_È^ΰ.
He must not win this election.

19. =°#=ò D ª•i Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ "Œi
‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡ä›•_È^ΰ.

9. Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° ZxßH›•
x|O^•Î# JuãHq› °OKÇä•› _È^°Î .
10. =°#=ò Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° D ª•i
"³¶‹¬‡é䛕_È^ΰ.

We must not seek their help this time

A rolling stone gathers no moss.

Z
238

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QUESTION FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

h=ô `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê W„¬C_È° "Œi WO\ÕÁ LO_• f~Œ…ì?
P"³° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D ~ËA T~¡° "³o¤ f~Œ…ì?
P†Ç°# `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D medicine f‹¬°Hùx f~Œ…ì?
"Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê B.Ed. KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH›
„¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x ‹¬iQê KÍ‹² f~¡=•‹²#
XH› „¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Must + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural

U^³á##° 'Must + I form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h`Ë JH›ø_È䛽 =zóf~Œ…ì?
Must I come there with you tomorrow?

2. =°#=ò MCA admission 䛽
test 䛽 appear J~òf~Œ…ì?

seminar

doctor

consult

Must he consult the doctor?

5. <Í#° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê identity card KǶ‡•…ì?
Must I show the Identity card?
239

7. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê P ‹¬Ö•O Mìm KÍ‹²
f~Œ…ì?
Must they vacate that site?

8. =°#=ò `Ç„æ¬x‹¬iQê D HË~Ÿ• KÍ‹f
² ~Œ…ì?
Must we do this course?

Must you attend the seminar
tomorrow?

4. P†Ç°# `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê
J~òf~Œ…ì?

Must she come here tomorrow?

entrance

Must we appear for the entrance test
for MCA admission ?

3. g°~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô `Ç „ ¬ æ x‹¬ i Qê
‚¬ð[~¡~òf~Œ…ì?

6. P"³° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 =zó
f~Œ…ì?

9.

Hù~¡ä›½ `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê =°#=ò
KǶ„²Oz f~¡=…ÿ<Œ?

loan

surity

Must we show surity for a loan?

10. J`Ç _ È ° "Œix `Ç „ ¬ æ x‹¬ i Qê ‡é+² O z
f~Œ…ì?
Must he feed them?

,

11. P"³° `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê treatment ‡ÚOkf~Œ…ì?
Must she undergo treatment?

Must they finish this work tomorrow?

13. g°~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê Enlgish paper answer
KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì?
Must you answer the English paper?

14. =°#=ò D form …Õ Jxß columns fill KÍ‹²
f~Œ…ì?
Must we fill up all the columns in this
form?

15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D iHê~ŸÛ present
KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì?
Must I present this record there
tomorrow?

16. =°#O B.Ed seat 䛽 `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê donation
pay KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì?
Must we pay donation for the B.Ed.
seat?
files

D "Œ~¡ O

clear

KÍ ‹ ²

Must you clear all these files this
week?

18. h=ô ö~„¬ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê Chennai KÍ~¡°Hùx
f~Œ…ì?
Must you reach Chennai tomorrow?

19. =°#O application Ì „ á
JO\÷Ozf~Œ…ì?

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D „¬x ö~„¬ô „¬îië KÍ‹²
f~Œ…ì?

17. g°~¡ ° D
f~Œ…ì?

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photograph

Must we affix the passport size
photograph on application form?

1. =°#=ò ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_•H÷ "³of
Á ~Œ…ì ?
2. h=ô `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê ~ö „¬ô J`ÇxH÷ money „¬O„²
f~Œ…ì ?
3. g°~¡° `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›e‹²
f~Œ…ì ?
4. J`Ç _ È ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D course KÍ ‹ ²
f~Œ…ì?
5. P"³° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê training ‡ÚOk f~Œ…ì?
6. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô D report submit
KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì ?
7. h=ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D test 䛽 coaching
f‹¬°Hùx f~Œ…ì ?
8. g°~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È "Œix
receive KÍ‹¬°Hùx f~Œ…ì ?
9. =°#=ò `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D books Hùx
f~Œ…ì ?
10. J`Ç_È° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D exam pass J~ò
f~Œ…ì ?
11. P"³ ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x‹¬ i Qê treatment ‡ÚOk
f~Œ…ì?
12. "Œ~¡ ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D rule ‡•\÷Oz
f~Œ…ì?
13. h=ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê "Œi permission ‡ÚOk
f~Œ…ì ?
14. <Í # ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D ~ËA office H÷
=zóf~Œ…ì ?
15. =°#=ò `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê D <³•…Õ loan clear
KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì ?

20. h=ô "ŒiH÷ =òO^ΰQê inform KÍ‹f
² ~Œ…ì?
Must you inform them earlier?

Little strokes fell great oaks.

Z
240

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Must' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Must' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anoamalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form J#° 3 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D 3 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ H› KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Must + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I must pass this test.
2. We must learn Sanskrit.
3. You must prepare all the lessons.
4. They must finish this work today.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#° K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Must not+ I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. We must not lose heart in our difficulties.
2. We must not fear to our problems.
3. He must not know this news.
4. They must not repeat this mistake.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ Yzó`OÇ Qê KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Must + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Must I appear for the entrance test ?
2. Must we enclose original certificates ?
3. Must you submit this report tomorrow ?
4. Must they vacate the house next month ?
241

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

481.

reduce

reduced

reduced

482.

reform

reformed

reformed

483.

refuse

refused

refused

484.

regret

regretted

regretted

485.

regulate

regulated

regulated

486.

reject

rejected

rejected

487.

relate

related

related

488.

relax

relaxed

relaxed

489.

release

released

released

490.

relieve

relieved

relieved

491.

remain

remained

remained

492.

remember

remembered

remembered

493.

remind

reminded

reminded

494.

remove

removed

removed

495.

repeat

repeated

repeated

496.

repent

repented

repented

497.

reply

replied

replied

498.

require

required

required

499.

rescue

rescued

rescued

500.

reside

resided

resided

Meaning

`Çy¾OKÇ°@
‹¬Oª•ø~¡=ò K͆òÇ @
u~¡‹¬øiOKÇ°@
„¬‰§ó`Œë„¬„¬_È°@
ãH›=°„¬~¡KÇ°@
ã`Ë‹²"͆Çò@
q=iOKÇ°@
‹À ÞKÇ•ó Qê LO_È°@
q_•„²OKÇ°@
q_È°^Ε K͆Çò
(L^˼Q® ‹¬OII"³°Ø#q)
q°ye †ÇòO_È°
*ìý„¬H›=òOKÇ°Hù#°@
*ìý„¬H› „¬~¡KÇ°@
`ù•yOKÇ°@
=°~¡• K³„¬C, K͆Çò@
„¬‰§ó`Œë„¬ „¬_È°@
|^ΰ•° K³„¬C@
Hê=•‹²#k HË~¡°@
Hꇕ_Ȱ@
x=VtOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form
ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 3 parts KÇ^=Î O_•!
g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
242

He who spits against the sky will have it fall on his face.

,

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COULD
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx K͆ǰQ®ey#
ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° x#ß interview ƒìQê K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
"Í°=ò last year =°Oz results ‡ÚO^ÎQ®eQê=ò.
J`Ç_È° x#ß =¶ä›½ amount adjust K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°.
"Œ~¡° x#ß match easy Qê ïQ•°= Q®ey<Œ~¡°.

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (ability)
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Could + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Could"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° Degree …Õ 90% =¶~¡°ø•°
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.

score

6. <Í#° x#ß interview …Õ Jxß
answer K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.

I could score 90% of marks in Degree.

2. "Í°=ò x#ß ï~O_È° Q®O@•…Õ <³•¶Á~¡°
KÍ~¡°HËQ®eQê=ò.
3.
4.

We Could reach Nellore within two
hours yesterday.
Sachin Tendulkar KŒ…ì z#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ
ㄬ„¬OKÇ records create K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°.
Sachin Tendulkar could create the
world records at a young age.
=¶ sister x#ß ‡•@• ‡é\©…Õ first prize

‡ÚO^ÎQ®ey#k.

My sister could win the first prize in
the singing competition yesterday.

5. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° `Ç # 45= U@<Í
=òY¼=°Oãu J=Q®ey<Œ~¡°.
Sri Chandra Babu could become
Chief- minister at the age of 45.

243

7.

questions

I could answer all the questions in the
interview yesterday.
"Í°=ò last time P problem easy Qê solve

K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.

We could solve that problem easily
last time.

8. ‡éb‹¬°•° <Í~¡‹¬°Ö•#° ï~O_È° ~ËA•…Õ
Q®°iëOKÇQ®ey<Œ~¡°.
The police could identify the criminals
within two days.

9. <Í # ° <Œ 19= †Í ° @†Í ° „² . l. „¬ î ië
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
I could complete my P.G. at the age
of 19.

10. "Í°=ò Hùkí ~ËA•…Õ<Í `Ç„¬C `³•°‹¬°HË
Q®e<Œ=ò.
We could realise our mistake in a few
days.

,

11. <ŒQê~¡°û# J#ß=°†Ç°¼ ‡•ã`Ç…Õ ƒìQê
K͆ǰQ®eQê_È°.

act

12.

Nagarjuna could act well in the role of
Annamayya.
=¶ brother last year ~¡¶. 50,000 save

13.

My brother could save Rs. 50,000 last
year.
<Í#° ~ï O_È° <³••…Õ<Í Short Hand Writing

K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°.

<Í~¡°óHù#Q®eQê#°.

15.

I could learn Short Hand Writing within
two months.
Last time <Í # ° J`Ç x amount 10
~ËA•…Õ repay K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
I could repay his amount within ten
days last time.
"Í ° =ò last time =°Oz „¦ ¬ e `Œ•°

16.

We could achieve better results last
time.
P"³ ° typhoid attack #°Oz „¬ î ië Q ê

17.

She could recover from the attack of
typhoid completely.
=¶ brother x#ß interview ƒìQê

18.

My brother could do the interview well
yesterday.
Indian bowlers Pakistan batsmen

14.

ª•k•OKÇQe® y<Œ=ò.

HË•°HËQ®ey#k.

K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°.

„¬~¡°Q®°•° K͆ǰ䛽O_¨ J_È°ÛHËQ®ey<Œ~¡°.
The Indian bowlers could prevent the
Pakistan batsmen from making runs.

19. "Í ° =ò x#ß J`Ç x x D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ
X„²æOKÇQ®ey<Œ=ò.
We could convince him in this matter
yesterday.

20. "Œ~¡° "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ 5 ‹¬OII…Õ 25 •H›Æ•°
‹¬O‡•kOKÇQe® y<Œ~¡°.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° x#ß <Œ•°Q® ° lessons
<Í~¡°óHù#Q®ey<Œ#°.
2. <Í # ° x#ß g°\÷ O Q· … Õ ^•³ á ~ ¡ ¼ OQê
=¶\ìÁQ®ey<Œ#°.
3. "Í°=ò last time 6 <³•••Õ loan clear
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
4. =¶ brother KŒ…ì z#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ<Í Bank
officer J=Q®ey<Œ_È°.
5. P"³° x#ß guest •#° KŒ…ì ƒìQê treat
K͆ǰQ®ey#k.
6. "Œ~¡° ï~O_È° <³••…Õ<Í business ƒìQê
pickup K͆ǰQ®e<Œ~¡°.
7. <Í # ° x#ß „¬ s H› Æ KŒ…ì ƒìQê
ã"Œ†Ç°Q®ey<Œ#°.
8. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° <³••…Õ<Í house construct
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
9. J^Î$+¬=
“ ‰§`Ç°ë "Í°=ò P „
ã =
¬ ¶^Î=ò #°O_•
escape J=Q®ey<Œ=ò.
10. Q®`Ç „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ <Í#° XH› <³•…Õ<Í Jxß
subjects prepare J=Q®ey<Œ#°.
11. <Í#° J`ÇxH÷ x#ß q=~¡OQê explain KÍ‹²
K³„¬æQ®ey<Œ#°.
12. J`Çx parents ‡ã é`Œ•‚¬ìO`Ë `Ç# •H›¼Æ O
ª•k•OKÇQe® y<Œ_È°.
13. =¶ friends ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O`Ë "Í°=ò x#ß P
„¬x ‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê „¬îië K͆°Ç Q®ey<Œ=ò.
14. Last time "Í°=ò Ì‹•=ô•° ƒìQê enjoy
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° business …Õ Ì„^Îí amount
invest K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~¡°.

They could earn 25 lakhs in the

Z

business in 5 years.

A tree is known by its fruit.

244

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH‡› é=ô@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° x#ß h䛽 help K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ#°.
"Í°=ò Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O match ïQ•=…èH›‡é~ò <Œ=ò.
=¶ brother last year exams pass Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_È°.
"Œ~¡° x#ß time H÷ WH›ø_È䛽 KÍ~¡°HË…èH› ‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH› ‡é=ô@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° „¬îië K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò# (ª•=°~¡œ¼=ò
…èH›‡é=ô@) lack of ability XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Could + not + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Could+ not" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° x#ß exam …Õ Jxß questions
answer K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ#°.
2.

3.

4.

I could not answer all the questions
in the examination yesterday.
"Í°=ò x#ß P work time H÷ „¬îië K͆ǰ…èH›

6.

‡é~ò<Œ=ò.

We could not complete the work in
time yesterday.
last year EAMCET …Õ =¶ brother rank

7.

‡ÚO^Î…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_È°.

My brother could not get rank in the
EAMCET last year.
Indian team 2003 World Cup final
match …Õ P¢ À ‹ “ e †Ç ¶ #° F_•OKÇ … è H ›

‡é~ò#k.

The Indian team could not defeat the
Australian team in the final match of
2003 World Cup.
245

5.

Last year =¶ lecturers „¬sH›•
Æ ä›½ =òO^ΰ
syllabus „¬îiëK͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.
Our lecturers could not complete the
syllabus before the exams last year.
"Œ~¡ ° last time =¶ä› ½ JH› ø _È =‹¬ u

H›eæOKÇ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.

They could not provide us
accommodation there last time.
<Í # ° last year studies Ì „ á ‹¬ i Qê
concentrate K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ#°.
I could not concentrate on my studies
last year.

8. Q®`Ç ZxßH•› …Õ `³•°Q®°^͉O× ‡•s“ „
ã [¬ •#°
PH›iÂOKÇ…èH›‡é~ò#k.
9.

The Telugu Desam Party could not
attract the people in the last elections.
=¶ father business …Õ success

Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.

My father could not succeed in the
business.

,

10. P …ÿ @ ~Ÿ … Õx contents <Í # ° J~¡ Ö O
KÍ‹¬°HË…èH›‡é~ò<Œ#°.
11.

I could not understand the contents
of that letter.
"Í ° =ò x#ß exam hall H÷ time H÷

12.

We could not reach the examination
hall in time yesterday.
=¶ friends <Œä›½ P q+¬†Ç°O…Õ help

13.

My friends could not help me in that
matter last time.
Jq°`Œƒ˜ |KÇó<£ ~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…Õ succeed

14.

15.

KÍ~¡°HË…èH›‡é~ò<Œ=ò.

K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.

Hê…èH›‡é†Ç¶~¡°.

Amitab Batchan could not succeed in
politics.
‹¬z<£ >ÿO_ȶ•ø~Ÿ captain Qê team #°
‹¬iQê lead K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_È°.
Sachin Tendulkar could not lead the
team well as the captain.
<Í#° x#ß P news #=°à…èH›‡é~ò<Œ#°.
I could not believe that news
yesterday.

16. `Çq°ˆ×<Œ_È°…Õ _•.†Ç°O.ïH. ‡•s“ =°~¡•

ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@° K͆°Ç …èH‡› é~ò#k.
The DMK could not form the
government again in Tamil Nadu.

17. J`Ç_È° `Ç# x~Ëí+²`ŒÞxß x~¡¶„²OKÇ°HË…èH›
‡é~ò<Œ_È°.
He could not prove his innocence.

18. "Œ~¡° P J=Hꉧxß L„¬†³¶yOKÇ°HË…èH›
‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.
19.

They could not utilize that opportunity.
"Í ° =ò last time D i[…˜ “ guess

K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ=ò.

We could not guess this result last
time.

20. J„¬æ\Hö÷ Oã^Î „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO Hêjà~¡° ‹¬=°‹¬¼#°
„¬i+¬øiOKÇ…èH›‡é~ò#k.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° x#ß exam ‹¬ i Qê ã " Œ†Ç ° …è H ›
‡é~ò<Œ#°.
2. "Í ° =ò x#ß P train JO^Î ° HË…è H ›
‡é~ò<Œ=ò.
3. =¶ brother last time \© K Ç ~ Ÿ ‡é‹¬ ° “
‡ÚO^Î…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_È°.
4. P"³ ° last year Jxß ‹¬ | û ä › ½ “ • °
‡•‹¹Hê…èH‡› é~ò#k.
5. "Œ~¡° x#ß function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á ‹¬iQê
K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.
6. Last time <Í#° exam H÷ ‹¬iQê prepare
Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ#°.
7. "Í ° =ò x#ß q°=òà•#° H› • °=…è H ›
‡é~ò<Œ=ò.
8. "Œ~¡° last year =°Oz result ª•k•OKÇ…Hè ›
‡é†Ç¶~¡°.
9. <Í # ° x#ß P q+¬ † Ç ° O J`Ç x `Ë
"ŒkOKÇ…èH›‡é†Ç¶#°.
10. "Œ~¡° last year time H÷ loan clear K͆°Ç …èH›
‡é†Ç¶~¡°.
11. "Í ° =ò x#ß ‹¬ i †³ Ø ° # x~¡ â † Ç ° O
f‹¬°HË…èH›‡é~ò<Œ=ò.
12. =¶ grandmother P "Œ¼k• #°Oz recover
Hê…èH›‡é†Ç¶~¡°.
13. <Í#° x#ß J`ÇxH÷ P q+¬†Ç°O ‹¬iQê
explain K͆ǰ…èH›‡é†Ç¶#°.
14. `Çy# ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò…èH› "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷ D
q+¬†Ç°O inform K͆ǰ…èH› ‡é†Ç¶=ò.
15. =~¡Â=ò =•#, "Í°=ò x#ß work continue
K͆ǰ…èH›‡é†Ç¶=ò.

The then Central Government
couldnot solve the Kashmir problem.

A sound mind is a sound body.

Z
246

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: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç Q®ey# XH› „¬xx
(„¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò) ability ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô x#ß quiz ‡é\©…Õ prize ïQ•°= Q®ey<Œ"Œ ?
x#ß Indian players easy Qê match ïQ•°=Q®ey<Œ~Œ ?
h=ô JO`Ç ‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê D job Z…ì ‡ÚO^Î Q®ey<Œ=ô ?
"Œ~¡° last week Zxß files clear K͆ǰ Q®ey<Œ~¡° ?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (ability)
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Could + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Could + I form"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g°\÷OQ· …Õ h=ô ƒìQê =¶\ìÁ_È
Q®ey<Œ"Œ ?
Could you speak well in the meeting
yesterday?

2. g°~¡ ° x#ß P „¬ x x ‹¬ H ê•O…Õ „¬ î ië
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~Œ ?
3.

4.

Could you finish that work in time
yesterday?
h=ô x#ß Interview board members #°
h answers `Ë satisfy K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ"Œ ?
Could you satisfy the members of the
Interview Board with your answers?
g° cousin last time h䛽 amount adjust

K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_¨ ?

Could your cousin adjust you the
amount last time?

5. J`Ç_°È `Ç# •H›¼Æ O ª•k•OKÇQe® y<Œ_¨ ?
Could he achieve his goal?
247

6. P"³° x#ß ‡é\©…Õ ƒìQê ‡•_ÈQe® y#^¥ ?
Could she sing well in the competition
yesterday ?

7. "Œ~¡° x#ß ‹¬=°†Ç¶xH÷ „¬sH›Æ ‚¬ð•°ä›½
KÍ~¡°HËQ®ey<Œ~Œ ?
Could they reach the examination hall
in time yesterday?

8. h=ô last time =°Oz =¶~¡°ø•°
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ"Œ ?

score

Could you score good marks last
time?

9. g°~¡° =¶ address easy Qê `³•°‹¬°HË
Q®ey<Œ~Œ ?
Could you find our address easily?

10. g°~¡° D „¦¬e`Ç=ò =òO^ΰQê<Í
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~Œ ?

guess

Could you guess this result earlier?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. g°~¡° x#ß P ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° JO`Ç ‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê
Z…ì „¬i+¬øiOKÇQ®ey<Œ~¡° ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

How could you solve that problem
easily yesterday?

12. Q®`Ç P~¡° ‹¬OII•…Õ h=ô ZO`Ç ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ
Q®ey<Œ=ô ?
13.

Howmuch amount could you earn in
the last six years ?
x#ß „¬sH›Æ…Õ h=ô Zxß questions answer

K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ô ?

16.

Howmany questions could you
answer in the examination yesterday?
Last World Cup finals …Õ Indian
batsmen Zxß „¬~°¡ Q®°•° K͆°Ç Q®ey<Œ~¡°?
Howmany runs could Indian batsmen
make in the finals of the last World
Cup?
"Œ~¡ ° x#ß ƒì¼Oä› ½ …Õ ZO`Ç amount
deposit K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~¡°?
Howmuch amount could they deposit
in the bank yesterday?
Last series …Õ Agarkar Zxß wickets

17.

Howmany wickets could Agarkar take
in the last series?
J`Ç _ È ° last time =°#ä› ½ Uq° help

18.

What help could he do for us last time?
JO`Çz#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ h=ô Bank Officer

14.

15.

19.

20.

f†Ç°Q®ey<Œ_È° ?

K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È° ?

Z…ì J=Q®ey<Œ=ô?

How could you become a Bank Officer
at a young age ?
P ㄬ=¶^ÎO #°Oz last time x#°ß Z=~¡°
save K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~¡°?
Who could save you from that danger
last time ?
g° unit …Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok agents last
month target KÍ~¡°HËQ®ey<Œ~¡° ?
Howmany agents could reach the
target in your unit last month ?

1. h=ô x#ß P train catch K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ"Œ?
2. g°~¡° P programme H÷ Jxß U~Œæ@°Á
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~Œ?
3. J`Ç _ È ° last time g°ä› ½ ƒìQê teach
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_¨?
4. P"³° q°=òà•#° identify K͆°Ç Q®ey#^¥?
5. "Œ~¡ °
last
time
JO`Ç # +¬ “ O
ƒ•’iOKÇQe® y<Œ~Œ?
6. g° friends last time =¶@Ì„á x•|_ÈQ®ey
<Œ~Œ?
7. "Œ~¡° =òO^ΰQê<Í D news `³•°‹¬°HË
Q®ey<Œ~Œ?
8. h=ô last year P Hê…èl…Õ admission
easy Qê ‡ÚO^ÎQ®ey<Œ"Œ?
9. last year g° …ÿH~ó› ~¡ •Ÿ [#=i…Õ<Í syllabus
complete K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~Œ?
10. last year J`Ç_È° Jxß subjects pass
J=Q®ey<Œ_¨?
11. g° lecturer x#ß h doubts Jxß clarify
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~Œ ?
12. _¨H›~“ Ÿ x#ß P"³° "Œ¼k•x Q®°iëOKÇQe® y<Œ~Œ?
13. JO`ÇÌ„^Îí ‹²\©…Õ h=ô J`Çx address Z…ì
H›#°Qù#Q®ey<Œ=ô?
14. Last time BJP POã^•Î„ã ^
¬ ‰Í …˜ ÕZxß seats
ïQ•=Q®ey#k?
15. g°~¡ ° last week Zxß files clear
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ~¡°?

A small leak sinks a great ship.

Z
248

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô x#ß class H÷ attend Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
g°~¡° x#ß U~Œæ@°Á ‹¬iQê K͆ǰ…èH›‡é†Ç¶~Œ ?
P"³° x#ß meeting …Õ ƒìQê =¶\ìÁ_È…èH› ‡é~ò#^¥?
J`Ç_È° last time exam H÷ ƒìQê prepare Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_¨?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò# „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò# (XH› „¬xx K͆ǰ
Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH‡› é=ô@) XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Couldn't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ "Couldn't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô x#ß train JO^ΰHË…èH›‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
2.

Couldn't you catch the train yesterday?
g°~¡° x#ß P show H÷ tickets ‡ÚO^Î…èH›

3.

Couldn't you get the tickets for that
show yesterday?
J`Ç _ È ° last year exam pass

‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?

Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_¨?

4.

Couldn't he pass the examination last
year?
P"³° last year EAMCET …Õ rank ‡ÚO^Î…Hè ›

5.

Couldn't she secure a rank in the
EAMCET last year?
"Œ~¡ ° P business …Õ success

‡é~ò#^¥?

Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?

Couldn't they succeed in that
business?
249

6. h=ô x#ß J`Çxx X„²æOKÇ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
Couldn't you convince him yesterday?

7. g°~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È
‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?

work

„¬îië K͆ǰ…èH›

Couldn't you finish the work there
yesterday?

8. h=ô x#ß JH›ø_È䛽 ‹¬=°†Ç¶xH÷ KÍ~¡°HË…èH›
‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
Couldn't you reach there in time
yesterday?

9. "Œ~¡ ° last
‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?

month bill

K³ e Á O KÇ … è H ›

Couldn't they pay the bill last time?

10. g°~¡ ° x#ß "ŒiH÷ =‹¬ u H› e æOKÇ … è H ›
‡é~ò<Œ~Œ ?
Couldn't
you
provide
accommodation yesterday?

them

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô last year P college …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 seat
‡ÚO^Î…èH›‡é~ò<Œ=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Why couldn't you get a seat in that
college last year?
Sachin Captain Qê ZO^ΰ䛽 success

13.

Why couldn't Sachin succeed as a
Captain?
g°~¡° P exam ƒìQê ZO^ΰ䛽 ã"Œ†Ç°…èH›

14.

Why couldn't you write that exam well?
h=ô P interview ƒìQê ZO^ΰ䛽 K͆ǰ…èH›

15.

Why couldn't you do that interview
well?
J`Ç_È° h䛽 P q+¬†Ç°O…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 help

16.

Why couldn't he help you in that
matter?
P"³ ° x#ß party H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ attend

1. h=ô x#ß test …Õ Jxß questions answer
K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
2. x#ß friendly match …Õ g°~¡ ° "Œix
F_•OKÇ…Hè ‡› é~ò<Œ~Œ?
3. Last time ZxßH›•…Õ P†Ç°# majority
‡ÚO^Î…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?
4. P"³° x#ß WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…èH›‡é~òO^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° last time g°ä›½ material supply
K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?
6. h=ô x#ß J`ÇxH÷ amount adjust K͆ǰ…èH›
‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
7. g°~¡ ° P ‹¬ = °‹¬ ¼ #° „¬ i +¬ ø iOKÇ … è H ›
‡é~ò<Œ~Œ?
8. h=ô x#ß J`Ç x =¶@•° #=°à…è H ›
‡é~ò<Œ"Œ?
9. J`Ç_È° last year =°Oz =¶~¡°ø•° score
K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_¨?
10. P"³° P J==¶#O ƒ•’iOKÇ…Hè ‡› é~ò#^¥?
11. g°~¡° P q+¬†Ç°O…Õ ‹¬i†³Ø°# x~¡â†Ç°O
ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°HË…èH›‡é†Ç¶~¡°?
12. h=ô x#ß J`Ç x x ZO^Î ° ä› ½ H› • °=…è H ›
‡é†Ç¶=ô?
13. g°~¡° J`ÇxÌ„á ZO^ΰ䛽 KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°HË…èH›
‡é†Ç¶~¡°?
14. "Œ~¡° P course time H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬îië
K͆ǰ…èH›‡é†Ç¶~¡°?
15. g°~¡° x#ß P programme …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
participate K͆ǰ…èH›‡é†Ç¶~¡°?

Hê…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_È°?

‡é~ò<Œ~¡°?

‡é~ò<Œ=ô?

K͆ǰ…èH›‡é~ò<Œ_È°?

Hê…èH›‡é~òOk?

Why couldn't she attend the party
yesterday?

17. P"³° P "Œ¼k• #°Oz ZO^ΰ䛽 HË•°HË…èH›
‡é~ò#k ?
18.

Why couldn't she recover from that
decease?
"Œ~¡ ° x#ß match ZO^Î ° ä› ½ ï Q •°=…è H ›

19.

Why couldn't they win that match
yesterday?
P†Ç°# last time ZO^ΰ䛽 minister Hê…èH›

20.

Why couldn't he become a minister last
time?
"Œ~¡° P loan ZO^ΰ䛽 clear K͆ǰ…èH›

‡é~ò<Œ~¡°?

‡é~ò<Œ~¡°?

‡é~ò<Œ~¡°?

Why couldn't they clear that loan?

Z

Vows made in a storm are forgotten in a calm.

250

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Could' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Could' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb JO\ì~¡ ° . nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.
POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (capacity)
H› e y†Ç ò O_È ° @#° Q® ° iOz ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Could + I form of the verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex :

2.

1. I could speak well in the meeting yesterday.
2. We could complete the course successfully.
3. He could win the election with good majority last time.
4. They could achieve the target last time.
NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH› XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èH‡› é~ò# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Could not + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

1. I could not attend the meeting yesterday.
2. We could not write exam well last time.
3. He could not help us last time.
4. They could not satisfy the customers.
QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò`Ë K͆°Ç Q®•y# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Could + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Could you find his address easily yesterday?
2. Could you do the interview well yesterday?
3. Could he pass the Group-2 exam in the first attempt?
4. Could they clear the loan in time?
NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH› XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç …èH‡› é=ô@#°
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Couldn't + I form of the
Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

251

1.
2.
3.
4.

Couldn't you pay the bill last month?
Couldn't you stay there alone last night?
Couldn't he help you last time?
Couldn't they reach the station in time?

,

: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

501.

Resign

resigned

resigned

502.

Resolve

resolved

resolved

503.

Resume

resumed

resumed

504.

Retire

retired

retired

505.

Return

returned

returned

506.

Reveal

revealed

revealed

507.

Revenge

revenged

revenged

508.

Revise

revised

revised

509.

Roam

roamed

roamed

510.

Roar

roared

roared

511.

Rob

robbed

robbed

512.

Roll

rolled

rolled

513.

Rub

rubbed

rubbed

514.

Rush

rushed

rushed

515.

Salute

saluted

saluted

516.

Satisfy

satisfied

satisfied

517.

