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Queens University

Faculty of Applied Science

Engineering Physics

APSC 111 Course Manual




Section Page

I. Course Information ii
II. Course Content ... v
III. Review Problems 1


APSC 111 Course Information


Dr. Tony Noble
Sections: 34MNOPQ
Room 304C Stirling Hall
Dr. Somi Narayanan
Room 376 Stirling Hall
Sections: FGHIKL
Dr. Mark Boulay (course coordinator)
Sections: 12ABCDE
Room 304G Stirling Hall

All lectures will begin Wednesday September 15, or later, depending on your section. Assignments will
also be starting that week, please make sure you have the text book, have registered for Mastering
Physics (see below), and have a Turning Point Clicker (see below).

Mastering Physics (Online Assignments)
Mastering Physics, is an online service where weekly assignments will be posted, and graded. You will
need to have an access code to log in, and the course ID code, which is APSC111MGB. A Mastering
Physics access code can be purchased at the bookstore (note that you must purchase the access code at
the bookstore to get a reduced price negotiated for students of APSC111). Online assignments will be
due on each Sunday of the term, by 10:00 pm. There will be 12 in total. You are strongly encouraged to
begin by completing the "Introduction to MasteringPhysics" which will teach you how to input data
properly. The first assignment which will be marked is Homework assignment 1 due September 19

Details for registering with MasteringPhysics:
You must go to and register as a new student, enter your Queen's student
number, and use your Queen's e-mail address. The student number should be seven digits: e.g.
7654321 and, the e-mail must be given in the format This is important... without
the correct information, it will be extremely difficult to merge your MasteringPhysics assignment
grades with your grades at Queen's. If required to select a textbook, select "Giancoli Physics for
Scientists and Engineers, 4th edition" - this is not a required text for the course but some of the
MasteringPhysics problems will be taken from this text.

TurningPoint Clickers
All of the instructors in this course will be making use of the TurningPoint Clickers. The use of clickers
allows for realtime feedback of your understanding of the material, and for peer based teaching. Some
of your overall grade will be based on your class participation with the clickers. It is vital that your
clicker is registered if you are to get credit for clicker use in class.
Each section will get one tutorial session per week, starting in week 3. A number of problems taken
from the textbook and the course manual will be assigned (tutorial problems are not graded), some of
which will be set in the tutorials, with the remainder to be considered as homework.
TA's for this course are:
Konstantin Anoshkin -
Jeremy Durelle -
Joey Fox -

Mechanics Background Survey Questionnaire
During the first weeks of class you will be asked to complete a brief online quiz that will be used to
assess your current knowledge of the course material, and that will later be used to assess learning in
the course. Your mark on this quiz does not affect your course mark, but you will receive 2% for

Course Marks
Online assignments 12 assignments 7%
Class participation TurningPoint clickers 3%
Mechanics Background Quiz online 2%
Midterm exam 1 19%
Midterm exam 2 19%
Final exam 50%
Total 100%

Mid-Term Exams
The tentative midterm dates are
- Midterm exam 1: Wednesday evening, October 13th (week 5) 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm. Multiple-choice
- Midterm exam 2: Wednesday evening, November 10th (week 9) 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm. Several
questions requiring written solutions.

(when studying from old exams, please keep in mind that the course content has changed from last

Course Material
1. Required: "Fundamentals of Physics" by Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 9th Edition.
2. Required: "MasteringPhysics Access Code (see above).
3. Required: "TurningPoint Clicker (see above).
4. Required: "APSC 111 Course Manual" available on this website
Other resources:
The moodle web page for this course includes: general course information (this page), your instructor's
course notes, a course outline, some solutions to old exams (to be posted), and a list of the problems to
be discussed in tutorials.


APSC 111 Course Content (2010)

In this course we will discuss the following topics:

Measurement and Vectors - Review of measurements, vector quantities and manipulation. Halliday,
Resnick, Walker (HRW) chapter 1, chapter 3 (review) - 2 lectures

Kinematics displacement, average and instantaneous velocity and acceleration, uniformly accelerated
motion in one, two, and three dimensions, projectile motion, angular velocity, constant angular
acceleration, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and relative velocity. HRW
chapter 2, chapter 4 5 lectures

Dynamics force, Newtons laws, inertial mass, weight, reactions, tension, free-body diagrams,
friction, gravity, Hookes Law, and terminal velocity. HRW chapter 5, chapter 6 6 lectures

Work and Energy work done by constant and variable forces, work done by a spring, kinetic energy,
work-energy theorem, power, conservative and non-conservative forces, potential energy, energy
conservation, gravitational potential energy. HRW chapter 7, chapter 8 6 lectures

Linear Momentum and Collisions linear momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, elastic
and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, centre of mass, motion of a system of particles.
HRW chapter 9 6 lectures

Rotational Dynamics Rotational variables, angular displacement and acceleration, kinetic energy of
rotation, rotational inertia, torque, Newtons second law for rotation, work and rotational kinetic
energy, rolling and angular momentum. HRW chapter 10, chapter 11 7 lectures

Static Equilibrium conditions of equilibrium, torque, centre of gravity, solving statics problems.
HRW chapter 12

Note. This Course Manual is in the progress of being scanned using OCR software,
updated and corrected. As of now, all problems have been completed. Please let me
know of any errors. Work will continue to improve the figures.

