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What is an Information System?

An Information System is usually defined as a collection of components that work
together to provide information to help in the proper operations and management of an
An Information System consists of 5 main components namely Hardware, Software,
Stored data, Procedures and Personnel.
Hardware !"uipment such as computers, communication devices like
telephones, modems and fa# machines.
Software Instructions given to the e"uipment to perform its task
Stored Data $acts stored in the system, which is converted in
meaningful information and is used %oth %y the software and personnel.
Personnel People who makes use of the system %y making use of the
software and hardware.
Procedures Instructions or guidelines for the people to follow in order
the system perform at its optimum level.
All these components work together in order to make the information effective and
efficient in serving its purpose.
&he use of IS helps an organization to gain lots of advantages. $or e#ample, %etter
information, improved service, increased productivity, competitive advantage,
glo%alisation, communication, more time, creation of new 'o%, lower operational costs,
reduced workforce, more information, improved decision making, higher client
Information Systems in orani!ations
&oday, Information System is used in nearly all the organization for their daytoday
operations %y allowing them to make "uick and accurate decisions and carry out proper
planning of their resources. Information System has helped organizations to increase their
performance and productivity and also to achieve their competitive o%'ectives.
)ompanies can even go out of %usiness if they do not integrate information technology in
their day to day running.
Some e#amples of Information Systems present in organizations are*
&ransaction Processing System +&PS, records and processes data
resulting from %usiness transactions, updates data%ases and produce a
variety of documents and reports.
Process )ontrol System +P)S, - .sed mostly for production in /ealtime
0ffice Automation System +0AS, - are system used to support office
communication and productivity.
Information /etrieval System +I/S, - Provides managerial end users with
information products that support their daytoday decision making needs.
1ecision Support System +1SS, - Help managers to have views of the
%usiness on specific activity and thus make forecast a%out the future.
&he company we have studied is Astria 2imited. 3e have analysed how this company
has integrated Information &echnology in its work and how it deals with the various
concepts associated with Information &echnology. 3e have studied how the information
system at Astria 2imited is managed and planned, the strategic uses of I& and its relative
impact in the organization, the management of telecommunications and the management
of information resources.
Astria 2imited is an offshore company %ased in 5auritius since a%out three years. It is
mainly engaged in the designing of we%sites. It is responsi%le for all the work that
outsources to it. is a $rench company whose main clients are people trading in
food products, %everages like wine and 'ewellery items, who want to adopt ecommerce
%y creating their own we%sites.
Use of IT in the orani!ation
Astria 2imited is aware of the fact that if it does not make use of I&, it will not %e a%le to
survive in this tough competitive %usiness world. 3ith lots of competitors emerging, the
world market is %ecoming more and more competitive with each passing minute. 0nly
the one who is a%le to minimize its costs and at the same time provide a product at the
cheapest price and %etter "uality will %e a%le to survive.
Since nowadays almost every company wants to offer its goods and services across the
glo%e, %oth 6asi and Astria also are planning to do so. &hey have three agents who are
responsi%le for the marketing department of the company. &hese three agents contact
people with the help of a call centre and talk a%out the service the company is offering
with a view to e#pand the %usiness around the glo%e. Astria 2imited has even thought of
starting its own we%site %usiness in 5auritius, separate from 6asi.
)onstant advertising is also %eing done in 1igital 7ews +a magazine distri%uted freely all
over $rance, and around the world, hence keeping up with the trend of glo%alization.
!ena%lement is a mandatory concept for Astria 2imited. Since the company is dealing
in the designing and selling of we%sites, it has to integrate the use of Internet in its work
and thus eena%ling the %usiness.
&he vision of the company too is full connectivity among all people of the world so that
communication, transfer of files and information accessi%ility and sharing %ecomes
9nowledge is considered as a crucial asset for all companies. &here are 4 types
knowledge known as e#plicit and tacit knowledge. !#plicit knowledge can %e made
pu%lic while tacit knowledge is found in the mind of a person and is private. Astria 2td
manages knowledge %y discussions and %rainstorming sessions %etween the coworkers.
And to manage tacit knowledge, group works are done.
9nowledge sharing at Astria 2td normally takes place during the graphic design stage.
