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Tahun 60 an

Teori tektonik lempeng
Kerak bumi terpecah menjadi beberapa
lempeng yang mana masing-masing
bergerak relatif satu terhadap yang
The layer of the the Earth we live on is broken into a dozen or so rigid slabs (called
tectonic plates by geologists) that are moving relative to one another.

Pada 1858, geographer
Antonio Snider-Pellegrini
Memperlihatkan peta
Benua Amerika dan Afrika
yang mana terjadi
kecocokan satu dengan
yang lainnya.
(Reproductions of the
original maps courtesy of
University of California,

According to the
continental drift
theory, the
Pangaea began to
break up about 225-
200 million years
ago, eventually
fragmenting into the
continents as we
know them today.

As noted by Snider-Pellegrini and Wegener, the locations of certain fossil plants
and animals on present-day, widely separated continents would form definite
patterns (shown by the bands of colors), if the continents are rejoined.
Dengan didukung bukti-bukti : (1) Morfologi
dasar samudera ; (2) Pembalikan kutub
magnetik bumi pada masa lampau secara
berulang ; (3) Hipotesa pemekaran lantai
samudera; (4) dokumentasi adanya pusat
gempa dan aktivitas volknaik sepanjang
jalur palung samudera dan rangkaian
gunung api
Ocean floor mapping
The mid-ocean ridge (shown in red) winds its way between the
continents much like the seam on a baseball.
detailed topographic
map of a segment of the
Mid-Oceanic Ridge.
"Warm" colors (yellow
to red) indicate the ridge
rising above the
seafloor, and the "cool"
colors (green to blue)
represent lower
elevations. This image
(at latitude 9 north) is
of a small part of the
East Pacific Rise.
Magnetic striping and polar reversals
A theoretical model of the
formation of magnetic
striping. New oceanic
crust forming
continuously at the crest of
the mid-ocean ridge cools
and becomes increasingly
older as it moves away
from the ridge crest with
seafloor spreading (see
text): a. the spreading
ridge about 5 million years
ago; b. about 2 to 3 million
years ago; and c. present-

Digital Tectonic Activity Map

Global Tectonic Activity Map (GTAM)
Seismic Data
global perspective (> 3 magnitude):
global perspective (< 3 magnitude):
Batas Lempeng :
1. Batas Divergen - saling menjauh.
2. Batas Konvergen - saling bertumbukan
3. Batas Transform saling berpapasan
4. Zona Perbatasan interaksi tidak jelas

Cross section illustrating the main types of plate boundaries
A destructive plate boundary
A constructive plate boundary
Sliping plate boundary
Oceanic-continental convergence
Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the so-called Ring of Fire, a zone of frequent
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The trenches are shown in blue-green. The volcanic island arcs, although not labelled,
are parallel to, and always landward of, the trenches. For example, the island arc associated with the Aleutian Trench is
represented by the long chain of volcanoes that make up the Aleutian Islands.
Continental-continental convergence
Above: The collision between the Indian
and Eurasian plates has pushed up the
Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Right:
Cartoon cross sections showing the
meeting of these two plates before and
after their collision. The reference points
(small squares) show the amount of uplift
of an imaginary point in the Earth's crust
during this mountain-building process.
San Andreas fault
in the Carrizo Plain,
central California
Housing development along the
San Andreas fault near San
Francisco, California

A simplified map of the Earth's crustal plates

The San Andreas
fault system and
other large faults
in California:
different segments
of the fault display
different behavior.
The branches of the San
Andreas fault system in
central California
(from a map by Darrell
G. Herd, USGS)
The San Andreas fault forms a continuous
narrow break in the Earth's crust that
extends from northern California southward
to Cajon Pass near San Bernardino.
Southeastward from Cajon Pass several
branching faults, including the San Jacinto
and Banning faults, share the movement of
the crustal plates. In this stretch of the fault
zone, the name "San Andreas" generally is
applied to the northeastern most branch.
The complex network of faults that make up
the San Andreas fault system in central
Californis is shown in the next figure.
What Surface Features Characterize It?
Over much of its length, a linear
trough reveals the presence of
the San Andreas fault; from the
air, the linear arrangement of
lakes, bays, and valleys in this
trough is striking. Viewed from
the ground, however, the features
are more subtle. For example,
many people driving near Crystal
Springs Reservoir, near San
Francisco, or along Tomales Bay,
or through Cajon or Tejon Passes
may not realize that they are
within the San Andreas fault
zone. On the ground, the fault
can be recognized by carefully
inspecting the landscape. The
fault zone is marked by distinctive
landforms that include long
straight escarpments, narrow
ridges, and small undrained
ponds formed by the settling of
small blocks within the zone.
Many stream channels
characteristically jog sharply to
the right where they cross the
Gempa Bumi ?
Cross section of the Earth showing the paths of some compression ("P," or
primary) and transverse ("S," or shear) waves generated by earthquakes.