(a) Ground control radar observations show that an aircraft is traveling N55E at a ground
speed of 270 km/h. Meanwhile the aircraft pilot radios that he is heading N30E with an
airspeed of 220 km/h. Calculate the wind velocity. (117 km/h, S72.2E)

(b) A small boat is observed to be 2000 m NE of a launch and to be traveling NW at 11.5 km/h.
If the launch speed is 25.0 km/h, which direction should it head in order to meet the boat?
(N17. 6E)

M2. An aircraft is flying at 8000 m on a bearing of N30E at 800 km/h when the navigator sights a
radio beacon at a direct (not horizontal distance of 9000 m on a bearing of N60W. Taking
coordinates with y up and x east, find:
(a) the position vector of the beacon with respect to the aircraft 60 s later,
) m



10200 ( k j i +

(b) the bearing and angle of depression of the beacon at this instant.(S47.2W, 29.8)

M3. A ship steams due east at 24 km/h. A submarine 4.0 km away fires a torpedo which has a speed of
50 km/h. If the bearing of the ship as seen from the submarine is N20E in what direction should
the torpedo be fired to hit the ship? How long will it take for the torpedo to reach the ship?
(N46.8E, 6.6 min)

M4. At a particular time a car A is traveling south at
50 km/h and is situated 1100 m north of an
intersection. A second car B is traveling west
at 80 km/h and is situated 900 m east of the
same intersection. Assume the cars travel at
constant speed and find the distance of their
closest approach, and the time elapsed before
they reach this situation (456 m, 51.4 s)



M5. Two friends A and B are directly opposite one another on the opposite banks of a
200 m wide river which flows at a uniform speed of 3.0 km/h. A, who has a boat
and can row relative to still water with a speed of 4.0 km/h sets out to cross the
stream at the same instant as B begins to walk along the bank in the downstream
direction at a steady speed of 5.0 km/h.
(a) At what constant angle to the bank must A head his boat so that he meets B at
the time A reaches the bank? (60)
(b) When do they meet? (5.8 x 10
(c) How far does A travel relative to the bank to get across? (350 m)

M6. An instrument capsule is released by parachute from an aircraft and at a given time
the capsule is 300 m above the sea and 400 m north of harbour. The chute is
dropping at a constant speed of 15 km/h and there is a 15 km/h wind blowing
towards the northeast. A launch sets out from the harbour at this time in order to
recover the capsule as soon as the capsule reaches the water. What is the direction
and magnitude of the required velocity of the launch with respect to the water?
(Neglect the effect of the wind on the launch and assume the water is at rest.) (32.4
km/h N19.1E)

M7. The vectors A and B are given by:
i. A = and N )

32 . 3

00 . 3

00 . 4 ( k j i + +
ii. B = m )

12 . 3

50 . 1

00 . 2 ( k j i + +

(b) Find the Scalar Product A B of the vectors A and B. (22.9 Nm )
(c) Find the angle between vectors A and B. (17.7)
(d) Find the magnitude of the cross product AB (7.30 Nm)

M8. A particle moves in a plane according to:
i. x = A sin(t) + Bt N.B. A, B and are constants
ii. y =A cos (t) + A
(b) Calculate the instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
(c) When the particle is at its maximum and minimum value of y, what will be the
instantaneous velocity and acceleration?
i. Max: v = i

(A + B), a = j

ii. Min: v = i

(-A + B), a = j


M9. An evening mist descends on the sailing Olympics. A competitor who has finished
the race is seen to be mistakenly sailing away from the race finishing point in a

south easterly direction at 8.0 km/h and a launch is dispatched from the Yacht Club
to intercept him. The launch's speed is 15.0 km/h and the race finishing point is l .0
km S.W. of the Yacht Club
(a) In what direction should the launch travel? (S 13 W)
(b) After how many minutes will the launch meet the yacht? (4.7 min)

M10. A river is 1.0 km wide, and flows at 10 km/h.
Points A and B are on opposite banks, directly
across from each other, while point C is 1.0 km
upstream from A. A motorboat which can move
at 25 km/h in still water travels from A to B,
then from B to C. What is the minimum
possible time for this trip? (7.64 min)

M11. A Mars Lander spacecraft begins its power descent from a height of 1.3 km with
an initial downward velocity of 79 m/s and a design goal of touchdown with a
downward velocity of 2.4 m/s. The mass of the space craft is 290 kg and is
constant during the descent.
What is the required constant rocket thrust to meet the design goals? Note: The
acceleration due to gravity near the surface of Mars is 38% of that on earth.

M12. Zippo the human cannon-ball is shot with a velocity of 20 m/s at an elevation of
40 to land on a truck moving directly away at a constant velocity of 10 m/s If the
cannon is 3.0 m above the truck how far away should the truck be when the cannon
is fired in order for Zippo to land on the truck? (15.1 m)


M13. In the baseball World Series a batter hits a ball at a height 1.5 m above the ground
so that its angle of projection was 50 to the horizontal. It landed in the bleachers
12 m up from the bottom as shown in the diagram. The stands slope upwards at an
angle of 30 to the horizontal and the bottom seats are 120 m from home plate.
(a) What was the initial speed of the struck ball? (36.6 m/s)
(b) What was the maximum height above the ground that the ball reached?
(Assume that air resistance and wind effects may be neglected.) (41.5 m)

M14. A runner starts from a point 3.0 m east of a person who throws a ball to the runner.
The runner runs with a constant speed. If the thrower throws the ball with a speed
of 12 m/s at an elevation of 40 in the direction E 30 N. at what speed and in what
direction must the runner run to be able to catch the ball? (The ball is thrown and
caught at the same height). (7.6 m/s, E37N)

120 m
1.5 m
12 m
3 m

M15. A skier, traveling horizontally at 11.0 m/s goes off the edge of a sharp drop as
shown in the figure. The vertical drop is 3.0 m and has a 30 slope starting at its
base A 3.0 m tree is growing vertically a distance 12.0 m along the slope
(a) Calculate by how much the skier clears the top of the tree.
(b) lf he does not touch any part of the tree, how far from the base of the vertical
drop does he land? (a) 1.62 m (b) 21.2 m