Save

saved

saved

518.

Scatter

scattered

scattered

519.

Scold

scolded

scolded

520.

Scream

screamed

screamed

D ~ËA

Meaning

~Œr<Œ=¶K͆Çò
f~ŒàxOKÇ°
uiy ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ°
q~¡=°}K͆Çò@
uiy=KÇ°ó@
`³e†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ°@
„¬Q®f~¡°óH›ù#°@
`Ç„¬C•°k^ΰ“
T~¡H›u~¡°Q®°@
Q®iûOKÇ°@
^ËKÇ°H›ù#°@
Q®°Oã_È=òQê u~¡°Q®°@
~¡°^ΰí@
"ÍQ®=òQê‡é=ô@
#=°‹¬øiOKÇ°@
`Ç$„²ë„¬~¡KÇ°@
Hꇕ_Ȱ@
"³^Î[•°Á@
u@°“@
öHH›"͆Çò@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
252

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: 94406 16425

HAVE TO
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡=ò#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° D ~ËA L.I.C. office 䛽 "³ˆ×¤=•‹² =ô#ßk.
"Í°=ò D "Œ~¡=ò tax pay K͆ǰ=•‹² †Çò#ßk.
J`Ç_È° D ~ËA duty …Õ join J==•‹² †Çò#ßk.
P"³° doctor #° consult Hê=•‹²†òÇ #ßk.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò XH›~¡° K͆ǰ =•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ W„¬C_È°, D ~ËA, D"Œ~¡O, D
<³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=¡ ò#ß XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have to / Has to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, we, you, they subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have to'.
He, She, it subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has to' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° W„¬C_È° "³O@<Í
"³ˆ×¤=•‹² †Çò#ßk.

railway station

䛽

I have to go to railway station
immediately now.

2. "Í°=ò D "Œ~¡O house tax K³eÁOKÇ=•‹²
†Çò#ßk.
We have to pay house tax this week.

3. g°~¡°

application D~ËA „
ã x
² •‡•…˜ä½›
submit K͆ǰ=•‹²†Çò#ßk.
You have to submit the application
form to the principal today.

4. =¶ brother D Sunday Hyderabad …Õ
interview H÷ attend J==•‹²†Çò#ßk?
My brother has to attend an interview
in Hyderabad this Sunday.

5. <Í#° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hard work K͆°Ç =•‹²
†Çò#ßk.
I have to work hard this year.
253

6. "Œ~¡° D<³• D W•°Á Mìm K͆ǰ=•‹²
†Çò#ßk.
They have to vacate this house this
month.

7. P"³° D ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`ÇO
consult Hê=•‹²†Çò#ßk.

doctor

She has to consult the doctor this
evening.

8. "Í°=ò =¶ =îiH÷ 4 H÷.g° #_È==•‹²
†Çò#ßk.
We have to walk 4 Kms. to our village.

9. g°~¡ ° D work D~ËA
K͆ǰ=•‹²†Çò#ßk.

finish

You have to finish this work today.

10. =¶ father D ~ËA
†Çò#ßk.

camp

䛽 "³ˆ×¤=•‹²

My father has to go on camp today.

,

11. P"³° ㄬu~ËE afternoon „²•Á•ä›½
box f‹¬°ä›½"³ˆ×¤=•‹² †Çò#ßk.

EXERCISE

lunch

She has to take lunch box for children
every afternoon.

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12. "Œ~¡° D game ƒìQê practice K͆°Ç =•‹²
†Çò#ßk.

1.

They have to practise this game well.

2.

13. g°~¡ ° =òO^Î ° Qê J`Ç x x H› • ==•‹²
†Çò#ßk.
You have to meet him first.

14. P"³ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O
†Çò#ßk.

rest

f‹¬ ° Hù#=•‹² #

She has to take rest at present.

15. <Í#° text books refer K͆°Ç =•‹²†ò
Ç #ßk.
I have to refer to the text books.

16. "Í ° =ò ã „ ¬ u ~ËA accounts
K͆ǰ=•‹²†Çò#ßk.

maintain

We have to maintain the accounts
every day.

17. "Í°=ò ~ËE P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ 10 Q®OII•° „¬x
K͆ǰ=•‹²†Çò#ßk.
We have to work ten hours in our office
daily.

18. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\÷H›„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ matter inform
K͆ǰ=•‹²†Çò#ßk.
you have to inform us the matter from
time to time .

19.

English improve KÍ‹¬°Hù#°@䛽 g°~¡°
English magazines KÇ^°Î ==•‹²†ò
Ç #ßk.
You have to read English magazines
to improve English.

20. "Œ~¡° D <³•…Õ entrance test 䛽 appear
J==•‹²†Çò#ßk.

: 94406 16425

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

<Í#° D "Œ~¡O =¶ brother H÷ money
„¬O„¬=•‹²=ô#ßk.
"Í ° =ò D <³ • …Õ Bank loan clear
K͆ǰ=•‹²=ô#ßk.
h=ô text books Jxß Hù#=•‹²=ô#ßk.
School Children uniform ^•ÎiOKÇ
=•‹²=ô#ßk.
"Œ~¡° „
ã u
¬ ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ study classes H÷
attend J==•‹²=ô#ßk.
J`Ç_°È sincere Qê work K͆°Ç =•‹²=ô#ßk.
P"³° D medicine ~ËAH÷ ï~O_È°ª•~¡°Á
f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²=ô#ßk.
<Í#° ㄬu ~ËA =¶ „²•Á•#° school ^ÎQ®¾~¡
drop K͆ǰ=•‹²=ô#ßk.
"Í°=ò "Œ~¡O ~ËA•HùH›ª•i report submit
K͆ǰ=•‹²=ô#ßk.
<Í#° ㄬu ~ËA manager 䛽 account
KǶ„¬=•‹²=ô#ßk.
J`Ç_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡ „¬#°• g°^Πㄬu~ËA
ㄬ†Ç¶}O K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
P"³° ㄬu~ËA 5am H÷ xã^Î …è==•‹²
=ôO@°Ok.
J`Ç _ È ° `Ç # old parents ä› ½ serve
K͆ǰ=•‹²=ô#ßk.
<Í#° „
ã u
¬ ~ËA college …Õ 10 hours teach
K͆ǰ=•‹²=ôO@°Ok.
"Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ u <³ • bank ä› ½ ~¡ ¶ . 2500
K³eÁOKÇ=•‹²=ô#ßk.

They have to appear for the entrance
test this month.

Man proposes and God disposes.

Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡=ò …èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° J‹¬•° room H÷ rent pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
"Í°=ò J‹¬•° taxes pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° job K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
P"³° J‹¬•° college H÷ "³ˆ×¤#=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò …èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡ …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't have to / Doesn't have to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, We, You, They Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Don't have to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
He, She, It, Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Doesn't have to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J‹¬•° =¶WO\ÕÁ „¬xK͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
2.

I don't have to work in my house at
all.
"Í ° =°‹¬ • ° Sunday duty H÷ attend

6. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° W`Ç~°¡ •Ì„á depend J==•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
7.

They don't have to depend on other's
at all.
<Í#° J‹¬•° =¶ brothers 䛽 help

3.

We don't have to attend the duty on
Sunday at all.
=¶ brother J‹¬•° W`Ç~¡°• ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O

8.

I don't have to help my brothers at
all.
"Í ° =ò J‹¬ • ° accounts maintain

4.

My brother doesn't have to seek
other's help.
P"³° J‹¬•° hostel …Õ stay K͆ǰ=•‹²#

9.

We don't have to maintain accounts
at all.
J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° job K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O

5.

She doesn't have to stay in the hostel
at all.
"Œ~¡ ° J‹¬ • ° tax pay KÍ † Ç ° =•‹² #

10. P"³° J‹¬•° WO\ÕÁ#°O_• |†Ç°@䛽
~Œ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.

HË~¡=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

They don't have to pay tax at all.
255

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
…è^ΰ.

He doesn't have to do job at all.

She does't have to come out of the
house at all.

,

11. <Í # ° J‹¬ • ° maths H÷ coaching
f‹¬°HË=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
I don't have to take coaching for Maths
at all.

12. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° guides follow J==•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
We don't have to follow guides at all.

13. J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° bus …èH› train •…Õ „
ã †
¬ ¶
Ç }O
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
He doesn't have to travel by bus or
train.

14. <Í#° J‹¬•° <Œ studies Q®°iOz
Hê=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

worry

I don't have to worry about my studies
at all.

15. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° money J„¬C K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
We don't have to borrow money at
all.

16. P"³° J‹¬•° doctor #° consult J==•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
She doesn't have to consult the
doctor at all.

17. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° Z=ih
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

care

K͆ǰ=•‹²#

They don't have to care anybody at
all.

18. <Í#° J‹¬•° JH›ø_È money Y~¡°ó Ì„@“
=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
I don't have to spend money there at
all.

19. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° money ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
He doesn't have to earn money at all.

20. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°Hù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
We don't have to interefere in their
matter.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° J‹¬•° Sunday office H÷ "³ˆ×Á=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° Z=iH© ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_=
È •‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
3. h=ô J‹¬•° D job …Õ risk f‹¬°HË=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
4. J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° =¶ä›½ money „¬O„¬=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
5. P"³° J‹¬•° Z=ih ‹¬OㄬkOKÇ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
6. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° WH›ø_È stay K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
7. <Í#° J‹¬•° Z=iH© q=~¡} W=Þ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
8. "Í ° =ò J‹¬ • ° essays H› O ~” ¡ ‹ ¬ ë O
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
9. <Í#° J‹¬•° Z=i ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
10. "Í°=ò class room …Õ notes "
ã Œ†Ç°=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
11. XH› senior lecturer book refer
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
12. "Í ° =ò J‹¬ • ° Bank •…Õ loan
f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
13. J`Ç _ È ° J‹¬ • ° Cell Phone use
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
14. P"³ ° ã „ ¬ u <³ • doctor #° consult
J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
15. "Œ~¡° ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O Manager `Ë discuss
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.

After a storm comes calm.

Z

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò#ß
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

h=ô ㄬu ~ËA computer class H÷ attend J==•‹² L#ß^¥ ?
g°~¡° ㄬu <³• report submit K͆ǰ=•‹² L#ß^¥ ?
P"³° „ã u¬ <³• doctor #° consult J==•‹² L#ß^¥ ?
J`Ç_È° ㄬu "Œ~¡O camp "³ˆ×¤=•‹² L#ß^¥ ?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•…Õx „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò LO_È°@#° Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê W„¬C_È°, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ , „ã u¬ ~ËA,
„ã u¬ "Œ~¡O, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡ LO_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Do/Does + have to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, we, you, they - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Do + have to'
He, She, It - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Does + have to" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô „
ã u
¬ ~ËA office …Õ „¬k Q®O@•° work
K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°O^¥ ?
Do you have to work ten hours in the
office daily ?

2. h=ô D medicine ㄬu~ËA f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²
L#ß^¥ ? Do you have to take this

6. "Œ~¡° govt. orders 䛽 H›@°“|_• LO_È=•‹²
L#ß^¥ ?

8.

Do they have to abide by the govt.
orders?
h=ô „
ã u
¬ ª•i g° grandfather H÷ `Ë_È°Qê
hospital 䛽 "³ˆ×¤=•‹² L#ß^¥ ?
Do you have to accompany your
grandfather to hospital everytime ?
P"³° „
ã u
¬ <³• doctor #° consult J==•‹²

9.

Does she have to consult the doctor
every month ?
g°~¡° ㄬu <³• bank …Õ money deposit

10.

Do you have to deposit money in the
bank every month ?
"Œ~¡° ㄬu<³• report submit K͆ǰ=•‹²

7.

medicine daily?

3. g°~¡° ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O manager `Ë discuss
K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°O^¥?
Do you have to discuss every matter
with the Manager ?

4. g° father ㄬu"Œ~¡O camp "³ˆ×¤=•‹²
L#ß^¥? Does your brother have to go
on camp every week ?

5. P"³° „
ã u
¬ =°^•¥¼‚¬ìßO „²••Á 䛽
f‹¬°ä›½"³ˆ×¤=•‹² L#ß^¥ ?

lunch box

Does she have to take lunch box for
children every afternoon ?
257

L#ß^¥ ?

K͆ǰ=•‹² L#ß^¥ ?

LO@°O^¥ ?

Do they have to submit the report
every month ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. h=ô ㄬu ~ËA duty H÷ Z„¬C_È°
J==•‹² LO@°Ok ?

attend

12.

When do you have to attend the duty
every day ?
h=ô ㄬu <³• g° brother H÷ ZO`Ç money

13.

Howmuch money do you have to
send your brother every month ?
g°~¡ ° office …Õ ~ËAH÷ Zxß Q® O @•°

„¬O„¬=•‹² LO@°Ok ?

„¬xK͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok ?

Howmany hours do you have to work
in your office in a day ?

14. h=ô ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O <³•¶Á~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽
"³ˆ×¤=•‹² LO@°Ok ?
15.

Why do you have to go to Nellore
every Sunday ?
g°~¡° D scheme …Õ <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç pay

16.

Howmuch money do you have to pay
in this scheme per month ?
g°~¡° "Œ~ŒxH÷ Zxß files clear K͆ǰ=•‹²

17.

Howmany files do you have to clear
in a week ?
h=ô morning U time H÷ xã^Î …è==•‹²

18.

At what time do you have to wake up
in the morning ?
h=ô duty …Õ ~ËAH÷ Zxß H÷…Õ g°@~¡°Á travel

19.

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K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok ?
LO@°Ok?

LO@°Ok ?

K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok ?

Howmany kilometres do you have to
travel on duty in a day ?
Schedule ㄬHê~¡=ò =°#=ò XH› <³•ä›½
Zxß lessons teach KÍ † Ç ° =•‹²

LO@°Ok?

Howmany lessons do we have to
teach according to the schedule in a
month ?

20. =°#=ò JH› ø _È =òO^Î ° Qê Z=ix
H›•==•‹² LO@°Ok ?
Whom do we have to consult there
earlier ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô college …Õ ã„¬u ~ËA study classes
H÷ attend J==•‹² =ô#ß^¥?
2. g°~¡ ° ã „ ¬ u <³ • 5th …Õ„¬ • rent pay
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ô#ß^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° ㄬu ~ËA D medicine f‹¬°Hù#
=•‹²=ô#ß^¥?
4. P"³° ㄬu <³• _¨H›“~Ÿ#° consult J==•‹²
L#ß^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° ㄬu ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O annual report
prepare K͆ǰ=•‹² L#ß^¥?
6. h=ô D ~ËA g° uncle …Õ =¶\ìÁ_È=•‹²
=ô#ß^¥?
7. g°~¡° D <³• test 䛽 appear J==•‹²
=ô#ß^¥?
8. P†Ç°# W„¬C_È° "Œix H›•°==•‹² L#ß^¥?
9. P"³° library membership f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²
=ô#ß^¥ ?
10. "Œ~¡° D age …Õ J`Çx„
Ì á depend J==•‹²
=ô#ß^¥?
11. g°~¡° ~ËAH÷ Zxß questions <Í~°¡ óHù#=•‹²
=ôO@°Ok ?
12. h=ô ㄬu ~ËA computer class H÷ Z„¬C_È°
attend J==•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?
13. XH› LIC agent <³•H÷ Zxß policies book
K͆ǰ=•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?
14. Office …Õ leave Hù~¡ ä › ½ g°~¡ ° Z=i
J#°=°u HË~¡=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?
15. Inter-students U grammar book refer
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?

Z

They also serve who stand and wait.

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡
=ôO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô J‹¬•° guides follow J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^¥?
g°~¡° J‹¬•° tuition f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^¥ ?
J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° college fee pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^¥?
P"³° J‹¬•° P~ËQ®¼O Q®°iOz worry Hê#=‹¬~¡O …è^¥?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò …èH› J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_Èx „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò Qêx "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# Qêx …èH› J‹¬…„ÿ æ¬ \÷H©
Qêx K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=¡ ò …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't / Does n't + have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They –> Subject
He, She, It –>

Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Don't have to" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Doesn't have to " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô J‹¬ • ° Maths H÷ coaching
f‹¬°H›ù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O…è^¥?
2.

Don't you have to take coaching for
Maths at all ?
g°~¡ ° J‹¬ • ° night duty H÷ attend

J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

3.

Don't you have to attend the night duty
at all?
J`Ç _ È ° J‹¬ • ° camp •ä› ½ "³ ˆ × ¤ = •‹² #

4.

Doesn't he have to go on camps at
all?
P"³° J‹¬•° doctor #° consult J==•‹²#

5.

J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

Doesn't she have to consult the doctor
at all?
"Œ~¡° J‹¬•° taxes K³eOÁ KÇ=•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡

=ôO_È^¥?

Don't they have to pay taxes at all?
259

6. h=ô J‹¬ • ° g° brother H÷
„¬O„¬=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
7.

money

Don't you have to send money to your
brother at all?
g°~¡ ° J‹¬ • ° accounts maintain

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

Don't you have to maintain the
accounts at all?

8. J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° Z=iÌ„<
á Œ P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È •‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
Doesn't he have to depend on others
at all?

9. P"³° J‹¬•° WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
=ôO_È^¥?
Doesn't she have to come here at all?

10. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° W`Ç~°¡ • ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO HË~¡=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥ ?
Don't they have to seek others help at
all?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô books refer K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why don't you have to refer to the
books?

12. g°~¡° text books Hù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why don't you have to buy text books?

13. J`Ç_È° camp •ä›½ "³ˆ×¤=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why doesn't he have to go on camps?

14. P"³° medicines f‹¬°H›ù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why doesn't she have to take
medicines?

15. "Œ~¡ ° notes ã " Œ†Ç ° =•‹² # J=‹¬ ~ ¡ O
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why don't they have to write notes?

16. h=ô H›+¬“„¬_È=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ?
Why don't you have to work hard?

17. g°~¡° project report `dž¶
Ç ~¡° K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽=ôO_È^ΰ ?
Why don't you have to prepare the
project report?

18. "Œ~¡ ° J‹¬ • ° ‡Ú•O…Õ fertilizers use
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why don't they have to use fertilizers
in the field?

19. g°~¡° J‹¬•° games practise K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why don't you have to practise
games?

20. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° money ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why doesn't he have to earn money
at all?

1. h=ô J‹¬•° lessons byheart K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^¥?
2. g°~¡° J‹¬•° "Œi J#°=°u f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° money Y~¡°ó Ì„@“=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
4. P"³ ° J‹¬ • ° WO\÷ #°O_• |†Ç ° @ä› ½
~Œ=•‹¬²# J=‹¬~¡OLO_È^¥?
5. "Œ~¡ ° J‹¬ • ° „¦ ¬ e `Œ• Q® ° iOz worry
J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
6. h=ô J‹¬•° money J„¬C K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
7. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° rice Hù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
=ôO_È^¥?
8. h=ô J‹¬•° "Œi ‹¬•‚¬ð f‹¬°HË=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
9. J`Ç _ È ° J‹¬ • ° |‹¬ ° •…Õ ã „ ¬ † Ç ¶ }O
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
10. P"³° J‹¬•° study classes 䛽 "³ˆ×¤#=‹¬~¡O
=ôO_È^¥?
11. g°~¡° entrance test 䛽 appear J==•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
12. J`ÇxH÷ job K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡ ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ?
13. P"³° J‹¬•° reports `džǶ~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
14. h=ô J‹¬•° cell phone use K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
15. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° J`Çx q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°Hù# =•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^¥?

Anger without power is folly.

Z
260

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have to / Has to' Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question
Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò Hêh, ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêh XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have to / Has to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I have to work ten hours daily.

4. They have to consult the Manager every Monday.

3. He has to go on camp every week. 2. We have to pay rent on 5th every month.
2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò Hêh, J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© Hêh XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Don't have to / Doesn't have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I don't have to take any risk in my job.
2. We don't have to attend the duty on Sundays.
3. He doesn't have to care anyone.
4. They don't have to show any guarantee.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

„¬‹¬°ë`Ç=ò Hêh, ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêh XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Do / Does + have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Do you have to speak English in your college?
2. Do you have to discuss every matter with your Manager?
3. Does he have to lookafter his business?
4. Does she have to take this medicine daily?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

„¬‹¬°ë`Ç=ò Hêh, J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© Hêh XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Don't have to / Doesn't have to + I form of the
Verb"L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Don't you have to go on camps at all?
2. Don't you have to wake up early in the morning?
3. Doesn't he have to know the details every time?
4. Don't they have to encourage him?

261

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

521.

Seem

seemed

seemed

522.

Seize

seized

seized

523.

Separate

separated

separated

524.

Serve

served

served

525.

Settle

settled

settled

526.

Sharpen

sharpened

sharpened

527.

Shift

shifted

shifted

528.

Shiver

shivered

shivered

529.

Simplify

simplified

simplified

530.

Sip

sipped

sipped

531.

Slip

slipped

slipped

532.

Smash

smashed

smashed

533.

Smear

smeared

smeared

534.

Snatch

snatched

snatched

535.

Sneeze

sneezed

sneezed

536.

Snore

snored

snored

537.

Soak

soaked

soaked

538.

Sob

sobbed

sobbed

539.

Solicite

solicited

solicited

540.

Solve

solved

solved

D ~ËA

III Form

Meaning

JQ®°„¬_È°@
„¬@°“H›ù#°@
"Í~¡°K͆Çò@
À‹=K͆Çò@
‹²Ö~¡„¬_È°@,
=°^μ=ië`ÇÞ=ò K͆Çò@
„¬^ΰ#°Ì„@°“@
=¶~¡°ó@
=}°ä›½@
‹¬°•ƒ•’=òK͆òÇ @
„Ô•°ó@
*ì~¡°@, *ì~¡q_È°KÇ°@
„¬Q®°•Qù@°“
„¬î†Çò@
…ìQ®°H›ù#°@
`Ç°=òà@
Q®°~¡H› Ì„@°“@
<Œ#ƒÿ@°“@
"³H÷ø "³H÷ø U_È°ó@
"Í_°È Hù#°, ‡ã •iÖOKÇ°@
„¬i+¬øiOKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
262

A thief thinks that everyone steals.

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HAD TO
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =zó# XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° x#ß sudden Qê <³•¶Á~¡° "³ˆ×¤=•‹² =zó#k.
"Í°=ò last week special class H÷ attend Hê=•‹² =zó#k.
=¶ sister last year studies discontinue K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
=¶ brother last Sunday interview H÷ attend Hê=•‹² =zó#k.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò =zó# XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Had to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Had to' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß urgent „¬xg°^Î =¶
place "³ˆ×¤=•‹² =zó#k.

native

6. "Œ~¡°

2.

I had to go to our native place on some
urgent work.
"Í°=ò x#ß Bank Manager #° consult

3.

We had to consult the Bank Manager
yesterday.
=¶ brother last month job H÷ resign

8.

4.

My brother had to resign to his job
last month.
P"³° last week hospital …Õ LO_È=•‹²

9.

5.

She had to stay in the hospital last
week.
<Í#° x#ß =¶ friends H÷ help K͆ǰ=•‹²

10.

J==•‹² =zó#k.

K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
=zó#k.

=zó#k.

I had to help my friends yesterday.
263

7.

last month sudden Qê P house
vacate K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
They had to vacate that house
suddenly last month.
"Í°=ò last month money J„¬C K͆°Ç =•‹²

=zó#k.

We had to borrow money last month.
=¶ father x#ß bank #°Oz ~¡¶. 10,000
withdraw K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
My father had to withdraw Rs. 10,000
from the bank yesterday.
"Í°=ò x#ß =~¡Â=ò=•# programme
cancel K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
We had to cancel the programme due
to rain yesterday.
"Œ~¡° x#ß g°\÷OQ· postpone K͆ǰ=•‹²

=zó#k.

They had to postpone the meeting
yesterday.

,

11. <Í#° =¶ grandfather 䛽 `Ë_È°Qê x#ß
<³•¶Á~¡° "³ˆ×¤=•‹² =zó#k.
I had to accompany my grandfather
to Nellore yesterday.

12. "Í ° =ò Q® ` Ç ~ Œã u =¶
Q®_È„¬=•‹² =zó#k.

friends

WO\ÕÁ

We had to spend in our friends house
last night.

13. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O business …Õ KŒ…ì
#+¬“O face K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
They had to face heavy loss in
business last year.

14. =¶ cousin last year studies discontinue
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
My cousin had to discontinue her
studies last year.

15. "Í ° =ò x#ß P train …Õ ordinary
compartment …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O K͆ǰ=•‹²
=zó#k.
We had to travel in the ordinary
compartment in the train yesterday.

16.

<Í # ° Maths H÷ HËzOQ·
f‹¬°HË=•‹² =zó#k.

last year

I had to take coaching for Mathematics
last year.

17. "Í°=ò x#ß principal HË‹¬O two hours wait
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
We had to wait for the principal two
hours yesterday.

18. <Í#° x#ß office H÷ leave apply K͆°Ç =•‹²
=zó#k.
I had to apply for leave to office
yesterday.

19. "Í°=ò x#ß P q+¬†Ç°O =¶
discuss K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.

father

20. "Œ~¡° last
=zó#k.

J=°à=•‹²

We had to discuss that matter with my
father yesterday.
year

"Œi

house

They had to sell their house last year.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° x#ß Exam fee pay K͆ǰ=•‹²
=zó#k.
2. "Í°=ò Last week bank …Õ Rs. 2500
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
3. "Í°=ò x#ß P village H÷ 5 Kms #_È°=
=•‹² =zó#k.
4. P†Ç ° # Q® ` Ç Zxß H › • =òO^Î ° ‡•s“
=¶~¡=•‹² =zó#k.
5. =¶ lecturers last year special classes
f‹¬°Hù#=•‹² =zó#k.
6. x#ß journey …Õ "Í°=ò KŒ…ì risk face
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
7. "Í°=ò last time Group-2 „¬sH›Æ䛽 Hyd.
…Õ coaching f‹¬°Hù#=•‹² =zó#k.
8. "Œ~¡° x#ß P"³°#° hospital …Õ admit
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
9. "Œ~¡° last month family Nellore H÷ shift
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
10. "Í°=ò x#ß "Œi ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=•‹²
=zó#k.
11. <Í#° x#ß text books Hù#=•‹² =zó#k.
12. =¶ brother last year hostel …Õ stay
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
13. P"³° x#ß guests 䛽 special items
`džǶ~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k.
14. <Í#° last Sunday Bangalore …Õ XH›
seminar …Õ participate KÍ † Ç ° =•‹²
=zó#k.
15. P"³ ° last month Hyderabad Care
hospital …Õ treatment ‡ÚO^Î = •‹²
=zó#k.

Z

Be a Roman when you are in Rome.

264

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° x#ß office H÷ "³ˆ×¤=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
"Í°=ò last year entrance test 䛽 appear J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
=¶ brother studies discontinue K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
P"³° last year donation pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + have to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular Plural

U^³á##¶ 'Didn't have to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß J`Çxx H›•°= =•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
~Œ…è^ΰ.

3.

I did not have to meet him yesterday.
"Í ° =ò last year entrance test H÷
coaching f‹¬°HË=•‹²# J=‹¬~O
¡ ~Œ…è^°Î .
We did not have to take coaching for
the entrance test last year.
=¶ brother last time job H÷ resign

4.

My brother did not have to resign to
his job last year.
P"³° last month hospital …Õ LO_È=•‹²#

5.

She did not have to stay in the
hospital last month.
"Œ~¡ ° last month house vacate

2.

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.

They did not have to vacate the house
last month.
265

6. <Í#° x#ß penalty K³eOÁ KÇ=•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡
H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
I did not have to pay penalty
yesterday.

7. "Í ° =ò x#ß P =îiH÷ #_È ° ==•‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
We did not have to walk to that village
yesterday.

8. P"³ ° x#ß P„¦ Ô ‹ ¬ ° H÷ leave
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

apply

She did not have to apply for leave to
the office yesterday.

9. <Í # ° last month money J„¬ C
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
I did not have to borrow money last
month.

,

10. "Í°=ò last year WH›ø_È problem
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

face

11.

We did not have to face this problem
here last year.
"Œ~¡ ° last month class ä› ½ attend

12.

They did not have to attend the
classes last month.
"Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° licence ‡ÚO^Î = •‹² #

13.

We did not have to get the licence
then.
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° job K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O

14.

He did not have to do job then.
<Í#° last year hostel …Õ KÍ~¡=•‹²#

Hê=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.

J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.

J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.

I did not have to join hostel last year.

15. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O entrance test 䛽
appear J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
We did not have to appear for the
entrance test last year.

16. <Í#° x#ß J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
17.

I did not have to seek his help
yesterday.
"Í ° =ò "Œi`Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O discuss

18.

We did not have to discuss this
matter with them.
J`Ç_È° last time training ‡ÚO^Î=•‹²#

19.

He did not have to undergo training
last time.
"Œ~¡° Z䛽ø= amount invest K͆°Ç =•‹²#

20.

They did not have to invest much
amount.
<Í # ° x#ß JH› ø _È "ŒiHË‹¬ O wait

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° x#ß JH› ø _È J`Ç x `Ë stay
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò last month JH›ø_È䛽 "³ˆ×¤=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
3. P"³° J„¬VC_È° D course K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
4. "Œ~¡° Q®`ÇO…Õ night duty H÷ attend
J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
5. J`Ç _ È ° x#ß JH› ø _È "Œix receive
KÍ‹¬°Hù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
6. <Í#° last time WO`Ç syllabus prepare
J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
7. "Í ° =ò last year donation pay
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
8. P†Ç°# Q®`Ç ZxßH›•…Õ ïQ•°„¬ôHË‹¬O
Zä› ½ ø= amount Y~¡ ° ó Ì „ @“ = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
9. P"³ ° x#ß "ŒiH÷ =°~¡ • explain
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
10. "Œ~¡ ° last week P programme …Õ
‡•…ç¾#=•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡ H›•°Q®…^
è °Î .
11. <Í # ° D job HË‹¬ O Zä› ½ ø=
H›+¬“„¬_È=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
12. "Í°=ò last year P town H÷ family shift
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
13. h=ô last year private college …Õ
KÍ~¡=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^ΰ.
14. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° Wxß subjects
KÇ^ΰ==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.
15. P†Ç°# x#ß WH›ø_Èä½› ~Œ=•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡
H›•°Q®…è^ΰ.

I did not have to wait for them there
yesterday.

Cleanliness is next to Godliness.