The crustal plates of the Earth are being deformed by stresses from deep
within the Earth. The ground first bends, then, upon reaching a certain limit,
breaks and "snaps" to a new position. In the process of breaking or
"faulting," vibrations are set up that are the earthquakes. Some of the
vibrations are of very low frequency, with many seconds between waves,
whereas other vibrations are of high enough frequency to be in the audible
range. The vibrations are of two basic types, compression waves and
transverse or shear waves. Since the compression waves travel faster through
the Earth, they arrive first at a distant point; they are known as primary or
"P" waves. The transverse waves arriving later are referred to as shear or "S"
waves. In an earthquake, people may note first a sharp thud, or blast-like
shock, that marks the arrival of the P wave. A few seconds later, they may
feel a swaying or rolling motion that marks the arrival of the S wave.

What Is an Earthquake?
What Do Earthquake "Magnitude" and "Intensity"

Magnitude is a measure of the size of an earthquake.
The Richter Scale, named after Charles F. Richter of
the California Institute of Technology, is the best
known scale for the measuring of magnitude (M) of
earthquakes. The scale is logarithmic; a recording of
7, for example, signifies a disturbance with ground
motion 10 times as large as a recording of 6. The
energy released by an earthquake of M 7, however, is
approximately 30 times that released by an
earthquake of M 6; an earthquake of M 8 releases 900
times (30x30) the energy of an earthquake of M 6. An
earthquake of magnitude 2 is the smallest earthquake
normally felt by humans. Earthquakes with a Richter
value of 5 or higher are potentially damaging. Some
of the world's largest recorded earthquakes--on
January 31, 1906, off the coast of Colombia and
Ecuador, and on March 2, 1933, off the east coast of
Honshu, Japan--had magnitudes of 8.9 on this scale,
which is open ended. As the Richter scale does not
adequately differentiate between the largest
earthquakes, a new "moment magnitude" scale is
being used by seismologists to provide a better
measure. On the moment magnitude scale, the San
Francisco earthquake is estimated at magnitude 7.7
compared to an estimated Richter magnitude of 8.3.

A geophysicist points to quake trace
Along the
Earthquakes of
magnitude 1.5 and
larger recorded in
1980 on the San
Andreas and other
large faults in
California and
A fence, near Point Reyes,
California, offset 8.5 feet by
displacement on the fault
during the 1906 earthquake
The earthquake of January 9, 1857, in
southern California apparently was
about the same magnitude as the San
Francisco earthquake of 1906.
According to newspaper accounts,
ground movement in both cases was
roughly the same type. An account of
the 1857 earthquake describes a
sheep corral cut by the fault that was
changed from a circle to an "S"-shape--
movement clearly representative of
right-lateral strike-slip. Studies of offset
stream channels indicate that as much
as 29 feet of movement occurred in

The San Andreas fault
in the Mecca Hills,
southern California.
On May 18, 1940, an earthquake of
magnitude 7.1 occurred along a previously
unrecognized fault in the Imperial Valley.
Similar movement on the Imperial fault
occurred during an earthquake in
November 1979. The greatest surface
displacement was 17 feet of right-lateral
strike-slip in the 1940 earthquake. Clearly,
this fault is part of the San Andreas
system. Other earthquakes of probable
magnitudes of 7 or larger occurred on the
Hayward fault in 1836 and 1868 and on
the San Andreas fault in 1838.