M16. A pilot boat is steaming parallel to, but 35 m from, a supertanker when a small
packet is thrown horizontally from the tanker to the pilot. If the supertanker is
steaming at 32 km/h and the pilot at 12 km/h, what must be the minimum velocity
(magnitude and direction) with which the packet is thrown in order to just reach
the pilot if the tanker deck is 20 m above the pilot and the packet is thrown when
the thrower is at closest approach to the pilot (18.2. m/s, 108)

M17. A ball is thrown from the top of a 18.29 m tower. It starts with a speed of 19.51 m/s
in a direction 30.0 above the horizontal. Neglecting air resistance. find

(a) the height above the ground to which it will rise (23.1 m)
(b) the time of flight. (3.17 s)
(c) the distance from the foot of the tower to the point at which it strikes the level
surface (53.5 m)


M18. Evel Weevil plans to leap over London buses on his motorcycle in Wembley
Stadium. He will take off from the ramp at an angle of 30.0 at a speed of 70 km/h
and the end of the ramp is 2.0 m above the level ground
(a) If the landing ramp is identical to the take-off ramp, where should it be
placed? (33 4 m)
(b) What is the largest number of London buses parked side-by-side that Evel can
leap over? The buses are 5.0 m high and 2.5 m wide (8 buses)

M19. In a lecture demonstration a ball is fired from a gun at an angle of 20 above the
horizontal in the direction of a can which is released from rest at the instant the ball
leaves the gun. If the magnitude of the initial displacement of the can relative to
the ball is 7.5 m and the gun is 2.0 m above the Floor, what is the initial velocity
for the ball if the collision occurs as the can hits the floor? (7.8 m/s)

M20. At the instant shown, cars A and B are traveling at speeds of 20 km/h and 65 km/h
respectively. If B is accelerating at 1200 km/h2 while A maintains a constant
speed, determine the velocity and acceleration of A with respect to B
) m/s

22 . 0 m/s, )

1 . 18

55 . 5 (
j j i

M21. A car moves at 10 m/s up a 30 ramp. A passenger projects a stone horizontally in a
direction at right angles to the direction of motion of the car. The speed of
projection is 10 m/s relative to the car and at the instant of projection the stone is
7.0 m above the surrounding level ground. Calculate
(a) the time elapsed when the stone hits the ground (1.81 s)
(b) the magnitude of the displacement of the stone from the point of projection at
the instant it hits the ground. (24.9 m)

M22. A car starts from rest and moves round a circular track of radius 30.0 m. Its speed
increases at the constant rate of 0.50 m/s
. What is the magnitude of the
acceleration of the car after l5.0 s have elapsed and what is the direction of the
acceleration with respect to the track at this time? (1.9 m/s
, 75 )

100 m

M23. A balloon is descending through still air at a constant speed of 2 0 m/s The
balloonists wish to drop just enough ballast so that they will eventually rise at the
same speed of 2 0 m/s The total weight of the balloon (including balloonists and
ballast) is 1 1,000 N and the gas gives it a constant upwards buoyant force of
10,500 N The magnitude of the air resistance drag on the balloon is proportional to
v2 only, where v is the balloon's speed through the air What is the mass of ballast
they should drop? (102 kg) What is the acceleration just after the ballast has been
dropped? (0 98 m/s2) What is their eventual velocity if instead they drop 20 kg of
ballast? (1 56 m/s downwards)

M24. A student's car has broken down and a professor of physics had kindly offer to tow
it. The cars are on an incline of 20 to the horizontal and it is necessary to tow the
car up the incline The student's car weighs 11 kN and the professor's car weighs 13
kN. Assume the frictional forces on the student's car can be neglected. Find the
maximum distance the car can be towed in the first 10 s if a rope having a breaking
strength of 4.5 kN is used. (32.9 m)

M25. M
= 1.5 kg and M
=2.5 kg are connected by a
cord which passes over a pulley as shown. A
force F = 25 N is applied to the axle of the pulley
as shown Neglect the mass of the string and the
pulley. Find
(i) the tension In the cord (12.5 N)
(ii) the acceleration of each of the two masses.
(1.48 m/s
, 0)
(b) What is the minimum applied force F if M
to rise off the floor (49 N)

M26. A light rope passing over a light frictionless pulley is fastened to a platform and a
man on the platform holds the other end of the rope The man pulls on the rope with
sufficient force to give himself and the platform an upward acceleration of 0.9 m/s

Find the tension in the rope and the reaction between the man's feet and the
platform on which he stands The masses of the man and the platform are 70 kg and
30 kg respectively (536 N, 214 N)


M27. A skier notes that on a 35 slope if he throws a
snowball down the slope at an elevation of 60
it lands 20 m along the slope. If he releases a
ski from rest to slide straight down the slope at
the same instant the snowball is thrown, it
lands on the ski. Find:
(a) the speed with which he throws the
snowball. (1 l .5 m/s)
(b) the coefficient of friction (0.087)

M28. A locomotive of mass 100 t is pulling one car of mass 75 t on a mountain railway
up a 3 incline. The coefficient of static friction between the driving wheels and the
rails is 0.25 and the frictional drag forces are negligible. (1 tonne = 1 t = 1,000 kg)
(a) If half the load of the locomotive is on the driving wheels, what is the
maximum acceleration up the slope? (0.186 m/s
(b) For this acceleration, what is the tension in the coupling between the car and
the locomotive? (52.5 kN)

M29. Two masses m
= 2.0 kg and m
= l .0 kg are connected together by a light string
which passes over a light frictionless pulley as shown. The coefficient of friction
between m
and m
is 0.35 and the friction between m
and the incline is
negligible. If the mass m
, is initially moving down the Incline find
(a) the acceleration of m
(0.347 m/s
up plane)
(b) the tension in the string (7 53 N)



M30. A length = 0.75 m of table-cloth is pulled out from under a china dish at a
constant speed of v = 2.1 m/s. If the coefficient of kinetic faction between the plate
and the cloth is
0.24 = and between the plate and the table is
0.50 = ,
calculate the total displacement of the plate until it comes to rest (0.424 m)

M31. A trolley of length 3.0 m is used to lower a slab of granite down a ramp at 25 to
the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the slab and the trolley is
= Normally the trolley is lowered at constant speed 1.2 m/s using the
winch and cable system shown in the drawing. However one day the winch
malfunctions and the trolley is brought to rest with a constant deceleration of 1.3
. The slab of granite is observed to slide on the trolley
(a) What is the maximum possible value of the static coefficient of friction
between the slab and the trolley?
(b) How far does the granite slab slide relative to the trolley?