&he I& team, which consists of 5 people meet and discuss a%out the assignment they have
on hand +creation of we%site,. !ach mem%er gets the opportunity to share his:her
knowledge and it is only after each and every mem%er has voiced out his:her opinion that
a common decision is reached. In this way all mem%ers are encouraged to participate in
knowledge sharing.
"anaement of IT
3ith time, as I& is %ecoming more important, it is e"ually %ecoming more comple# to
manage %ecause there are ma'or trends that are affecting I& management. In the case of
Astria 2td, 4 of the ma'or trends are governance of I& and outsourcing.
7owadays, it is seen that almost everywhere I& decisions are no longer taken %y
mem%ers from the I& department only. 5em%ers from senior management are also
taking interest in I& decision making since the success of an organization in today;s
world also depends on how I& is %eing managed. I& decisions at Astria 2td is taken %y
the )!0 together with other mem%ers of the I& department and senior management.
0utsourcing is another trend which affects I& management. It is %elieved that
outsourcing is %etter when outsiders are in a %etter position to do some work than people
from the organization itself. =ust as 6asi outsources its creation of we%site work to Astria
2td, the latter also outsources all the advertising and communication work to a call
centre. Astria 2td normally rents all the assets it uses. In this way it is a%le to cut down
its e#penditure. It %elieves that instead of %uying all the necessary e"uipment to
communicate with other people, it will %e %etter if it outsources its communication work
to a call centre. If Astria has to advertise new we%sites it has created or it has to gather
information a%out potential customers or even if it has to take appointments with
customers, it does so through the call centre.
The orani!ational en#ironment
&he environment in which an organization operates tends to change constantly. At the
same time advances in technology are also affecting I&.
&he 4 aspects of the organizational environment affect the way Astria operates and is
&he !#ternal >usiness environment
2ike other organizations dealing online, Astria too %egan with %usiness to consumer and
then moved to %usinessto%usiness. $or e#ample, it was first doing %usiness for
individual customers %y creating their we%sites. 2ater, it %egan to provide its services to
other %usinesses also. It has recently created a we%site for e%ay on the types of cars the
latter has availa%le for auction purposes.
3ith the world %ecoming a marketplace, companies are doing %usiness across the world.
Since Astria and 6asi want to provide their services almost in every country, they are
spending "uite a lot on marketing and advertising so that people from other countries as
well as companies are encouraged to choose Astria as their we%site designer company.
5 is trying to create a %usiness ecosystem of its own %y including other companies in
its %usiness 'ust like Astria 2td. $or this purpose constant advertising is %eing done on its
we% portal and in the magazine of 1igital 7ews.
&he company has indeed adopted decapitalisation in the sense that it concentrates more
on managing the intellectual capacity of its team mem%ers. &o %e a%le to invest more in
managing the talent of its people, it rents all the e"uipments that it uses. It %elieves that it
is more economical to rent the tenets of power than to own them. It is thus more a%le to
invest in managing intellectual capital.
Astria has many competitors since it is not the sole one involved in the designing of
we%sites. It has to cope with faster %usiness cycles in the sense that if it does not develop
new products in a given period of time, its competitors can take over and it can even go
out of %usiness.
&here are many societal risks in the field of we%site design especially in the phase of
graphic design. Astria has a policy to work uni"uely, that is, it is always innovating so
that it is a%le to give its clients new ideas when they decide to create their we%sites. &he
ma'or risk here is the e#posure of ideas, that is, sometimes the competitors of the
company make use of its past ideas it used to create we%sites to develop their own ones
and term it as their original work.
&he Internal organizational environment
&hough there has %een a shift from supplypush to demandpull in many organisations
with the use of I&, Astria 2td has not entirely shifted its %usiness model to demandpull.
&his is %ecause it is still trying to know the wants of customers %y gathering information
on them through the call centre and it is then designing its we%sites %y keeping the tastes
of consumers in mind.
Self service is in the sense that customers can access the we%site of Astria 2td and
anytime to know a%out the service the companies are providing and can contact the
companies through emailing to ac"uire more details and at the same time place their
orders for their we%sites.