San Fransisco earthquake, 1906
Agaissiz statue, Stanford University, The earthquake measured
8.1 on Richter scale
A devastating fire followed the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco
(photo from the P.E. Hotz Collection, USGS Library, Menlo Park, California)
Along the Earth's plate boundaries,
such as the San Andreas fault,
segments exist where no large
earthquakes have occurred for long
intervals of time. Scientists term these
segments "seismic gaps" and, in
general, have been successful in
forecasting the time when some of the
seismic gaps will produce large
earthquakes. Geologic studies show
that over the past 1,400 to 1,500
years large earthquakes have
occurred at about 150-year intervals
on the southern San Andreas fault. As
the last large earthquake on the
southern San Andreas occurred in
1857, that section of the fault is
considered a likely location for an
earthquake within the next few
decades. The San Francisco Bay
area has a slightly lower potential for
a great earthquake, as less than 100
years have passed since the great
1906 earthquake; however, moderate-
sized, potentially damaging
earthquakes could occur in this area
at any time.
Train thrown down by quake, 18 April 1906 San
Hiberia Bank building, April 1906
Refugee camp, San Fransisco, 1906
The San Fernando earthquake of 1971 collapsed freeway
overpasses in southern California
(photo by Robert E. Wallace)
A great earthquake very possibly will not occur
unannounced. Such an earthquake may be preceded
by an increase in seismicity for several years,
possibly including several foreshocks of about
magnitude 5 along the fault. Before the next large
earthquake, seismologists also expect to record
changes in the Earth's surface, such as a shortening
of survey lines across the fault, changes in
elevation, and effects on strainmeters in wells. A
key area for research on methods of earthquake
prediction is the section of the San Andreas fault
near Parkfield in central California, where a
moderate-size earthquake has occurred on the
average of every 20-22 years for about the last 100
years. Since the last sizeable earthquake occurred
in 1966, Parkfield has a high probability for a
magnitude 5-6 earthquake before the end of this
century and possibly one may occur within a few
years of 1988. The U.S. Geological Survey has
placed an array of instruments in the Parkfield area
and is carefully studying the data being collected,
attempting to learn what changes might precede an
earthquake of about that size.

San Fransisco , 1989
18 October 1989, an earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter
scale. 67 people killed
Mexico city earthquake
19 September 1985, A dip slip fault exists in the earths crust
causing an earthquake measured on the 7.8 Richter scale,
epicentre in Pasific Ocean (400 km from Mexico city)
USGS survey team
using a laser beam
geodolite to monitor
motion between fixed
points on either side of
the San Andreas fault.
Aircraft gathers
information on
atmospheric conditions
between geodolite and
target several
kilometers away.
Date Time Description of Location Magnitude Depth Quality Station
12th March 2003 23:41 GULF OF CALIFORNIA 6.4 M 10.0 (N/A )
23:46 GULF OF CALIFORNIA 4.7 M 10.0 (N/A )
13th March 2003 00:01 MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES 4.8 M 33.0 (N/A )
03:12 EASTERN HONSHU, JAPAN 5.0 M 33.0 (N/A )
04:23 GULF OF CALIFORNIA 4.0 M 10.0 (N/A )
07:41 ALASKA PENINSULA 4.2 M 60.2 (N/A )
10:32 NORTHERN MOLUCCA SEA 4.7 M 33.0 (N/A )
14:38 GULF OF CALIFORNIA 4.1 M 10.0 (N/A )
15:07 SOUTHERN XINJIANG, CHINA 4.8 M 33.0 (N/A )
14th March 2003 02:55 BALLENY ISLANDS REGION 5.9 M 10.0 (N/A )
12:54 TONGA ISLANDS 6.4 M 274.7 (N/A )
15th March 2003 06:39 NEAR COAST OF GUATEMALA 4.7 M 33.0 (Fair)
14:05 IRIAN JAYA REGION, INDONESIA 5.7 M 33.0 (Good) 1
9:41 OFF EAST COAST OF KAMCHATKA 5.8 M 33.0 (Good)