M32. A locomotive accelerates a 25 car train along a level track. Each car has a mass of
50 tonnes and is subject to a friction force of 250v N where v is the velocity of the
car in m/s. At the instant the velocity of the train is 30 km/h the acceleration is
0.2 m/s
(a) the tension in the coupling between the first car and the locomotive (302 kN)
(b) the expression for the tension in the coupling between the nth and (n-1)th car
in the trains and
(c) if the answer to (a) is the maximum force the locomotive can exert on the
trains what is the steepest grade the locomotive can pull the train up at 30
km/h (1.2)

M33. A boy with mass 50 kg uses a light stick to push another boy in a soap box racer,
having a total mass of 75 kg, at constant speed up a ramp Inclined at 10 to the
horizontal. The rolling friction of the racer is negligible and the static coefficient of

, between the ramp and the shoes of the boy pushing is 0.5. Assuming
that the force exerted by the stick is along the stick
(a) calculate the minimum angle from the normal to the ramp that the stick may
be held In order that the boy pushing does not slip, (66)
(b) what is the corresponding compression force in the stick? (140 N)

M34. A block of mass m
= 6.0 kg rests on a rough plane which is Inclined at 40 to the
horizontal. The block is connected to the load of mass m by a light string which
passes over a light frictionless pulley as shown in the diagram
(a) Initially the block is stationary and the load is increased if the block first slips
when m=7.1 kg, what is the coefficient of static friction between the block and
the plane? (0.706)
(b) once the block has slipped, if the load then falls with an acceleration of 0.90
what is the coefficient of sliding or kinetic friction between the block and
the plane? (0.44)

M35. A small block of mass m = 2.0 kg sits on a
wedge-shaped block of mass M = 40 kg,
as shown. The coefficient of static friction
between the blocks is 0.40
= , while the
horizontal surface on which the large
block rests is smooth What is the
minimum horizontal force F that must be
applied to the large block to keep the small
block from sliding down the face of the
wedge? (221 N)


M36. A block of mass 10 kg on an inclined plane of
angle 30 is connected by a massless cord passing
over a massless, f'rictionless pulley to a second
block of mass 3.0 kg. A second cord is used to
pull down on the 3.0 kg mass. If the coefficient of
static friction between block and plane is
= , find the range of values for the force F
such that the 10 kg block remains at rest. (
45.1 N F 0 > > )

M37. In the simple latch shown, B moves upward when
A is pushed along the horizontal channel. The
horizontal and vertical channels are frictionless, but
there is friction at the interface between A and B,
which makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal. If
the coefficient of static friction at this interface is
0.60, and B has a mass of 0.50 kg, what is the
minimum horizontal force which must be applied to
A to cause motion? (8.84 N)

M38. A 70 kg person stands on a 30 kg platform and
pulls on a massless rope with a force of 400 N. The
rope passes around a pulley attached to a firm
support, and then around a second pulley attached
to the platform before being firmly anchored. All
sections of the rope are vertical. If both pulleys are
massless and frictionless,
(a) what is the acceleration of the person?
(b) what would be the reading of a weight scale on
which the person stands? (2.19 m/s
, 440N)

M39. Two blocks are connected together by a light string as shown. If the coefficient of
friction between all surfaces is 0.25 and the mass and friction acting on the pulley
can be neglected, find F for constant velocity. m
= 4.0 kg, m
= 10.0 kg (54 N)

M40. A brick has been placed on the roof of a carousel, as shown. The roof has a pitch
(upward slope) of 20 and the brick is at a radius of 10 m from the centre of the
carousel. The coefficient of static friction between the brick and the roof is 0.50.
What is the maximum number of revolutions per minute at which the carousel may
turn without the brick sliding off (3.2l rpm)

M41. In the arrangement sketched the mass M =
3.0 kg is observed to slide down the
inclined plane. The mass m = 0.50 kg is
held fixed by the horizontal force F. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between all
surfaces is 0.30.
(a) What is the magnitude of F? (5.20 N)
(b) What is the acceleration of M? (0.99

M42. A mass of 5 kg is placed in contact with the wall of a vertical cylindrical drum
rotating about its vertical axis. The diameter of the drum is 70 cm and the
coefficients of static and kinetic friction are 0.5 and 0.3 respectively between the
mass and the wall of the drum. Calculate the minimum speed of the drum, in
revolutions per minute, for which the mass will not slide down the wall of the
drum (71 rpm)

M43. A small cube of mass m is in contact with the
inside surface of a hollow cone which rotates about
its axis The wall of the cone makes an angle of 30
with the vertical and the mass is at a distance r =
0.10 m from the axis. If the coefficient of static
friction between the mass and the cone is mu

0.35 = , what are
(a) the largest, and
(b) smallest rotational velocities of the cone for which the mass will not slip?
(22.8 s
, 9.2 s

M44. A small bead of mass m = 200g is
fastened by two threads to a horizontal
rotating rod as shown, and executes
circles in a vertical plane. The angular
velocity of the rod is increased very
gradually until 30 rad/s e = , when one
of the threads breaks. If the threads are
of the some material, what is their breaking strength? (26 N)

M45. A 5 kg mass is attached to a post by a 1 5
m cord The mass moves in a horizontal
circular path with constant speed 5.0 m/s
Find the tension in the cord and the angle
theta which the cord makes with the
horizontal (106 N, 27.6)