Z
266

,

: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =zó#
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô x#ß K³<³áß "³ˆ×¤=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?
g°~¡° x#ß meeting postpone K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?
J`Ç_È° last month money J„¬C K͆ǰ=•‹²=zó#^¥ ?
P"³° last week heart specialist #° consult J==•‹² =zó#^¥ ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò =zó# XH›
„¬xx Q®¶ió ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò =zó# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + have to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural

U^³á##° 'Did + have to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g°~¡° programme cancel K͆°Ç =•‹²
=zó#^¥ ?

6. h=ô x#ß g° brother H÷ money „¬O„¬=•‹²
=zó#^¥ ?

2.

7.

Did you have to send money to your
brother yesterday ?
P"³ ° last year studies discontinue

8.

Did she have to discontinue her
studies last year ?
g°~¡° x#ß J`Çx HË‹¬O KŒ…ì À‹„¬ô wait

9.

Did you have to wait for him for a long
time yesterday ?
"Œ~¡° last year P house sale K͆°Ç =•‹²

Did you have to cancel the
programme yesterday ?
Last week g°~¡° Ì‹q°<Œ~Ÿ…Õ participate

K͆ǰ=•‹²=zó#^¥ ?

4.

Did you have to participate in the
seminar last week ?
g° brother last year private college …Õ
join J==•‹²=zó#^¥ ?
Did your brother have to join private
college last year ?
"Œ~¡ ° x#ß J`Ç x H÷ help KÍ † Ç ° =•‹²

5.

Did they have to help him yesterday ?
g°~¡ ° last time bank #°O_• loan

3.

=zó#^¥ ?

f‹¬°HË=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?

Did you have to take loan from the
bank last time ?
267

K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?

K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?
=zó#^¥ ?

Did they have to sell that house last
year ?

10. g°~¡° x#ß D q+¬†Ç°O JO`Œ J`ÇxH÷
explain K͆ǰ=•‹²=zó#^¥ ?
Did you have to explain this matter to
him yesterday ?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. g°~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È Z=ix consult J==•‹²
=zó#k ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

13.

14.

Whom did you have to consult there
yesterday ?
g°~¡° last time P problem Z…ì solve

K͆ǰ=•‹²=zó#k ?

How did you have to solve that
problem last time ?
g°~¡° sudden Qê P house ZO^ΰ䛽
vacate K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k ?
Why did you have to vacate that
house suddenly ?
~Œã u g°~¡ ° ZH› ø _È stay KÍ † Ç ° =•‹²

=zó#k?

16.

Where did you have to stay last night?
h=ô last year M.C.A. course H÷ ZO`Ç
donation pay K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k ?
Howmuch donation did you have to
pay for MCA course last year ?
g°~¡° x#ß meeting ZO^ΰ䛽 postpone

17.

Why did you have to postpone the
meeting yesterday ?
g°~¡° last time P"³°#° ZH›ø_È admit

18.

Where did you have to admit her last
time ?
g°~¡ ° last time Zxß <³ • • tH› Æ }

15.

19.

20.

K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k ?

K͆ǰ=•‹²=zó#k ?

‡ÚO^Î=•‹² =zó#k ?

Howmany months did you have to
undergo training last time ?
P"³ ° last year studies ZO^Î ° ä› ½
discontinue K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k ?
Why did she have to discontinue her
studies last year ?
g°~¡° last month money ZO^ΰ䛽 J„¬C

K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k ?

1. g°~¡° x#ß P TiH÷ #_Èz "³ˆ×¤=•‹²
=zó#^¥ ?
2. h=ô last month comp "³ˆ¤=
× •‹² =zó#^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° P job =^Ε°Hù#=•‹²
=zó#^¥ ?
4. P"³° x#ß guests HË‹¬O =°~¡• cook
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° last month sudden Qê P house
vacate K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?
6. h=ô x#ß =°~¡• Manager #° consult
J==•‹²=zó#^¥ ?
7. P†Ç°# x#ß court …Õ ‚¬ð[~¡° J==•‹²
=zó#^¥?
8. g°~¡ ° P"³ ° #° hospital …Õ admit
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?
9. P"³ ° ~Œã u P WO\ÕÁ XO@iQê stay
K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#^¥ ?
10. "Œ~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È trouble face K͆ǰ=•‹²
=zó#^¥ ?
11. h=ô last Sunday Guntur ZO^Î ° ä› ½
"³ˆ×¤=•‹² =zó#k ?
12. g°~¡° bank #°O_• x#ß ZO`Ç amount
withdraw K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k ?
13. J`Ç_È° last year P course …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
KÍ~¡=•‹² =zó#k ?
14. P"³° last time U subject H÷ coaching
f‹¬°Hù#=•‹² =zó#k ?
15. J`Ç_È° last time Zxß ~ËA•° hospital …Õ
stay K͆ǰ=•‹² =zó#k?

Why did you have to borrow money
last month ?

Hardwork always brings success.

Z
268

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ Xä›~°¡
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô x#ß college H÷ "³ˆ×¤=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
g°~¡° last month bill pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° D course K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
"Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° P W•°Á Mìm K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=¡ ò …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶

'Didn't + have to' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g°~¡° JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°==•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
Didn't you have to meet him there
yesterday?

Didn't you have to pay penalty last
month?
office

H›÷ "³ˆ×¤=•‹²#

4. P"³ ° J„¬ C _È ° "ŒiO\ÕÁ LO_È = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
Didn't she have to stay in their house

269

Didn't they have to invest in the

6. g°~¡° XH›„¬C_È° D house H÷
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O~Œ…è^¥?

rent pay

Didn't you have to pay rent for this
house once?

Didn't he have to go to office last week?

then?

invest

business then?

2. g°~¡° last month penalty pay K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?

3. J`Ç_È° last week
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?

5. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° business …Õ
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O~Œ…è^¥?

7. h=ô XH›„¬C_È°
~Œ…è^¥?

job

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O

Didn't you have to do job once?

8. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° "Œi`Ë discuss K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥ ?
Didn't you have to discuss with them
then ?

,
'Wh' QUESTIONS
g°~¡° bill pay K͆ǰ=•‹²#

9. x#ß
ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ?
10.

EXERCISE

J=‹¬~¡O

Why didn't you have to pay the bill
yesterday?
g°~¡° J„¬C_È° coaching f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²#

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ…è^ΰ?

11.

Why didn't you have to take coaching
then?
J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° job K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O

12.

Why didn't he have to do job then?
P"³ ° x#ß duty H÷ attend J==•‹² #

ZO^ΰ䛽 H›•Q®…è^ΰ?

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ…è^ΰ?

13.

Why didn't she have to attend the duty
yesterday?
"Œ~¡° last time voting …Õ ‡•…ç¾#=•‹²#

14.

Why didn't they have to partcipate in
the voting last time?
h=ô x#ß ticket Hù#=•‹² # J=‹¬ ~ ¡ O

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ…è^ΰ?

ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ…è^ΰ?

15.

Why didn't you have to buy the ticket
yesterday?
g°~¡ ° last month classes H÷ attend

16.

Why didn't you have to attend the
classes last month?
J`Ç_È° last year donation K³eÁOKÇ=•‹²#

17.

J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ…è^ΰ?

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 H›•°Q®…è^ΰ?

Why didn't he have to pay donation last
year?
x#ß interview …Õ J`Ç_È° certificates
present K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽

~Œ…è^ΰ?
18.

: 94406 16425

Why didn't he have to present the
certificates in the interview yesterday?
g°~¡ ° last month J`Ç x H÷ money

„¬O„¬=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ…è^ΰ?

Why didn't you have to send him
money last month?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h=ô x#ß JH› ø _È "Œi HË‹¬ O wait
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
2. g°~¡ ° last month college fee pay
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° money ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
4. P"³ ° J„¬ C _È ° g° WO\ÕÁ =ôO_È = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
5. "Œ~¡ ° last year tax K³ e Á O KÇ = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
6. h=ô x#ß J`Ç x H÷ help KÍ † Ç ° =•‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
7. g°~¡° last time "Œi ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
8. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° P house vacate
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
9. J`Ç_È° x#ß camp "³ˆ×¤=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
~Œ…è^¥?
10. P"³° J„¬C_È° "ŒiÌ„á P^•¥~¡„¬_È=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ~Œ…è^¥?
11. h=ô x#ß duty H÷ attend Hê=•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡
ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?
12. g°~¡ ° last time business …Õ attend
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ?
13. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ C _È ° training ‡ÚO^Î = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ?
14. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° English <Í ~ ¡ ° ó H Ë=•‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ?
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° entrance test •ä›½ appear
J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ?

Z

God gives every bird its food but doesnot throw it into the nest.

270

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: 94406 16425

REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Had to + I form of the Verb' J#°
structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx Past necessary action JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =ôO_•# XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Had to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I had to go to Chennai last week. 2. He had to join a private college last year.

2.

3. We had to help him yesterday.
NEGATIVE FORM :

4. They had to deposit Rs. 10,000 last time.

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =ôO_Èx XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Did not + have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

1. I did not have to meet him yesterday.
2. We did not have to take permission.
3. He did not have to apply for leave yesterday.
4. They did not have to stay here last night.
QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =ôO_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz

ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Did + have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Did you have to consult the doctor yesterday?
2. Did he have to appear for the test last month?
3. Did she have to go to hospital yesterday?
4. Did they have to take coaching last time?
NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò =ôO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Didn't + have to + I form of the
Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

271

1.
2.
3.
4.

Didn't you have to pay rent then?
Didn't he have to come here yesterday?
Didn't she have to stay in the hospital last time?
Didn't they have to buy the tickets yesterday?

J

28 DAY (ADDING)
,

: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

541

Specify

specified

specified

542

Sprinkle

sprinkled

sprinkled

543

Stab

stabbed

stabbed

544

Stammer

stammered

stammered

545

Stamp

stamped

stamped

546

Stare

stared

stared

547

Start

started

started

548

Starve

starved

starved

549

Stay

stayed

stayed

550

Stitch

stitched

stitched

551

Stoop

stooped

stooped

552

Stop

stopped

stopped

553

Strengthen

strengthened

strengthened

554

Submit

submitted

submitted

555

Succumb

succumbed

succumbed

556

Suck

sucked

sucked

557

Suffer

suffered

suffered

558

Suggest

suggested

suggested

559

Summon

summoned

summoned

560

Supervise

supervised

supervised

D ~ËA

Meaning

‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
z•H›iOKÇ°@
‡Ú_ÈKÇ°@
#uëQê =¶\ìÁ_È°@
=òã^Î"͆Çò@
`ÍiKǶKÇ°@
|†Ç°•°^Í~¡°@
„¬‹¬°ëO_È°@
LO_È°@
䛽@°“@
=òO^ΰ䛽 =OQ®°@
P„¬ô@
|…ÕÀ„`Ç=ò K͆Çò@
X„¬æyOKÇ°@
…Õ|_È°, =°~¡}÷OKÇ°@
„Ô•°ó@
ƒì^•Î J#°ƒ•’qOKÇ°@
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
„²•=#O„¬ô@
„¬~¡¼"ÍH÷ÆOKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
272

Little enemies and little wounds are not to be despised.

,

: 94406 16425

WILL HAVE TO
XHùøH›øª•i ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =ôO_È° XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° ö~„¬ô office 䛽 early Qê "³ˆ×¤=•‹² LO@°Ok.
g°~¡° next week …Õ„¬• D work „¬îië K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.
=°#=ò ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ money pay K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.
=¶ brother next year hostel …Õ stay K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò =ôO_È° XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò…èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò#ß
XH›„¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have to + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "will have to"

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° next Monday Hyderabad "³ˆ×¤=•‹²
LO@°Ok.
2.

I willhave to go to Hyderabad next
Monday.
"Í ° =ò =KÍ ó " Œ~¡ O exam fee pay

6. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·ä›½
LO@°Ok.
7.

3.

We will have to pay the exam fee next
week .
g°~¡° =°~¡• XH›ª•i principal #° consult

4.

5.

K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.
J==•‹² LO@°Ok.

You will have to consult the principal
again.
=¶ brother selection `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç XH› <³•
training ‡ÚO^Î=•‹² LO@°Ok.
My brother will have to undergo
training for one month after the
selection.
P"³° WOHùH› <³•~ËA•° D medicine

f‹¬°HË=•‹² LO@°Ok.

She will have to take this medicine for
one more month.
273

attend

J==•‹²

8.

They will have to attend the meeting
tomorrow.
<Í # ° D report =KÍ ó " Œ~¡ O P„¦ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ
submit K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.
I will have to submit this report in the
office next week.
"Í°=ò D work next week complete

9.

We will have to complete this work
next week.
"Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ P house vacate K͆°Ç =•‹²

10.

They will have to vacate that house
soon.
h=ô JH› ø _È KŒ…ì problems face

K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.

LO@°Ok.

K͆ǰ=•‹² =‹¬°ëOk.

You will have to face many problems
there.

,

11. J`Ç _ È ° next year KŒ…ì
K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.

hard work

He will have to work hard next year.

12. P"³° =KÍó ï~O_È° <³••° „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ prepare
J==•‹² LO@°Ok.

She will have to prepare for the exams
next two months.

13. "Œ~¡° =òO^ΰQê
LO@°Ok.

licence

‡ÚO^Î=•‹²

They will have to get the licence
earlier.

14. ö~„¬ô <Í#° "ŒiH÷ `Ë_È°Qê K³<³áß "³ˆ×Á=•‹²
LO@°Ok.
I will have to acompany them to
Chennai tomorrow.

15. =°#=ò D ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° =òO^ΰQê
K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.

solve

We will have to solve this problem
earlier.

16. "Œ~¡° D business …Õ ‹¬°=¶~¡° ~¡¶. 5
•H›Æ•° invest K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°Ok.
They will have to invest Rs. 5 lakhs in
this business.

17. =°#=ò ~ö „¬ô railway station ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ guests
#° receive KÍ‹¬°Hù#=•‹² LO@°Ok.

We will have to receive the guests at
the railway station tomorrow.

18. g°~¡° =¶ä›½ ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ=•‹²
LO@°Ok.
You will have to provide us the
accommodation there tomorrow.

19. h=ô h worth
LO@°Ok.

prove

KÍ ‹ ¬ ° HË=•‹²

You will have to prove your worth.

20. "Œ~¡ ° ï ~ O_È ° <³ • •…Õ D KÍ † Ç ° =•‹²
=ôO@°Ok.
They will have to clear this loan in two
months.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° next Sunday interrew H÷ attend
J==•‹² LO@°Ok.
2. "Í°=ò next year English …Õ Phonetics
<Í~¡°óHù#=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
3. =°#=ò WH›g°^Î@ KŒ…ì sincere Qê
work K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
4. =¶ brother visa HË‹¬O apply K͆°Ç =•‹²
=ôO@°Ok.
5. P"³° =KÍó 6 <³••…Õ D course „¬îië
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
6. g°~¡° =òO^ΰQê "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O
inform K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
7. <Í#° "Œi`Ë ~Œr „¬_È=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
8. =°#=ò D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ JO^Î i
‹¬‚¬ìHê~¡O ‡ÚO^Î=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
9. P"³° lecturer post ‡ÚO^ΰ@䛽 M.Phil
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
10. ‡éb‹¬° "Œ~¡° [†Í°Oã^Î case KŒ…ì
*ìãQ®`ÇëQê deal K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
11. =°#=ò JH› ø _È "Œi`Ë Hùxß
q+¬ † Ç ° =ò•…Õ adjust J==•‹²
=ôO@°Ok.
12. q^͉§•ä›½ "³ˆ×ä@䛽 h=ô English ƒìQê
<Í~¡°óHù#=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
13. g°~¡ ° =òO^Î ° Qê Rs. 1000/K³eÁOKÇ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.
14. P"³° ö~„¬ô guests #° ƒìQê treat K͆ǰ
=•‹²=ôO@°Ok.
15. ~ö „¬ô ~Œã+“¬ |O^£…Õ =°#O^Î~O¡ ‡•…ç¾#
=•‹² =ôO@°Ok.

Z
A bird in hand is worth two in the bush.

274

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò
LO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
g°~¡° next month bill pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
=°#=ò D ª•i J`Çx„Ì á depend J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° WH› D medicine f‹¬°HË=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ ò LO_Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡ LO_Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will not have to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶

'Will not have to'

L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ "³ˆ×¤=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
…è^ΰ.
2.

I will not have to go to office tomorrow.
"Í ° =ò WH› g °^Î @ house tax pay

3.

We will not have to pay house tax here
after.
g°~¡ ° WH› # °Oz D problem face

4.
5.

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.

You will not have to face this problem
hereafter.
=¶ brother WH›#°Oz night duty H÷
attend J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
My brother will not have to attend the
night duty hereafter.
P"³ ° WH› # °Oz D private job

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.

She will not have to do this private
job hereafter.
275

6. h=ô ö ~ „¬ ô "ŒiH÷ `Ë_È ° Qê "³ ˆ × ¤ = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
7.

You will not have to accompany them
tomorrow.
J`Ç _ È ° WH› g °^Î @ =¶ä› ½ money

„¬O„¬=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.

He will not have to send us money
hereafter.

8. "Œ~¡ ° WH› g °^Î @ WH› ø _È ä › ½ ~Œ=•‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
They will not have to come here
hereafter.

9. <Í#° WH›g°^Î@ J`Çx„
Ì á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ È =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
I won't have to depend on him
hereafter.

10. "Í ° =ò WH› g °^Î @ J`Ç x ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O
HË~¡=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.
We won't have to seek his help
hereafter.

,

11. g°~¡° WH› #°Oz J`ÇxH÷ ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_=
È •‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
You won't have to fear to him
hereafter.

12. P"³ ° next two
"³ˆ×¤#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.

weeks college

She won't have to go to college next
two weeks.

13. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È
J=‹¬~¡O …è^ΰ.

KÍ † Ç ° =•‹² #

stay

They won't have to stay there
tomorrow.

14. <Í#° WH› D
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.

medicine

f‹¬°HË=•‹²#

I won't have to take this medicine
hereafter.

15. "Í°=ò =°~¡• J`Çxx H›•°=#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
We won't have to meet him again.

16. h=ô <Œä›½ „¬^Í„¬^Í remind K͆ǰ#=‹¬~¡O
…è^ΰ.
You will not have to remind me again
and again.

17. J`Ç_È° WH› Z=ih
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.

care

K͆ǰ=•‹²#

He won't have to care anyone
hereafter.

18. P"³ ° `Ç # pass Q® ° iOz
Hê#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.

worry

She won't have to worry about her
pass.

19. "Œ~¡ ° nexttime =¶ä› ½
K͆ǰ#=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.

support

They won't have to support us next
time.

20. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô =¶ HË‹¬O
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.

wait

K͆ǰ=•‹²#

You won't have to wait for us

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô leave apply KÍ † Ç ° =•‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
2. g°~¡° WH› =¶ä›½ help K͆ǰ#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
3. P†Ç°# WH› =°=òà•#° ‡é+²OKÇ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
4. P"³ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =¶`Ë Nellore ä› ½
~Œ#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡° WH› =¶ä›½ Ug° pay K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O LO_È^ΰ.
6. <Í#° =°~¡• test 䛽 prepare J==•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
7. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô Maths class H÷ attend
J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
8. g°~¡ ° =¶ä› ½ JH› ø _È =‹¬ u
H›eæOKÇ#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
9. J`Ç _ È ° ö ~ „¬ ô document Ì „ á sign
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
10. P"³° WH› notes prepare K͆ǰ=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ.
11. "Í°=ò D <³•…Õ WOH› Ug° Hù#=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
12. =¶ brother H÷ <Í#° next month #°O_•
money „¬O„¬=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
13. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz electricity bill pay
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
14. g°~¡° WH› WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ#=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.
15. J`Ç_È° =°~¡• "Œi permission f‹¬°Hù#
=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ.

tomorrow.

Barking dogs seldom bite.

Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_È°
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô ö~„¬ô g° T~¡° "³ˆ×¤=•‹² LO@°O^¥ ?
g°~¡° next Sunday test ã"Œ†Ç°=•‹² LO@°O^¥ ?
J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô Manager #° consult J==•‹² LO@°O^¥ ?
P"³° =°~¡• WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=•‹² LO@°O^¥ ?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_È°
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ, ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx
=°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=ò#ß XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + have to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : I, We, subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Shall + have to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
You, He, She, It, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Will + have to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°~¡ … WH› ø _È ä › ½ ~Œ=•‹²
LO@°O^¥?
2.
3.
4.
5.

Shall I have to come here again ?
=°#=ò next week exam fee pay

K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°O^¥?

Shall we have to pay exam fee next
week ?
g°~¡° next week ‡•s“ Hê~¡¼ãH›=°=ò…Õ
participate K͆ǰ=•‹² LO@°O^¥?
Will you have to participate in the
party programme next week ?
g° brother next month Hyderabad …Õ
training ‡ÚO^Î=•‹² =ôO@°O^¥ ?
Will your brother have to undergo
training in Hyderabad next week ?
"Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• loan clear K͆ǰ=•‹²

=ôO@°O^¥ ?

Will they have to clear the loan next
month ?
277

6. h=ô WH› #°Oz g° business
KǶ‹¬°Hù#=•‹²=ôO@°O^¥ ?
7.

Will you have to look after your
business hereafter ?
P"³ ° next year university …Õ

8.

Will she have to study in the university
next year ?
h=ô ~ö „¬ô g° parents 䛽 `Ë_È°Qê g° T~¡°

9.

Will you have to accompany your
parents to your village tomorrow ?
P"³° next month 䛕_¨ D medicine

10.

Will she have to take this medicine
next month also ?
"Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È guests #° receive

KÇ^ΰ==•‹²=ôO@°O^¥ ?

"³ˆ×¤=•‹²=ôO@°O^¥ ?

f‹¬°Hù#=•‹²=ôO@°O^¥ ?

KÍ‹¬°Hù#=•‹²=ôO@°O^¥ ?

Will they have to receive the guests
there tomorrow ?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. ~ö „¬ô =°#=ò magager #° ZH›ø_È
J==•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?
12.
13.

14.

consult

Where shall we have to consult the
Manager tomorrow ?
=°#=ò D loan Z„¬C_È° clear K͆°Ç =•‹²

=ôO@°Ok ?

When shall we have to clear this loan?
g°~¡° WOHê Zxß ~ËA•° classes 䛽
attend J==•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?
Howmany more days will you have to
attend the classes ?
h=ô =°~¡ • Chennai Z„¬ C _È °

"³ˆ×¤=•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?

16.

When will you have to go to Chennai
again ?
"Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È meeting …Õ Uq°
discuss K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?
What will they have to discuss in the
meeting tomorrow ?
=°#=ò =òO^ΰQê ZO`Ç amount deposit

17.

Howmuch amount shall we have to
deposit first ?
Degree `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç g° brother U course

18.

Which course will your brother have
to do after Degree ?
h=ô D college …Õ WOHê Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°

15.

19.

20.

: 94406 16425

K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?

K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?

KÇ^ΰ==•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?

Howmany more years will you have
to study in this college ?
g° brother army …Õ WOHê Zxß
‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•° work K͆°Ç =•‹² =ôO@°Ok?
Howmany more years will your brother
have to work in the army ?
Orders HË‹¬O =°#=ò WOHê Zxß ~ËA•°
wait K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?
Howmany more days shall we have
to wait for the orders ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô duty H÷ attend J==•‹²
=ôO@°O^¥ ?
2. "Í ° =ò =°~¡ • manager #° consult
J==•‹² =ôO@°O^¥ ?
3. =°#=ò D work D ~Ë*è finish
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°O^¥ ?
4. g°~¡ ° next month D house Mìm
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°O^¥ ?
5. J`Ç_È° =°~¡• ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=•‹²
=ôO@°O^¥ ?
6. P"³° certificates enclose K͆ǰ=•‹²
=ôO@°O^¥?
7. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô penalty K³ e Á O KÇ = •‹²
=ôO@°O^¥ ?
8. g°~¡° next June …Õ entrance test 䛽
appear J==•‹² =ôO@°O^¥?
9. J`Ç_°È ~ËA䛽 10 Q®O@•° „¬xK͆°Ç =•‹²
=ôO@°O^¥ ?
10. P"³ ° next year hostel …Õ stay …Õ
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°O^¥ ?
11. "Œ~¡° D report ZH›ø_È submit K͆ǰ
=•‹²=ôO@°Ok ?
12. g°~¡° D course 䛽 ZO`Ç donation pay
K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok?
13. =°#=ò JH›ø_•H÷ =°~¡• Z„¬C_È° "³ˆ¤=
× •‹²
=ôO@°Ok ?
14. =°#=ò Delhi KÍ~°¡ Hù#°@䛽 train …Õ Zxß
~ËA•° ㄬ†Ç°}O K͆ǰ=•‹² =ôO@°Ok ?
15. "³ e QùO_È project construction „¬ î ië
K͆ǰ@䛽 Zxß crores Y~¡°ó K͆ǰ=•‹²
=ôO@°Ok.

Appearances are often deceptive.

Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~O¡
=ôO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô ö~„¬ô leave apply K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_È^¥?
g°~¡° rent pay K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^¥?
J`Ç_°È D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hostel …Õ LO_È=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡OLO_È^¥?
"Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°~¡• licence ‡ÚO^Î=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=¡ ò
…èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Won't + have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject I, We J~ò#„¬C_È° "Shalln't have to" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Subject He, She, It, They J~ò#„¬C_È° "Won't have to " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È "Œix H› • °==•‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

6. h=ô next month g° brother H÷
„¬O„¬=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

2.

Won't you have to meet them there
tomorrow?
g°~¡ ° next week report submit

7. g°~¡° WH› WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
=ôO_È^¥?

3.

Won't you have to submit the report
next week?
J`Ç _ È ° next year donation pay

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

Won't he have to pay donation next
year?

4. P"³ ° tH› Æ } ‡ÚO^Î = •‹² # J=‹¬ ~ ¡ O
=ôO_È^¥?
5.

Won't she have to under go training?
"Œ~¡ ° next time amount deposit

K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?

Won't they have to deposit the amount
next time ?
279

money

Won't you have to send money to your
brother next month?

Won't you have to come here
hereafter?

8. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ `Ë_È°Qê "³ˆ×¤=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥?
Won't he have to accompany them
tomorrow?

9. "Œ~¡° WH› J`Çx„
Ì á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È •‹²# J=‹¬~O¡
=ôO_È^¥?

Won't they have to depend on him
hereafter?

10. g°~¡° WH› "Œi`Ë KÇióOKÇ=•‹¬²# J=‹¬~¡O
=ôO_È^¥ ?
Won't you have to discuss with them
hereafter?

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: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô entrance test ä› ½ coaching
f‹¬°HË=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Why won't you have to take coaching
for the entrance test?
g°~¡° next time bill pay K͆ǰ=•‹²#

13.

Why won't you have to pay the bill next
time?
J`Ç_È° job H÷ try K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O

14.

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

Why won't he have to try for a job?
P"³ ° WH› g°^Î @ doctor #° consult

J==•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽=ôO_È^ΰ?
Why won't she have to consult the
doctor hereafter?

15. "Œ~¡ ° WH› g °^Î @ WH› ø _È LO_È = •‹² #
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
16.

Why won't they have to stay here
hereafter?
h=ô "Œi permission f‹¬°H›ù#=•‹²#

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?

Why won't you have to take their
permission?

17. g°~¡° WH›g°^Î@ g° T~¡° "³ˆ×¤=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽=ôO_È^ΰ ?
Why won't you have to go to your
village hereafter?

18. P"³° WH›#°Oz "Œi ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
19.

Why won't she have to seek their help
hereafter?
"Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô duty H÷ attend J==•‹² #

J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?

Why won't they have to attend the duty
tomorrow?

1. h=ô ö~„¬ô office 䛽 "³ˆ×¤=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O
…è^¥?
2. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾#=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^¥ ?
3. J`Ç_È° =°~¡• WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ#=‹¬~¡O…è^¥ ?
4. P"³° WH› medicine f‹¬°HË#=‹¬~¡O…è^¥?
5. "Œ~¡ ° WH› q°ye# instalments pay
K͆ǰ#=‹¬~¡O…è^¥ ?
6. h=ô books H›ù#=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O…è^¥ ?
7. g°~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ` Í ¼ H› O Qê P „¬ s H› Æ ä › ½ prepare
Hê#=‹¬~¡O …è^¥ ?
8. P†Ç°# D document „
Ì á sign K͆°Ç =•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O…è^¥ ?
9. P"³° Dª•i ‚¬ð‹²æ@…˜…Õ LO_È=•‹²#
J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^¥ ?
10. "Œ~¡ ° D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O practicals
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O…è^¥ ?
11. h=ô ö~„¬ô study class H›÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
Hê#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ ?
12. g°~¡ ° =KÍ ó <³ • bill ZO^Î ° ä› ½ pay
K͆ǰ#=‹¬~¡O…è^ΰ ?
13. P"³° WH› "ŒiO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬xK͆¶
Ç e•#
J=‹¬~¡O =ôO_È^ΰ ?
14. "Œ~¡° WH› P game ZO^ΰ䛽 practise
K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O=ôO_È^ΰ ?
15. g°~¡ ° WH› #°Oz J`Ç x H÷ money
„¬O„¬=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ ?

Z
Self help is the best help.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Will have to' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question
Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆ǰ=•‹²# J=‹¬~¡=òO_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

2.

1. I will have to work hard next year.
2. We will have to face this problem one more year.
3. He will have to undergo training next month.
4. They will have to pay the bill tomorrow.
NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will not have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

3.

1. I will not have to meet him there tomorrow.
2. We will not have to take risk hereafter.
3. He will not have to do any job hereafter.
4. They will not have to make arrangements for us.
QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will have to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

4.

1. Will you have to enclose the certificates?
2. Will you have to receive the guests tomorrow?
3. Will he have to explain to them this matter again?
4. Will they have to vacate this house next month?
NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç =•‹²# J=‹¬~=
¡ òO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Won't have to + I form of the Verb
" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

281

1.
2.
3.
4.

Won't you have to clear this loan?
Won't you have to pay any donation?
Won't he have to resign to this post?
Won't they have to vacate this house next month?

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: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

561.

Surprise

surprised

surprised

562.

Surrender

surrendered

surrendered

563.

Survive

survived

survived

564.

Suspect

suspected

suspected

565.

Swallow

swallowed

swallowed

566.

Swirl

swirled

swirled

567.