Astria operates a centralized data%ase system which contains uptodate data. Any person
re"uiring any information a%out the operations of the company, customers or any other
information can get it from the data%ase. Hence decisionmaking is made easier.
)ommunication is a vital element in any organization. &he people at Astria 2td have in
place the Skype IP phone to communicate with one another and they are connected on
5S7 3indows 5essenger during their working hours. &herefore, information work is
possi%le anytime and anywhere.
In order to %ecome more competitive and efficient than its fellow competitors,
outsources all the designing work of we%sites to Astria 2td who in turn outsources all its
communication work to a call center as mentioned earlier. &he o%'ective %ehind this is to
focus on their specialties and outsource other work to people having the necessary
e#pertise to do them.
Astria 2td has adopted the concept of demise of hierarchy. &hey %elieve that people are
more productive and tend to give their %est at work when they are left to work with their
peers and team mem%ers without %eing supervised %y a senior.
&hey have also forsaken the traditional work environment, that is, the hierarchical
structure since it cannot cope with rapid change in such times where the %usiness
environment is e#periencing constant changes.
$oals of the new wor% en#ironment
)ompanies are adopting new goals in the changing work environment to %e a%le to cope
with the changes in the internal and e#ternal organizational environment.
&o %e a%le to tap tacit knowledge, Astria makes its entire staff work in groups where they
are free to e#press their opinions and ideas. In this way, they are encouraged to share
their knowledge. &he o%'ective here is to help the employees get help from others to
solve a pro%lem, which gets accomplished %y letting them work in informal groups
!very organization has to %e in a position to handle comple#ity %ecause the world has
%ecome interconnected and simple solutions no longer solve pro%lems. In the case of our
organization, the work outsources to Astria is very comple# since the level in
$rance and 5auritius is not the same. Astria 2td always has to %e prepared for such new
comple#ities so that it is a%le to perform its work well.
$or organizations like Astria, it is a must to work electronically %y taking advantage of
the Internet and networks. 7ot doing so can even mean going out of %usiness.
$or Astria 2td, it is the demands of the clients that come first. &hey do their work in
accordance with clients; re"uirements. As mentioned earlier, one of the policies of the
company is uni"ueness. &hey are always innovating and proposing changes and new
ideas to their clients unless the clients want their we%sites to look like something which
Astria has created in the past.
The Technoloy &n#ironment
In its 8 years of e#istence Astria 2td, has evolved in the < traditional areas of I&. Since it
is in the %usiness of designing we%sites, it is now using the latest slim 61.s and
monitors as far as hardware is concerned. &he software trend it has adopted is a shift
from Photoshop to A10>! Illustrator. And for communication purposes it is using
A1S2 5(4.
The "ission of IS Oranisation
&he mission of IS organization today is to improve the performance of people working in
the organizations through the use of I&. Astria 2td is providing training and formation to
its staff so that they are in a %etter position to cope with the advances in I& and hence do
a %etter 'o%. &he success of the company depends on how productive the people are and
this is possi%le only when they integrate I& in their work and take advantages of all the
%enefits I& is offering, how many people are visiting their we%site, how popular they are
%ecoming, how many people are %uying their services, colla%oration of employees and
their working teams and especially communication %etween seniors and employees.
&he way in which I& is managed has e#perienced drastic changes in the last half decade.
&he notion of Bwaves of innovationC gives us an idea a%out the innovation of I& and the
escalating %enefits it has provided to Astria 2td.
3ave (*/educing )osts
&o contact its customers Astria has to mainly make international calls. It outsources all
the communication work to a call center. &he latter in turn charges Astria with a low
tariff due to the use of Skype. In this way Astria 2td is a%le to cut down its cost.
3ave 4*2everaging investments
Astria 2td is a%le to make more effective use of corporate assets in the sense that it rents
all its e"uipments and even the %uilding where it is found. It also makes reuse of
3ave 8*!nhancing products and services
It is mainly the call center, who performs the advertising work of Astria 2td who contacts
customers %y emailing them and providing them with incentives so that they do %usiness
with Astria. &herefore I& is used to generate revenue.