M46. In the diagram the two blocks are
connected by a light cord passing over a
light frictionless pulley. The 40 kg block is
given a push down the 30 slope so that it
has an initial velocity of 2.5 m/s. If the
coefficient of friction between blocks and
planes is 0.2, find
(a) the acceleration of each block, (1.02
, 40 kg block up plane)
(b) the tension in the connecting cord (169 N)

M47. A long plank weighing 150 N slides on a level frictionless surface with velocity v
= 8.0 m/s In the direction of its length. A block weighing 35 N with initial velocity
zero is set on the plank. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the plank and
the block is
= 0.5, find
(a) the acceleration of the plank and of the block (-1 14 m/s
, 4.90 m/s
(b) the length of the skid mark made by the block on the plank (5.29 m)





M48. A car travels around a curve of constant radius R = 110 m on a track which is
banked at an angle = 10 as shown. If the coefficient of friction between the tires
and the track is 0.45, at what speed will the car began to slip? (16.5 m/s)

M49. A 1.5 kg mass and a 1.0 kg mass are placed on a turntable 0.15 m from the axis
and diametrically opposite each other. The coefficient of static friction between the
table and each mass is 0.50
(a) Find the angular speed at which the masses will start to slip (5.7 rad/s)
(b) If the masses are now joined together by a piece of light string (0.3 m long)
find the angular speed at which slipping will occur (12.8 rad/s)

M50. A block of small size and mass 0.036
kg is placed just inside the edge of a
pan of radius R = 0.25 m so that it is
touching the horizontal bottom and the
vertical side as shown The pan is
rotated about its vertical axis so that
the tangential acceleration of a point
on the rim is 15.0 m/s
. The
coefficient of static friction between
the block and both the side and the
bottom of the pan is 0.75. The block does not slide relative to the pan if the
rotational speed is greater than a minimum value What is this rotational speed
expressed in revolutions per minute? (61 rpm)

M51. An orbiting spacecraft of l 500 kg mass is 300 km above the surface of the earth,
and its speed is 27,700 km/h. It is desired to increase its speed while maintaining
the same circular path about the centre of the earth. To effect this, rockets are fired
which provide a thrust variable in magnitude and direction so that the force
component tangential to the orbit is a constant 40,000 N. What angle do the
thruster rockets make with the radial direction when one quarter of an orbit has
been negotiated since the time of their ignition? What happens when the rockets
are extinguished? (17.7)

M52. A pendulum bob weighing 15 N moves uniformly in a horizontal circle at the end
of a spring which makes an angle of 55 with the vertical and is attached to the
ceiling. The spring has unstretched length 60 cm and spring constant 250 N/m
(a) By how much is the spring extended? (105 mm)
(b) How long does it take for the pendulum to make one complete revolution?
(1.28 s)

(a) A car is accelerated around a level circular track of radius 160 m. At time t = 0
it has a speed of 14 m/s and a total linear acceleration of 1.8 m/s
. Find its
angular acceleration (0.0082 rad/s
(b) Assume the angular acceleration remains constant at the value found in (a). At
what time will the car start to skid if the coefficient of friction between the
tires and the road is 0.35? (6 45 s)

M54. An electric motor delivers 2.0 kW to a winch which uses 80% of this power to haul
a 3,500 N ingot up a 10 incline at a constant speed of 0.80 m/s
(a) What is the tension in the cable? (2.0 kN)
(b) How much work is done by the motor as the ingot is dragged 8.0 m along the

incline? (20.0 kJ)
(c) How much work is done by the frictional force on the ingot as it dragged the
8.0 m? (-11.1 kJ)

M55. Radiance, the Queen's Solar Car, has a mass, including the driver, of 310 kg and an
electrical power output from its solar cells of 1200 W. Storage batteries are used to
supply additional power. The frictional and aerodynamic drag to which Radiance
are subject can be expressed as:
( )
2 -2 2
24.5 N 0.103 Ns m
F v = +
where v is the speed of the car. The motor may be assumed to be 90% efficient at
converting electrical to mechanical power.
(a) Without drawing any power what is the angle of an incline that the car will
coast down at a steady speed of 80 km/h? (1.4)
(b) In addition to the solar cell power how much extra electrical power must be
suppler by the storage batteries to give the car its specified maximum speed of
120 km/hr on a level road? (3945 W)
(c) If the car is traveling up an incline of 10 at a speed of 36 km/hr how much
electrical power is required to accelerate the car at 0.50 m/s
? (2700 W)

M56. The engine of a 1000 kg car can develop power of 100 h.p. (1 h.p. = 746 W). The
car can accelerate at 2.0 m/s
when moving at 80 km/h up a 2 slope. If resistive
forces are proportional to the speed,
(a) at what maximum speed will the car be able to accelerate at 3 m/s
up a 5
(b) what fraction of maximum power must be used to cruise at constant 100 km/h
on level ground, and
(c) how steep a slope can the car go up at 70 km/h ? (58.5 km/h, 47%, l 7.5)

M57. A block of mass 3.5 kg is pushed along a horizontal surface a distance of 7.0 m.
The applied force, P is directed downwards at an angle of 30 with respect to the
horizontal and has a fixed magnitude of 10.0 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction
is 0.12.

