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Culture is defined as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the
members of one group or category of people from others.
Culture has been defined in a number of ways, but most simply, as the learned and
shared behavior of a community of interacting human beings.

Dimensions of national cultures :-
Power distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal . It
expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power
distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions
and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed
Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the less powerful members
of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is
distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined
from below, not from above. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is
endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of
course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some
international experience will be aware that 'all societies are unequal, but some are
more unequal than others'.

The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether
peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In Individualist societies
people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. In
Collectivist societies people belong to in groups that take care of them in
exchange for loyalty.
India is a society with both collectivistic and individualistic traits. The collectivist
side means that there is a high preference for belonging to a larger social
framework in which individuals are expected to act in accordance to the greater
good of ones defined in-group(s). In such situations, the actions of the individual
are influenced by various concepts such as the opinion of ones family, extended
family, neighbors, work group and other such wider social networks that one has
some affiliation toward. For a collectivist, to be rejected by ones peers or to be
thought lowly of by ones extended and immediate in-groups, leaves him or her
rudderless and with a sense of intense emptiness. The employer/employee
relationship is one of expectations based on expectations Loyalty by the
employee and almost familial protection by the Employer. Hiring and promotion
decisions are often made based on relationships which are the key to everything in
a Collectivist society.
The individualistic aspect of Indian society is seen as a result of its dominant
religion/philosophy - Hinduism. The Hindus believe in a cycle of death and rebirth,
with the manner of each rebirth being dependent upon how the individual lived the
preceding life. People are, therefore, individually responsible for the way they lead
their lives and the impact it will have upon their rebirth. This focus on
individualism interacts with the otherwise collectivist tendencies of the Indian
society which leads to its intermediate score on this dimension.
Individualism (IDV) on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the
degree to which individuals are inte-grated into groups. On the individualist side
we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is
expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist
side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into
strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and
grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning
loyalty. The word 'collectivism' in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to
the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an
extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world.

A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven
by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the
winner / best in field a value system that starts in school and continues
throughout organizational behavior.
A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society
are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of
life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The
fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best
(masculine) or liking what you do (feminine).
. India is actually very masculine in terms of visual display of success and
power. The designer brand label, the flash and ostentation that goes with
advertising ones success, is widely practiced. However, India is also a spiritual
country with millions of deities and various religious philosophies. It is also an
ancient country with one of the longest surviving cultures which gives it ample
lessons in the value of humility and abstinence. This often reigns in people from
indulging in Masculine displays to the extent that they might be naturally inclined
to. In more Masculine countries the focus is on success and achievements,
validated by material gains. Work is the center of ones life and visible symbols of
success in the work place are Very important.
Masculinity (MAS) versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of roles
between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a
range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women's values
differ less among societies than men's values; (b) men's values from one country to
another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally
different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to
women's values on the other. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the
modest, caring pole 'feminine'. The women in feminine countries have the same
modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are somewhat
assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show
a gap between men's values and women's values.

Uncertainty avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society deals
with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future
or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures
have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the
members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and
have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI
India scores 40 on this dimension and thus has a medium low preference for
avoiding uncertainty. In India, there is acceptance of imperfection; nothing has to
be perfect nor has to go exactly as planned. India is traditionally a patient country
where tolerance for the unexpected is high ; even welcomed as a break from
monotony. People generally do not feel driven and compelled to take action-
initiatives and comfortably settle into established rolls and routines without
questioning. Rules are often in place just to be circumvented and one relies on
innovative methods to bypass the system. A word used often is adjust and
means a wide range of things, from turning a blind eye to rules being flouted to
finding a unique and inventive solution to a seemingly insurmountable problem. It
is this attitude that is both the cause of misery as well as the most empowering
aspect of the country. There is a saying that nothing is impossible in India, so
long as one knows how to adjust.
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty
and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. It indicates to what
extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable
in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising,
and different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the
possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures,
and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; 'there can
only be one Truth and we have it'. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also
more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type,
uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what
they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical
and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side.
People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative, and not
expected by their environment to express emotions.

This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its
own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future, and societies
priorities these two existential goals differently. Normative societies who score low
on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honored traditions and
norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which
scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Countries like India have a great tolerance for religious views from all over the
world. Hinduism is often considered a philosophy more than even a religion; an
amalgamation of ideas, views, practices and esoteric beliefs. In India there is an
acceptance that there are many truths and often depends on the seeker. Societies
that have a high score on pragmatism typically forgive a lack of punctuality, a
changing game-plan based on changing reality and a general comfort with
discovering the fated path as one goes along rather than playing to an exact plan.

One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree to which
little children are socialized. Without socialization we do not become human.
This dimension is defined as the extent to which people try to control their desires
and impulses, based on the way they were raised. Relatively weak control is called
indulgence and relatively strong control is called restraint. Cultures can,
therefore, be described as indulgent or restrained.
India receives a low score of 26 in this dimension, meaning that it is a culture of
restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to cynicism
and pessimism. Also, in contrast to indulgent societies, restrained societies do not
put much emphasis on leisure time and control the gratification of their desires.
People with this orientation have the perception that their actions are restrained by
social norms and feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

Long Term Orientation
Long Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree to which the society
embraces, or does not embrace long-term devotion to traditional, forward-thinking
values. Indias high
LTO score indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term
commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work
ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work. For
websites, this translates into emphasizing long-term value potential for the
High LTO cultures emphasize the following

mation and credibility

-term value creation

The Kluckhohn Model

Orientations Range of variations

What is the nature of people? Good
A mix of good and evil

What is the persons relationship to
nature? Dominant
In harmony

What is the persons relationship to
other people? Lineal (hierarchical)
Collateral (collectivist)

What is the modality of human activity? Doing
What is the temporal focus of human
activity? Future

Relationship with Nature: Beliefs about the need or responsibility to control
Relationship with People: Beliefs about social structure
Human Activities: Beliefs about appropriate goals.
Relationship with Time: Extent to which past, present, and future influence
Human Nature: Beliefs about good, neutral or evil human nature.

This Model focuses on building long-term relationships with its customers. This
design is scalable and can be easily tailored to western cultures .By understanding
the cultural values of a country; we can create sites that are intuitive and easy to
Understanding the cultural value systems of nations is a key factor in anticipating
the behavior of business managers and employees in a specific business