3ave <* !nhancing e#ecutive decisionmaking
Astria has recently carried a survey on the internet to know a%out the age group and
occupation of people visiting its we%site. It collected as much details as possi%le and
updated its data%ase. &his helps the employees to get uptodate information a%out people
+potential customers, and helps in decisionmaking.
3ave 5* /eaching the consumer
3hatever information is collected a%out customers or potential customers %y the call
center, the data%ase is immediately updated. &herefore whenever Astria has to reach its
customers, it does so through the call center, which consults the data%ase, and
communicates with customers %y emailing them or %y phone.
Strateic uses of IT
&here are 8 strategic uses of I& namely*
3orking inward* %usiness to employee
3orking outward* %usiness to customers
3orking across* %usiness to %usiness
Astria 2td is using all the 8 strategic uses of I& in conducting its %usiness.
Wor%in inward' (usiness to em)loyee
Astria is using I& strategically inside the %usiness in order to improve its %usiness
process. &hey use intranet, Skype IP phone and 5S7 3indows 5essenger to
communicate among themselves.
Astria 2td is a company, which deals with clients directly %y developing we%sites for
them. All their work should %e perfect meaning the we%sites must %e flawless. Hence all
the employees must cooperate and do their %est in doing their 'o% in a timely manner.
&hus intranet plays an important role among employees within the organization. &he
employees do not have to move physically to en"uire or solve some "ueries. &hey
disseminate information and have online transactions of former paper%ased processes.
Intranet is creating a sense of %elonging among employees. It eases the life of employees
Intranet provides a means to communicate among employees.
S%y)e IP )hone
Skype is a software which works seamlessly with the internet connection. 3ith Skype
Astria is a%le to make calls over the internet to other employees on Skype as long as it is
re"uired without worrying a%out time or distance. &hey can also make local, long
distance and international calls to phones and mo%iles. Skype is also used to chat and
make video calls.
Wor%in outward' *usiness to customer
Astria 2td is a profit making company. &hus in order to keep pace with I& and compete, it
makes use of sophisticated computer systems. In order to attract more clients, Astria ltd
is struggling to achieve the four hallmarks of competitiveness namely* Fuality, Service,
Innovation and Speed. Astria 2td tries to complete its pro'ects within a specified time
frame in order to keep pace with s)eed. &hus Astria ltd is a%le to deliver high "uality
service to its customers around the world.
Wor%in across' (usiness to (usiness
&here are mainly three main types of working across %usiness*
3orking with cosupplier
3orking with customers
>uilding a virtual enterprise
Astria ltd uses mainly Bworking with customersC. &hey get connected to their clients via
electronic mailing and internet which is done %y the call center. Astria ltd has a mutually
dependent relationship with its clients. &he clients tell them how they want the output of
their final work to %e. &he we%site designing team then works in accordance with the
customer;s re"uirements.
Customer Relationshi) "anaement +CR",
)/5 systems are used to learn more a%out customers. Astria 2td has conducted a survey
from which it came to know the num%er of people visiting its we%site per day and thus
they have kept track of that information and created a profile of each person. Astria 2td
keeps all the information of its clients in a data%ase. It manages its customers %y sending
them mails of their new updates and it also help to provide individual service. &he aim is
to keep customers happy.
Inter(usiness system
An inter%usiness system means to have relationship with various players in one;s
%usiness ecosystems that is suppliers, distri%utors and among others. Astria 2td does not
have such system %ut it trying to create it as mentioned earlier.
IS Plannin
Astria 2td performs operational planning %ecause I& is changing so rapidly. All the heads
of the I& department meet twice in a year at $rance and thus perform their planning. &he
main 'o% of Astria 2td is to design and develop we%sites for clients around the world.
&hey have a plan to create and design a we%site within 8 months and a we%site is divided
into 8 parts namely* visual content, html and php. &he team leader allocates the work to
specific employees and gives them a deadline for su%mitting their tasks. &his is how
planning is done at Astria 2td. All the planning decisions are taken %y the )hief
Information 0fficer.
Since I& is changing rapidly, Astria ltd is trying to keep pace %y using the latest software
and hardware. &here is continuous planning at Astria 2td. !ven though there is a change
in I&, it does not affect Astria 2td %ecause clients are their main o%'ective and if clients
have already chosen their design, there is no "uestion of change.