(a) What is the work done by the applied force? (60.6 J)
(b) What is the work done by the frictional force? (-33 J)
(c) What is the final kinetic energy of the block if its initial velocity is 4.6 m/s?
(64.6 J)

M58. A spring is provided at the bottom of an elevator shaft to reduce the shock if the
elevator cable breaks. The elevator has a mass of 10
kg and the spring is
compressed 0.40 m when the elevator rests on it. As the result of an accident the
elevator has a velocity of 4 m/s at the instant it touches the spring. Find how much
the spring is compressed when the elevator is brought to rest (1.30 m)

M59. A small stone slides from the top of a
spherical building. Assume the building is
a smooth sphere 90 m in diameter and that
the initial velocity of the stone is
negligibly small. Find the horizontal
distance from the vertical axis of the
building to the point where the stone hits
the ground if the top of the building is 60
m above the ground (56.3 m)

M60. A block of mass 5 kg slides down a ramp inclined at 30 to the horizontal and
compresses a spring. The mass is released from a point 1.5 m from the end of the
uncompressed spring measured along the ramp, the coefficient of friction between
the ramp and the block = 0.3 and the spring constant is 392 N/m. Find
(a) the velocity of the block when it first touches the spring. (2.66 m/s)
(b) the maximum compression of the spring. (0.33 m)
(c) the distance the mass goes back up the slope from the point of maximum
compression to the point where its velocity is next zero. (0.57 m)

M61. A constant force P inclined at 20 to the
horizontal accelerates a 5.0 kg mass
along a level surface with a coefficient of
friction 0.20.The mass is restrained by a
spring force constant 199 N/m which is
extended 11 cm at the instant the mass
has a speed of 3.7 m/s and is accelerating
at 1.2 m/s
. Both the velocity and
acceleration are directed away from the
wall. Find P and how far the mass moves

before it comes to rest for the first time. (43.3 N, 0.617 m)

M62. A flexible 25.0 m rope with a mass of 12.0 kg passes over two smooth pegs at the
same height but 3.00 m apart as shown. Sag in the rope may be neglected. The
difference in height between the ends of the rope is x. (a) lf the rope starts from
rest when x = 3.00 m, what is its speed when x = 13.0 m? (5.6 m/s)(b) When x =
3.00 m, is there a difference in tension between the tops of the two hanging
sections? lf so what is its magnitude? (1.7N)

M63. Find the centre of mass of each of the uniform laminae shown below. Express your
answer with respect to an origin at the bottom left-hand corner.


(a) (26 mm, 18 mm) (b) (20 mm, 6.7 mm)
(c) (23 mm, 27 mm) (d) (30 mm, 13 mm)

M64. The carpenter's square has been
stamped out of uniform steel
plate and weighs 250 g
Dimensions in mm are shown. (a)
Find the location of the centre of
mass of the square, relative to the
axes shown in the diagram. (X =
99 mm, y = 72 mm) (b) If the
square is freely pivoted about the
origin of coordinates shown, what
angle does the longer arm make
with the horizontal at
equilibrium? (36.1 0)
40 mm
60 mm
40 mm
20 mm
20 mm
60 mm
50 mm
20 mm
20 mm
15 mm R
30 mm R
50 mm

M65. The drawing shows the result of an unsuccessful attempt to assemble a cube puzzle.
If the side of the cube is a = 6.0 cm where is the centre of mass of the incorrectly
assembled puzzle relative to the corner labeled P? (2.85, 2 85, 3.07) cm

M66. (a) A pile driver lifts a 2,000 kg mass l 6 m and then lets it fall under the influence
of gravity alone. It is observed that each time the mass is dropped the pile is driven
15 cm into the ground Calculate the average force exerted on the pile while the
mass is brought to rest (Assume the pile has negligible mass compared to the
driver) (230 kN) (b) If It takes 10 s to lift the mass l 6 m, what power is required?
(3 14 kW) (c) Due to a failure if! the lubrication system a frictional force of 20 kN
develops between the mass and the guides on which it slides How far is the pile
driven on each stroke? (Assume that the mean force exerted on the mass by the pile
is the same as in part (a)) (137 mm)

M67. 280 J of chemical energy are converted Into mechanical energy when a 5 0 g bullet
is fired from an 800 g pistol (a) Find the velocity of the bullet and the recoil
velocity of the pistol (334 0 m/s, 2.1 m/s) (b) What average force must be applied
to the pistol to stop the recoil in 0.05 s after the bullet has left the pistol? (33.0 N)

M68. Two steel balls of mass 25 g and 75 g are attached by strings to a peg P and
released from a horizontal position as shown After the collision between the steel
balls, the 25 g ball is observed to rebound to its original position (a) At what

position does the 75 g ball first come to rest after the collision? (2 7 cm above
lowest point) (b) How much mechanical energy is lost in the collision? (0 16 J)

M69. An arrow weighing 0 90 N is fired horizontally into the centre of a small 50 N
target situated l 5 m above the horizontal ground The target is free to swing about a
pivot 1 2 m above it The arrow passes through the target and strikes the ground 13
0 m behind the target The target swings backwards through an angle of 20 0
Neglecting air resistance and assuming that the arrow emerges horizontally from
the target. calculate (i) the speed of the arrow just after It emerges from the target,
(23 5 m/s) (ii) the speed of the arrow just before It struck the target. (89 7 m/s)

M70. Two snowmobiles collided while being driven on the Lake Ontario ice. One
snowmobile weighed 2,500 N and was traveling north-east at 50 km/h; the second
weighed 2,000 N and was traveling at 35 km/h 40 east of south. Find the velocity
of the snowmobiles after the collision, if they remain locked together (30.6 km/h,
75.4 E of N)

M71. A particle of mass 3m, initial
velocity u collides with a mass 4m.
After the collision the incident
particle (mass 3m) has a velocity
= 0.697u at angle of 40 to the
incident direction. Find the fraction
of the initial kinetic energy lost in
the collision. (20%)

M72. A 1.0 kg block falls 3.0 m onto a second 5.0
kg block which is at rest mounted on a coil

spring with spring constant 2,500.0 N/m. The two blocks move together after the
(a) How much mechanical energy is lost in the collision? (24.5 J)
(b) What is the maximum displacement of the spring from its starting position?
(0.0667 m)