Tackle

tackled

tackled

568.

Talk

talked

talked

569.

Tease

teased

teased

570.

Thank

thanked

thanked

571.

Threaten

threatened

threatened

572.

Tie

tied

tied

573.

Tire

tired

tired

574.

Tolerate

tolerated

tolerated

575.

Toss

tossed

tossed

576.

Touch

touched

touched

577.

Transfer

transfered

transfered

578.

Translate

translated

translated

579.

Travel

travelled

travelled

580.

Treat

treated

treated

D ~ËA

Meaning

P‰×ó~¡¼„¬~¡KÇ°@
…çOy‡é=ô@
ã|uH÷†ÇòO_È°@
J#°=¶#„¬_È°@
ãq°OQ®°@
y~¡y~¡u~¡°Q®°@
‹¬=¶oOKÇ°@
=¶\ìÁ_È°@
ƒìk•OKÇ°@
H›$`Ç[ý`Ç`³•°„¬ô@
ƒÿkiOKÇ°@
H›@°“@
J•‹¬@K³O^ΰ@
‹¬‚²ìOKÇ°@, F~¡°óH›ù#°@
<Œ}ÿ=ò ZQ®°~¡"͆Çò@
`Œä›½@
=°i†³òH› KË\÷H÷=¶~¡°ó@
J#°=kOKÇ°@
ㄬ†Ç¶}=ò K͆Çò@
P^ÎiOKÇ°, zH÷`•Ç K͆ò
Ç @

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
282

Donot rely on others for everything.

,

: 94406 16425

WANT TO

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° computer course join J==…ÿ##° 䛽O@°<Œß#°.
"Í°=ò D town …Õ business start K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ò.
=¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O USA "³ˆì¤•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È°.
P"³° BL K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°#ßk.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß „¬#°• Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D ~ËA, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò
…èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Want to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject- I, We, You, They Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
He, She, It, - Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Wants to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° D ~ËA <³ • ¶Á ~ ¡ ° "³ ˆ ì¤ • x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.
2.

I want to go to Nellore today.
"Í°=ò D town …Õ<Í settle

3.

We want to settle down in this town.
=¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O MBA join

4.

My brother wants to join MBA this
year.
=¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O USA

5.

My brother wants to go to the USA this
year.
"Œ~¡° K³<³áß…Õ business start K͆Ƕ•x

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ò.

J"Υx

J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È°.

"³ˆì¤#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È°.

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.

They want to start business in
Chennai.
283

6. <Í#° Group-I „¬sH›Æ䛽 appear J"Œ•#°
䛽O@°<Œß#°.
7.

I want to appear for Group-I
examinations.
"Í°=ò D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O house Hù<Œ•#°

䛽O@°<Œß=ò.
8. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
J#°ä›½O@°#ßk.
9.

10.

B.L.

KÍ † Ç ¶ •x

She wants to do B.L. this year.
We want to buy a house this year.
P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Guntur …Õ M.Sc.

KÇ^Î"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°#ßk.

She wants to study M.Sc in Guntur
this year.
"Œ~¡° D ª•i Annual day KŒ…ì grand
Qê celebrate K͆Ƕ•#° 䛽O@°<Œß~¡°.
They want to celebrate annual day
very grand this year.

,

11. N KÇOã^΃ì|° =°~¡• 䛽„¬æO #°O_•
JÌ‹OcÁH÷ ‡é\© K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
12.

Sri Chandra Babu wants to contest
to the Assembly from Kuppam again.
=¶ brother Dª•i teacher post H÷ try

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È°.

My brother wants to try for the teacher
post this time.

13. <Í # ° "³ ° HêxH› … ˜ WO[h~¡ ° J"Œ•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.
14.

I want to become a mechanical
engineer.
=¶ sister B.Ed entrance test 䛽 appear

15.

My sister wants to appear for B.Ed
entrance test.
"Œ~¡° D <³•…Õ <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ branch open

16.

They want to open a branch in Nellore
this month.
<Í#° D "Œ~¡O =¶ native place H÷ "³ˆì¤•x

17.

I want to go to my native place this
week.
=¶ father `Ç # job H÷ resign

18.

My father wants to resign to his job.
"Œ~¡° D <³• D house vacate K͆¶
Ç •x

19.

They want to vacate this house this
month.
"Í°=ò D <³• u~¡°=°• visit K͆Ƕ•x

20.

We want to visit Tirumala this month.
<Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ =¶ friend H÷ help

J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°#ßk.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.

K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ò.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.

I want to help my friend in this matter.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° D ª•i EAMCET coaching
f‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.
2. "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO English <Í~¡°óHË"Œ•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ò.
3. =¶ brother car Hù<Œ•#°HùO@°<Œß_È°.
4. P"³° Dª•i function H÷ JO^Îih invite
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°#ßk.
5. "Œ~¡° D ~ËA D q+¬†Ç°O serious Qê
discuss K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
6. <Í#° D ~ËA bank #°O_• money draw
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.
7. =¶ father D"Œ~¡O rest f‹¬°HË"Œ•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
8. P"³° D "Œ~¡O leave 䛽 apply K͆Ƕ•x
J#°ä›½O@°#ßk.
9. "Í°=ò D <³• Bangalore visit K͆¶
Ç •#°
䛽O@°<Œß=ò.
10. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬Ö•O…Õ shopping complex
construct K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
11. <Í#° D ~ËA "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O inform
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.
12. "Í°=ò D <³•…Õ lessons Jhß revise
K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ò.
13. P"³° K³<³ßå…Õ eye specialist #° H›•"Œ•#°
䛽O@°#ßk.
14. "Œ~¡° D~ËA =°^•¥¼‚¬ìßO shopping
K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
15. <Í#° Dª•i Q®\“÷ x~¡†
â °Ç O f‹¬°HË"Œ•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß#°.

Z

Jack of all trades, master of none.

284

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH›„x
¬ x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

<Í#° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D Hê…èl…Õ KÇ^"Î Œ•#° HË=_ÈO …è^°Î .
"Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È stay K͆Ƕ•#°HË=_ÈO …è^ΰ.
=¶ father D business continue K͆Ƕ•#°HË=_ÈO …è^ΰ.
P"³° D function 䛽 "Œix invite K͆Ƕ•#° HË=_ÈO …è^ΰ.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH›„¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D ~ËA, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò
…èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't / Doesn't + want to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Donot want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
He, She, It, - Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Does not want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° WH›ø_È time waste K͆¶
Ç •#°HË=_ÈO
…è^ΰ.
I don't want to waste my time here.

2. "Í°=ò J`Çx q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ•
#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
We don't want to interefere in his
matter.

3. =¶ brother opportunity x
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.

miss

My brother doesnot want to miss the
opportunity.

4. P"³° studies continue K͆¶
Ç •#°HË=@O
…è^ΰ.
She doesnot want to continue her
studies.

5. J`Ç_È° job K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
He doesnot want to do job.
285

6. "Œ~¡° Z䛽ø= amount business …Õ invest
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
They don't want to invest much
amount on business.

7. <Í#° D H›OÌ„h…Õ
…è^ΰ.

join

J"Œ•#°HË=@O

I don't want to join this company.

8. "Í°=ò D town …Õ settle J"Œ•#°HË=@O
…è^ΰ.
We don't want to settle down in this
town.

9. P"³° WH›ø_È stay K͆¶
Ç •#°HË=@O …è^°Î .
She doesnot want to stay here.

10. "Œ~¡ ° D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ J`Ç x H÷
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.

help

They don't want to help him in this
matter.

,

11. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O birthday celebrate
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
She doesnot want to celebrate her
birthday this year.

12. "Í°=ò D ~ËA P function H÷
J"Œ•#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.

attend

We don't want to attend that function
today.

13. <Í # ° D <³ • =¶=î~¡ ° "³ ˆ ì¤ • x
J#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
I don't want to go to my village this
month.

14. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ join J"Œ•x
J#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
She doesnot want to join college this
year.

15. "Œ~¡° Dª•i \Õ~¡ß"°³ O\˜• x~¡Þ‚²ìOKŒ•x
J#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They don't want to conduct the
tournments this time.

16. <Œä›½ Dª•i competition …Õ ‡•…ç¾<Œ•x
…è^ΰ.
I don't want to participate in the
competitions this time.

17. "Í°=ò Dª•i J`Çx ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO HË~Œ•x
J#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
We don't want to seek his help this
time.

18. J`Ç _ È ° D ~ËA =¶`Ë ~Œ"Œ•x
J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
He doesnot want to come with us
today.

19. P†Ç°# Dª•i ZxßH•› …Õ ‡é\© K͆¶
Ç •x
J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
He doesnot want to contest in the
elections this time.

20. "Œ~¡ ° Dª•i
J#°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.

risk

f‹¬ ° HË"Œ•x

They don't want to take risk this time.

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í # ° D ~ËA "Œo¤ O \÷ H ÷ "³ ˆ ì¤ • x
J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò D ª•i P hotel …Õ stay K͆¶
Ç •x
J#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
3. J`Ç_È° D ~ËA =¶`Ë picnic ~Œ"Œ•x
J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
4. P"³° D ª•i function H÷ "Œix invite
K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
5. "Œ~¡ ° D ª•i J`Ç x ‹¬ • ‚¬ ð
f‹¬°HË"Œ•#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
6. <Í#° D college …Õ KÇ^Î"Œ•#°HË=@O
…è^ΰ.
7. "Í°=ò D books follow J"Œ•#° HË=@O
…è^ΰ.
8. "Í°=ò D train …Õ ã„¬†Ç°}O K͆Ƕ•x
J#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
9. =¶ brother D ª•i B.Ed. entrance 䛽
coaching f‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
10. <Í#° D ~ËA computer class H÷ attend
J"Œ•#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
11. "Í°=ò D ª•i ZxßH•› …Õ P ‡•s“H÷ vote
"͆Ƕ•x J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
12. P"³ ° „² • Á • #° „² H ÷ ß H ± ä › ½ „¬ O ‡••x
J#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
13. "Í°=ò q°=òà•#° W|ÄOk Ì„@“=…ÿ#x
J#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
14. "Í ° =ò J`Ç x q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ interefere
J"Œ•#°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
15. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ ‚¬ ð x KÍ † Ç ¶ •x
J#°HË=@O…è^ΰ.

Z

There is a thorn behind every rose.

286

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: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

g°~¡° ‹Ì •=ô•…Õ Mysore visit K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?
h=ô D "Œ~¡O computer course join J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß"Œ?
P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° office …Õ job K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°#ß^¥?
"Œ~¡° D<³• tour "³ˆì¤•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D ~ËA, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò
…èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Do/Does + want to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, We, You, They - Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Do + want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
He, She, It, - Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° 'Does + want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
J#°Hù#°KÇ°<Œß"Œ?

B.L.

KÍ † Ç ¶ •x

6. h=ô lawyer J"ŒÞ•#°HùO@°<Œß"Œ?

Do you want to become a lawyer?

2.

Do you want to do B.L. this year?
g°~¡° Hyderabad …Õ settle J"Œ•#°Hù#°

7. g°~¡° D ~ËA '=~¡ÂOÑ ‹²x=¶ KǶ_¨•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?

3.

Do you want to settle down in
Hyderabad ?
g° brother WH› ø _È business start

8.

Do you want to see the film "Varsham"
today?
P†Ç°# D ~ËA leave apply K͆Ƕ•x

4.

Does your brother want to start
business here?
P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hostel …Õ stay

9.

Does he want to apply for leave
today?
P"³ ° Group-I „¬ s H› Æ • ä› ½ HËzOQ·

10.

Does she want to take coaching for
the Group - I exam?
"Œ~¡° K³<³ßåH÷ train …Õ travel K͆Ƕ•x

5.

KÇ°<Œß~Œ?

K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß_¨?

K͆Ƕ•x J#°HùO@°#ß^¥?

Does she want to stay in the hostel
this year ?
"Œ~¡° D <³• new house …ÕxH÷ shift

J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?

Do they want to shift to the new house
this month?
287

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_¨?

f‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°#ß^¥?

J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?

Do they want to travel to Chennai by
train?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ZH›ø_È KÇ^Î"Œ•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ô?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Where do you want to study this year?
g°~¡ ° manager x Z„¬ C _È ° consult

13.

When do you want to consult the
Manager ?
h=ô D Ì ‹ •=ô•…Õ U course

14.

Which course do you want to do in
these holidays ?
g°~¡° D ª•i summer holidays ZH›ø_È

15.

Where do you want to spend your
summer holidays this time?
g° brother job H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ resign

16.

Why does your brother want to resign
to his job?
P"³ ° W„¬ C _È ° D shop …Õ Uq°

J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°?

K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ô?

Q®_‡È ••x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~°¡ ?

K͆Ƕ•#°HùO@°<Œß_È° ?

Hù<Œ•#°ä›½O@°#ßk ?

What does she want to buy in the
shop now ?

17. J`Ç_È° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ Z=i ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O
f‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È°?
18.
19.

20.

Whose help does he want to seek in
this matter ?
"Œ~¡° ZH›ø_È settle J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°

<Œß~¡°?

Where do they want to settle down?
g°~¡° D~ËA marriage …Õ bride H÷ Uq°
present K͆Ƕ•#°Hù#°KÇ°<Œß~¡°?
What do you want to present to the
bride in the marriage today?
J`Ç _ È ° W„¬ C _È ° Hyderabad Z…ì

KÍ~Œ•#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È° ?

How does he want to reach Hyderabd
now ?

1. g°~¡° D ~ËA Mourya Hotel …Õ dinner
f‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œ~Œ ?
2. h=ô D "Œ~¡O computer course join
J"Œ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß"Œ ?
3. g° brother govt. job H÷ try K͆Ƕ•x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_¨ ?
4. P"³ ° D <³ • …Õ necklace Hù<Œ•x
J#°ä›½O@°#ß^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Q®°O@¶~¡°…Õ house
construct K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?
6. h=ô 䛕_¨ =¶`Ë D room …Õ stay
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß"Œ?
7. g°~¡° students H÷ D summer holidays
…Õ tour organize KÍ † Ç ¶ •x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?
8. g° parents x#°ß central school …Õ admit
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?
9. P†Ç°# High court …Õ lawyer Qê practice
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ?
10. P"³ ° nursing school x~¡ Þ ‚² ì OKŒ•x
J#°ä›½O@°#ß^¥ ?
11. h=ô W„¬ C _È ° D job ZO^Î ° ä› ½ =ke
"͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½O@°<Œß=ô ?
12. g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO U place visit K͆Ƕ•#°
䛽O@°<Œß~¡° ?
13. J`Ç _ È ° Delhi Z„¬ C _È ° "³ ˆ ì¤ • x
J#°ä›½O@°<Œß_È° ?
14. g°~¡° D problem Z…ì solve K͆Ƕ•#°
䛽O@°<Œß~¡°?
15. g° mother D ~ËA guests 䛽 U special
item `Ç † Ç ¶ ~¡ ° KÍ † Ç ¶ •x J#°ä› ½ O@°
<Œß~¡° ?

Z

Money is a good servant but a bad master.

288

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò D college …Õ KÇ^Î"Œ•#°HË=@O …è^¥?
g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°O "Œi`Ë KÇióOKŒ•#° HË=@O …è^¥ ?
J`Ç_°È D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò job K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O …è^¥?
"Œ~¡° WH›g°^Î@ D business K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O …è^¥?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò D~ËA, D"Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡°
K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°H›ù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't + Doesn't + want to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject I, We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° "Don't + want to" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Subject He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° "Doesn't + want to " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

*

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
J#°HË=@O…è^¥?

college

KÍ ~ Œ•x

2.

Don't you want to join college this year?
"Œ~¡ ° D ª•i test H÷ appear

3.

Don't they want to appear for the test
this time?
J`Ç_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO job HË‹¬O try K͆Ƕ•#°

4.

Doesn't he want to try for a job at
present?
P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O studies continue

5.

J"ŒÞ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?
HË=@O…è^¥?

K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?

Doesn't she want to continue her
studies this year?
"Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Annual Day celebrate

K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?

Don't they want to celebrate the Annual
Day this year?
289

6. h=ô D~ËA =¶`Ë
~Œ"Œ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?

party

7.

Don't you want to come to the party
with us today?
g°~¡° WH› P company …Õ work K͆¶
Ç •#°

8.

Don't you want to work in that company
hereafter ?
h=ô D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ J`Ç x H÷ help

HË=@O…è^¥?

K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^¥ ?

Don't you want to help him in this
matter ?

9. g°~¡° J`Çx`Ë D q+¬†Ç°O KÇióOKŒ•#°
HË=@O…è^¥?
10.

Don't you want to discuss this matter
with him ?
g°~¡ ° D~ËA WH› ø _È stay KÍ † Ç ¶ •#°

HË=@O…è^¥?

Don't you want to stay here today?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D college …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
KÇ^Î"Œ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Why don't you want to study in this
college this year?
g°~¡° D town …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 settle J"Œ•#°

HË=@O…è^ΰ?

13.

Why don't you want to settle down in
this town?
J`Ç_È° Dª•i seminar …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½

14.

Why doesn't he want to participate in
the seminar this time?
P"³° D party H÷ "Œix ZO^ΰ䛽 invite

15.

16.

‡•…ç¾<Œ•#°HË=@O…è^°Î ?

K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

Why doesn't she want to invite them
to this party?
"Œ~¡ ° D ~ËA programme ZO^Î ° ä› ½
conduct K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
Why don't they want to conduct the
programme today?
h=ô XH› govt. employee J"Œ•x ZO^ΰ䛽

J#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

Why don't you want to become a govt.
employee?

17. P†Ç°# Dª•i ZxßH•› …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡é\©
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ ?

19.

Why doesn't he want to contest in the
elections this time?
h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 bike Hù<Œ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
Why don't you want to buy a bike?
h=ô g° friends `Ë ZO^Î ° ä› ½ tour

20.

Why don't you want to go on tour with
your friends?
h=ô P new movie ZO^Î ° ä› ½

18.

"³ˆì¤•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

KǶ_¨•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

Why don't you want to see that new
movie?

1. h=ô Hindi <Í~¡°óHË"Œ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?
2. g°~¡ ° D~ËA friendly cricket match
P_¨•#°HË=@O…è^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° "Œi ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~Œ•#°HË=@O
…è^¥?
4. P"³° J`Çx„
Ì á complaint K͆¶
Ç •#°HË=@O
…è^¥?
5. "Œ~¡ ° J`Ç x H÷ D q+¬ † Ç ° O inform
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?
6. g°~¡° Dª•i P ‚¬ìÙ@…˜…Õ stay K͆Ƕ•#°
HË=@O…è^¥?
7. h=ô "Œi ‹¬•‚¬ð ‡•\÷OKŒ•#°HË=@O…è^¥?
8. g°~¡ ° D game practise KÍ † Ç ¶ •#°
HË=@O…è^¥?
9. P†Ç°# Dª•i "ŒiÌ„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È …ÿ#x
J#°HË=@O…è^¥?
10. P"³ ° doctor #° consult J"Œ•x
J#°HË=@O…è^¥?
11. Dª•i h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 F@° "͆Ƕ•#°
HË=@O…è^ΰ?
12. g°~¡° P bank …Õ account ZO^ΰ䛽 open
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
13. g°~¡ ° D~ËA meeting H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
~Œ"Œ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
14. J`Ç_È° D train …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ㄬ†Ç¶}O
K͆Ƕ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
15. "Œ~¡ ° P <Í ~ ¡ ‹ ¬ ° Ö _ •Ì „ á ZO^Î ° ä› ½ KÇ ~ ¡ ¼
f‹¬°HË"Œ•#°HË=@O…è^ΰ?

Z
Donot lose your self - respect.

290

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Want to' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nx…Õ
=°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :


ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Want
to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

I want to buy a scooter this month.
We want to help him now.
He wants to join M.C.A. this year.
She wants to stay with us.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Do not /
Does not + want to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

I do not want to seek his help in this matter.
We do not want to interefere in his matter.
He does not want to do job at present.
She does not want to continue her studies.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#°KÇ°#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Do / Does + want to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

Do you want to study in Hyd. this year?
Do you want to learn Hindi?
Does he want to do M.B.A this year?
Does she want to appear for the I-CET?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Don't / Doesn't + want to + I form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :

291

1.
2.
3.
4.

Don't you want to come with us?
Don't you want to stay with them?
Doesn't he want to join college this year?
Doesn't she want to go on tour with them?

,

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

581.

Try

tried

tried

582.

Tuck

tucked

tucked

583.

Turn

turned

turned

584.

Twirl

twirled

twirled

585.

Unite

united

united

586.

Urge

urged

urged

587.

Use

used

used

588.

Utilise

utilised

utilised

589.

Utter

uttered

uttered

590.

Vacate

vacated

vacated

591.

Vanish

vanished

vanished

592.

Vary

varied

varied

593.

Verify

verified

verified

594.

Violate

violated

violated

595.

Visit

visited

visited

596.

Vomit

vomitted

vomitted

597.

Wait

waited

waited

598.

Walk

walked

walked

599.

Warm

warmed

warmed

600.

Wash

washed

washed

D ~ËA

Meaning

ㄬ†Ç°ußOKÇ°
…ÕxH÷^Ë„¬ô@
u~¡°Q®°, ãu„¬C@
y~¡y~¡ u~¡°Q®°@
XH›\÷QêK͆Çò@
ãÀ„ö~„²OKÇ°@
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ°@
L„¬†³¶Q®„¬~¡KÇ°@
„¬•°ä›½@
MìmK͆Çò@
J^Î$‰×¼=°Q®°@
ƒè^•Î=òKǶ„¬ô@
x~¡¶„²OKÇ°@
JuãH›q°OKÇ°@
‹¬O^ÎiÅOKÇ°@
"ŒOu KÍ‹¬°H›ù#°@
"Íz†ÇòO_È°@
#_ÈKÇ°@
Ì‚ìKÇóiOKÇ°@
‰×Ã㠕’=òK͆òÇ @

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
292

There is a thorn behind every rose.

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WANTED TO

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH›„x
¬ x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° x#ß h䛽 phone K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ#°.
"Í°=ò last week friendly match P_¨•x J#°Hùx<Œ=ò.
J`Ç_È° Q®`Ç ZxßH›•…Õ ‡é\© K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ_È°.
P"³° last year M.A. join J"Œ•x J#°Hùx#k.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH›„¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

Dq^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Wanted to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶ 'Wanted to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß x#°ß H›•"Œ•x J#°ä›½<Œß#°.
2.

I wanted to meet you yesterday.
"Í°=ò last Sunday picnic 䛽 "³ˆì¤•x

3.

We wanted to go on a picnic last
Sunday.
=¶ brother last month vehicle Hù<Œ•x

4.

5.

J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.

7.
8.

J#°ä›½<Œß_È°.

My brother wanted to buy a vehicle
last month.
=¶ sister x#ß competition …Õ
participate K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx#k.
My sister wanted to participate in the
competition yesterday.
"Œ~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È work start K͆Ƕ•x

J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°.

They wanted to start the work there
yesterday.
293

6. <Í#° last time J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~Œ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß#°.
I wanted to seek his help last time.
"Í°=ò "Œix x#ß consult J=ô^¥=°x

J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.

We wanted to consult them yesterday.
=¶ father =¶ brother x last year
central school …Õ admit KÍ † Ç ¶ •x

J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°.

9.

My father wantd to admit my brother
to central school last year.
P"³ ° last summer …Õ painting

10.

She wanted to learn painting last
summer.
"Œ~¡ ° last week cards distribute

<Í~¡°óHË"Œ•x J#°ä›½#ßk.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°.

They wanted to distribute the cards
last week.

,

11. <Í # ° x#ß J`Ç x H÷
J#°ä›½<Œß#°.
12.

letter

ã " Œ†Ç ¶ •x

I wanted to write a letter to him
yesterday.
"Í°=ò last Sunday office …Õ meeting

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKŒ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.

We wanted to conduct a meeting in
the office last Sunday.

13. "Í°=ò x#ß ƒ•ìs ~Œ¼b x~¡Þ‚²ìOKŒ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.
14.
15.

We wanted to organise a huge ralley
yesterday.
"Í ° =ò =òO^Î ° Qê<Í "ŒiH÷ inform

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.

We wanted to inform them earlier.
=¶ friend last time student union
elections …Õ ‡é\© K͆¶
Ç •x J#°ä›½<Œß_°È .
My friend wanted to contest in the
student union elections last time.

16. P"³ ° x#ß =¶`Ë WH› ø _•H÷ ~Œ"Œ•x
J#°ä›½#ßk.
17.

She wanted to come here with us
yesterday.
"Í°=ò last week farewell party celebrate

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.

We wanted to celebrate the farewell
party last week.

18. <Í#° x#ß P HË~¡°• q=~Œ•° `³•°‹¬°HË"Œ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß#°.
19.

20.

I wanted to know the details of that
course yesterday.
"Í°=ò last month holidays =¶ =îi…Õ

Q®_‡È ••x J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.

We wanted to spend our holidays at
our village last month.
"Œ~¡° last year D temple H÷ Ì„^Îí amount
donate K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°.
They wanted to donate a big amount
to this temple last year.

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EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. <Í#° x#ß =¶ native place H÷ "³ˆì¤•x
J#°ä›½<Œß#°.
2. "Í ° =ò last month new shop open
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ò.
3. NTR J„¬C_È° 'ƒ•ì~¡`^
Ç ‰Í O× Ñ ‡•s“ U~Œæ@°
K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ~¡°.
4. P"³ ° MLA seat ä› ½ try KÍ † Ç ¶ •x
J#°Hùx#k.
5. "Œ~¡° last year Hyderabad H÷ family shift
K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ~¡°.
6. <Í # ° last Sunday Tirumala visit
K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ#°.
7. "Í°=ò last month computer course …Õ
KÍ~Œ•x J#°Hùx<Œ=ò.
8. =¶ brother last time bank loan H÷ apply
K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ_È°.
9. P"³° x#ß function H÷ JO^Îih invite
K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx#k.
10. "Œ~¡ ° last year D town …Õ house
Hù<Œ•x J#°Hùx<Œ~¡°.
11. <Í # ° last month L.I.C. policy
f‹¬°HË"Œ•#°ä›½<Œß#°.
12. "Í°=ò J`ÇxÌ„á collector H÷ complaint
K͆Ƕ•#°ä›½<Œß=ò.
13. J`Ç _ È ° actual Qê doctor J"Œ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß_È°.
14. P"³° ~Œãu =¶ WO\ÕÁ stay K͆Ƕ•x
J#°Hùx#k.
15. "Œ~¡° x#ß meeting boycott K͆Ƕ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°.

All roads lead to Rome.

Z
294

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH›„x
¬ x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

<Í#° x#ß P function H÷ attend J"Œ•x J#°Hù#…è^ΰ.
"Í°=ò last week =¶ native place H÷ "³ˆì¤•#°HË…è^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° job K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
P"³° last year college …Õ join J"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH›„¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

Dq^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did not want to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural

U^³á##¶

'Did not want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° x#ß JH› ø _È "Œix H› • "Œ•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
2.

I did not want to meet them there
yesterday.
"Í°=ò last week =¶ =î~¡° "³ˆì¤•x

6. <Í # ° x#ß office H÷
K͆Ƕ•#°HË…è^ΰ.
7.

I did not want to apply for leave to the
office yesterday.
"Í ° =ò J‹¬ • ° last time "ŒiH÷ help

3.

We did not want to go to our village
last week.
=¶ brother J„¬ C _È ° job KÍ † Ç ¶ •x

8.

We did not want to help them last time.
=¶ father last week "ŒiH÷ money

4.

My brother did not want to do job then.
P"³ ° x#ß function H÷ "Œix invite

5.

She did not want to invite them to the
function yesterday.
"Œ~¡ ° last month P house vacate

J#°HË…è^ΰ.

J#°HË…è^ΰ.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

They did not want to vacate that
house last month.
295

leave apply

K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

W"ŒÞ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

My father did not want to give them
money last week.

9. "Í ° =ò x#ß J`Ç x `Ë Pq+¬ † Ç ° O
=¶\ìÁ_¨•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
10.

We did not want to talk to him that
matter yesterday.
<Í # ° ~Œã u "Œo¤ O \ÕÁ stay KÍ † Ç ¶ •x

J#°HË…è^ΰ.

I did not want to stay in their house
last night.

,

11. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° P
J#°HË…è^ΰ.

house

Hù#=…ÿ # x

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

They did not want to buy that house
then.
=¶ sister last year exam H÷ appear

J"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

1.

13.

My sister did not want to appear for
the exams last year.
J`Ç_°È last time ZxßH•› …Õ ‡é\© K͆¶
Ç •x

2.

14.

He did not want to contest in the
elections last time.
=¶ cousin last year studies continue

J#°HË…è^ΰ.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

My cousin did not want to continue
his studies last year.

15. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß P ‡é\© … Õ ‡•…ç¾ # =…ÿ # x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
They did not want to participate in
the competition yesterday.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

16. <Í # ° x#ß J`Ç x q+¬ † Ç ° O *ÕH› ¼ O
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

8.
9.

17.

I did not want to interefere in his
mattter yesterday.
Last Sunday "Í ° =ò "Œi`Ë match

18.

We did not want to play the match
with them last Sunday.
<Í # ° x#ß "Œi`Ë picnic "³ ˆ ì¤ • x

19.

20.

P_¨•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

J#°HË…è^ΰ.

I did not want to go on picnic with them
yesterday.
"Í°=ò last time J`Çx ^ÎQ®¾~¡ money J„¬C

K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

We did not want to borrow money
from him last time.
"Œ~¡° last time D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ J`ÇxÌ„á
depend J"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
They did not want to depend on him
in this matter last time.

: 94406 16425

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Degree `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç

<Í#° studies continue
K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
"Í°=ò last time "Œi ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~Œ•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° J„¬C_È° P job HË‹¬O try
K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
P"³° J‹¬•° teacher J"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° D town …Õ x=tOKŒ•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
<Í#° last time "Œi`Ë town H÷ "³ˆì¤•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
"Í ° =ò x#ß JH› ø _È J`Ç x x H› • "Œ•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
J`Ç_È° last year D college …Õ join
J"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
P"³ ° last year birth day celebrate
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
"Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° JH› ø _È P q+¬ † Ç ° O
KÇióOKŒ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
<Í#° J„¬C_È° "Œi ‹¬•‚¬ð ‡•\÷OKŒ•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ.
"Í ° =ò x#ß JH› ø _È time waste
K͆ǰ^Ε°KÇ°HË…è^ΰ.
<Í#° x#ß D q+¬†Ç°"³°Ø J`Çxx request
K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
=¶ cousin last time =¶`Ë stay
K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.
"Í°=ò x#ß D q+¬†Ç°O "ŒiH÷ inform
K͆Ƕ•x J#°HË…è^ΰ.