Definition of Columns within Earthquake Data
Date and Time
These are the date and time at which each earthquake occurred. Information is
usually in the USGS NEIC database within 8 hours of an earthquake taking place.
The time is specified as UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) which is effectively
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). This makes sure all earthquakes are listed on an
absolute and consistent basis, when they occurred. However, adjustments will have
to be made for local times as required (for example, subtract 5 hours for US Eastern
Standard Time (EST)).
Description of Location
This is an approximate textual description of the location of the earthquake. It is
generated automatically by the USGS, and can be misleading if an earthquake
occurs at or near the boundary of the pre-defined region.
This is the depth of the earthquake below sea level in kilometres. Earthquakes
occur where the earth's crust fractures and moves. Even along a zone of weakness,
these fractures and movements occur only in one small area, to relieve localised
stresses. Often this point of fracture is deep within the earth. Where earthquakes
occur on plate margins (plates are large blocks of crust which are constantly in
movement) the depth of the quake can be used be seismologists to obtain a picture
of the way in which the plates are moving relative to one another.

The quality refers only to the ability to be able to locate the earthquake accurately. A position in
latitude and longitude is recorded for each earthquake and this is used by the Earthquake Locator
to map the location. Sometimes the location is difficult to pinpoint, hence the quality column.
Importantly, this value does not refer to the general quality of the other columns in the
earthquake record.
Good and Fair qualities mean that the location is quite reliable, while a Poor quality can be
rather uncertain. Bad locations will generally not be reported. Where no quality is given, the
data has been obtained from an organisation other than USGS, usually a local organisation, and
therefore the quality should be good.
This is the Reporting Station, which actually recorded and reported the earthquake to the
USGS. Usually the station is not listed. If it is listed, clicking on the actual station code will give
the details of the station (name, location and elevation - assuming this information is not
'forbidden'), and the name of any network to which it belongs.
There are several thousand reporting stations, but many earthquakes are recorded by the USGS
themselves, in which case the codes are:
GM = the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California
GS = the US Geological Survey, NEIC, Golden, Colorado
One further code is possible where the earthquake report was a result of an event which was
actually felt by someone. This is a macroseismic event and the code MACR is used.

The magnitude is the size of the earthquake, measured on the Richter scale, which runs from 0
upwards, with the largest earthquakes recorded being around magnitude 8.6. Earthquakes do not
occur above this level, because the localised release of energy would be so great so as to cause
plastic rather than brittle deformation of the surrounding rocks. The Richter scale is logarithmic,
so a quake of magnitude 5 is ten times more destructive than a quake of magnitude 4.
Earthquakes greater than Magnitude 6.0 can be regarded as significant, with the likelihood of
damage and loss of life, although clearly the extent of this depends on whether the quake occurs
in a populated area and the quality of the construction of buildings.
There are different types of magnitude which can be measured and it is difficult to interconvert
between these values. Given the size, location, and available information, the most meaningful
magnitude is quoted for each event. The different types (indicated by the letters after the
numeric magnitude value in the data) are:
Ml - Local (original Richter Magnitude)
Lg - mblg
Md - Duration
Mb - Body wave
Ms - Surface wave
Mw - Moment
Since each of the magnitude types have been calibrated with respect to one another, the
differences are generally of interest only to seismologists. Given the size, location, and available
information, the most meaningful magnitude will be quoted for each earthquake event.

is another name for a tidal wave or seismic sea wave. These
are high, destructive waves triggered by earthquakes.
Alaskan earthquake and tsunamis 1964