M73. A and B are blocks of mass 2.0 kg which are attached to opposite ends of a spring
with force constant k = 100 N/m. They are at rest on a frictionless 30 incline with
A resting against a fixed support S. A third block C of mass 1.5 kg is released from
rest at a point 1.0 m up the incline from B, collides with B and sticks to it. What is
the maximum force exerted on S in the subsequent motion? (53. 8 N)

M74. A 2.0 kg block is at rest on a smooth
horizontal surface, attached to a spring
with force constant k = 100 N/m. A
second block of mass 1.0 kg moving at 3.0
m/s makes a head-on collision with the first block. In the subsequent motion the
spring has a maximum compression of 25 cm
(a) What is the final velocity of the 1 kg block?
(b) How much heat was produced in the collision?
(c) If the blocks were in contact for 3 ms during the collision, what was the average
force exerted between them? (0. 54 m/s backwards, l.22 J, 1180 N)

M75. A block of mass 500 g rests on a horizontal surface, with which it has a coefficient

of kinetic friction of 0.30 It is initially at rest attached to a fixed support by an
unstretched spring of force constant k = 100 N/m. A pellet of mass 50 g is moving
horizontally, 10 cm above the surface, when it hits and passes through the block.
The pellet subsequently hits the surface 5 m from where it exits the block, while
the block slides 15 cm before first coming to rest. What was the speed of the pellet
when it hit the block? (58 m/s)

M76. Water flows around a 900 elbow in a
pipe at the rate of 0.60 litres/s The cross
sectional area of the pipe is 4.0 cm2.
Find the force exerted on the elbow by
the water. (1.27 N)

M77. A jet airplane is traveling 180 m/sec. The engine takes in 68 m3 of air having a
mass 70 kg each second. The air is used to burn 3 kg of fuel each second The
energy is used to compress the products of combustion and to eject them at the rear
of the plane at 500 rn/sec relative to the plane. Find the thrust of the jet engine and
the delivered power.

M78. A Ministry of Transport snow plow travels at 48 km/h and deflects 30 tonnes of
snow per minute After being deflected by the blade of the plow the snow has a
relative velocity of 40 km/h in a horizontal direction at right angles to the direction
of motion of the plow.
(a) the force on the plow due to the snow
(b) the power required to run the plow at 48 km/h if the only force opposing the
motion is that found in (a).


M79. A hemispherical bowl of radius r is used to mix
the Christmas pudding. A Queen's student home
early for the holidays observes that if two lumps
of dough are simultaneously released from rest
from the positions shown at the edge of the bowl
they collide and stick together. The mass of one
lump of dough is three times the mass of the other
(i.e. m
= 3 m
) and friction between the lumps of
dough and the bowl is zero due to flour present in
the bowl.
(a) Where does the collision occur? Justify your
(b) Where does the combined lump initially
come to rest?(5/8 r above bottom)

M80. A uniform bar 7.5 m long is held against a rough
wall by a light rope as shown in the diagram. The
pulley may be assumed to be frictionless,
W = 140 N and the weight of the bar is w =40 N.
(a) the tension in the rope attached to the bar,
(b) the minimum coefficient of friction between
the bar and the wall if the bar does not slip.
(T = 109 N, = 0.112)

M81. The end A of an 8 kg uniform plank AB, 3.0 m long, is fastened to a rigid vertical
wall by a smooth pin. At a point C on the wall 3.0 m above A, a light flexible cable
is hooked, and the other end of the cable is fastened to the end B of the plank. The
cable is 3.0 m long. A smooth cylinder of 0.50 m radius and mass 24 kg rests
between the wall AC and the plank AB. The axis of the cylinder is horizontal and
parallel to the wall.
(a) Calculate the reactions on the cylinder at points D and E where it touches the
wall and the plank respectively
(b) Calculate the tension in the cable. (N
=136 N, N
= 272 N, T = 130 N)


M82. The metre rule AB has mass 2 kg, rests
against a wall at A, and is supported by
cable BC. A mass M is hung from the rule at
B. What is the largest M for which the rule
will not slip at the wall, if the coefficient of
static friction is
= 0.4? (7.0kg).

M83. A garage door weighs 400 N, and is
supported on a horizontal rail by two wheels
A and B which are equidistant from the centre
of the door and are 2.0 m apart. The wheels
have rusted, and as a result slide rather than
roll on the rail, with a coefficient of kinetic
friction equal to 0.30. The door is opened at
constant speed by applying a horizontal force
F at a point 1.5 m below the rail. What
vertical forces act at A and B? (110 N, 290 N)

M84. A smooth cylinder 0.50 m in radius is supported
by two light bars as shown. Neglect the friction
between the bars and the horizontal surface and
assume the pin at A is smooth. Find the tension in
the wire BC and the force acting on each bar at A
if the cylinder weighs 25 N. (30.5 N, 45.1 N
perpendicular and 26.1 N parallel)

M85. A 75.0 kg window cleaner used a 10.0 kg ladder
which was 5.0 m long. He put one end down 2.5 m
from a wall and rested the upper end against a
cracked window and climbed the ladder. He had
climbed 3.0 m up along the ladder when the
window broke. Neglecting friction between the
ladder and the window and assuming that the base
of the ladder had not slipped, calculate
(a) the force exerted on the window by the ladder
just before the window broke, (283 N)
(b) the magnitude and direction of the force
exerted on the ladder by the ground just
before the window broke. (880 N at 71

M86. A gate 2.5 m wide and 1.25 high weighs 360.0 N and its centre of mass is at the
centre of the gate. There are two hinges A and B, at
the top and bottom of the gate. A wire is attached
to a point D and connected to C, directly over the
hinges. The tension in the wire is adjusted until
there is no horizontal component of force at the top
hinge A.
(a) What is the tension in the wire? (193 N)
(b) What is the combined vertical force exerted by
the hinges at A and B? (264 N)
(c) What is the horizontal force on the gate at B?
(167 N)