&lectronic channels at -stria .td
Astria 2td uses electronic mails, internet, intranet and also $ile &ransfer Protocol +$&P,
to remain close to its employees, clients. )lients are their assets thus they have to %e
handled with care.
Plannin techni/ues used (y -stria .td
In order to perform a %etter 'o%, planning is very essential. &here are @ planning
techni"ues namely*
(. Stages of growth
4. )ritical success $actors
8. )ompetitive forces model
<. 6alue chain Analysis
5. !%usiness value matri#
?. 2inkage Analysis Planning
@. Scenario Planning
Astria uses most of these techni"ues to do its planning.
Critical Success factors
)ritical success factors refer to Gthe limited num%er of areas in which satisfactory results
will ensure successful competitive performance for the individual, department, or
Identifying )S$Hs is important as it allows Astria to focus its efforts on %uilding its
capa%ilities to meet the )S$Hs, or even allow it to decide if it has the capa%ility to %uild
the re"uirements necessary to meet critical success factors +)S$Hs,.
$or e#ample, ( such critical success factor for Astria is effective advertising which is
critical to the success of the organization, in the sense that, if the o%'ectives associated
with this )S$ are not achieved, the organization will fail - perhaps catastrophically so.
In order to compete in this I& era, Astria ltd is doing its %est to compete with most of the
5 forces of Com)etiti#e forces model proposed %y 5ichael Porter.
Threats of new entrants
&here is always the fear of new competitors in the market thus Astria ltd is doing its %est
to have more and more customers %y constant advertising and its main o%'ective
alongside with profit making is to keep their customers happy.
*arainin )ower of (uyers
)lients are seeking to have the %est "uality of their product at minimal cost. Astria ltd
tries to have more and more customers %y satisfying their re"uirements when designing
the we%sites and thus esta%lishing a closer and stronger suppliercustomer relationship .
Astria is also trying to %e the lowest0cost )roducer1
Su(stitute )roducts2ser#ices and Intensity of ri#alry amon com)etitors
Astria has a policy of working uni"uely. !verytime it designs a we%site, it tries to
incorporate new ideas in it unless the client wants his:her we%site to look like one of
Astria;s past work. In this way, it has strengthened the %ond %etween the company and its
customers. .ltimately, the risk of su%stitute products:services and high intensity among
its competitors has %een reduced.
3alue chain model
In order to survive in the market it is very important for any company to identify the
ma'or activities which add value to their product:service and to eliminate those activities
that is not essential for the creation of the product. &he value chain model also helps to
identify those activities which can %e outsourced in order to reduce the costs.
Astria 2td also follows the activities descri%ed in the value chain analysis model.
$irstly Astria )ompany finds out the re"uirements of their customers, that is, the type of
we%site they want. $or e#ample, the colour, images and information the customer want
to display on his we%site. &hen they propose their customers with different options until
they reach a decision.
&hey develop the we%sites using H&52 and PHP.
Astria is responsi%le for the advertising of the we%sites once they are created and they
can %e accessed online. &hey inform all their customers and other people via the call
center through phone calls and:or emailing a%out the newly created we%site.
In order to assure their customers a%out their service "uality and to enhance their service
they make use of their policy of uni"ueness as mentioned earlier.
It thus helps them increase their sales through we% services, emailing and call centre.
&0*usiness 3alue "atri4
!>usiness 6alue matri# is a portfolio management approach which helps e#ecutives to
prioritise pro'ects %ecause of the num%er of opportunities. &he pro'ect is assessed
according to the level of risk it carries to the company.
&he four categories are as follows*
(. 7ew fundamental
4. 0perational !#cellence
8. /ational !#perimentation
<. >reakthrough strategy
Astria ranks its pro'ects according to this matri# and in different categories and they do
not accept those pro'ects which are highly risky, that is, those which falls under the
>reakthrough Strategy category. &his category consists of pro'ects which potentially
have a huge impact on the company and perhaps even on the industry if they succeed.
