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GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN REPORT

ON


PROPOSED TEMPORARY WORKS FOR TEMPORARY DRAIN
DIVERSION


FOR



PROPOSED RECLAMATION AT TUAS FINGER ONE,SINGAPORE



BCA Project Ref. Number: ?????








24
th
SEPTEMBER 2014






KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
60 Kallang Pudding Road #02-00
Tan Jin Chwee Industrial Building,
Singapore 349320
Geotechnical Design Report for Proposed Temporary Works Revision 0
On Temporary Drain Diversion for Proposed Reclamation at Tuas Finger One September 2014
for Penta-Ocean Construction Co., Ltd Page i

Our Ref No: SNP 27-09/AC-ERSS/R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Design Codes ...................................................................................................................................... 1
2. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION..................................................................................... 2
2.1 Site Investigation Boreholes ............................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Assumed Soil Model........................................................................................................................... 2
2.3 Proposed Design Parameters .............................................................................................................. 3
2.4 Ground Water Table ........................................................................................................................... 3
2.5 Surcharge Load Condition.................................................................................................................. 3
3. LIMIT STATE EQUIBRIUM OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL....................................... 3
3.1 Stability against Piping Failure........................................................................................................... 3
3.2 Stability against Toe Failure............................................................................................................... 4
4. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL......................................... 4
4.1 Assumptions ....................................................................................................................................... 4
4.2 Results of FEM Analysis .................................................................................................................... 4
4.3 Risk Assessment to Surrounding Buildings........................................................................................ 5
5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL............................................... 5
6. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF STRUT AND WALER.................................................................. 5
6.1 Proposed Strut Spacing....................................................................................................................... 5
6.2 Strut and Waler Design....................................................................................................................... 6
7. OPEN CUT SLOPE.......................................................................................................................... 6
8. PROPOSED INSTRUMENTATION PLAN................................................................................. 6

APPENDIX
A BOREHOLE LOGS IN VINICITY OF PROPOSED DRAIN
B RESULTS OF SEEPAGE ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL FOR
TEMPORARY DRAIN BY SEEP/W
C TOE STABILITY CALCULATION ON PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL
D RESULTS OF FEM ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL FOR
TEMPORARY DRAIN BY PLAXIS

E STRUCTURAL CALCULATION ON STRUT AND WALER


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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09/AC-ERSS/R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Schematic Plan of Proposed Temporary Work on Temporary Drain 8
Figure 2 Location Plan of Boreholes in vinicity of Proposed Temporary Drain 9
Figure 3 Proposed Soil Model 2
Figure 4 Schematic Sketch of Proposed Strutting System 5
Figure 5 Results of Slope Stability Analysis of Proposed 1V: 2H Cut Slope for Temporary
Drain 16
Figure 6 Plan View on Schematic Sketch on Interface between Sheetpile Wall and Open
Cut Slope 17







LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Proposed Geotechnical Parameters for Temporary Works 10
Table 2 Results of Toe Stability for Temporary Sheetpile Wall 11
Table 3 Summary on FEM Results on Proposed Temporary Works for Temporary Drain 12
Table 4 Proposed Strut and Waler Members for Temporary Sheetpile Wall 13
Table 5 Results of Open Cut Slope Analysis for the Outlet of Temporary Drain 14
Table 6 Proposed Instrumentation and Review Level 15



Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
STANDARD CERTIFICATION BY THE QUALIFIED PERSON FOR STRUCTURAL
WORKS

1. In accordance with Regulation 9 of The Building Control Regulations, I, Chua Tong Seng, the
Qualified Person for structural works appointed under section 8(1)(a) or 11(1)(d)(i) of the Building
Control Act, hereby submit the detailed structural plans and design calculations prepared by me and
certify that they have been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Building Control
Regulations, the Building Control Act and any other written law pertaining to buildings and
construction for the time being in force


2. I further certify that these detailed structural plans and design calculations are in reference to
Project Ref No: .


3. Total number of structural plans submitted : ___ .and total number of pages of design calculations
in this book 1 ___














__________________________________________ SEPTEMBER 2014
QUALIFIED PERSON FOR STRUCTURAL
SIGNATURE & STAMP DATE
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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
In this ST??? submission, this report describes the temporary work design for the proposed
sheetpile wall for the drain diversion for the above-captioned project. The temporary drain is
about 5m deep by 4m wide and according to the construction stages given by our client M/S
Penta-Ocean Construction Co., Ltd, a 5m high sand surcharging will be placed at about 17m
awy from the edge of the temporary sheetpile wall once the drain diversion is constructed.
However, the outlet of the drain facing the sea will be constructed by open cut slope since there
are no sand surcharging planned at this area as shown in Figure 1.