Knowledge is power.

Z

296

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH›„x
¬ x
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J
J
J
J

h=ô x#ß "Œix H›•"Œ•x J#°ä›½<Œß"Œ?
g°~¡° last month P house vacate K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ?
g° brother last year U.S.A. "³ˆì¤•x J#°ä›½<Œß_¨?
P"³° last year M.C.A. join J"Œ•x J#°ä›½#ß^¥?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH›„¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.

Dq^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + want to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Did + want to' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô x#ß J`ÇxH÷
J#°ä›½<Œß"Œ?
2.

3.

4.
5.

telegram

„¬O‡••x

Did you want to send him the telegram
yesterday?
g°~¡° last Sunday Quiz competition …Õ
participate K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ?
Did you want to participate in the quiz
competition last Sunday?
J`Ç_È° last time Chairman „¬^ÎqH÷ ‡é\©

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß_¨?

Did he want to contest for the post of
Chairman last time?
h=ô J„¬C_È° B.E. KÇ^"
Î Œ•x J#°ä›½<Œß"Œ?
Did you want to study B.E. then?
Last month h=ô Delhi "³ ˆ ì¤ • x

J#°ä›½<Œß"Œ?

Did you want to go to Delhi last month?

297

6. g°~¡° x#ß J`Çx marriage H÷
J"Œ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ?

attend

Did you want to attend his marriage
yesterday?

7. h=ô x#ß "Œix H›•"Œ•x J#°Hùx<Œ"Œ?
8.

Did you want to meet them yesterday?
J`Ç_È° last night hotel …Õ stay K͆Ƕ•x

9.

Did he want to stay in the hotel last
night?
P"³° x#ß P ‘•„¬ô…Õ new sari Hù<Œ•x

10.

J#°Hùx<Œ_¨?

J#°Hùx#^¥?

Did she want to buy a new sari in that
shop yesterday ?
"Œ~¡° last year business …Õ Ì„^Îí"³ò`ÇëO
invest K͆Ƕ•x J#°Hùx<Œ~Œ?
Did they want to invest a huge
amount in the business last year?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. g°~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È Z=ix consult J"Œ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Whom did you want to consult there
yesterday?
last Sunday g°~¡° ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆì¤•x

J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°?

15.

Where did you want to go last
Sunday?
g°~¡° last year g° brother x U Hê…èl…Õ
admit K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°?
In which college did you want to admit
your brother last year?
g° brother last month job H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
resign K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß_È°?
Why did your brother want to resign
to his job last month?
h=ô last month Delhi …Õ Zxß~ËA•° stay

16.

Howmany days did you want to stay
in Delhi last month?
"Œ~¡° last time problem #° Z…ì solve

13.

14.

17.

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ô?

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°?

How did they want to solve that
problem last time?
h=ô x#ß J`Ç x H÷ marriage …Õ Uq°
present K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ô?
What did you want to present him in
the marriage yesterday?

18. g°~¡° x#ß J`Çx`Ë Uq° =¶\ìÁ_¨•x
J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°?
What did you want to talk to him
yesterday?

19. h=ô x#ß Q®°O@¶~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆì¤•x
J#°ä›½<Œß=ô?
20.

Why did you want to go to Guntur
yesterday?
"Œ~¡° last year ZH›ø_È branch open

K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡°?

Where did they want to open the
branch last year ?

1. g°~¡° last night movie KǶ_¨•#°ä›½<Œß~Œ
?
2. h=ô x#ß =¶`Ë picinic H÷ ~Œ"Œ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß"Œ ?
3. g° brother Engineer J"Œ•x
J#°Hù<Œß_¨ ?
4. P"³° `Ç# birthday party H÷ JO^Îih invite
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½#ß^¥ ?
5. "Œ~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È work start K͆Ƕ•x
J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ?
6. h=ô last year Andhra University …Õ
M.Phil K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß"Œ ?
7. g°~¡° "Œi`Ë x#ß D q+¬†Ç°O discuss
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ ?
8. g° uncle last year Ongole …Õ business
start K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ ?
9. P"³° last time Group-I exam. H÷ appear
J"Œ•x J#°ä›½#ß^¥ ?
10. "Œ~¡ ° last month P house vacate
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~Œ ?
11. h=ô actual Qê Uq° J"Œ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ô?
12. h=ô P university …Õ last year U course
K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß=ô ?
13. g°~¡° last week Farewel party ZH›ø_È
celebrate K͆Ƕ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡° ?
14. g°~¡ ° last time P q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ Z=i
‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~Œ•x J#°ä›½<Œß~¡° ?
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° Chennai …Õ settle J"Œ•x
ZO^ΰ䛽 J#°ä›½<Œß~¡° ?

Forgiveness is the best revenge.

Z

298

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: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡
K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h=ô x#ß P ‡é\©…Õ ‡•…ç¾<Œ•x J#°HË…è^¥?
g°~¡° last time "Œi`Ë KÇióOKŒ•#° HË…è^¥?
J`Ç_È° govt. job ‡ÚO^¥•x J#°HË…è^¥?
"Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° Nellore …Õ branch open K͆Ƕ•#° HË…è^¥?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x J#°H›ù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + want to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject I, We, You,He, She, It, They U^³#
á #° "Didn't + want to" L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h=ô g°
J#°HË…è^¥?

friends

picnic

"³ˆì¤•x

6. "Œ~¡° last week meeting x~¡Þ‚²ìOKŒ•#°
HË…è^¥ ?

2.

Didn't you want to go on picnic with
your friends yesterday?
h=ô J„¬æ\ÕÁ university …Õ KÇ^Î"Œ•x

3.

Didn't you want to study in the
university then?
g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D town …Õ house construct

8.

4.

Didn't you want to construct the house
in this town then?
J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° Group-I exam H÷ appear

9. g°~¡° last time ZxßH›•…Õ J`ÇxH÷ support
K͆Ƕ•xJ#°HË…è^¥?

Didn't he want to appear for the
Group-I exam then?

10.

J#°HË…è^¥?

K͆Ƕ•xJ#°HË…è^¥ ?
J"Œ•xJ#°HË…è^¥?

5. P"³° x#ß "Œix D q+¬†Ç°O J_ÈQê•#°
HË…è^¥?
Didn't she want to ask them this matter
yesterday?

299

Didn't they want to conduct the
meeting last month?

7. h=ô x#ß JH› ø _È J`Ç x x H› • "Œ•x
J#°HË…è^¥?

Didn't you want to meet him there
yesterday?
J`Ç _ È ° ~Œã u WH› ø _È stay KÍ † Ç ¶ •x

J#°HË…è^¥?

Didn't he want to stay here last night?

Didn't you want to support him in the
elections last time ?
"Œ~¡ ° last year bank loan HË‹¬ O try

K͆Ƕ•xJ#°HË…è^¥ ?

Didn't they want to try for the bank loan
last year?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. Last Sunday h=ô g° T~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽
"³ˆì¤•#°HË…è^ΰ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why didn't you want to go to your
village last Sunday?

12. h=ô

degree `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç studies ZO^ΰ䛽
continue K͆Ƕ•#°HË…è^ΰ?
Why didn't you want to continue your
studies after your degree?

13. J`Ç _ È ° x#ß "ŒiH÷ `Ë_È ° Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½
"³ˆì¤•#°HË…è^ΰ?
Why didn't he want to accompany
them yesterday?

14. P"³° last month "Œix ZO^ΰ䛽
K͆Ƕ•#°HË…è^ΰ?

invite

15. "Œ~¡ ° last time ZO^Î ° ä› ½
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKŒ•xJ#°HË…è^ΰ?

tour

Why didn't she want to invite them last
month?

Why didn't they want to organize a tour
last time?

16. h=ô x#ß =¶`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ"Œ•#°HË…è^°Î ?
Why didn't you want to come with us
yesterday?

17. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° P house ZO^ΰ䛽 H›ù<Œ•x
J#°HË…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you want to buy that house
then?

18. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È°
J#°HË…è^ΰ?

job

K͆Ƕ•x ZO^ΰ䛽

Why didn't he want to do job then?

19. P"³ ° lawyer Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½
K͆Ƕ•xJ#°HË…è^ΰ?

practise

Why didn't she want to practise as a
lawyer then?

20. "Œ~¡°

last year ZO^ΰ䛽 Annual Day
celebrate K͆Ƕ•#°HË…è^ΰ?
Why didn't they want to celebrate the
Annual Day last year?

1. h=ô x#ß friendly match …Õ
P_¨•#°HË…è^¥?
2. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~Œ•x
J#°HË…è^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° last time ZxßH›•…Õ ‡é\© K͆Ƕ•x
J#°HË…è^¥?
4. P"³° last time treatment f‹¬°HË"Œ•x
J#°HË…è^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° last year tournments x~¡Þ‚²ìOKŒ•x
J#°HË…è^¥?
6. h=ô higher studies KÍ † Ç ¶ •x
J#°HË…è^¥?
7. g°~¡° "Œi`Ë H›e‹² business K͆Ƕ•x
J#°HË…è^¥?
8. P†Ç ° # hä› ½ recommend KÍ † Ç ¶ •x
J#°HË…è^¥?
9. P"³ ° last time Group-I „¬ s H› Æ ä › ½
‚¬ð[~¡"ŒÞ•x J#°HË…è^¥?
10. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° family x Hyd. shift K͆¶
Ç •x
J#°HË…è^¥?
11. h=ô J„¬C_È° job K͆Ƕ•x ZO^ΰH›#°
HË…è^ΰ?
12. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° P ‡Ú•O Hù<Œ•x ZO^ΰH›#°
HË…è^ΰ?
13. P"³° last year "Œi`Ë Hêj ‹¬O^ÎiÅOKŒ•x
ZO^ΰH›#°HË…è^ΰ?
14. P†Ç°# J„¬C_È° „²•Á•#° KÇkqOKŒ•x
ZO^ΰH›#°HË…è^ΰ?
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° text books publish K͆¶
Ç •x
ZO^ΰH›#°HË…è^ΰ?

A smile doesnot cost anything.

Z
300

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Wanted to' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question
Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1.

POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Wanted to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

I wanted to go to my village yesterday.
We wanted to visit Delhi last month.
He wanted to learn Grammar last summar.
They wanted to invite the collector to the function.

2.

NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Did not + want to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

I did not want to meet him there yesterday.
We did not want to help him last time.
He did not want to participate in the programme last week.
They did not want to sell that house last time.

3.

QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hùx# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Did + want to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

Did you want to pay him money yesterday?
Did he want to see that movie last Sunday?
Did she want to practise type writing last year?
Did they want to inform him this matter yesterday?

4.

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰ=…ÿ#x J#°Hù#x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Didn't + want to + I form of the
Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

301

1.
2.
3.
4.

Didn't you want to continue the course last month?
Didn't he want to stay with you last time?
Didn't she want to do that job then?
Didn't they want to buy that site then?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

601.

Whisper

whispered

whispered

602.

Wipe

wiped

wiped

603.

Worry

worried

worried

604.

Yawn

yawned

yawned

605.

Yelp

yelped

yelped

606.

Awake

awoke

awoke

607.

Bear

bore

born

608.

Beat

beat

beaten

609.

Become

became

become

610.

Bend

bent

bent

611.

Beseech

besought

besought

612.

Bet`

bet

bet

613.

Bless

blessed

blessed

614.

Blow

blew

blown

615.

Burn

burnt

burnt

616.

Cost

cost

cost

617.

Cut

cut

cut

618.

Dig

dug

dug

619.

Feed

fed

fed

620.

Kneel

knelt

knelt

D ~ËA

Meaning

Q®°‹¬Q®°‹¬…ì_È°@
`Ç°_È°KÇ°@
ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È @
P=ôeOKÇ°@
"³ò~¡°Q®°@
"Í°…çø#°@
[xàOKÇ°@
Hù@°“@
JQ®°@
=OQ®°@
ã|u=°…ì_È°@
„¬O^³=òHê†Çò@
nqOKÇ°@
T^ΰ@, gKǰ@
Hê•°ó@
"³•JQ®°@
HˆÇò@
ã`Ç=ôÞ@
ux„²OKÇ°@, ‡é+²OKÇ°@
"³¶H›i•°Á@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
302

A mother should always be respected.

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

Z
303

Meaning

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: 94406 16425

PASSIVE VOICE
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° XH› "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬xx KÍ‹²# "Œ~¡° (subject / doer) Z=~¡° J<Ík ‹¬¶zOKÇ=ò .
Subject 䛽 importance W=Þ=ò.
L^¥ :

ㄬHê‰×O l…ìÁ…Õ =i ƒìQê „¬O_È°`Ç°Ok.

Z=~¡° „¬O_•ª•ë~°¡ ? ~ï `á °Ç •°. Jk Subject. D "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Subject ‹¬¶zOKÇ…^
è °Î .
J=‹¬~¡=ò…è^ΰ. Subject K³„¬æH›‡é~ò<Œ "ŒH›¼=ò#䛽 J~¡Ö=ò =zó#k.
WOHùH› L^¥ :
x#ß E-TV …Õ XH› old film „
ã ª¬ •~¡O J~ò#k.
Z=~¡° „
ã ª¬ •~¡O KÍ‹<
² Œ~¡° ? ETV "Œ~¡°. Jk Subject.
D "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Subject ‹¬¶zOKÇ…è^ΰ. J=‹¬~¡=ò ~Œ…è^ΰ.
WOHùH› L^¥ :
ö~„¬ô S.S.C. „¬sHÆê „¦¬e`Œ•° "³•°=_È°`Œ~ò.
Z=~¡° „
ã H¬ \
› ª÷ •ë~°¡ ? S.S.C. Board "Œ~¡°. Jk Subject
D "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ ä›•_¨ Subject ‹¬¶zOKÇ…^
è °Î . J=‹¬~=
¡ ò…è^°Î . D q^•Î=òQê
language …Õ KŒ…ì "ŒH›¼=ò•° Subject #° ‹¬¶zO„¬H›, Subject 䛽 importance W=ÞH›
LO_È°#°.
W@°=O\÷ "ŒH›¼=ò•…Õ Object 䛽 importance LO_È°#°.
L^¥ :1 …Õ =i 'paddy' - J#°#k 'object' .
L^¥ : 2 …Õ 'old film' J#°#k

'object'.

L^¥ : 3…Õ 'S.S.C. results' - J#°#k

'object'.

D q^•Î=òQê XH› "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ 'Object' 䛽 ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç#° W‹¬¶ë 'Object' Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° XH› "ŒH›¼=ò#° Grammar …Õ 'Passive Voice' …Õ L#ß#x K³„¬C^ΰ~¡°.
=°iHùxß L^¥‚¬ì~¡}•° :
1. ㄬu ~ËA 5 Q®OII•ä›½ milk supply J=ô`Œ~ò.
2. x#ß =¶ä›½ English test [iy#k.
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3. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ =°# university …Õ new courses ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’=°=ô`Œ~ò.
4. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È function 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßq.
5. =¶ä›½ already syllabus „¬îië J~ò#k.
D q^•Î=òQê D „
Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•xßO\÷…Õ =°#=ò P „¬#°•° KÍ‹#
² Subject Q®°iOz
K³„æ¬ H,› Object Q®°iOz ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç#° W‹¬¶,ë "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz K³„C¬ KÇ°#ßO^ΰ# D "ŒH›¼=ò•° Passive
Voice …Õ L#ßq. W„¬C_È° "Í~¡°"Í~¡° tense •…Õ Passive Voice - Verb Form Z…ì =ôO_È°<Ë
q=~¡=òQê <Í~¡°óHùO^Î=ò.
䛽Á„¬ëOQê
J#Qê "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx Object 䛽 ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç =ôO_È°#°. Verb #° Uq° ? Jx
ㄬtßOz# answer LO_È°#°. Z=~¡° ? Jx ㄬtßOz# answer LO_È^ΰ. Subject 䛽 importance
LO_È^ΰ.
Passive Voice

PASSIVE VOICE VERB FORM
' 'Be' form + III form of the Verb'

"ŒH›¼=ò U tense …Õ =ôO>è P

tense 'be' form =°i†Çò verb

Passive Voice …Õ Verb U tense …Õ<³á<Œ III form

304

†³òH›ø III form.

…Õ<Í =ôO_È°#°.

is / are

+ done

=

is/are done

was / were

+ done

=

was / were done

will be

+ done

=

will be done

is / are + being

+ done

=

is/ are being done

was/ were + being + done

=

was/ were being done

have/ has been

+ done

=

have/ has been done

had + been

+ done

=

had been done

will have + been

+ done

=

will have been done

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: 94406 16425

PASSIVE VOICE - PRESENT
Hùxß „¬#°• Q®°iOz K³„¬C#„¬ô_È° P „¬#°•#° K͆Çò subject Q®°iOz K³„¬æ#=‹¬~¡O
LO_È^°Î . Hö =•O P „¬#°•° [~¡°Q®°@ Q®°iOz†Í° „
ã ^
¬ •¥#=òQê K³„C¬ KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
P „¬ # °•° KÍ † Ç ò "Œ~¡ ° (subject) Z=~Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ=ò. P „¬#°•° K͆Çò"ŒiH÷
(subject) ‡
ã •^•¥#¼`Ç W=Þ=ò. W@°=O\÷ "ŒH›¼=ò#° Passive Voice …Õ L#ß^Îx K³„¬C^ΰ=ò.
Regular Qê …èH› „¬^Í „¬^Í K͆°Ç |_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È°, XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

~ö _•†³¶…Õ „ã u¬ L^Ά°Ç O "Œ~¡•ë ° „ã ª¬ •~¡=°¿`Œ~ò.
„ã u¬ Pk"Œ~¡O P H›ƒÁ …˜ Õ ª•O‹¬$øuH› Hê~¡¼ Hã =› °=ò•° x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°#°.
=¶ä›½ ㄬu lesson 䛽 notes dictate K͆ǰ|_È°`Ç°Ok.
„ã u¬ L^Ά°Ç O 5 Q®O@•ä›½ ‡••° ‹¬~„¡ ~¬¦ Œ K͆°Ç |_È`Œ~ò.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã u¬ ~ËA, „ã u¬ "Œ~¡O, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò, ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê Z•Á„C¬ _ȶ, `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê, „¬^Í
„¬^Í XH›i KÍ`Ç K͆ǰ|_È° (^¥#O`Ç@ Jk [~¡Q®x „¬xx) [~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am/Is/Are+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
J
J
J
J

*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am' ,
He, She, It, subject Qê
Plural subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are' =KÇ°ó#°.

L#ß„¬C_È° 'is'

EXAMPLES
1.

E T.V. …Õ „
ã u
¬ ~ËA 9 p.m. H÷ news „ã ª¬ •~¡O

J=ô`Œ~ò.

3.

The news is telecast at 9 p.m. on
E-T.V. every day.
Hyderabad …Õ Holi ƒìQê [~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok.
Holi is celebrated very grand in
Hyderabad.
S.S.C. „¬sH›•
Æ ° ª•^•¥~¡}OQê =¶ió <³•…Õ

4.

S.S.C. examinations are held usually
in the month of March.
D shop …Õ English medicines

2.

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°`Œ~ò.

6. =¶ college …Õ classes
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°`Œ~ò.
7.

regular

The classes are conducted regularly
in our college.
=¶ school …Õ =°Oz discipline ‡•\÷O„¬

|_È°`Ç°Ok.

Good discipline is maintained in our
school.

8. ㄬHê‰×Ol…ìÁ…Õ =i „¬O_È°`Ç°Ok.

English medicines are sold in this shop.

Paddy is grown in Prakasam District.
ª•^•¥~¡}OQê text books govt. press …Õ
print J=ô`Œ~ò.
Text books are usually printed in the
govt. press.

5. N^Í q kŠ † Í ° @~Ÿ … Õ Zä› ½ ø=Qê ‚² ì Ok
‹²x=¶•° ㄬ^ÎiÅO„¬|_È°`Œ~ò.

10. XOQË•° \º<£H÷ †Ç°<£.†Ç°‹¹. Hï <Œ…˜ #°O_•
drinking water supply J=ô`Ç°Ok

Mostly Hindi movies are shown at
Sridevi.

Drinking water is supplied from the
N.S. canal to Ongole town.

305

•aOKÇ°#°.

9.

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11. ª•^•¥~¡ } OQê A…ÿ á <³ • …Õ
admissions =òQ®°ª•ë~ò.
12.

13.

14.

degree

Degree admissions are usually closed
in the month of July.
=¶ Hê…è*˜…Õ 8 a.m. H÷ first bell ã"³¶Q®°

`Ç°Ok.

The first bell is rung at 8 a.m. in our
college.
Towns …Õ ã„¬u ~ËA L^ΆǰO roads Jhß
clean K͆ǰ|_È°`Œ~ò.
Roads are cleaned in the town every
morning.
D<Œ_È° daily 17 Hö Oã^¥•#°O_• publish

J=ô`Ç°Ok.

Eenadu daily is published from 17
centres.

15. =°# ~ŒRO…Õ ã „ ¬ " Í ‰ × „ ¬ # °ß =‹¬ ¶ •°
K͆ǰ|_È°#°.
16.

Entry tax is collected in our state.
"Œi family maintainance H÷ <³•ä›½ ~¡¶.

17.

Rs. 5000 is spent for the maintainance
of their family per month.
P office …Õ work KŒ…ì sincere Qê

18.

19.

20.

5000 Y~¡°ó J=ô`Ç°Ok.

[~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok.

Work is done sincerely in that office.
Chennai city…Õ traffic rules KŒ…ì strict
Qê follow Hê|_È°`Œ~ò.
Traffic rules are followed strictly in
Chennai city.
ª•^•¥~¡}OQê =¶ college…Õ syllabus

[#=i…Õ „¬îië J=ô`Ç°Ok.

The syllabus is usually completed in
our college in January itself.
=¶ college…Õ „
ã u
¬ ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ games
practise K͆ǰ|_È°`Œ~ò.
Games are practised in our college
every evening.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. =¶ä› ½ ã „ ¬ u <³ • 5= `Í n # salaries
K³eÁOKÇ|_È`Œ~ò.
2. <Œä›½ personal expenses 䛽 <³•ä›½ ~¡¶.
2000 Y~¡°ó J=ô`Ç°Ok.
3. ö ~ _•†³ ¶ …Õ ã „ ¬ u L^Î † Ç ° O "Œ~¡ ë • °

ã ª¬ •~¡=°=ô`Œ~ò.
4. WKÇó@ „
Ì O_•Á „¬u
ã H›•° JKÇ°ó"†
Í °Ç |_È°#°.
5. P shop …Õ orders Ì„á sweet supply
K͆ǰ|_Ȱ`ǰOk.
6. ª•^•¥~¡}OQê degree admissions August
<³•…Õ =òQ®°ª•ë~ò.
7. „¬ @ “ } ì•…Õ `Ç ~ ¡ K Ç ° Qê |O^£ • °
[~¡°Q®°`Ç°O\ì~ò.
8. „
ã u
¬ ‰×x"Œ~¡O P temple …Õ ã„¬`ͼH› „¬î[•°
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È`Œ~ò.
9. WKÇó@ English medicines J=°à|_È°#°.
10. ã „ ¬ u <³ • ‰× à ã H › " Œ~¡ = ò library close
KÍ‹²=ôO@°Ok.
11. ㄬu <³• ‹¬°=¶~¡° `³•°Q®°…Õ „¬k ãHù`Çë
movies q_È°^Ε J=ô`Ç°O\ì~ò.
12. =¶ college …Õ ã „ ¬ u Sunday test
[~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok.
13. D door lock KÍ‹²=ô#ßk.
14. =¶ hostel …Õ 1 pm H÷ lunch serve
K͆ǰ|_Ȱ`ǰOk.
15. =°# state …Õ entry tax collect
K͆ǰ|_Ȱ`ǰOk.

Nothing can harm a good man.

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° regular Qê …èH› J‹¬…„
ÿ æ¬ \H÷ © K͆°Ç |_Èx,
[~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J =¶ college …Õ notes dictate K͆ǰ|_È^ΰ.
J Text books private press ……Õ print K͆ǰ|_È=ô.
J College …Õ late commers class …ÕH÷ J#°=°uOKÇ|_È~¡°.
J =°# ‡
ã •O`ÇO…Õ ‚¬ìÙb „¬O_È°Q® [~¡°„¬|_È^°Î .

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê, J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰ|_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê regular Qê Hêx, J‹¬•° Z„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am/Is/Are+not +IIIform of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am' =KÇ°ó#°.
Singular subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'is' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =¶ä›½ Sunday classes [~¡Q®=ô.
Classes are not conducted to us on
sundays.

2. =¶ ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ ‚¬ìÙb „¬O_È°Q® [~¡°Q®^°Î .
Holi festival is not celebrated in our
area.

7. XH› ª •i J=°à# =‹¬ ° ë = ô•° "Œ„¬ ‹ ¬ °
f‹¬°Hù#|_È=ô.
Goods once sold are not taken back.

8. P college …Õ
K͆ǰ|_È=ô.

9. z#ß towns …Õ trafic rules ‡•\÷O„¬|_È=ô.

4. WKÇó@ ‡••° J=°à|_È=ô.

Traffic rules are not followed in small
town.

Milk is not sold here.

5. W`Ç~¡°•° …ÕxH÷ J#°=°uO|_È~¡°.
Others are not allowed inside.

6. =¶
shop
…Õ
J#°=°uOKÇ|_È=ô.

10. =¶ town …Õ
ㄬ^ÎiÅOKÇ|_È=ô.

cheques

Cheques are not accepted in our
shop.
307

=‹¬ ¶ •°

Donations are not collected in that
college.

3. =¶ shop …Õ credit W=Þ|_È^ΰ.
Credit is not given in our shop.

donations

11.

english

films

English films are not shown in our
town.
<Œä›½ J‹¬•° time •a•OKÇ^°Î .
Time iw not found o me at all.

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12. J`Ç_È° JH›ø_È Z=iH© `³e†Ç°^ΰ.
He is not known to any one there.

13. =¶ l…ìÁ…Õ K³~¡ä›½ „¬O_È^ΰ.
Sugar cane is not grown in our istrict.

14. P ‹¬O‹¬Ö…Õ
|_È=ô.

salaries regular

Qê K³eÁO„¬

Salaries are not pai promptly in that
firm.

15. P college …Õ ‹¬ i †³ Ø ° #
‡•\÷O„¬|_È^°Î .

discipline

Good discipline is not maintained in

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. =¶ school …Õ tests x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È=ô.
2. D channel …Õ

ã ª¬ •~¡OHê=ô.

English programmes

3. D course admission 䛽 entrance test
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È^ΰ.
4. D land ª•Q®°K͆°Ç |_È^°Î .
5. P route …Õ RTC buses #_È°„¬|_È=ô.
6. W„¬C_È° money ready Qê LOKÇ|_È…è^ΰ.

tht college.

16. =¶ office L^˼Q®°•ä›½ working days …Õ
J‹¬•° leave grant K͆ǰ|_È^ΰ.

7. ~ŒRO…Õ „¬ # °ß•° ‹¬ i Qê =‹¬ ¶ •°
K͆ǰ|_È@O …è^ΰ.

Leave is not granted on working

8. JH› ø _È punctuality (‹¬=°†Ç°‡••#)
‡•\÷O„¬|_È^°Î .

days to the employees in our office.

17. JH›ø_È =°#䛽 =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ|_È^ΰ.
Accommodation is not provided to
us there.

18. g° school …Õ J‹¬•°
K͆ǰ|_È^ΰ.

notes dictate

Notes is not dictated in our school at

9. <Í~¡‹¬°Ö•Ì„á KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°HË|_È@O…è^ΰ.
10.

Cleanliness is not maintained there

x"ŒiO„¬|_È^ΰ.

11. =¶ college …Õ
K͆ǰ|_È=ô.

ga es

J‹¬•°

practice

12.

Late commers class …ÕxH÷ J#°=°uO„¬

13.

Cities …Õ powersupply xe„²"͆ǰ|_È^ΰ.

14.

Fail

all.

19. JH›ø_È J‹¬•° ‰×Ã㠕’`Ç ‡•\÷OKÇ|_È^°Î .

Aids

|_È~¡°.

20. JH›ø_È J‹¬•° ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =$^•¥ Hê^ΰ.

J~ò# q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½
K³eÁO„¬|_È^ΰ.

Time is not wasted there at all.

15. JH›ø_È J‹¬•° work delay J=^ΰ.

scholarship

Z
Great minds have purpose, others have wishes.

308

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° regular Qê …èH› „¬^Í „¬^Í K͆ǰ|_È°,
[~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

g°ä›½ cleass •° regular Qê x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ |_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?
g° office …Õ salary prompt Qê K³eÁO„¬ |_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
g° college …Õ =°Oz Hã =› °tH›}Æ ‡•\÷O„¬ |_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
P shop …Õ English medicins J=°à|_È `Œ†Ç¶ ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_È° „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê „ã u¬ ~ËA, „ã u¬ "Œ~¡=ò, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò regular Qê Z•Á„¬C_È° `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê „¬^Í
„¬^Í K͆ǰ|_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am/Is/Are + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am' =KÇ°ó#°.
Singular subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'is' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. g°

hostel …Õ ã„¬u Pk"Œ~¡=ò special
item serve K͆ǰ|_È°`Ç°O^¥?
Is a special item served in your hostel
every Sunday ?

6. WH›ø_È T.V. sets repair K͆ǰ|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?

2. g° Ti…Õ ^΋¬~Œ „¬O_È°Q® ƒìQê [~¡°Q®°
`Ç°O^¥ ?

Are tests conducted in your college
every month ?

3.

Is Dasara festival celebrated grand in
your village ?
g° college …Õ HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° •° regular Qê

4.

Are the classes conducted regularly
in your college ?
g° town …Õ English films ㄬ^ÎiÅOKÇ

5.

Are English fims shown in your town?
g°ä›½ ㄬu <³• salary prompt Qê K³eÁO„¬

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È`Œ†Ç¶?

|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?

|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?

Is salary paid to you promptly every
month ?
309

Are T.V. sets repaired here ?