M87. A crane used on a construction site has a uniform boom 30 m long which weighs
20 kN The boom is supported at its base by
a horizontal pivot P, and is held at an angle
of 60 to the horizontal by a horizontal
cable C. A 10
kg load is held stationary at
a height of 3 m by a second cable D which
runs over a pulley of small diameter at the
top of the boom and down to a winch
adjacent to P. Neglecting friction in the
pivot at P and the masses of the cables

(a) the tension in the horizontal cable C, (62.4 kN)
(b) the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by the pivot P on the boom
(111 kN, 203 kN)

M88. A 200 0 g board eraser is placed on a vertical blackboard A force of at least 5.0 N
must be applied normal to the blackboard to stop the eraser slipping down the
(a) If a 10.0 N normal force is applied, what is the maximum horizontal force
parallel to the blackboard that can be applied to the eraser without it slipping?
(b) What is the direction of the static frictional force when the eraser is on the
point of slipping? (60,3.39 N)
(c) If the eraser starts slipping in a direction opposite to the static frictional force
above, and the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.25, what is the direction and
magnitude of the velocity of the eraser 0.40 s after it starts slipping, if the
applied forces are unchanged? (2.8 m/s)

(Note: Problems M89-M100 have been removed from APSC 111 course material)

M101. A car is subject to rolling friction, which is independent of speed, and to
aerodynamic drag, which is proportional to the square of the speed. A 1500 kg car
reaches a terminal speed of 30 km/h when It freewheels down a 1 in 30 incline and
a speed of 40 km/h when if freewheels down a 1 in 25 incline. What power in h.p.
is being developed by the car's engine if it accelerates at 1.0 m/s
when it is moving
at 80 km/h up a 1 in 20 Incline? l h.p. equals 746 W. (104 h p.)

M102. A car of mass 1500 kg is subject to air resistance which is proportional to the
car's speed its engine can develop a maximum power of 75 h.p. and on a level road
it has a maximum speed of 120 km/h. A novice driver leaves the handbrake
partially on, thereby producing a constant resistive force, and finds that the car can
travel at only 80 km/h on the level. With the handbrake still on, how fast can the
car travel down a 3 slope? (100 km/h)

M103. The engine of a compact car of mass 1000 kg can develop a maximum power of
100 h.p. On the highway, in addition to a constant frictional force, air drag resists
the motion of the car exerting a speed-dependent force. The total retarding force is
given by
(218 0.70 )
F v = + Newtons, v is the speed in m/s
(a) Using maximum power, the car climbs a slope that makes a constant angle
with the horizontal at a constant speed of 108 km/h. What is ? (9.6)
(b) If the car starts from rest and coasts down a slope of 10 to the horizontal,

what will be its acceleration when its speed is 90 km/h? (1.05 m/s
(c) When burned, one litre of fuel gives 35 MJ of energy, but only 15% of this is
converted into mechanical energy. What volume of fuel is required to drive
l00 km at a constant speed of 100 km/h on a horizontal road? (14.4 l)

M104. A pendulum with mass m = 0.5 kg and
string length = 0.30 m hangs from the
edge of a horizontal disk of radius R =
0.20m. The angle that the pendulum
makes with the vertical increases with the
speed of rotation of the disk. If the string
has a breaking strength of 10 N, how many
revs per minute can the disk make before
the string breaks? (59 rpm)

M105. A man jumps off a bridge which is 30 m above a river. Attached to him and the
bridge is a 22 m long bungee cord which can be regarded as an ideal spring. If the
cord stops his fall 1.0 m above the water,
(a) how fast was he falling when he was 3.0 m above the water?
(b) what was the maximum acceleration he felt during his fall? (15.5 m/s, 71.5

M106. A cone whose sides make an angle of 30
with its axis spins about this axis which is
vertical. A mass m is placed 20 cm from the
apex of the cone, and is connected to an equal
mass by a light cord which passes through a
hole in the cone's apex and then hangs
vertically. If the coefficient of static friction
between m and the cone is 0.30, what is the
minimum angular speed of the cone for m not
to slide on the cone? (14.9 rad/s)

M107. A 40 kg skateboarder on a 3 kg skateboard is training with two 5 kg weights.
Starting from rest, she throws the weights horizontally one at a time from her
board. The velocity of each weight is 7 m/s relative to her (and the board)

Assuming the board slides without friction, how fast is she propelled in the
opposite direction after throwing
(a) the first weight, and
(b) the second weight?
(c) If instead she threw the two weights simultaneously, again at 7 m/s relative to
herself, what would her final speed be? (0.66 m/s, 1.39 m/s, 1.32 m/s)

This problem illustrates the principle behind rocket motion: a rocket moves
forward by ejecting the burnt fuel out the back In the form of exhaust gases.

M108. Block A of mass 3.0 kg is pressed
against a spring having force constant
k=800 N/m, compressing it by 20 cm. It
is then released from rest. It slides 1.0 m
along the horizontal surface and collides
elastically with block B, which has mass
2.0 kg. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the blocks and the surface is

=0.30. How far will block B slide before coming to rest? (1.18 m)

M109. A runaway 14,000 kg railroad car is moving horizontally without friction at 5 m/s
when a steady vertical downpour of rain lasting 30 s fills the open car with 2000 kg
of water. How far does the car travel during the 30 s? (140 m)

M110. The 2 kg and 3 kg blocks are
connected by a cord passing over a
light frictionless pulley, and the 2 kg
block is attached to a spring with force
constant k = 100 N/m. The system is
released from rest with the spring
initially unextended. The coefficient of
kinetic friction between the 2 kg block
and the inclined plane is 0.30.
(a) How far up the incline will the 2 kg block slide before coming to rest
instantaneously? (29 cm)
(b) What is the speed of the 2 kg block when it has moved 10 cm? (0.62 m/s)