Typical details of the sections in the QPs design is summarized as follows:-
Proposed ERSS Proposed
Platform
Level
(m CD)
Final
Formation
level for
Drain
Diversion
(m CD)
Excavation
Depth (m)
Proposed
Sheetpile
toe (m
CD)/Slope
system
Height of sand
surcharging
placed at 11m
away from
ERSS
Type 1 :FSP IV
(S275) sheetpile
wall with 1-
level strut
+6.0m +1.0m 5m -6m CD
(12m
penetration
length)
+11m CD
(approx to 87
kPa preload)*
Type 2: Open
Cut slope at
Drain Outlet
+6.0m +1.0m 5m 1 V: 2H No sand
surcharging
Note: ERSS Earth Retaining Stabilizing System
* Assuming sand unit weight of 17 kN/m
3
for the sand surcharging


1.2 Design Codes
- BS 8002:1994 Code of Practice for Earth Retaining Structures
- BCA, Advisory Note 1/05 on Deep Excavation
- BCA, Advisory Note 1/09 on Earth Retaining or Stabilizing Structures
- TR 26:2010 Technical Reference for Deep Excavation

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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
2. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION
2.1 Site Investigation Boreholes
There are no boreholes conducted at the proposed drain diversion. However, there are two
boreholes TBH-35 and TBH-36 located in the vinicity as shown in Figure 2. From the results of
these 2 boreholes, the ground condition comprises of reclaimed sand up to 27m deep overlying
the Jurong Formation. No Kallang Formation is found at these two boreholes. Appendix A
presents the two boreholes.


2.2 Assumed Soil Model
Based on the above nearby boreholes and the information that the area for the drain diversion is
located within the exising sandkey, we inferred that the reclaimed sand will be found
throughout the entire site for the proposed drain. The assumed soil model at the proposed drain
diversion is as depicted in below Figure 2.




















Figure 3 Assumed Soil Model
+6.0m CD
-20m CD
Reclaimed Sand
(N=19 to 35)
Jurong Formation
+3.0m (MHWS)
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2.3 Proposed Design Parameters
The geotechnical design parameters proposed for the temporary works design are shown in
Table 1.


2.4 Ground Water Table
The groundwater table is assumed:-
Seawater level : +3.0m CD (HWMS)

2.5 Surcharge Load Condition
Surcharge load of 10kPa was adopted behind the proposed sheetpile wall.

3. LIMIT STATE EQUIBRIUM OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL
3.1 Stability against Piping Failure
The proposed 12m penetration length FSP IV sheetpile wall is checked against the loss of
stability due to piping. For an excavation depth of 5m, the embedded depth (D) of sheetpile
wall is therefore 7m.

The factor of safety, FS
piping
against piping is calculated using the following equation:-


FS
piping
= Downward total weight of soil mass
Average Upward Seepage pressure



The average upward seepage force, u
s
, is estimated using a seepage program SEEP/W
version 2012.

Total vertical stress of soil mass = *D = 20 x 7= 140 kPa
Average Upward seepage pressure, u
s
= 80 kPa

FS
piping
= 1.75 > 1.2 (allowable as specifed in TR 26 Clause 3.7.3) ..O.K

Graphical output of the results of seepage analysis by SEEP/W is attached in Appendix B.
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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
3.2 Stability against Toe Failure
The stability against toe failure is calculated using strength factor method where factored soil
parameters are used. The minimum factor of safety obtained using the strength factor method is
summarized in Table 2. Appendix C presents the toe stability calculation on the proposed
sheetpile wall.

4. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL
The design of the proposed Type 1: FSP IV sheetpile wall is carried out using a 2D-FEM
program PLAXIS version 9 .The typical construction sequences for the drain diversion are as
follows:-

(i) Install FSP IV sheetpile wall to toe depth of 6m CD. Platform level is at +6.0m CD.
(ii) Excavate to +5.0m CD and then install strut @ +5.5m CD.
(iii) Final excavation to formation level +1.0mCD.
(iv) Construct a 150mm thick lean concrete at the formation level.
(v) Placement of +11.0m CD high sand surcharging at 11m away on one side of the
sheetpile wall after the completion of the drain excavation to +1.0m.