However there may %e e#ceptions where the company may accept a pro'ect, for e#ample
if a company of high goodwill gives them an assignment, this will %e a matter of prestige
for their company and it will also %e profita%le. &his will also help the company to move
ahead of competitors. In such circumstances they may accept the pro'ect.
4 of the factors that they take into account %efore accepting a pro'ect are*
&he deadline to su%mit the work.
&he category of customers, whether they are from recognized companies
Data(ase "anaement System +D*"S,
A data%ase can %e defined as a collection of data and the relationships %etween the data
stored in secondary storage. 3ith data%ase management, data is made availa%le %y
accessing the data in the data%ase with the data%ase software, which is called the data%ase
management system +1>5S,.
&hough 1>5S has reduced, pro%lems of inconsistency and redundancy of data in
organizations, it is not sufficient to manage data. &wo additional tools are %eing used
nowadays. &hey are data administration and data dictionary. 1ata administration;s main
purpose is to determine what data is %eing used outside the company unit that creates it
and data dictionary is used %y data administrators to control standard data definitions.
As Astria 2td is the only company working for 6asi, it has a centralized data%ase system,
meaning that all decisions related to the information systems and technologies are made
for the entire organization %y a single, centrally located group of specialists. &his system
uses centralized computers connected %y networks to computers at other locations. &he
interface of data administration helps the company to put data in the data%ase and the
data dictionary is mainly used for designing the we%sites.
Data "odels
&hey are methods used to structure data in order to represent the real world and the way
data is accessed. &here are four main data models, which are hierarchical, network,
relational and 0%'ect. &his )ompany uses the relational model which is now the choice of
most organizations. It can perform different kinds of operations on the data, help people
to create relationships among data, thus allowing more fle#i%ility.
"anain Information
=ust like other companies Astria 2td, also considers information as an important asset and
it considers the three categories of issues in managing information which are*
(, 6alue issues the value of information depends on the conte#t and on the
recipient. )oncerning this company, value of information will %e known %y the
num%er of visitors on the we%sites and its popularity.
4, .sage issuesmanaging the use of information is a difficult task as information;s
comple#ity needs to %e preserved and cannot %e simplified, culture prevents the
sharing of information %etween people and also technology does not really change
8, Sharing issues the sharing of information is of great importance in a company %ut
it comprises of different challenges also as workers cannot %e forced to share
information and %ecause there is a need for limited sharing of information.
Com)uter &thics
)omputer ethics can %e defined as a set of moral principles regulating the use of
computers. &hey have %een present since the mainframe era and more ethical issues have
%een raised due to the Internet era. &he main areas concerning the ethical issues are
information privacy, intellectual property rights, legal 'urisdiction and online contracting.
)omputer ethics are very important in this company. In fact, there e#ist several strict
rules and regulations in $rance regarding copyrights, privacy of information, etc. Since
Astria is working for 6asi, it has to follow whatever rules the former is a%iding to.
"anain Telecommunication
&elecommunication is considered to %e very important for Astria as it helps to facilitate
communication %etween the company and its clients and even with other re"uired people.
&he &elecommunication infrastructure has %een implemented with the %uild up of the
company and as Astria is an offshore company, it has got "uite the latest technology.
Since the company has not %een in the market for a long period of time there are no %ig
changes in the telecommunication technologies that have %een made.
&elecommunications include Internet services, voice and video. &he infrastructure is
%eing managed %y the cy%ercity technicians and %riefly this is how the work is done. If
there is any pro%lem that Astria 2td is facing, the technicians will %e immediately
contacted. &he technicians are here to install, repair and maintain telephone e"uipment,
ca%les and access lines, and telecommunications systems. &hese workers are grouped %y
the type of work they perform. 2ine installers and repairers place ca%les on poles or
towers, they complete the line connections.
&elecommunications e"uipment installers and repairers install, repair and maintain the
array of increasingly comple# and sophisticated communications e"uipment and ca%les.
&heir work includes setting up, rearranging and removing the comple# switching and
dialing e"uipment used in central offices. &hey may also solve network - related
pro%lems and program e"uipment to provide special features.