7. g° college …Õ ã„¬u <³• tests x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬
|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?
8. D

grammar book Inter q^¥¼~¡ ° Ö • ä› ½
prescribe K͆°Ç |_•#^¥ ?
Is this grammar book prascribed for
the Intermediate students ?

9. g°

club …Õ `Ç ~ ¡ K Ç ° Qê cultural
programmes x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?
Are cultural programmes often held in
your club ?

10. g°ä›½ ㄬu <³• paper
supply J=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?

Madras

#°Oz

Is paper supplied to you from Madras
every month ?

,
: 94406
16425 .

,

11. g° college …Õ first bell Z„¬C_È° ã"³¶yOKÇ
|_È°`Ç°Ok ?
When is the first bell rung in your
college ?

12.

…Õ news ~ËAH÷ Zxߪ•~¡°Á „
ã ª¬ •~¡
=°=ô`Œ~ò ?
ETV

Howmany times is the news telecast
on ETV in a day ?

13. g° l…ìÁ…Õ Z䛽ø=Qê U „¬O@ „¬O_È°`Ç°Ok?
Which crop is mostly grown in your
district ?

14. P shop Z„¬C_ȶ ZO^ΰ䛽
LO@°Ok ?

close

KÍ‹²

Why is that shop alwasys closed ?

15. h䛽 personal Qê <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç Y~¡°ó
J=ô`Ç°Ok ?
Howmuch money is spent for your
personal expenses every month ?

16. ª•^•¥~¡}OQê =°# state …Õ B.Ed.
entrance test Z„¬C_È° x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°
`Ç°Ok ?
When is the B.Ed. entrance test usually
held in our state ?

17.

Citizen watches ZH›ø_È `dž¶
Ç ~¡=ô`Œ~ò?
Where are the citizen watches made?

18. ~ËAH÷ =°# town …Õ Zxß b@~¡Á
supply JQ®°KÇ°#ßk ?

milk

Howmany litres milk is supplied in our
town in a day ?

19. ª•^•¥~¡}OQê g° showroom …Õ <³•H÷ Zxß
colour TV sets sale J=ô`Œ~ò?
Howmany colour TV sets are usually
sold in your showroom in a month ?

20. =°# ^͉×O…Õ Q®O@䛽 ZO`Ç=°Ok „²•Á•°
[xà‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°?
Howmany children are born in an hour
in our country ?

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. D medicine Jxß shop •…Õ J=°à|_È°
`Ç°O^¥ ?
2. g° institute …Õ ã„¬u<³• XH› fresh batch
commence J=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?
3. „¬ @ “ } ì•…Õ `Ç ~ ¡ K Ç ° Qê |O^£ • °
[~¡°Q®°`Ç°O\ì†Ç¶ ?
4. P hospital …Õ =°O^ΰ•° Lz`ÇOQê
W=Þ|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?
5. Training Hê•O…Õ P L^˼Q®°•ä›½ stipend
K³eÁO„¬|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
6. Mysore …Õ ^΋¬~Œ „¬O_È°Q® grand Qê
[~¡°Q®°`Ç°O^¥ ?
7. g° syllabus „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O [#=i <³•…Õ
„¬îië J=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?
8. India H÷ sugar ZH›ø_È #°Oz import
J=ô`Ç°Ok?
9. Reynolds pens ZH›ø_È `džǶ~¡=ô`Œ~ò?
10. ª•^•¥~¡OQê budget asembly …Õ U <³•…Õ
ㄬ"͉×Ì„@“|_È°`Ç°Ok ?
11. ª•^•¥~¡}OQê `³•°Q®°…Õ ‹¬O=`Ç•~ŒxH÷ Zxß
films q_È°^Î…º`Œ~ò ?
12. g° WO\ÕÁ <³ • H÷ ZO`Ç money Y~¡ ° ó
J=ô`Ç°Ok ?
13. ‹¬O=`Ç•~ŒxH÷ ZO`Ç=°Ok L^˼Q®°•° retire
J=ô`Œ~¡°?
14. ª•^•¥~¡O}OQê EAMCET question paper
ZH›ø_È print J=ô`Ç°Ok?
15. ª•^•¥~¡}OQê LQêk„¬O_È°Q® U <³•…Õ
[~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok?

Z

The higher the voice, the smaller the intellect.

310

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

g° college H÷ late commers J#°=°uO„¬|_È~Œ?
"ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° scholrship grant J=^¥?
h=ô WH›ø_È Z=iH© `³e†Ç°^¥?
D channel …Õ news „ã ª¬ •~¡O Hê"Œ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_Èx „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêx, J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx (Subject 䛽 Z@°=O\÷
‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç W=Þ䛽O_¨) XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Isn't / aren't + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular J~ò#„¬C_È° - 'Isn't'
Plural J~ò#„¬C_È° - 'Aren't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note :

EXAMPLES
1. g° ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ =i„¬O_È^¥?
2.

Isn't paddy grown in your area?
g° college …Õ classes regular

6.

[~¡°Q®"Œ?
3.

Aren't the classes conducted regularly
in your college?
D channel …Õ English movies „ã ª¬ •~¡O

Hê"Œ?
4.

Aren't English movies telecast on this
channel?
g° college …Õ J‹¬ • ° ã H › = °tH› Æ }

7.

5. D ƒ•’¶q° ª•Q®°…Õ …è^¥?
Isn't this land cultivated?
311

supply

J‹¬•° xe„²

Isn't power supply stopped at all in
cities?
g° town …Õ drinking water daily ‹¬~¡„¦¬~Œ

J=^¥?

Isn't drinking water supplied daily in
your town?

8. g° ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ ƒÕ<Œ• „¬O_È°Q® [~¡°Q®^¥?
9.

‡•\÷O„¬|_È^¥?
Isn't discipline maintained in your
college?

…Õ power
"͆ǰ|_È^¥?
Cities

10.

Isn't Bonala festival celebrated in your
area?
D medicines D town …Õ ^ù~¡H›"Œ?
Aren't these medicines sold in this
town?
`Çq°ˆ×<Œ_È°…Õ ZOã@<£• tests J‹¬ • °

x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È"Œ?

Aren't entrance tests conducted in
Tamilnadu?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. g°ä› ½ salary
K³eÁO„¬|_È^ΰ?

regular

: 94406 16425

Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why isn't salary paid to you regularly?

12. g° school …Õ
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È=ô?

tests

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why aren't the tests conducted in your
school?

13. Cancer ZO^Î ° ä› ½ x"ŒiO„¬ | _È ^ Î ° ?
Why isn't cancer cured?

14. =°# ~ŒRO…Õ Hã ù`Çë x†Ç¶=°Hê•° ZO^ΰ䛽
[~¡°Q®=ô?
Why aren't the new recruitments made
in our state?

15. Govt. hostels …Õ „¬i‰×Ãフ’`Ç ZO^ΰ䛽
‡•\÷O„¬|_È^°Î ?
Why isn't cleanliness maintained in the
govt. hostels?

16. D town …Õ English
ㄬ^ÎiÅO„¬|_È=ô?

movies

ZO^ΰ䛽

Why aren't English movies shown in
this town?

17. g° college …Õ syllabus time H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
„¬îiëJ=^ΰ?
Why isn't the syllabus completed in
time in your college?

18. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ „¬^HΊ ê•° strict Qê ZO^ΰ䛽 J=°•°
Hê=ô?
Why aren't the govt. schemes
implemented strictly?

19. Defaulters Ì „ á
f‹¬°H›ù#|_È^ΰ?

KÇ ~ ¡ ¼

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why isn't action taken against the
defaulters?

20. J"³ ° iHê…Õ
cricket
‡ã é`Ç•‚²ìO„¬|_È^°Î ?

1. D office …Õ work sincere Qê [~¡Q®^¥?
2.

Sunday letters deliver

K͆ǰ|_È"Œ?

3. g° monthly meetings …Õ ‹¬ = °‹¬ ¼ •°
KÇióO„¬|_È"Œ?
4. c^Î q^¥¼~¡°•œ #°O_•
K͆ǰ|_È^¥?

mess bill

=‹¬¶•°

5. P door lock KÍ‹²…è^¥?
6. D q+¬†Ç°O h䛽 `³e†Ç°^¥?
7. D temple …Õ ã „ ¬ ` Í ¼ H› „¬ î [•°
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È"Œ?
8. h䛽 Hindi J~¡ÖOHê^¥?
9. D camera ZO^ΰ䛽 use …Õ …è^ΰ?
10. g°ä› ½ classes
[~¡°Q®=ô?

regular

Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½

11. D fields H÷ water ZO^ΰ䛽 supply J=^ΰ?
12. D ‹¬=°‹¬¼H÷ „¬i‘•ø~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 ^ù~¡H^
› °Î ?
13. =°# l…ìÁ…Õ „¬i‰ã =
× °•° ZO^ΰ䛽 Ja•=$kœ
K³O^Î=ô?
14. Bills ‹¬Hê•O…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 pass Hê=ô?
15. =°# ~ŒR L^˼Q®°•ä›½
K³eÁO„¬|_È^ΰ?

bonus

ZO^ΰ䛽

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why isn't cricket promoted in America?

Laugh and be merry.

Z
312

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Am/Is/Are + III form of the Verb"
J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. nxx Grammar …Õ Passive Voice -Present Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question
Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :

ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_È° …èH› [~¡°„¬|_È° (Subuject 䛽 ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç …èä½› O_¨) XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Am / Is / Are + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I am encouraged well in my studies.
2. This chain is made of gold.
3. Text books are printed in the govt. press.
4. Rs. 5,000 is paid to him per month.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :

ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_Èx …èH› [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Am not / Is not / Are not + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I am not treated well here.
2. Our festivals are not celebrated in Nepal.
3. Entry tax is not levied in Karnataka.
4. The door is not locked.
3. QUESTION FORM :

ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_È° …èH› [~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Is
/ Are + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Is this serial telecast daily?
2. Are the tests conducted every month?
3. Is Hindi spoken in West Bengal?
4. Are the patients treated well in this hospital?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Isn't / Aren't + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

313

1.
2.
3.
4.

Isn't grammar taught to you regularly?
Aren't the letters delivered on holidays?
Isn't permission given to you to go home on Sunday ?
Aren't games practised in your school?

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: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

621.

Lead

led

led

622.

Mean

meant

meant

623.

Melt

melted

melted

624.

Mistake

mistook

mistaken

625.

Show

showed

showed

626.

Spell

spelt

spelt

627.

Spit

spat

spat

628.

Sting

stang

stang

629.

Swell

swelled

swollen

630.

Acquire

acquired

acquired

631.

Adjourn

adjourned

adjourned

632.

Adjust

adjusted

adjusted

633.

Admit

admitted

admitted

634.

Adorn

adorned

adorned

635.

Advance

advanced

advanced

636.

Affliate

affliated

affliated

637.

Amend

amended

amended

638.

Anoint

anointed

anointed

639.

Assassinate

assassinated

assassinated

640.

Blink

blinked

blinked

D ~ËA

Meaning

#_È•„²OKÇ°@
J~¡Ö=òK³„¬C@
H›~¡yOKÇ°@
`Ç„¬CQêf‹¬°H›ù#°@
KǶ„²OKÇ°@
LKÇóiOKÇ°@
Lq°à"͆Çò@
䛽@°“@
‡ÚOQ®°@
‡ÚO^ΰ@
"Œ~ò^¥"͆Çò@
‹¬iK͆Çò, KÇH›øk^ΰí@
…ÕxH÷ J#°=°uOKÇ°,
‹¬=°àuOKÇ°@
J•OH›iOKÇ°@
=òO^ÎΰOKÇ°@
KÍ~¡°óH›ù#°@
‹¬=iOKÇ°@
Ja•À+H›=ò K͆ò
Ç @
‚¬ì`Ǽ QêqOKÇ°@
q°}°H›iOKÇ°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
314

Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none.

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PASSIVE VOICE - PAST
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
K͆°Ç |_•#, [~¡°„¬|_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. Subject 䛽 ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç
LO_È^ΰ.

x#ß JH›ø_È =¶ work „¬îië J~ò#k.
Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O =¶ office …Õ meeting [iy#k.
Q®`Ç <³• complex …Õ XH› ãHù`Çë show room open J~ò#k.
Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O E<£ 21# M.B.A. Entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_•#k.

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ K͆°Ç |_•# „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç |_•#, [~¡°„¬|_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"was / were+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Singular Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'was'
Plural Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß =¶ English class cancel J~ò#k.
Our English class was cancelled
yesterday.

2. 1994 …Õ „¬O*샘 ‹¬=°‹¬¼ „¬i‘•ø~¡"°³ #
Ø k.
3.

The punjab problem was solved in
1994.
D house 20 ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~Œ•ã H ÷ ` Ç O

4.

This house was constructed twenty
years ago.
Last Sunday bank test x~¡ Þ ‚² ì OKÇ

5.

315

xiàOKÇ|_•#k.

|_•#k.

The bank test was conducted last
Sunday.
x#ß =¶~òO\ÕÁ festival ƒìQê [iy#k.
The festival was celebrated very grand
in our house yesterday.

6. x#ß *ÿq°x K•Œ#…˜…Õ XH›

ã ª¬ •~¡"°³ #
Ø k.

new film

8.

A new film was telecast on Gemini
Channel yesterday.
D book 2002 …Õ publish J~ò#k.
This book was published in 2002.
x#ß =¶ä› ½ guest house …Õ =‹¬ u

9.

The accommodation was provided for
us in the guest house yesterday.
x#ß =¶ town …Õ XH› ƒ•ìs ~Œ¼b

7.

H›eæOKÇ|_•#k.

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_•#k.

A huge rally was organized in our
town yesterday.

10. 1983…Õ `³•°Q®°^͉O× ‡•s“ U~Œæ@~ò#k.
The Telugu Desam party was formed
in 1983.

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11. x#ß function 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á ƒ•ìsQê [iy#q.
Grand arrangements were made for
the function yesterday.

12. x#ß cards Jhß distribute J~ò#q.
All the cards were distributed
yesterday.

14. =¶ father last month Nellore 䛽 transfer
J~ò<Œ~¡°.
My father was transferred to Nellore
last month.

15. 1984…Õ
|_•<Œ~¡°.

IndiraGandhi

‚¬ ì `Ç ¼ QêqO„¬

Mrs. Indira Gandhi was assassinated
in 1984.

16. x#ß road accident …Õ #•°Q® ° ~¡ °

ã †
¬ ¶
Ç }÷ä½› •° Qê†Ç°„¬_•<Œ~¡°.
Four passengers were injured in the
road accident yesterday.

17.

Last year =¶ syllabus [#=i…Õ<Í „¬îië

J~ò#k.
Our syllabus was completed in the
month of January last year.

18. <ŒQê~¡ ° û # ª•Q® ~ Ÿ _¨"£ ° 1952…Õ
xiàOKÇ|_•#k.
The Nagarjuna Sagar dam was
constructed in 1952.

19.

Last time =¶

„¬sH›•Æ ° "Œ~ò^¥ „¬_•#q.

Our examinations were postponed last
time.

20. x#ß\÷ match …Õ Pakisthan F_•‡é~ò#k.
The Pakisthan tteam was defeated in
the match yesterday.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. Last Sunday Group - 1 preliminary test
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_•#k.
2. Last month J`ÇxH÷ Rs. 50000 loan
sanction J~ò#k.
3. x#ß S.S.C. „¦e¬ `Œ•° „
ã H¬ \
› O÷ „¬|_•#q.
4. x#ß P shoping complex …Õ XH› ãHù`Çë
showroom open J~ò#k.
5. Q®`<Ç •³ ‚Ì ìá ^Î~Œƒì^£…Õ „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxH÷ #H›•…˜•
䛽 =°^•Î¼ KÇ~•ó¡ ° [iy#q.
6. Last week P W•°Á Mìm J~ò#k.
7. x#ß =¶ club …Õ cultural programmes
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_•#q.
8. x#ß c‚¬ð~Ÿ ZxßH•› …Õ 70 ‰§`ÇO F@°Á poll
J~ò<Œ~ò.
9. Q®`Ç <³• R & B department …Õ ãHù`Çë
x†Ç¶=°Hê•° [iy#q.
10. ^Í=^¥‹¬° film N "Í^¥O`ÇO ~Œ„¦¬°=†Ç°¼
QêiKÍ direct K͆°Ç |_•#k.
11. x#ß <³ • ¶Á ~ ¡ ° town …Õ |O^£
‡•\÷OKÇ|_•#k.
12. P"³° x#ß government hospital …Õ admit K͆°Ç |_•#k.
13. D ‹¬O‹¬Ö 1948 …Õ ª•Ö„O² KÇ|_•#k.
14. x#ß =¶ï ~ ø\˜ ~Ë_È ° Û … Õx Pã H › = °}•°
`ù•yO„¬|_•#q.
15. x#ß D q+¬†Ç°O JO^ÎiH© `³e‹²#k.

Z

Don't curse darkness, light a lamp.

316

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

x#ß =¶ ‹¬=°‹¬¼ „¬i‘•ø~¡O Hê…è^°Î .
=¶ brother H÷ x#ß ‹Ì •=ô •a•OKÇ…^è °Î .
Last year P posts ƒ•’së K͆°Ç |_È…^
è °Î .
J`ÇxH÷ P bank …Õ loan sanction Hê…è^ΰ.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ K͆ǰ|_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç |_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was/Were + not + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Singular subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'was' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß =¶ä›½ English class [~¡°Q®…è^ΰ.
2.

English class was not taken to us
yesterday.

Permission was not given to us
yesterday.

Last year MBA entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬

7. "ŒiH÷ last time message „¬O„¬|_È…è^ΰ.

|_È…è^ΰ.

MBA entrance test was not conductd
last year.

3. x#ß J`ÇxH÷ money K³eÁO„¬|_È…è^ΰ.
Money was not paid to him yesterday.

4.

Last time J`ÇxÌ„á KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°Hù#|_È…è^ΰ.
Action was not taken against him last
time.

5.

Last budject

|_È…è^ΰ.

…Õ Hã ù`Çë „¬#°ß•° qk•O„¬

New taxes were not levied in the last
budget.
317

6. =¶ä›½ x#ß permission •a•OKÇ…^è °Î .

The message was not sent to them
last time.

8. J`ÇxH÷ last time loan sanction Hê…è^ΰ.
The loan was not sanctioned to him
last time.

9. x#ß L.I.C.
Hê…è^ΰ.

office

…Õ =¶

work

„¬îië

Our work was not finished in the L.I.C
office yesterday.

10. x#ß =¶ä›½ Ì‹•=ô ㄬH›\÷OKÇ|_È…è^ΰ.
A holiday was not declared to us
yesterday.

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,

11.
12.

Last time =¶ problem solve Hê…è^ΰ.
Our problem was not solved last time.
Last year =¶ä›½ college …Õ syllabus

„¬îië Hê…è^ΰ.

The syllabus was not completed to
us last year.

15.

16.

Last year B.Ed. entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬

This matter was not discussed in the
meeting yesterday.
Last year =¶ college annual day
celebrate K͆ǰ|_È…è^ΰ.
Our college annual day was not
celebrated last year.
x#ß JH›ø_È function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á ‹¬iQê¾

3.

Last

[~¡°Q®…è^ΰ.

The arrangements were not made
properly there for the function
yesterday.
Last budget …Õ Veligonda project 䛽

x^•Î°•° Hö \ì~òO„¬|_È…^
è °Î .

17.

18.

Grammar was not taught to us at
school level.
Last year =°# state …Õ ã H ù`Ç ë

20.

K͆°Ç O_•.
1. x#ß treasury …Õ =¶ bill pass Hê…è^ΰ.
2.

D

Funds were not allocated to the
Veligonda project in the last budget.
=¶ä› ½ school level …Õ Grammar

19.

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate

q+¬ † Ç ° O

13. x#ß g°\÷ O Q· … Õ
KÇióO„¬|_È…è^ΰ.
14.

EXERCISE

<ÍiæO„¬|_È…è^ΰ.

x†Ç¶=°Hê•° [~¡°Q®…è^ΰ.

New appointments were not made in
our state last year.
"ŒiH÷ last time licence issue

K͆ǰ|_È…è^ΰ.

The licence was not issued to them
last time.
x#ß =¶ town …Õ bandh ‡•\÷O„¬|_È…^
è °Î .
Bandh was not observed in our town
yesterday.

|_È…è^ΰ.

P†Ç ° #
J#°=°uO„¬|_È…è^ΰ.

4. =¶ brother last
x†Ç°q°O„¬|_È…è^ΰ.
5.

<Œq°<Í + ¬ < £

time

time

P

post

…Õ

Last time WH›ø_È votes ‹¬iQê poll Hê…è^°Î .

6. "ŒiH÷ information „¬O„¬|_È…è^ΰ.
7. P"³°H÷ x#ß H›O\÷H÷ operation [~¡°Q®…è^ΰ.
8. x#ß =¶ä›½ JH›ø_È =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ|_È…è^ΰ.
9. P ‹¬ = °‹¬ ¼ ä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° „¬ i ‘•ø~¡ = ò
^ù~¡H›…è^ΰ.
10.

Last month report submit K͆ǰ|_È…è^ΰ.

11. x#ß "ŒiH÷ amount adjust Hê…è^ΰ.
12. J`Ç x H÷
sanction

last time

P

bank

…Õ

loan

Hê…è^ΰ.

13. x#ß =¶ WO\ÕÁ „¬O_È°Q® [~¡Q®…è^ΰ.
14. J`Çx Jƒ•’¼iÖ`ÇÞ=ò „¬iQ®}÷O„¬|_È…è^ΰ
(consider).
15.

Last time J`ÇxÌ„á case file Hê…è^ΰ.

Z

He laughs the best who laughs last.

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
K͆°Ç |_•#, [~¡°„¬|_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

x#ß JH›ø_È g° work „¬îië J~ò#^¥ ?
Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O g° office …Õ meeting [iy#^¥ ?
Q®`<Ç •³ complex …Õ XH› ãHù`Çë show room open J~ò#^¥ ?
Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O B.Ed. entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_•#^¥?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ K͆°Ç |_•# „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç |_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was/Were + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Singular Subject Qê

L#ß„¬C_È° 'was" =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g°ä› ½
J~ò#^¥?
2.

English class cancel

5.
319

Last year entry tax G.O. ~¡^°Î í J~ò#^¥?
Was the G.O. of the entry tax
abolished last year ?

Was your English class cancelled
yesterday ?
Last mnth teacher post •ä›½ interviews

7. x#ß JÌ‹OcÁ…Õ budget „ã "¬ ‰Í „Ì× @“|_•#^¥?

Were the interviews held for the
teacher posts last month ?

8. x#ß g° WO\ÕÁ function ƒìQê [iyO^¥ ?

Was the budget presented in the
Assembly yesterday ?

[iy#"Π?

3. D W•°Á 60 ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ = ò• ã H ÷ ` Ç O
xiàO„¬|_•#^¥ ?
4.

6.

Was the function celebrated grand in
your house yesterday ?

Was this house constructed sixty
years ago ?
x#ß =°OãuH÷, junior doctors 䛽 =°^μ

9. x#ß g° cheques POã^•¥ ƒì¼OH±…Õ encash
J~ò#"Œ ?

Were the discussions made among the
minister and the junior doctors
yesterday?
x#ß wedding cards print J~ò#"Œ ?
Were the wedding cards printed
yesterday ?

10.

Were your cheques encashed in
Andhra Bank yesterday ?

KÇ~¡ó•° [iy#"Œ ?

Last

time

K͆°Ç |_•#^¥?

J`Ç x Ì „ á

case

file

Was the case filed against him last
time?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. x#ß g° meeting ZO^ΰ䛽
J~ò#k ?
12.

cancel

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

Why was your meeting cancelled
yesterday ?

1. x#ß g°ä›½ message JOk#^¥ ?

g°ä›½ Zxß
JOk#q ?

2.

Last time

application forms

Howmany application forms were
received to you last time ?

13. ~΋u Gemini
J~ò#k ?

T.V.

…Õ U

film telecast

Which film was telecast on Gemini
T.V. last night ?

14. P ƒì¼O䛽…Õ Q®`Ç <³• ZO`Ç
deposit K͆°Ç |_•Ok ?

amount

Howmuch amount was deposited in
that bank last month ?

15. „¬O*샘 ‹¬=°‹¬¼ Z…ì „¬i+¬øiO„¬|_•#k?
How was the Punjab problem solved?

16. •þ film g° town …Õ Zxß ~ËA•°
„ã ^¬ iÎ ÅO„¬|_•#k ?
Howmany days was the film 'Lakshmi'
shown in your town ?

17. Ja•…ì+¬ #=• Z=iKÍ`Ç "ã Œ†Ç°|_•#k ?
By whom was the novel 'Abhilasha'
written ?

18.

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Last time ‡•~¡"
Á °³ O\˜ ZxßH•› …Õ g° town
…Õ Zxß F@°Á poll J~ò#q ?
Howmany votes were polled in your
town in the last Parliament elections ?

19. x#ß g°ä› ½ dinner ZH› ø _È U~Œæ@°
K͆°Ç |_•#k ?
Where was the dinner arranged for
you yesterday ?

10. P W•°Á Z„¬C_È° Mìm J~ò#k ?
When was that house vacated ?

g°ä› ½ =‹¬ ° ë = ô•°
J~ò<Œ†Ç¶ ?

Last month

deliver

3. x#ß g° town …Õ |O^£ ‡•\÷O„¬|_•#^¥ ?
4. x#ß P case f~¡°æ „
ã H¬ \
› O÷ „¬|_•#^¥ ?
5. Last year „¬sH›Æ•° ~¡^ΰíJ~ò#"Œ ?
6. D W•°Á 1980…Õ xiàO„¬|_•#^¥ ?
7. P"³° x#ß hospital #°Oz discharge
J~ò#^¥ ?
8. N ~Œr"£ QêOn• ZH›ø_È ‚¬ì`Ǽ QêqOKÇ|_•
<Œ~¡° ?
9. `³•°Q®°^͉O× ‡•s“ Z„¬C_È° U~Œæ>#
Øÿ k ?
10. =°‚¬ð`ŒàQêOn• Z„¬C_È° [xàOKŒ~¡° ?
11. x#ß g°\÷OQ·…Õ U q+¬†°Ç O KÇiOó „¬|_•
#k ?
12.

g° office …Õ Zxß files clear
K͆°Ç |_•<Œ~ò ?

Last week

13. x#ß P programme ZO^ΰ䛽
J~ò#k ?
14.

cancel

Last time Zxß teacher posts ƒ•’së K͆°Ç

|_•#q ?
15. ‡é~ò# ZxßH›•…Õ =°# x†³¶[H›=~¡¾O…Õ
Zxß nominations file K͆°Ç |_•#q ?

Z

To err is human, to forgive divine.

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
K͆ǰ|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h䛽 x#ß message JO^Î…è^¥ ?
h䛽 D q+¬†Ç°O x#ß `³e†Ç°…è^¥ ?

J
J

J
J

g°ä›½ P problem 䛽 „¬i‘•ø~¡O ^ù~¡H…› ^è ¥?
Last month admissions =òy†Ç°…è^¥?

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆ǰ|_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx (Subject 䛽 Z@°=O\÷ ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç W=Þ䛽O_¨)
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Wasn't / Weren't + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular J~ò#„¬C_È° - 'Wasn't'
Plural J~ò#„¬C_È° - 'Weren't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Note :

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g° bill pass Hê…è^¥?

6.

Last month g°ä›½ interviews [~¡°Q®…è^¥?
Weren't the interviews conducted to
you last month?

7.

Last year B.C

Wasn't your bill passed yesterday?

2. x#ß meeting …Õ D q+¬†Ç°O KÇ~¡ó䛽
~Œ…è^¥?
Wasn't this matter discussed in the
meeting yesterday?

3.

Last month h䛽 salary ~Œ…è^¥?
Wasn't salary paid to you last month?

4. x#ß g°ä›½ telegram JO^Î…è^¥?
Wasn't the telegram received to you
yesterday?

5. x#ß cards „¬O„²}©Hê…è^¥?
Weren't the
yesterday?

321

cards

distributed

q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½ scholarships
=°OE~¡°Hê…è^¥?
Weren't scholarships granted to the
B.C. students last year?

8. x#ß g°ä›½ hall tickets issue Hê…è^¥?
Weren't the hall tickets issued to you
yesterday?

9. x#ß SBI …Õ g° cheque encash Hê…è^¥?
Wasn't your cheque encashed in SBI
yesterday?

10. x#ß JH›ø_È g° work „¬îië Hê…è^¥?
Wasn't your work finished there
yesterday?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. Last year
[~¡Q®…è^ΰ?

entrance test

ZO^Î ° ä› ½

Why wasn't the entrance test
conducted last year?

12. h䛽 x#ß leave ZO^ΰ䛽 grant Hê…è^ΰ?
Why wasn't the leave granted to you
yesterday ?

13. g°ä›½ x#ß J#°=°u ZO^ΰ䛽 •a•OKÇ…^
è °Î ?
Why wasn't the permission given to you
yesterday?

14. g° Hê…èr…Õ x#ß Farewell Party ZO^ΰ䛽
[~¡Q®…è^ΰ?
Why wasn't the Farewell Party
celebrated in your college yesterday?

15. Last time Group-I x†Ç¶=°Hê•° ZO^ΰ䛽
[~¡Q®…è^ΰ?
Why weren't the Group-I appointments
made last year?

16. Last year J`Ç _ È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½
Hê…è^ΰ?

promote

Why wasn't he promoted last year?

17. Group-4 „¦¬e`Œ•° ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ?
Why weren't
announced?

Group-4

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results

18. x#ß function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á ZO^Î ° ä› ½
[~¡Q®…è^ΰ?
Why weren't the arrangements made
to the function yesterday?

19. x#ß India - England =°^•Î¼ one-day match
ZO^ΰ䛽 [~¡Q®…è^ΰ?
Why wasn't the one-day match played
between India and England yesterday?

20. Q®`Ç ZxßH•› …Õ F@°Á ƒ•ìsQê ZO^ΰ䛽 poll
Hê…è^ΰ?
Why weren't the votes polled heavily
in the last elections?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. h䛽 x#ß time ^ù~¡H›…è^¥?
2. h䛽 D q+¬†Ç°O J„¬C_È° `³e†Ç°^¥?
3.
4.