4.1 Assumptions
The assumptions made in the retaining wall analysis by PLAXISare:-
i) 0.5m unplanned excavation is considered.
ii) Drained parameter is used for Reclaimed sand.
iii) Surcharge of 10 kPa is considered.
iv) Preload to +11m CD is considered as surcharge in the FEM as 87.5kPa by using a unit
weight of 17.5 kN/m
3
.

v) 90%EI is considered for the FSP IV sheetpile wall.
vi) Groundwater table taken to be +3.0mCD behind the sheetpile wall and vary at the active
side of the sheetpile wall.

vii) Seepage analysis is considered in the PLAXIS analysis.

4.2 Results of FEM Analysis
Detailed FEM results are presented in Appendix D. The stage by stage results is presented in
Table 3. Allowable deflection of sheetpile wall is taken to be 38mm (0.5%H where H= 5.5m
excavation including 0.5m unplanned)
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4.3 Risk Assessment to Surrounding Buildings
There are no nearby structures within 2 times the excavation depth of the proposed excavation
work. Therefore, there is no impact assessment of the proposed excavation works on the
surrounding ground and structures.

5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PROPOSED SHEETPILE WALL
The ultimate bending moment capacity, M
c
, of the FSP IV sheetpile wall (S275) is calculated as
follows:-
M
c
= p
y
. Z
xx
= 624 kNm

Where, p
y
= Yield stress of steel = 275 N/mm
2

Z
xx
= Section Modulus of FSP IV sheetpile = 2270 cm
3
/m

From Table 2, the maximum unfactored bending moment of FSP IV sheetpile due to temporary
works is 154kNm. Using a load factor of 1.4, the ultimate bending moment, M
ult
, is calculated
to be:-
M
ult
= 1.4 x 154kNm = 216 kNm < M
c
-------------- O.K


6. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF STRUT AND WALER
6.1 Proposed Strut Spacing

The proposed strut spacing for the temporary sheetpile wall is 5m as depicted in following
schematic sketch:-






Figure 4 Schematic Sketch of Proposed Strutting System



5m
3m
Sheetpile wall
Splay member
Strut
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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
6.2 Strut and Waler Design
The steel strut is designed as compression member to resist the lateral earth loads from the
temporary retaining wall while the waler is designed as bending element to transfer the lateral
earth loads from the temporary retaining wall to the steel strut. Both the strut member and
waler member are designed in accordance to BS 5950 : 2000 and the following additional
design considerations are taken into the steel and waler design:-
i) Increase of axial force arisng from 10 degree increase in temperature in steel strut as in
accordance to TR26 : 2010 Technical Reference for Deep Excavation published by
SPRING Singapore.

ii) Eccentricity of axial load at the connection. For waler of singel section, the eccentricity
shall be about 10% of the overall dimension of the strut in the vertical plane.

iii) Accidential impact load of 50 kN as in accordance to TR26 : 2010 Technical
Reference for Deep Excavation published by SPRING Singapore.

iv) One strut failure is also considered in the strutting design using a load factor of 1.05 as
in accordance to TR26 : 2010.

The proposed strut and waler members are summarized in Table 4. The detailed calculations on
the strut and waler are presented in Appendix E.


7. OPEN CUT SLOPE

The open cut slope for the outlet of the temporary drain will be constructed with 1 vertical to 2
horizontal slope with a 150mm thick lean concrete lining (Grade 15) reinforced with BRC A-8
mesh. Weep holes are to be provided along the slope surface of the concrete lining of the drain.
We used a slope stability program SLIDE version 3 developed by ROCScience to estimate
the factor of safety for the proposed cut slope.

Based on the modified Bishops method, the mimimum factor of safety for the 1V:2H cut slope
is summarized in Table 5. Graphical output results are shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the
schematic plan view on the interface between FSP IV sheetpile wall and the cut slope.


8. PROPOSED INSTRUMENTATION PLAN

The proposed instrumentation types are as follows:-
i) Inclinometers (located behind sheetpile wall at sand surcharging side of excavation)
ii) Ground Settlement markers at both side of excavation

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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD
We propose the inclinometers and ground settlement markers located at every 50m along the
proposed temporary work. For the open cut slope, we propose only the ground settlement
markers. Table 6 summarizes the proposed review levels for the above instruments.