&here are also workers from the telecommunication service provider i.e. 5auritius
&elecom. &hey install, service and repair telephone systems and other communications
e"uipment for the usage of Astria 2td. &hey also move toward the company;s demand
such as highspeed Internet connection, fa# or additional line and even to make changes
in e#isting e"uipment. &he 5auritius &elecom provides the company with 4< hours
supports and low Internet cost. &he A1S2 5(4 is very useful to do research, to %e 4< hr
connected to the internet, rapid connection, and others.
&he communication hardware and software allow computers to communicate with other
computers. &hey provide the capa%ilities needed for remote access and for information
sharing. In Astria 2td there are lots of information that need to %e shared %etween the
company and its customers, this is %eing done through electronic mails +emails, and
transmitting documents for e#ample samples are sent %efore, to know whether the we%
designer can proceed with their works and if the work already done is on the right track.
The Internet 5 The networ% of choice
&o ena%le proper communication, well esta%lished networks are re"uired. &he network is
connected to all computers of the company so that all employees can get access to the
information they re"uire and the network is also protected with a firewall so as to protect
the circulation of information as not all information must %e accessi%le to every mem%er
of the company.
&he Internet is considered as the heart of Astria 2td;s corporate operation. &hey also have
an intranet for use %y employees. Intranets utilize standard network hardware and
software technologies like !thernet, 3i$i, 3ima#, &)P:IP, 3e% %rowsers and 3e%
servers. An organizationHs intranet typically includes Internet access %ut is fire walled so
that its computers cannot %e reached directly from the outside.
Astria 2td uses 5S7 5essenger apart from Skype IP phone, to remain in contact with its
employees and to pass any important and "uick news such as to check whether the
employees are conducting their work in the same way as re"uired. &he 5S7 5essenger
helps the company to interact very easily with the employees, employers and even for
simple group discussion, to share files, pictures and also to interact through we% cam.
3e% cam gives the facility of doing a face to face talk and to know the true feeling of the
chief a%out what he thinks of the work done.
As Astria employees work under the supervision of, they have to give account of
their work on a fre"uent %asis. &hey also have to seek advices on certain products and
sometimes there is even sharing of ideas that are done in order to improve the "uality of
the services provided which in return helps to increase the goodwill of the company.
Astria ltd with the mailbox systems, can %roadcast messages to multiple recipients, read
and discard messages, file and retrieve messages or forward messages to other users. All
these works are done through emails.
In its %roadest sense electronic mail includes pointtopoint services such as telegraph and
facsimile +fa#, systems. It is commonly thought of, however, in terms of computer%ased
message systems where the electronic te#t file that is received can %e edited, replied to,
e#cerpted, or even pasted into another electronic document that can %e used or
manipulated %y a word processor, desktop pu%lishing system, or other computer program.
!#tensions to email allow the user to add graphics and sound to messages, and files can
%e attached to emails.
3henever a 'o% is taken and after it is assigned to a team, the mem%ers have to do a we%
conference to show their ideas and how they plan to %uild up the sites. 3e% conference
improves and %roadens the company reach when communicating as if the employee is
face to face with his colleagues or partners and after completion of the work, the
employee has to e#plain everything a%out the we%site to 6asi and see whether the site
comply with the client;s re"uest. &he we% conference can %e done only with the access to
Internet. &hus we can see that Internet is of great usage and importance to the company.
Networ% conce)ts
In the premises all the computers and telephones are connected directly to an alwayson
2A7. &he company has got only two types of active devices* switches and routers. &hey
route traffic of the 2A7. &he switch forward packets in %etween computers and the router
is the device that route messages through various networks. !ach computer in the 2A7
has a network interface card +7I), to connect it to the 2A7 channel. Astria 2td uses the
twisted pair i.e. the telephone line for electronic communications. &his type of
communication wiring consists of two wires twisted together. &his line is used for local
voice communication and for data communications.
Why firewall is used?
"It's easy to run a secure computer system. You merely have to disconnect all external
connections and permit only direct-wired terminals, put the machine and all its terminals
in a shielded room, and post a guard at the door 24 hours a day"
$.&. Irampp and /.H. 5orris
$irewalls help to protect valua%le data from outside attack while still allowing inside
users access to Internet services. $irewalls are merely one link in the security chain, and
are not sufficient, on their own, to protect a network from attackers. In fact, firewalls are
nearly useless without a strong security policy, decided on %efore connecting to the
Internet. &he firewall e#posed the network to fewer risks, provides the a%ility to control
access to sites, provides a single point at which security needs to %e maintained, enhances
privacy, has tracing facilities attached with, in order to determine where the attacker
originated, helps in %uilding up in a security policy and reduced num%er of IP addresses.