Last year

Hê…è^¥?

h=ô

Last month

teacher post

select

P house vacate Hê…è^¥?

5. h application accept Hê…è^¥?
6.

Last year syllabus intime …Õ „¬îië Hê…è^¥?

7.

Last time P†Ç°# ‹¬~æ¡ OKŸQê ZxßH› Hê…è^¥?

8. x#ß h䛽 money Y~¡°óHê…è^¥?
9. x#ß g°ä›½ test ZO^ΰ䛽 [~¡Q®…è^ΰ?
10. ~Œãu T.V …Õ
Hê…è^ΰ?

movie

ZO^ΰ䛽 ㄬª•~¡O

11. P college …Õ last year ‹Ô@°Á ZO^ΰ䛽
ƒ•’së Hê…è^°Î ?
12. Last time g° problem ZO^ΰ䛽 solve
Hê…è^ΰ?
13. h䛽 last time P bank …Õ loan ZO^ΰ䛽
sanction Hê…è^ΰ?
14. Last time P†Ç°# ZO^ΰ䛽 transfer
Hê…è^ΰ?
15. x#ß judgement ZO^ΰ䛽 "³•°=_È…è^ΰ?

Z

Beware of the fury of a patient man.

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Was/Were + III form of the Verb '
J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. nxx Grammar …Õ "Passive Voice -Past Tense" JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question
Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_•#, [~¡°„¬|_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Was / Were + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

This book was published in 2003.
This film was released last month.
Degree admissions were closed last month.
The wedding cards were distributed yesterday.

2. NEGATIVE FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Was not / Were not + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

He was not invited to the party yesterday.
She was not treated well in the hospital there.
Our proposal was not accepted yesterday.
Cultural programmes were not held in the function last night.

3. QUESTION FORM :

Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_•#, [~¡°„¬|_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Was / Were + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

Was dinner arranged to the guests yesterday?
Were the letters dispatched last week?
Was he suspended from the service last month?
Were the encroachments removed last month?

4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Wasn't / Weren't + III form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

323

1.
2.
3.
4.

Wasn't the programme relayed on T.V. yesterday?
Weren't the orders sent to them last week?
Wasn't the loan cleared last month?
Weren't the books damaged then?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

641.

Bulge

bulged

bulged

642.

Bury

buried

buried

643.

Centralize

centralized

centralized

644.

Cater

catered

catered

645.

Clap

clapped

clapped

646.

Clash

clashed

clashed

647.

Classify

classified

classified

648.

Clot

clotted

clotted

649.

Collaborate

collaborated

collaborated

650.

Combine

combined

combined

651.

Commit

committed

committed

652.

Conserve

conserved

conserved

653.

Console

consoled

consoled

654.

Contain

contained

contained

655.

Contradict

contradicted

contradicted

656.

Contrast

contrasted

contrasted

657.

Cover

covered

covered

658.

Count

counted

counted

659.

Crash

crashed

crashed

660.

Crawl

crawled

crawled

D ~ËA

Meaning

L|°Ä@, "Œ†Çò@
„¬î_È°ó@
öHOãnH›iOKÇ°@
ƒ•Õ[#=ò =_•ÛOKÇ°@
KÇ„¬æ@°Á KÇ~¡°KÇ°@
XH›^¥xHùH›\÷ _•™ H›ù#°@
`Ç~Q¡ `® °Ç •°Qê qƒ•’lOKÇ°@
Q®_ÈÛH›@°“@, À„~¡°H›ù#°@
H›e‹² „¬xK͆Çò@
KÍ~¡°ó@, H›•°„¬ô@
K³_ÈÛ„¬x K͆Çò@
ƒ•’^ã „Î ~¬ K
¡ °Ç @
F^¥~¡°ó@
H›ey†ÇòO_È°@
Hê^Î#°@
‡é•°ó@
=ü†Çò@
…ÿH›øÌ„@°“@
„¬Q®°•°@
‡ã •ä›½@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
324

A proverb is one man's wit and all men's wisdom.

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PASSIVE VOICE - FUTURE
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° XH›
„¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬xx K͆ò
Ç "ŒiH÷ ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç LO_È^°Î .
J
J
J
J

ö~„¬ô =¶ä›½ meeting [~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok.
=KÍó"Œ~¡O Inter „¦¬e`Œ•° ㄬH›\÷OKÇ|_È`Œ~ò.
=KÍó <³• =¶ä›½ bonus K³eÁO„¬|_È°`Ç°Ok.
ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È function 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á [~¡°Q®°`Œ~ò.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰ|_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° XH› „¬x K͆ǰ|_È°@#° [~¡°Q®°@#° Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽.
"Will + be + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject -Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'will be + III form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

Next year Inter syllabus =¶~¡°`Ç°Ok.
Intermediate syllabus will be changed
next year.

2. D house next month Mìm J=ô`Ç°Ok.
This house will be vacated next month.

3. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ Jƒ•’¼~¡°•Ö 䛽
JO^ΰ`Œ~ò.

7.

A loan of Rs. 1 lakh will be sanctioned
to him in SBI next week.
ö ~ „¬ ô 7 p.m. H÷ programme

8.

The programme will be commenced
at 7 p.m. tomorrow.
ö~„¬ô guests 䛽 grand dinner U~Œæ@°

9.

Grand dinner will be arranged to the
guests tomorrow.
Nextweek B.Ed entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ

appointment orders

The appointment orders will be
received to the candidates soon.

4. †Çò=䛽•HË‹¬O `ÇÞ~¡…Õ XH› new scheme
‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’=°=ô`Ç°Ok.
A new scheme will be launched for
the youth soon.

5. ö~„¬ô degree final year results ㄬH›\÷OKÇ
|_È°`Œ~ò.
Degree final year results will be
announced tomorrow.
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6. J`Ç x H÷ next week SBI …Õ 1 •H› Æ
~¡¶‡•†Ç°• loan sanction J=ô`Ç°Ok.

"³ò^Ε=ô`Ç°Ok.

K͆ǰ|_Ȱ`ǰOk.

|_È°`Ç°Ok.

B.Ed. entrance test will be conducted
nextweek.

10. `Ç Þ ~¡ … Õ Hêjà~¡ ° ‹¬ = °‹¬ ¼ „¬ i ‘•ø~¡ = °
=ô`Ç°Ok.
Kashmir problem will be solved soon.

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11. ö~„¬ô Hyd. …Õ T.D.P. =°i†Çò B.J.P.
<Œ†Ç°ä›½• =°^•Î¼ KÇ~ó•¡ ° [~¡°Q®°`Œ~ò.

14.

Discussions will be made among the
T.D.P. and the BJP leaders in Hyd.
tomorrow.
=KÍó "Í° …Õ DSC ^¥Þ~Œ 20,000 teacher
post •° ƒ•’së K͆°Ç |_È°`Œ~ò.
20,000 teacher posts will be filled up
through the DSC next May.
=¶ brother next year manager Qê
promote J=ô`Œ_È°.
My brother will be promoted as
manager next year.
Next Monday D cheque bank …Õ cash

15.

This cheque will be encashed in the
bank next Monday.
=KÍó budget …Õ Hù`Çë „¬#°ß•° qk•O„¬

16.

New taxes will be levied in the next
budget.
=KÍó <³• 28# ‡•~¡Á"³°O\˜…Õ budget

12.

13.

17.

J=ô`Ç°Ok.

|_È°`Œ~ò.

ㄬ"͉×Ì„@“|_È°#°.

The Budget will be presented in the
Parliament on 28th next month.
<ŒQê~¡ ° û # Hù`Ç ë ‹² x =¶ next Firday
release J=ô`Ç°Ok.
Nagarjuna's new fim will be released
next Friday.

18. ö ~ „¬ ô g°\÷ O Q· … Õ
KÇióO„¬|_È°`Ç°Ok.

D

q+¬ † Ç ° O

This matter will be discussed in the
meeting tomorrow.

19. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ ZxßH•› <Ë\÷„Hö²¦ +¬<£ "³•°=_È°`Ç°Ok.
20.

The Election Notification will be
issued soon.
P ‹¬•Ö O…Õ `ÇÞ~¡…Õ XH› shopping complex

xiàOKÇ|_È°`Ç°Ok.

A new shopping complex will be
constructed in the site soon.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. Next year =¶ college …Õ Hã ù`Çë HË~¡°••°
introduce K͆ǰ|_È`Œ~ò.
2. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ L^˼Q®°•ä›½ `ÇÞ~¡…Õ bonus K³eOÁ „¬
|_È°`Ç°Ok.
3. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ Hyd. …Õ P.V. Narasimha Rao
qãQ®‚¬ì=ò Pq+¬øiO„¬|_È°`Ç°Ok.
4. next Sunday =¶ college annual day
[~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok.
5. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ =°# ~Œã+¬“O…Õ XH› new party
U~Œæ@° J=ô`Ç°Ok.
6. ö~„¬ô P öH‹¬° judgement "³•°=_È°`Ç°Ok.
7. Next Sunday =¶ Ti…Õ Lz`Ç <Íã`Ç
zH÷`•Ç ta~¡O U~Œæ@° K͆°Ç |_È°`Ç°Ok.
8. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ Group - 2 post ƒ•’sHë ÷ notification "³•°=_È°`Ç°Ok.
9. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ =°~¡• „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxH÷ =°i†Çò #H›•…˜•
=°^•Î¼ KÇ~•ó¡ ° [~¡°Q®°`Œ~ò.
10. ~Œã+¬“O…Õ Jxß High Schools =KÍó June
13 # reopen J=ô`Œ~ò.
11. g°ä›½ exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç ‹
Ì •=ô•° „
ã H¬ \
› O÷ KÇ
|_È`Œ~ò.
12. =KÍ ó " Œ~¡ O =°~¡ … ì petrol ^•Î~¡
Ì„~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok.
13. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ g° problem solve J=ô`Ç°Ok.
14. ö ~ „¬ ô meeting …Õ XH› decision
f‹¬°HË|_È°`Ç°Ok.
15. Next year J`Ç_È° officer Qê promote
J=ô`Œ_È°.

Z

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È KÇ~¡ó•° [~¡°Q®=ô.
D ª•i „¬sH›•Æ ° "Œ~ò^¥ „¬_=È ô.
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hù`Çë x†Ç¶=°Hê•° [~¡°Q®=ô.
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O "ŒiH÷ ƒÕ#‹¹ K³eOÁ „¬|_È^°Î .

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç |_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° K͆ǰ|_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will not+ be + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Will not + be + III form of the verb" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

Inter q^¥¼~¡°•
Ö ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O syllabus

=¶~¡^ΰ.

The syllabus will not be changed for
Inter students this year.

2. D work D ~ËA „¬îië J=^ΰ.
This work will not be finished today.

3. WH› D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Group-I x†Ç¶=°Hê•°
[~¡°Q®=ô.
Group-1 appointments will not be held
this year.

4. D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O =°O_È • Zxß H › • °
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È=ô.
The Mandal elections will not be held
this year.

5. D ª•i work delay J=^ΰ.
Work will not be delayed this time.
327

6. ö~„¬ô h䛽 leave grant J=^ΰ.
Leave will not be granted to you
tomorrow.

7. Dª•i „¬sH›•Æ ° "Œ~ò^¥ „¬_=
È ô.
Examinations will not be postponed
this time.

8. ~ö „¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†°Ç O KÇióO„¬|_È^°Î .
This matter will not be discussed in
the meeting tomorrow.

9. D <³•…Õ D course „¬îië J=^ΰ.
This course will not be completed this
month.

10. P†Ç°# D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O transfer J=_È°.
He will not be transfered this year.

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11. Dª•i =¶
[~¡Q®^ΰ.

colony

…Õ

The New Year Day will not be
celebrated in our colony this time.

12. Hêjà~Ÿ ‹¬=°‹¬¼ ‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê „¬i‘•ø~¡=°=^ΰ.
Kashmir problem will not be solved
easily.

13. g°ä›½ ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È J#°=°u •a•OKÇ^°Î .
Pemission will not be given to you

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. D ‡Ú~¡‡•@° =°~¡• [~¡°Q®^°Î .
2. D "Œ~¡O
|_È^ΰ.

office

…Õ

meeting

x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬

3. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O promote Hê=ô.
4. P W•°Á D <³•…Õ MìmJ=^ΰ.

there tomorrow.

14. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hã ù`Çë x†Ç¶=°Hê•° [~¡°Q®=ô.
New appointments will not be made

5. g° Dª•i bonus K³eÁO„¬|_È^ΰ.
6. =KÍó budget …Õ ä›•_¨ D
x^•Î°•° Hö \ì~òO„¬|_È=ô.

this year.

15. D G.O. ~¡^ΰí J=^ΰ.
This G.O. will not be cancelled.

16. Dª•i =¶ä›½ syllabus „¬îië J=^ΰ.
Our syllabus will not be completed this

project

7. Dª•i =¶ college …Õ
tournments x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È=ô.

䛽

cricket

8. D ª•i h䛽 J=Hê‰×O W=Þ|_È^°Î .

time.

17. ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 JH›ø_È time •a•OKÇ^°Î .
Time will not be found to us there
tomorrow.

18. „¬sH›Æ• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç holidays ㄬH›\÷O„¬|_È=ô.
Holidays will not be declared after the
exams.

19. D news "ŒiH÷ `³e†Ç°^ΰ.
This news will not be known to them.

20. P"³° D "Œ~¡O 䛕_¨
discharge J=^ΰ.

EXERCISE

New year Day

hospital

#°O_•

9. D <³•…Õ =°Oãu=~¡¾ q‹¬ë~¡} [~¡Q®^ΰ.
10. D academic year …Õ SSC q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½
syllabus =¶~¡^ΰ.
11.

WH› #°Oz
ƒ•’së K͆°Ç |_È=ô.

Teacher posts

DSC

^¥Þ~Œ

12. D proposal ö ~ „¬ ô meeting …Õ
J#°=°uO„¬|_È^ΰ (accept).

She will not be discharged from the
hospital this week also.

The wages of sin is death.

Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç †Ç°|_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬xx KÍ‹²# "ŒiH÷ (subject) ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç LO_È^°Î .

ö~„¬ô g°ä›½ special class [~¡°Q®°`Ç°O^¥ ?
=KÍó"Œ~¡O inter „¦¬e`Œ•° ㄬH›\÷OKÇ |_È`Œ†Ç¶?
=KÍó <³• g°ä›½ bonus K³eÁO„¬|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
=KÍó [#=i…Õ ‡•~¡"Á °³ O@° ZxßH›•° [~¡°Q®°`Œ†Ç¶?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç |_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° K͆ǰ|_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will+be+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Will be + III form" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =KÍó Uㄲ…˜…Õ g° „¬sH›Æ•° [~¡°Q®°`Œ†Ç¶ ?
Will your examinations be held next
April ?

2. D work next week „¬îiëJ=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?
Will this work be finished next week?

3. ö ~ „¬ ô ~ŒR =°Oã u =~¡ ¾ q‹¬ ë ~ ¡ } [~¡ ° Q® °
`Ç°O^¥?

6. ö~„¬ô h䛽 salary K³eÁO„¬|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
Will your salary be paid tomorrow ?

7. ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 orders JO^ΰ`Œ†Ç¶ ?
Will the orders be received to us
tomorrow ?

8. g° town …Õ `ÇÞ~¡…Õ
J=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?

LIC branch open

Will the state cabinet be expanded
tomorrow ?

Will the LIC office branch be opened
in your town soon ?

4. P Hã ù`Çë „¬^•ÎHO› =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O J=°•°
„¬~¡KÇ|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?

9. =KÍ ó budget …Õ ã H ù`Ç ë „¬ # °ß•°
qk•OKÇ|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?

Will that new scheme be implemented
next year ?

Will new taxes be levied in the next
budget ?

5. =KÍó <³• P W•°Á Mìm J=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?
Will that house be vacated next
month?
329

10. =°# ~ŒRO…Õ =KÍ ó <³ • „¬ O KŒ~òf
ZxßH›•° [~¡°Q®°`Œ†Ç¶ ?
Will the Panchayat elections be held
in our state next month ?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. Hã ù`Çë „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO Z„¬C_È° U~Œæ@° K͆°Ç |_È°
`Ç°Ok ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

When will the new government be
formed ?
D ~ËA ~ŒãuH÷ ETV …Õ U movie telecast

13.

Which movie will be telecast on ETV
to night ?
<ŒQê~¡°û# University Vice-chancellor Qê

14.

Who will be appointed Vicechancellor of Nagarjuna University ?
=°# office …Õ ãHù`Çë x†Ç¶=°Hê•° Z„¬C_È°

15.

When will the new appointments be
made in our office ?
hä› ½ =KÍ ó <³ • ZO`Ç loan sanction

16.

Howmuch loan will be sanctioned to
you next month ?
ö ~ „¬ ô guest •ä› ½ =‹¬ u ZH› ø _È

17.

Where will the accomodation be
provided to the guests tomorrow ?
ã H ù`Ç ë Jƒ•’ ¼ ~¡ ° Ö • ä› ½ training ZH› ø _È

18.

19.

20.

J=ô`Ç°Ok ?

Z=~¡° x†Ç°q°O„¬|_È°^ΰ~¡° ?

[~¡°Q®°`Œ~ò ?

J=ô`Ç°Ok ?

H›eæOKÇ|_È°`Ç°Ok?

W=Þ|_È°`Ç°Ok ?

Where will the training be given to the
new candidates ?
g° institute …Õ Spoken English fresh
batch Z„¬C_È° commence J=ô`Ç°Ok ?
When will the Spoken English fresh
batch be commenced in your institute?
=KÍ ó budget …Õ education H÷ ZO`Ç
amount öH\ì~òOKÇ|_È°`Ç°Ok ?
Howmuch amount will be allocated
for Education in the next budget ?
g°ä› ½ =KÍ ó " Œ~¡ O interview ZH› ø _È

1. =°#ä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È =‹¬ u U~Œæ@°
K͆ǰ|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
2. Degree „¦¬e`Œ•° May …Õ ã„¬H›\÷O„¬|_È
`Œ†Ç¶ ?
3. Dª•i B.S.R.B. test August …Õ
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
4. ö ~ „¬ ô function `Ç ~ ŒÞ`Ç cultural
programmes x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?
5. D book next month market…ÕH÷ release
K͆ǰ|_È°`Ç°O^¥ ?
6. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ P Institute …Õ EAMCET HêÁ‹¬°•°
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È`Œ†Ç¶ ?
7. ZxßH›• notification ö~„¬ô *ìs K͆ǰ|_È°
`Ç°O^¥ ?
8. g° Hê…èl Z„¬C_È° reopen J=ô`Ç°Ok ?
9. P bridge consturction Z„¬C_È° „¬îië
J=ô`Ç°Ok ?
10. g° ‹¬=°‹¬¼ Z…ì „¬i+¬øiO„¬|_È°`Ç°Ok?
11. ö ~ „¬ ô meeting …Õ U q+¬ † Ç ° O
KÇióO„¬|_È°`Ç°Ok ?
12. h computer course Z„¬ C _È ° „¬ î ië
J=ô`Ç°Ok ?
13. g° institute #°Oz D ª•i ZO`Ç=°Ok
students S.I. posts •H÷ select J=ô`Œ~¡°?
14. ö ~ „¬ ô party U hotel …Õ arrange
K͆ǰ|_Ȱ`ǰOk ?
15. =KÍó budget …Õ agriculture H÷ ZO`Ç
amount öH\ì~òOKÇ|_È°`Ç°Ok ?

[~¡°Q®°`Ç°Ok ?

Where will
the interview be
conducted to you next week ?

Bad news spreads fast.

Z
330

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
K͆ǰ|_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

h䛽 next year salary Ì„~¡Q®^¥?
WH› D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hã ù`Çë x†Ç¶=°Hê•° [~¡°Q®"Œ?
ö~„¬ô g° town …Õ |O^£ [~¡°Q®^¥?
g° college D <³•…Õ re-open Hê^¥?

J
J
J
J


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç |_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° K͆°Ç |_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Won't + be + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note :

"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx

Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Won't be' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. ö~„¬ô g°ä›½ classes [~¡°Q®"Œ?

6. =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hã ù`Çë HË~¡°••° ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’OHê"Œ?

Won't the classes be conducted to you

Won't the new courses be introduced

tomorrow?

next year?

2. ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 =‹¬°ë=ô•° deliver Hê"Œ?

7. Hêjà~¡° ‹¬=°‹¬¼ WH› „¬i‘•ø~¡OHê^¥?

Won't the goods be delivered to us
tomorrow?

3. ö~„¬ô amount collect Hê^¥?
Won't the amount be collected
tomorrow?

4. D house sale K͆ǰ|_È^¥?
Won't this house be sold?

5. D "Œ~¡O „¦¬e`Œ•° ㄬH›\÷O„¬|_È"Œ?
Won't the results be announced this
week?
331

Won't the Kashmir problem be solved?

8.

Deposit

uiy K³eÁO„¬|_È^¥?

Won't the deposit be refunded?

9. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O S.S.C ‹²•|‹¹=¶~¡^¥?
Won't the syllabus be changed for
S.S.C this year?

10. ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†Ç°O KÇ~¡ó䛽~Œ^¥?
Won't this matter be discussed in the
meeting tomorrow?

,
'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. ~ö „¬ô =°#䛽 J#°=°u ZO^ΰ䛽 •a•OKÇ^°Î ?
Why won't the permission be given to
us tomorrow?

12. D „¬x ö~„¬ô ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬îiëJ=^ΰ?
Why won't this work be finished
tomorrow?

13. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È =‹¬u ZO^ΰ䛽 U~Œæ@°
K͆ǰ|_È^ΰ?
Why won't the accommodation be
provided to you there tomorrow?

14. „¦ ¬ e `Ç = ò g°ä› ½ =òO^Î ° Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½
`³e†Ç°^ΰ?
Why won't the result be known to you
earlier?

15. ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È Hê~¡ ¼ ã H › = °=ò ZO^Î ° ä› ½
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È^ΰ?

: 94406 16425
EXERCISE

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. ~ö „¬ô college …Õ seminar x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È^¥?
2. D project D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O „¬îië J=^¥?
3. Dª•i g° college Annual Day [~¡°Q®^¥?
4. g° brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O promote J=_¨?
5. D ª•i =°# „¬sH›•Æ ° "Œ~ò^¥„¬_"
È Œ?
6. D <³•…Õ g° syllabus „¬îiëJ=^¥?
7. P"³° D "Œ~¡O 䛕_¨
discharge Hê^¥?
8. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O 䛕_¨
K͆ǰ|_È"Œ?

hospital

#°O_•

teacher posts

17.

Why won't the programme be
organized there tomorrow?
D ª•i function ZO^ΰ䛽 [~¡°Q®^ΰ?
Why won't the function be celebrated
this time?
g°ä› ½ Dª•i allowance ZO^Î ° ä› ½

18.

Why won't the allowance be paid to you
this time?
Dª•i S.I. Post 䛽 h"³O^ΰ䛽 select

19.

Why won't you be selected for the post
of S.I?
Main Road …Õx Pã H › = °}•° ZO^Î ° ä› ½

`ù•yO„¬|_È=ô?

13. `dz•OQê}ì ~ŒRO ZO^ΰ䛽 U~¡æ_È^ΰ?
14. g°ä›½ licence ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ^ΰ?

20.

Why won't the encroachments be
removed on the Main Road?
h application form ZO^Î ° ä› ½

16.

K³eÁOKÇ|_È^ΰ?

Hê=ô?

„¬iQ®}÷O„¬|_È^ΰ?

Why won't your application form be
considered?

ƒ•’së

9. D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O „¬ O KŒ~òf Zxß H › • °
ZO^ΰ䛽 [~¡°Q®=ô?
10. g° house construction D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬îiëJ=^ΰ?
11. P ãHù`Çë movie D <³•…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 release
Hê^ΰ?
12. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô payment ZO^ΰ䛽 [~¡°Q®^ΰ?

15. D loan D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽
J=^ΰ?

Contentment is real wealth.

clear

Z
332

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Will be + III form of the Verb ' J#°
structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx Grammar …Õ "Passive Voice -Future Tense" JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question
Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will be + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

The course will be commenced on 5th next month.
The syllabus will be changed next year.
The orders will be sent to them next week.
The price of petrol will be hiked again.

2. NEGATIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Will not + be + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

Leave will not be granted to you tomorrow.
New taxes will not be levied in the next budget.
The exams will not be postponed this time.
The work will not be delayed next time.

3. QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_È°, [~¡°„¬|_È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Will be + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1.
2.
3.
4.

Will you be promoted next year?
Will this matter be discussed tomorrow?
Will the file be cleared next week?
Will the last date be extended to next month?

4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ K͆°Ç |_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Won't + be + III form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

333

1.
2.
3.
4.

Won't this work be finished tomorrow?
Won't this book be published next month?
Won't you be transfered next month?
Won't the arrangements be made for the function tomorrow?

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: 94406 16425

D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

661.

Cremate

cremated

cremated

662.

Cumulate

cumulated

cumulated

663.

Darn

darned

darned

664.

Dash

dashed

dashed

665.

Demand

demanded

demanded

666.

Deposit

deposited

deposited

667.

Destroy

destroyed

destroyed

668.

Detain

detained

detained

669.

Detect

detected

detected

670.

Discuss

discussed

discussed

671.

Disqualify

disqualified

disqualified

672.

Distil

distilled

distilled

673.

Diverge

diverged

diverged

674.

Donate

donated

donated

675.

Drench

drenched

Drenched

676.

Dye

dyed

dyed

677.

Earn

earned

earned

678.

Elevate

elevated

elevated

679.

Embrace

embraced

embraced

680.

Encash

encashed

encashed

D ~ËA

Meaning

^΂¬ì#=òK͆Çò
=$kœK³O^ΰ@
䛽\÷“KÇH›ø„¬~¡KÇ°@
"³¶^ΰH›ù#°@
Q®\÷“QêJ_È°Q®°@
x•ÞK͆Çò@
<Œ‰×#=òK͆Çò@
x•°„¬ô@, P„¬ô@
H›xÌ„@°“@
KÇióOKÇ°@
J~¡Ý`Ç …è䛽O_ÈK͆Çò@
Hêz KÇ…ìÁ~¡°ó@
q_•‡é=ô@
KÇO^¥WKÇ°ó@
`Ç_È°„¬ô@, =òOKÇ°@
~¡OQ®°"͆Çò@
‹¬O‡•kOKÇ°@
=°#‹¬°L`Œ•‚¬ì„¬~K
¡ °Ç
HÒyeOKÇ°H›ù#°
~ùH›ø=òQê =¶~¡°ó@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
334

God helps those who help themselves.

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: 94406 16425

PASSIVE VOICE - PRESENT CONTINUOUS
XHùøH› ø ª•i =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° •`Ë =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß „ ¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O continuous Qê
[~¡°„¬|_È°`Ƕ#ß, K͆ǰ|_È°`Ƕ#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO S.S.C. „¬sH›Æ•° x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È° KÇ°#ßq.
D ~ËA JH›ø_È g°\÷OQ· 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.
W„¬ôæ_È° JH›ø_È XH› bridge xiàOKÇ|_È°KÇ°#ßk.
D <³• pending files clear K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K͆ǰ|_È°KǶO_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê W„¬C_È°, D ~ËA, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O continuous Qê K͆ǰ|_È°KǶ#ß, [~¡°„¬|_È°KǶ#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am/Is/Are + being+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am+being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Singular Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'is+being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are+being' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =¶ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO „¬sH›Æ•° [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßq.
Examinations are being conducted
now

2. [†Ç ° ~ŒO kŠ † Í ° @~Ÿ … Õ XH›
ㄬ^ÎiÅOKÇ|_È°`Ç°Ok.

6.
7.

4.

g°^Î @OQ®°@¶~¡° =^Îí a
ã _•û
x~Œà}O…Õ =ô#ßk.

High Way

A bridge is being constructed on the
high way at Tangutur.

5.

Function H÷

U~Œæ@°Á [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßq.

Arrangements ar being made for the
function.
335

Invitation cards print J=ô`Ç°<Œß~ò.
Invitation cards are being printed now.

8. D~ËA ~ŒR=°O`Ç\ì LQêk „¬O_È°Q®
[~¡°„¬|_È°KÇ°#ßk.
Ugadi is being celebrated through out
the state today.

3. _•#ß~HŸ ÷ items `džǶ~¡° J=ô`Ç°<Œß~ò.
Items are being prepared for dinner

K͆ǰ|_È°`Ç°#ßq.

Letters are being typed now.

new film

A new film is being shown at Jayaram
Theatre.

letters type

9. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#~ŒRO…Õ =°^•¥¼‚¬ìß ƒ•Õ[#
„¬^ŠÎH›O J=°•°…Õ L#ßk.
The mid-day meal scheme is being
implemented in our state at present.

10.

…Õ D~ËA 144= Ì‹H›Æ#°
qk•OKÇ|_•#k.

Hyd. old city

144 section is being levied in the old
city of Hyderabad today.

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: 94406
16425 .

,

11. W„¬C_È° `Í[ K•Œ#…˜…Õ XH› ‹Ôi†Ç°…˜

ã ª¬ •~¡=°Q®°KÇ°#ßk.
A serial is being telecast on Teja
channel now.

12. "³ ° i\˜ q^¥¼~¡ ° Ö • ä› ½ ã „ ¬ ` Í ¼ H› HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° •°
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.
Special classes are being conducted
for the meritorious students.

13. =¶ colony …Õ ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O Hù`Ç ë
"͆ǰ|_È° KÇ°#ßq.

roads

New roads are being laid in our colony
at present.

14. D

summer …Õ \ì¼O䛽• ^¥Þ~Œ =¶
colony …Õ drinking water supply

K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßk.

Drinking water is being supplied
through tanks in our colony at present

15.

q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½ D ~ËA
W=Þ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.

S.S.C

hall-tickets

Hall-tickets are being issued to the
S.S.C. students today

16. =¶ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K³<³ßå#°O_• "³°\©i†Ç°…˜
supply JQ®°KÇ°#ßk.
Material is being supplied to us from
Chennai at present.

17. D "Œ~¡O =¶ office …Õ
clear K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.

pending files

Pending files are being cleared in our
office this week.

18. D <³ • …Õ telephone
W=Þ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.

connections

New telephone connections are being
given this month.

19.

öH‹¬° ‹².a.S. "ŒiKÍ ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë
K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßk.