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Our Ref No: SNP 27-09R1 KISO-JIBAN SINGAPORE PTE LTD




Figure 1 Schematic Plan of Proposed Temporary Work on Temporary Drain
Refer to Figure 6 on schematic view
on interface between Sheetpile wall
and Open Cut Slope
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Figure 2 Location Plan of Boreholes in vinicity of Proposed Temporary Drain


Boreholes TBH-35 &
TBH-36 in vinicity of
proposed Drain
Proposed Drain
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Table 1 Proposed Geotechnical Parameters for Temporary Works

Effective Shear
Strength Geological
Formation
SPT N-value
Bulk
Density
(kN/m
3
)
Undrained
Shear
Strength, c
u

(kPa)
c',
(kPa)
'
(deg)
Undrained
Deformation
Modulus, E
u

(MPa)
Drained
Deformation
Modulus E'
(MPa)
Coefficient of
permeability,
k (m/s)
Coefficient of
Earth
Pressure at
Rest, Ko
Reclaimed Sand 19-36 20 - 0 30 - 13 1x10
-5
0.5
Jurong
Formation
(30<N<50)
34-41 20.5 c
u
= 5N 0 33 2.0N 1.74N 1x10
-7
0.8
Jurong
Formation
(N>50)
69-100 20.5
c
u
= 5N
(N
max
=50)
0 34 2.0N 1.74N 1x10
-7
0.8


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Table 2 Results of Toe Stability for Temporary Sheetpile Wall

Proposed
Ground
Level (m
CD)
Proposed Final
Excavation level (m
CD)
Toe Pentration length
from proposed
ground level (m)
Factor of safety using
Strength Factor
Method
+6.0 +1.0 12.0 1.8 > 1.0 (allowable)

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Table 3 Summary on FEM Results on Proposed Temporary Works for Temporary Drain


Max. axial load Stage Condition Max. sheetpile
deflecton
Max. bending
moment Temporary strut
@ +5.5m
250mm thick lean
concrete @ base
with weep hole @
3m c/c
Max. Ground settlement
A
Excavation to FEL +1.0m (with
0.5m unplanned excavation) for
temporary Drain
16.5mm (RHS)
16.0mm(LHS)
132kNm/m (RHS)
132kNm/m (LHS)
77 kN/m <5 kN/m
15mm (RHS)
20mm (LHS)
B
Sand surcharge placed behind
RHS Sheetpile after completion
of excavation for temporary
drain
33.5mm (RHS) 132kNm/m 64kN/m 39 kN/m*
151mm (RHS)
15mm (LHS)
Note: (i) RHS : Right Sand Side Sheetpile wall and LHS: Left Hand Side Sheetpile
* Ultimate axial stress on 250mm thick concrete slab = 1.4 x 39x10
3
/(250x1000) = 0.22N/mm
2
. Thus provide nominal reinforcement equal to 0.13%bh =325mm
2
. Use
BRC A-10 for the reinforcement for 250mm thick lean concrete

Stage A: Excavation for the construction of temporary drain
Stage B: Placement of Sand surcharging @ 11m behind the RHS sheetpile


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Table 4 Proposed Strut and Waler Members for Temporary Sheetpile Wall

Member Type Steel section/Grade
Steel Strut 1 H300, 94kg/m (S275) @ 5m c/c*
Steel Waler 1 H400, 172kg/m (S275)
* With splay member
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Table 5 Results of Open Cut Slope Analysis for the Outlet of Temporary Drain

Proposed Slope
Level at Crest
of Slope
Level at Toe
of Slope
Minimum factor of safety*
1 vertical to 2
horizontal with 150mm
thick lean concrete
(with BRC A8)**
+6.0m CD +1.0m CD 1.96 > 1.5 (allowable) O.K
* Based on Modified Bishop Method
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Table 6 Proposed Instrumentation and Review Level


Instruments Type Alert level
Work suspension
level
Inclinometer 25mm 35mm
Ground Settlement markers
at non-sand surcharging side
18mm 25mm

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Figure 5 Results of Slope Stability Analysis of Proposed 1V: 2H Cut Slope for Temporary Drain
150mm thick lean concrete (Grade 15) with
BRC A8 mesh. Weep hole to be provided at
1.5m c/c
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Figure 6 Plan View on Schematic Sketch on Interface between Sheetpile Wall and Open Cut Slope
1V: 2H Open Cut slope with 150mm thick lean
concrete (Grade 15) with BRC A8. Weap holes @
1.5n c..c to be provided
FSP IV sheetpile Wall
Strut @ 5m c/c with splay
member