Wireless Technoloies
3ireless technologies represent a rapidly emerging area of growth and importance for
providing u%i"uitous access to the network. &here are numerous applications for all the
different wireless technologies. &hey are* 6oice and messaging, Handheld and other
Internetena%led devices, and 1ata 7etworking.
In Astria 2td, cell phones are used to provide voice and messaging services %ut having a
cell phone is not compulsory. As latest wireless technologies, the company uses 3ima#
and 3ifi only for its activities, >ut 3ima# will %e implemented and will start its
operations in $e%ruary.
3ima# is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long
distances in a variety of ways, from pointtopoint links to full mo%ile cellular type
access. It is %ased on the I!!! AE4.(? standard, which is also called 3ireless5A7.
&he %andwidth and reach of 3i5AJ make it suita%le for the following potential
)onnecting 3i$i hotspots with each other and to other parts of the Internet.
Providing a wireless alternative to ca%le and 1S2 for last mile %road%and access.
Providing highspeed data and telecommunications services.
Providing a diverse source of Internet connectivity as part of a %usiness continuity
plan. &hat is, if a %usiness has a fi#ed and a wireless Internet connection,
especially from unrelated providers, they are unlikely to %e affected %y the same
service outage.
Providing nomadic connectivity.
5any companies are closely e#amining 3i5AJ for Glast mileG connectivity at high data
rates. &he resulting competition may %ring lower pricing for %oth home and %usiness
customers or %ring %road%and access to places where it has %een economically
unavaila%le. 3i5AJ is a term coined to descri%e standard, interopera%le
implementations of I!!! AE4.(? wireless networks, similar to the way the term 3i$i is
used for interopera%le implementations of the I!!! AE4.(( 3ireless 2A7 standard.
However, 3i5AJ is very different from 3i$i in the way it works.

Wi06i7 a wirelesstechnology %rand owned %y the 3i$i Alliance, promotes standards
with the aim of improving the interopera%ility of wireless local area network products
%ased on the I!!! AE4.(( standards. )ommon applications for 3i$i include Internet and
6oIP phone access, gaming, and network connectivity for consumer electronics such as
televisions, 161 players, and digital cameras
3i$i allows 2A7s to %e deployed without ca%ling for client devices, typically reducing
the costs of network deployment and e#pansion. Spaces where ca%les cannot %e run, such
as outdoor areas and historical %uildings, can host wireless 2A7s.
As of 4EE@ wireless network adapters are %uilt into most modern laptops. 3i$i has
%ecome widespread in corporate infrastructures, which also helps with the deployment of
/$I1 technology that can piggy%ack on 3i$i.
1ifferent competitive %rands of access points and client network interfaces are inter
opera%le at a %asic level of service. Products designated as G3i$i )ertifiedG %y the 3i$i
Alliance are %ackwards interopera%le. 3i$i is a glo%al set of standards. .nlike mo%ile
telephones, any standard 3i$i device will work anywhere in the world.
&he main aim of organizations is to ma#imize profits or provide %etter services.
Information system allows them to gain competitive advantage and to get high returns.
&hus it allows organizations to achieve their goals. 3ith time, Information System
%ecomes difficult to sustain. So the advantages the organization was en'oying will also %e
difficult to sustain. 7ormally in this situation, organizations opt for new Information
System to regain their competitive advantages or get new advantages over their
competitors. However there certain cases where they have to find ways to sustain their
Information System due to some factors especially financial pro%lems. Since systems are
different, their sustaina%ility also will %e different. &here are some Information Systems
which can still give competitive advantages to the organization in the long run especially
if competitors haven;t invested in that technology. &herefore the sustaina%ility differs
from systems to system and the current situation.
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8. Information Systems in >usiness
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5. Information System 5anagement in Practice
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