Jayendra

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D book market …Õ ƒìQê sale
JQ®°KÇ°#ßk.
2. D "Œ~¡O =¶ office …Õ urgent files clear
K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßq.
3. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Jr. Inter admissions [~¡°Q®°
KÇ°#ßq.
4. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ~Œã+¬“=°O`Œ Panchayat elections 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßq.
5. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Inter q^¥¼~¡°œ•ä›½ D book
prescribe K͆°Ç |_•#k.
6. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È work perfect Qê [~¡°Q®°
KÇ°#ßk.
7. D ~ËA town …Õ communist party
"ŒiKÍ XH› ƒ•ìs ~Œ¼b x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°
KÇ°#ßk.
8. Merit q^¥¼~¡°œ•ä›½ D <³• intensive
coaching W=Þ|_È°KÇ°#ßk.
9. D ~ËA Australia - India team • =°^•Î¼
oneday match [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßk.
10. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =¶ ‡Ú•=ò…Õ ã„¬uë
„¬O_•O„¬|_È°KÇ°#ßk.
11. Teacher post • ƒ•’sHë ÷ interviews
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°KÇ°#ßq.
12. ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò P „²•Á•° "Œi grand parents
KÍ`Ç ‡é+²O„¬|_È°KÇ°<Œß~¡°.
13. D ~ËA P temple …Õ ã„¬`ͼH› „¬î[•°
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°KÇ°#ßq.
14. ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°# ~Œã+¬“O…Õ new voters list
`džǶ~¡Q®°KÇ°#ßk.
15. q•°"³#
á ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =$^•¥ JQ®°KÇ°#ßk.

Jayendra's case is being investigated
by the C.B.I.

All is well that ends well.

Z
336

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH› ø ª•i =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° •`Ë =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß „ ¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O continuous Qê
[~¡°„¬|_È°`ǶO_Èx, K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ salary K³eÁO„¬|_È@O …è^ΰ.
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hã ù`Çë telephone connections W=Þ|_È@O …è^ΰ.
D ~ËA JH›ø_È „¬x [~¡Q®@O…è^ΰ.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P film =°# town …Õ ã„¬^ÎiÅOKÇ |_È@O…è^ΰ.

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê W„¬C_È°, D ~ËA, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O continuous Qê K͆°Ç |_È°`ǶO_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_È°`ǶO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am/Is/Are+ not+being + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am+not+being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Singular Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'is+not+being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are+not+being' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç = ò P „¬ ^ Š Î H › = ò J=°•°
„¬~¡KÇ|_È@=ò…è^ΰ.
2.

The scheme is not being
implemented at present.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò P serial „
ã ª¬ •~¡=°Q®°@…è^°Î .
The serial is not being telecast at
present.

3. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P ‹¬ O ‹¬ Ö "ŒiKÍ x~¡ Þ ‚² ì O„¬
|_È@O…è^ΰ.
4.

The firm is not being maintained by
them at present.
ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O =¶ä› ½ computer classes

5.

Computer classes are not being
conducted to us at present.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO dull students Ì„á ã‰×^Îí KǶ|_È@O

[~¡Q®@O…è^ΰ.

…è^ΰ.

Attention is not being paid on dull
students.
337

6. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =¶ä›½ JH›ø_È #°O_•
supply JQ®°@…è^ΰ.

material

7.

The material is not being supplied to
us from that place at present.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°# ~ŒRO…Õ entry tax =‹¬¶•°

8.

The Entry tax is not being collected
in our state at present.
P film W„¬C_È° =°# town …Õ ã„¬^ÎiÅO„¬

9.
10.

K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

|_È@O…è^ΰ.

That film is not being shown in our
town now.
W„¬C_È° JH›ø_È work [~¡°Q®°@…è^ΰ.
Work is not being done there now.

ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P college …Õ donations =‹¬¶•°

K͆ǰ_È@O…è^ΰ.

Donations are not being collected in
that college at present.

,
: 94406
16425 .

,

11. D ~ËA JH›ø_È
[~¡Q®@O…è^ΰ.
12.

functions

H÷ U~Œæ@°Á

Arrangements are not being made for
the function there today.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P ㇕O`ÇO…Õ cotton „¬O_•O„¬

|_È@O…è^ΰ.

Cotton is not being grown in that area
at present.

13. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P WO\÷H÷ J^³í =‹¬¶•° K͆ǰ
|_È@O…è^ΰ.
Rent is not being collected for that
house at present.

14. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ "Œi =°^•Î¼ KÇ~ó•¡ ° [~¡Q@
® O…è^°Î .

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P firm …Õ accounts ‹¬iQê
maintain K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.
2. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ town …Õ drinking
supply K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

water

3. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P car use K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.
4. D ~ËA =¶ town …Õ |O^£ ‡•\÷O„¬
|_È@O…è^ΰ.
5. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P =ò‹¬e"Œ~¡° "Œi „²•Á•KÍ
‡é+²O„¬|_È@O…è^ΰ.

16.

Discussions are not being made
among them now.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Inter students 䛽 D book
prescribe K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.
This book is not being prescribed to
the Inter students at present.

ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ ration depot • ^¥Þ~Œ rice supply

17.

Rice is not being supplied through the
ration depots at present.
P ‹¬O‹¬Ö…Õ L^˼Q®°•ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO salaries

18.

Salaries are not being paid to the
employees in that firm at present.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ƒì¼O䛽• ^¥Þ~Œ ï~á`Ç°•ä›½ loans

=°OE~¡° K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

10. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO B.C. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½
grant K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

19.

Loans are not being granted to the
farmers through banks.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P hostel …Õ „²•Á•° ‹¬iQê treat

11. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO schools …Õ „²•Á•ä›½ `³•°Q®°
„¬^¥¼•° <ÍiæO„¬|_È@O…è^ΰ.

20.

The children are not being treated well
in that hostel at present.
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P case ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë ‹¬iQê [~¡Q®@O

12. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO RTC |‹¬°••…Õ q^¥¼~¡°•ë 䛽 free
pass •° issue K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.
13. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O =°# ~ŒRO…Õ [#àƒ•’ ¶ q°
Hê~¡¼ãH›=°O x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

15.

K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

K³eÁO„¬|_È@O…è^ΰ.

K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.

…è^ΰ.

The case is not being investigated
properly at present.

6. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O

society …Õ <³ á u H› q•°=•°
(moral values) ‡•\÷O„¬ |_È@O…è^°Î .

7. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO u~¡°=°•…Õ †Ç¶ãu䛽•ä›½
tickets sale K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ.

cellar

8. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO education system …Õ standard
maintain K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.
9. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ hostel …Õ Non-veg. items
serve K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ.
scholarship

Z

Barrowed garments never fit well.

338

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: 94406 16425

QUESTION FORM
XHùøH› ø ª•i =°#=ò V W `Ç ~ ¡ ° •`Ë =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß „ ¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O continuous Qê
[~¡°„¬[_È°`Ƕ#ß, K͆ǰ|_È°`Ƕ#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO „¬sH›Æ•° x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°KÇ°<Œß†Ç¶?
D ~ËA JH›ø_È g°\÷OQ·ä›½ U~Œæ@°Á K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ß"Œ ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È XH› shopping complex x~¡àOKÇ|_È°KÇ°#ß^¥ ?
D <³• new ration cards issue K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ß"Œ ?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K͆ǰ|_È°KǶ#ß „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•ÎOQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê W„¬C_È°, D ~ËA, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O continuous Qê K͆ǰ|_È°KǶ#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am/Is/Are+being+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
'I' Subject Qê

L#ß„¬C_È° 'am+being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Singular Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'is+being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are+being' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. D~ËA JH›ø_È C.M. g°\÷OQ·ä›½ U~Œæ@°Á
[~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ß"Œ?
Are the arrangements being made
there for the C.M.'s meeting today?

2. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P „¬^HΊ O› q[†Ç°=O`ÇOQê J=°•°
„¬~¡KÇ|_È°KÇ°#ß^¥?

4.

Is the scheme being implemented
successfully now?
P case WOHê ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ß^¥?
Is that case still being investigated?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È Hù`Çë theatre x~Œà}O

5.

is a new theatre being constructed
there at present?
D <³• Hù`Çë ration cards distribute

3.

[~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ß^¥?

K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ß"Œ?

Are new ration cards being distributed
this month?
339

6. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO main
KÇ°#ß^¥?

road repair

K͆ǰ|_Ȱ

7.

Is the main road being repaired now?
qk• serial ETV …Õ WOHê „
ã ª¬ •~¡O K͆°Ç

8.

Is the serial "Vidhi" still being telecast
on ETV.

ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Intermediate exams x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ

9.

Are Intermediate exams being
conducted at present?
D "Œ~¡O urgent files clear K͆ǰ|_È°

10.

Are urgent files being cleared this
week?
Guests ä› ½ dinner serve KÍ † Ç ° |_È °

|_È°KÇ°#ß^¥?

|_È°KÇ°#ß"Œ?

KÇ°#ß"Œ?

KÇ°#ß^¥?

Is dinner being served to the guests
now?

,

: 94406 16425

'Wh' QUESTIONS

EXERCISE

11. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g°ä›½ classes ZH›ø_È x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ
|_È°KÇ°#ßq ?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12.

Where are the classes being
conducted to you at present ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P ‹¬O‹¬Ö Z=i KÍ`Ç maintain

13.

By whom is that firm being
maintained at present ?
W„¬C_È° D material ZH›ø_È䛽 supply

14.

Where is this material being supplied
now ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ~¡`Çß=°‚¬ì…˜…Õ U film ㄬ^ÎiÅOKÇ

15.

which film is being shown at Ratna
Mahal at present?
D application forms ZH›ø_È J=°à|_È°

16.

Where are these application forms
being sold ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO J`ÇxH÷ ZO`Ç salary K³eÁO„¬|_È°

K͆ǰ|_È°KǶ#ßk ?

K͆ǰ|_ÈKǶ#ßk?

|_È°KÇ°#ßk ?

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

KǶ#ßq ?

KÇ°#ßk ?

18.

Howmuch salary is being paid to
him now ?
D "Œ~¡O English class …Õ U lesson
teach K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßk ?
Which lesson is being taught in the
English calss this week ?
ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P camp …Õ ZO`Ç = °Ok

19.

For howmany candidates is the
training being given in that camp at
present ?
D building ZO^ΰ䛽 䛕eó "͆ǰ|_È°

17.

1.

Jƒ•’¼~¡°•Ö 䛽 tH›}
Æ W=Þ|_È°KÇ°#ßk ?

KÇ°#ßk ?

Why is that building being demolished
now ?

20. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È Uq° „¬x [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßk ?
What work is being done there at
present ?

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Merit q^¥¼~¡°•
Ö ä›½ D <³• special classes

[~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ß"Œ ?

ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P products market …Õ ƒìQê sale
JQ®°KÇ°#ß"Œ ?
ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O 'water' film Bengal …Õ
zãfH›iOKÇ|_È°KÇ°#ß^¥ ?
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Jxß „¬@}
“ ì•…Õ PãH=
› °}•°
`Ë•yO„¬|_È°KÇ°#ß"Œ ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO öHOã^Î |_³û\˜ prepare K͆ǰ|_È°
KÇ°#ß^¥ ?
D ~ËA g° institute …Õ function
celebrate K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ß^¥ ?
D <³• WO@~Ÿ „¬sH›Æ•° x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°
KÇ°#ß"Œ ?
D forms ZH›ø_È J=°à|_È°KÇ°#ßq ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO h䛽 ZO`Ç salary K³eÁO„¬|_È°
KÇ°#ßk ?
D ~ËA work ZH›ø_È [~¡°Q®°KÇ°#ßk ?
P old age home …Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok Pã‰×†Ç°O
H›eæOKÇ|_È°KÇ°<Œß~¡° ?
Muncipal ZxßH›• ballot papers ZH›ø_È
print K͆ǰ|_È°`Ƕ#ßq ?
ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P case Z=i KÍ ` Ç ^Î ~ Œ¼„¬ ô ë
K͆ǰ|_È°KÇ°#ßk ?
g° ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Z䛽ø=Qê U „¬O@
„¬O_•O„¬|_È°KǶ#ßk ?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO "ŒiH÷ training ZH›ø_È W=Þ|_È°
`Ç°#ßk ?

Z

Fools are pleased with their own faults.

340

,

: 94406 16425

NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM
XHùøH› ø ª•i =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° •`Ë =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß „ ¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O continuous Qê
K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O g° college …Õ seminors x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È@O…è^¥?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO bank post • x†Ç¶=°Hê•° [~¡Q@® O…è^¥?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È D G.O. J=°•°…Õ…è^¥?
D ~ËA cards „¬O„²}© [~¡Q®@O…è^¥?

J
J
J
J

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D~ËA, D"Œ~¡O, D<³•, D

‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò continuous Qê K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_Èx, [~¡„¬|_È°`ǶO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Isn't + Aren't + being + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Isn't + being' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Aren't being' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. ㄬ‹¬°`ÇëO g°ä›½ classes [~¡Q®_ÈO…è^¥?

6. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P serial „
ã ª¬ •~¡=°=@O…è^¥?

Aren't the classes being conducted to
you at present?

2. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P „¬^ŠÎH›O J=°•°…Õ…è^¥?
Isn't that scheme being implemented
at present?

3. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P
…è^¥?

movie

=°#

town

Isn't that serial being telecast at
present?

7. WH›ø_È „¬#°ß•° ‹¬iQê =‹¬¶•° Hê=@O
…è^¥?
Aren't the taxes being collected
regularly?

…Õ P_È@O

8. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P ‡Ú•O…Õ ã„¬uë „¬O_È@O…è^¥?

Isn't that movie being shown in our
town at present?

4. W„¬C_ÈH›ø_È
…è^¥?

function

䛽 U~Œæ@°Á [~¡Q®@O

Aren't arrangements being made there
for the function?

5. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P

vehicle use …Õ …è ^ ¥?
Isn't that vehicle being used now?

341

Isn't cotton being grown in that field at
present?

9.

Dinner H÷ items `džǶ~¡° Hê=@O…è^¥?
Aren't items being prepared for
dinner?

10. BSNL ãHù`Çë connections W=Þ|_È@O…è^¥?
Aren't new connections being given by
the BSNL?

,

EXERCISE

'Wh' QUESTIONS

11. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g°ä›½ Chennai #°O_•
ZO^ΰ䛽 supply Hê=@O…è^ΰ?
12.

material

Why isn't the material being supplied
to you from Chennai at present?
P modal cars ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ZO^ΰ䛽 sale

Hê=@O…è^ΰ?

13.

Why aren't the cars of that model being
sold at present?
Classcal movies ZO^ΰ䛽 xiàOKÇ|_È@O

14.

Why aren't classical movies being
made (produced) at present?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO colleges …Õ ‹¬i†³Ø°# ãH›=°tH›Æ}

…è^ΰ?

ZO^ΰ䛽O_È@O…è^ΰ?

Why isn't good discipline being
maintained in the colleges at present?

15. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ãHù`Çë x†Ç¶=°Hê•° ZO^ΰ䛽
[~¡Q®@O…è^ΰ?
16.

Why aren't the new appointments being
made at present?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P project „¬x "ÍQ®OQê ZO^ΰ䛽

[~¡Q®@O…è^ΰ?

17.

Why isn't the work of that project being
done fast?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO T.V Channels …Õ old movies

18.

Why aren't old movies being telecast
on T.V. Channels at present?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO „¬O_È°Q®•° grand Qê ZO^ΰ䛽

19.

Why aren't festivals being celebrated
grand at present?
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç school level …Õ studies …Õ quality

ZO^ΰ䛽 „
ã ª¬ •~¡O Hê=@O…è^°Î ?

[~¡Q®@O…è^ΰ?

ZO^ΰ䛽O_È@O…è^ΰ?

Why isn't quality being maintained in
studies at school level?
20. „ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ ä›•¼ƒì #°O_• WO_•†Ç¶ä›½ sugar

ZO^ΰ䛽 kQ®°=°u J=@O…è^ΰ?

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Why isn't sugar being imported to
India from Cuba at present?

D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
1. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ g° college …Õ donations =‹¬¶•°
K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^¥?
2. D ~ËA project report `džǶ~¡° Hê=@O
…è^¥?
3. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Hã ù`Çë ration cards =°OE~¡° J=@O
…è^¥?
4. Voter list …Õ ãHù`Çë À„~¡°Á #"³¶^ΰ Hê=@O
…è^¥?
5. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ govt. hospitals …Õ medicines free
Qê ‹¬~¡„¦¬~Œ Hê=@O…è^¥?
6. D <³•…Õ ãHù`Çë Cellone connections
W=Þ|_È@O…è^¥?
7. D <³•…Õ Hê…èr…Õ admissions [~¡Q®_ÈO
…è^¥?
8. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ g°ä›½ practice tests [~¡Q@
® O …è^¥?
9. D ~ËA cricket match T.V …Õ relay J=@O
…è^¥?
10. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g°ä›½ study classes ZO^ΰ䛽
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È@O …è^ΰ?
11. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P case ZO^Î ° ä› ½ ^Î ~ Œ¼„¬ ô ë
K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ?
12. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P „¬^HΊ O› J=°•°…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^°Î ?
13. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O games ZO^Î ° ä› ½ practise
K͆ǰ|_È@O…è^ΰ?
14. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P room ZO^ΰ䛽 use …Õ …è^ΰ?
15. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO new polocies ZO^ΰ䛽 book
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ?

Z

Success comes to those who are brave.

342

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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?

=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D ~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Am/Is/ Are + being + III form of the
Verb' J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ "Passive Voice -Present
Continuous Tense" JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question
Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê K͆ǰ|_È°KǶ =ô#ß
[~¡°„¬|_È°KǶ =ô#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Am / Is / Are + being + III form
of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. The examinations are being conducted this month.
2. Discussions are being made today.
3. An interesting programme is being made today.
4. Special classes are being conducted this month.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê K͆ǰ|_È°KǶO_Èx
[~¡°„¬|_È°KǶO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Am / Is /
Are + not + being + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Work is not being done there at present.
2. Water is not being supplied today.
3. New houses are not being constructed in our colony at present.
4. Free passes are not being issued now.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O =°#O =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß ‹¬ = °†Ç ° =ò# continuous Qê KÍ † Ç ° |_È ° KÇ ¶ #ß ,
[~¡°„¬|_È°KǶ#ß, XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 " Am / Is / Are +
being + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Is the meeting being conducted now?
2. Are the cards being printed now?
3. Is she being kept in the I.C.U.?
4. Are the votes being polled?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê K͆ǰ|_È°KǶO_Èx,
[~¡°„¬|_È°KǶO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Isn't / Aren't + being + III form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Is n't milk being sold here?
2. Are n't the files being cleared this week?
3. Is n't the problem being discussed now?
4. Are n't the hall-tickets being issued today?
343

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.
I Form

II Form

III Form

681.

Encroach

encroached

encroached

682.

Enforce

enforced

enforced

683.

Enquire

enquired

enquired

684.

Enhance

enhanced

enhanced

685.

Enrage

enraged

enraged

686.

Erase

erased

erased

687.

Evaporate

evaporated

evaporated

688.

Excel

excelled

excelled

689.

Excite

excited

excited

690.

Exclaim

exclaimed

exclaimed

691.

Execute

executed

executed

692.

Exempt

exempted

exempted

693.

Exhaust

exhausted

exhausted

694.

Explode

exploded

exploded

695.

Export

exported

exported

696.

Extol

extolled

extolled

697.

Flop

flopped

flopped

698.

Glitter

glittered

glittered

699.

Guard

guarded

guarded

700.

Grumble

grumbled

grumbled

D ~ËA

Meaning

PãH›q°OKÇ°@
PKÇ~¡}…ÕxH÷ `³KÇ°ó@
qKŒiOKÇ°@
Ì„OKÇ°@
HË„¬=ò H›eyOKÇ°@
`Ç°_•z"͆òÇ @
Pqï~á‡é=ô@
Z䛽ø=ôQê =ôO_È°@
Z䛽ø= J#°ƒ•’¶u‡ÚO^ΰ@
Z䛽ø=Qê ‹¬æOkOKÇ°@
Lif†Çò@
q°#‚¬ð~òOKÇ°@
J•‹¬@ K³O^ΰ@
ãÀ„•°@
ZQ®°=°u K͆Çò@
‡ÚQ®_È°@
J„¬[†Ç°=ò ‡ÚO^ΰ@
"³°~¡†Çò@
~¡H÷ÆOKÇ°@
‹¬}°Q®°@

…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Spoken English lesson

Z
344

Idle mind is devil's workshop.

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PASSIVE VOICE - PAST CONTINUOUS
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ continuous Qê [~¡°„¬|_È°`ǶO_•#, K͆°Ç |_È°`ǶO_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

x#ß Vijayawada …Õ polling x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬ |_È°`ǶO_•#k.
x#ß Star Sports channel …Õ match „ã ª¬ •~¡=°Q®°KǶO_•#k.
Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò =¶ classes P old building …Õ x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°KǶO_•#q.
Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O college …Õ degree admissions [~¡°Q®°KǶO_•#q.

J
J
J
J

Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° Q® ` Ç O …Õ
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

continuous

Qê K͆ǰ|_È°KǶO_•# „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° continuous Qê K͆°Ç |_È°KǶO_•# „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was/were+being+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular J~ò#„¬C_È° 'was' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural J~ò#„¬C_È° 'were' =KÇ°ó#°.

*

EXAMPLES
1.

Last week teacher post •ä›½ interviews

5. J„¬C_È°

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
2.

Interviews were being conducted for
the teacher posts last week.
Last month =¶ä› ½ special classes

6.

x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ|_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
3.

Special classes were being
conducted to us last month.
x#ß JH›ø_È field work manager KÍ „¬~¡¼

"ÍHOÆ÷ „¬|_È°KÇ°O_•#k.
4.

345

The field work was being supervised
by the manger there yesterday.
Last month SBI …Õ House loans
sanction K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
House-loans were being sanctioned
in the SBI last month.

degree students 䛽 D book
prescribe K͆°Ç |_È°`Ç°O_•#k.
This book was being prescribed to the
Degree students then.
Q®`Ç ï~O_È° ~ËA•° Lions Club "ŒiKÍ P
Ti…Õ Free Medical Camp x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬

|_È°KÇ°O_•#k.

7.

Free medical camp was being
organized by the Lion's Club in that
village last two days.
Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P college …Õ donations

8.

Donations were being collected in that
college last year.
Last week P theatre …Õ XH› old film

=‹¬¶•° K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#q.


ã ^
¬ iÎ ÅOKÇ|_È°KÇ°O_•#k.

An old film was being shown at that
theatre last week.

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9. „
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ L^˼Q®°•ä›½ J„¬C_È° ƒÕ#‹¹ K³eOÁ „¬
|_È°`Ç°O_•#k.
Bonus was being paid

to the

government employees then.

10. ~Œã u JO`Œ Hê…è l …Õ
[~¡°Q®°KÇ°O_•#k.

farewell party

The farewell party was being
celebrated in the college last night.

11. x#ß DD sports channel …Õ cricket match
relay K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#k.
The cricket match was being relayed
on the DD Sports Channel yesterday.

12. Q® ` Ç O …Õ D factory H÷ raw material
chennai #°O_• supply KÍ † Ç ° |_È °
`Ç°O_•#k.
The raw material was being supplied
to this factory from Chennai in the past.

13. x#ß Telugu class …Õ
K͆°Ç |_È°`Ç°O_•#k.

notes dictate

Note was being dictated in the Telugu
class yesterday.

14. x#ß

䛽 free
issue K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
club members

pass

•°

Free passes were being issued to the
club members yesterday.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate

1.†°Ç O_•.
Last month S.S.C „¬sH›Æ•°
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`Ç°O_•#q.
2. N.T.R. Hê•O…Õ =°# ~Œã+O“¬ …Õ =°^•¥¼‚¬ìß
ƒ•Õ[# „¬^•ÎH=› ò q[†Ç°=O`ÇOQê J=°•°
„¬~¡°KÇ|_È°KÇ°#ßk.
3. Last year E.T.V …Õ KŒ}°H› ¼ serial
„ã ª¬ •~¡=°Q®° KÇ°O_•#k.
4. J„¬C_È° P case C.B.I. "ŒiKÍ ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë
K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#k.
5. Last year =°# state …Õ entry tax collect K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#k.
6. Q®`Ç ï~O_È° ~ËA•° invitation cards distribute K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
7. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O JO`Œ pending files clear
K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
8. Last year B.C. q^¥¼~¡°œ•ä›½ Lz`ÇOQê
books supply K͆ǰ|_Ȱ`ǰOk#q.
9. ãHù`Çë L^˼Q®°•ä›½ last month training
classes x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`Ç°O_•#q.
10. x#ß Jxß T.V. Channels …Õ special
programmes „
ã ª¬ •~¡=°Q®°KÇ°O_È°#q.
11. x#ß JH›ø_È meeting H÷ U~Œæ@°Á [~¡°Q®°
KÇ°O_•#q.
12. x#ß class …Õ new lesson teach
K͆°Ç |_È°`ǶO_•#k.
13. ~Œãu JO`Œ "Œi =°^•Î¼ KÇ~ó¡•° [~¡°Q®°
KÇ°O_•#q.
14. Last month =¶ town …Õ PãH›=°}•° Jhß
`ù•yO„¬|_È°KÇ°O_•#q.
15. x#ß P Ti…Õ =~¡^Î ƒìk•`Ç°•ä›½ food
packets „¬O„²}© K͆°Ç |_È°KÇ°O_•#q.

Z

He who hunts two hares catches neither.

346

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
continuous Qê [~¡ ° „¬ | _È ° `Ç ¶ O_È x , KÍ † Ç ° |_È ° `Ç ¶ O_È x XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J Lat month =¶ä›½ classes [~¡°Q®° `ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
J x#ß JH›ø_È meeting x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
J D scheme last year J=°•° „¬~¡KÇ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
J Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O =¶ä›½ hall-tickets issue K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =¶ä›½ Q®`ÇO…Õ
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

continuous

Qê K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz

D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° continuous Qê K͆°Ç |_È°`ǶO_Èx, [~¡°„¬|_È°`ǶO_Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was/Were +not+being+III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
*

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Singluar Subject J~ò#„¬C_È° 'was' =KÇ°ó#°.
Plural Subject J~ò#„¬C_È° 'were not+ being+III form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1.

Last week

2.

Classes were not being conducted
to us in the college last week.
Last month WH› ø _È
D road

3.
4.
5.

=¶ä›½
[~¡°Q®°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

college

…Õ

classes

"͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

This road was not being laid here last
month.
x#ß JH›ø_È work [~¡°Q®°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
Work was not being done there
yesterday.
J„¬C_È° 'D<Œ_È°Ñ daily …Õ „ã u
¬ ƒ•’ jiÂH›
publish J=ô`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
'Pratibha' column was not being
published in Eenadu daily then.
J„¬ C _È ° Hê…è r •…Õ D courses Jxß

x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬ |_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

All these courses were not being
conducted in the colleges then.
347

6. J„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ school …Õ
|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
7.

Hindi ƒÕk•O„¬

Hindi was not being taught to us in
the schools then.
x#ß one day cricket match T.V. …Õ relay

K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

The Oneday cricket match was not
being relayed on T.V. yesterday.

8. x#ß JH›ø_È g°\÷OQ·H÷ U~Œæ@°Á [~¡°Q®°
`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
Arrangements were not being made
there for the meeting yesterday.

9. J„¬C_È° =¶ ‡Ú•O…Õ K³~¡ä›½ „¬O_•O„¬
|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
10.

Sugarcane was not being grown in
our field then.
Last month P club …Õ cultural
programmes x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.
Cultural programmes were not being
held in that club last month.

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11. WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ =°# state …Õ D scheme
J=°•° „¬~¡KÇ|_È°`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.

13.

This scheme was not being
implemented in our state there.
D Grammar book last year =¶ä› ½
prescribe K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
This Grammar book was not being
prescribed to us last year.
x#ß P time …Õ tickets issue K͆ǰ|_È°

14.

Tickets were not being issued at that
time yesterday.
J„¬ C _È ° taxes strict Qê =‹¬ ¶ •°

15.

Taxes were not being collected strictly
then.
=¶ä› ½ last week lessons revise

16.

Lessons were not being rvised to us
last week.
x#ß class …Õ notes dictate

17.

Notes was not being dictated in the
class yesterday.
WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D office …Õ rules ‹¬iQê

12.

18.

`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

‡•\÷O„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…^
è °Î .

Rules were not being followed in that
office then.
XH›„¬C_È° =°# area …Õ D festival
celebrate K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
This festival was not being celebrated
in our area once.

19. Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D ‹¬O‹¬…Ö Õ L^˼Q®°•ä›½
salaries ‹¬iQê K³eÁO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
Salaries were not being paid promptly
to the employees in that firm last year.

20. J„¬ C _È ° =¶ä› ½ JH› ø _È
H›eæOKÇ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

=‹¬ u

Accommodation was not being
provided to us there then.

EXERCISE

D "ŒH›D
¼=ò•°
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
"ŒH›English
¼=ò•° English
…ÕxH÷ translate
K͆°Ç O_•.
1.
J„¬ C _È ° WO`Ç strict Qê traffic rules
‡•\÷O„¬|_È@O…è^°Î .
2. J„¬C_È° TV Channels …Õ Wxß serials

ã ª¬ •~¡=°Q®°KÇ°O_È…^
è °Î .
3. J„¬ C _È ° WH› ø _È shopping complex
xiàOKÇ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
4. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° bonus K³eÁO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È
…è^ΰ.
5. J„¬C_È° ZxßH›•° WO`Ç strict Qê x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬
|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
6. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° material supply K͆°Ç |_È°
`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
7. ~Œãu JH›ø_È KÇ~¡ó•° [~¡°Q®°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
8. WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ P theatre …Õ new films
ㄬ^ÎiÅO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
9. Last year =¶ä› ½ classes ‹¬ i Qê
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
10. Last year =¶ office …Õ accounts ‹¬iQê
x~¡Þ‚²ìO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
11. J„¬ C _È ° D house H÷ rent =‹¬ ¶ •°
K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
12. J„¬ C _È ° case •° ‹¬ i Qê ^Î ~ Œ¼„¬ ô ë
K͆ǰ|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
13. WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D machines WH›ø_È
`džǶ~¡=ô`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
14. WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D q+¬†°Ç =ò•° meeting
•…Õ KÇióO„¬|_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.

Z

Fools build houses and w