At 5.35 p.m. on 27 March 1964, Alaska was hit by an earthquake that
measured 8.3 on the Richter Scale. Its epicentre was 61.1 degrees
north and 147.7 degrees west, almost directly over the town of
Valdez. The force of the tremor in Alaska was greater than the San
Francisco earthquake of 1906 - releasing twice as much energy. The
effect was felt over an area of 500 000 square miles and in some
places ground shook so violently that the tops of trees were snapped
The tragic loss of life (114 people died) could have been even greater
if Alaska had been more densely populated. The cost of clearing up
and rebuilding the effected areas was $311 192 000. During the
reconstruction Valdez was relocated several kilometres to the west on
firmer ground, and rebuilt using earthquake resistant features.
Valdez is now a year-round ice-free port at the terminus of the Trans-
Alaska oil pipeline.
The intensity of the earthquake carried away Valdez harbour and caused
seismic sea waves (tsunamis) to sweep across the Pacific Ocean from
Alaska to Antarctica. En route these huge waves caused four deaths on
the coast of Oregon and 12 in Crescent City, California, nearly 3500 km
away. The waves also reached Japan. In Port Valdez trees up to 24
inches in diameter and between 88 and 101 feet above sea-level were
splintered by surge waves generated by underwater landslides in Prince
William Sound.
At Lowell Point, 2 miles from Seward, a truck was lifted by the surge
waves and wrapped around a tree. At Resurrection Bay, fishing boats,
including the 'Regent', were beached several hundred feet inland. Most of
the death and destruction at Kodiak, Cordova and Seward in Alaska was
caused by tidal waves. Seismic waves can travel through rock layers that
hold water as well as over the sea. The Alaskan earthquake caused well
levels to fluctuate in New Orleans, over 5600 km away.
Wrecked boats beached by tsunami, Alaska
Trees shattered by tsunami, Alaska
The Volcano
Types of volcano
Lava from basic volcano, Hawaii
A lava dome volcano
A volcanic plug, Yosemite National Park
A ciner cone volcano, Mexico
The eruption of Krakatoa, Indonesia, 1883

The eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 was one of the most violent volcanic
eruptions of all time, with massive loss of life and global repercussions.
Krakatoa, located on an island in the Sunda Strait between Java and
Sumatra, became active on 20 May 1883. Clouds of ash rose 9.6 km
into the sky, and explosions could be heard 160 km away in the
Javanese town of Batavia. The disturbances died down by the end of
the month, but then flared up again in mid-June. On 26 August two
days of cataclysmic eruptions began.
At one o'clock in the afternoon the first of the explosions occurred.
These became increasingly violent as the hours passed. By two o'clock
a cloud of ash rose 27 km above the island, and muddy rain began to
fall. At five o'clock a series of underwater earthquakes sent seismic
seawaves - known as tsunami - crashing against the coasts of Java and
Sumatra. These waves reached two metres in height. Explosions
continued throughout the night, and the noise was such that people 40
km away had their eardrums shattered.
These disturbances were nothing compared with what was to follow. For a few minutes,
on the morning of 27 May, the volcano grew silent. People hoped that the ordeal was
over. But soon after ten o'clock the whole island exploded. Rock was thrown 80 km into
the sky. The noise reached Australia, over 3200 km away, and has been described as the
loudest sound ever heard on the planet. It shattered windows over 140 km away. The
atmospheric shock wave went 7 times around the world. Almost all of the mountain,
which had stood 2600 feet high, disappeared.
The eruption threw 5 cubic miles of rock fragments into the air, and volcanic ash fell
over an area of 300 000 square miles. The ash in the atmosphere completely blocked out
the sun for 2 days in the surrounding region. Over the next three years the average solar
radiation for Europe fell by 10 per cent. Average world temperatures also dropped below
their usual levels. The ash cloud travelled twice around the world before dispersing. Six
weeks after the eruption, sunlight began to reflect off the dust particles, causing
spectacular sunrises and sunsets all over the planet. In the United States sunsets were so
vivid that they were mistaken for fires. Sulphur dioxide in the ash reacted with
atmospheric ozone and gave the sun and moon a bluish-green colour. So much pumice
floated on the sea in the Sunda Strait that it hindered the passage of ships.

The eruption emptied the magma chamber below the volcano. The chamber then
collapsed into the space left by the discharged material, creating a caldera, a cauldron-
like depression. As the volcano fell, sea water rushed into the emptied chamber and
was squeezed back out again by the falling rock, creating of huge waves. Tsunamis
reached the English Channel and the west coast of the United States. They took nine
hours to reach the Ganges River, nearly 3200 km away, where 300 boats were sunk.

Ten huge waves crashed into the coasts around the erupting volcano. The largest of
these was 130-feet high and swarmed 3 miles inland. It dropped on to Merak in north-
west Java, and receded to leave no trace of the town. Over 300 coastal towns and
villages were destroyed, and 36 000 people died. Up to 6000 boats were sunk. The
resultant landscape was a grey desert, devoid of vegetation and of ruins. No plant or
animal life existed on the islands around Krakatoa for the next five years. The volcano
stopped its explosions by the morning of 28 August. Smaller eruptions continued over
the next few months.
Krakatoa lay dormant until December 1927, when an undersea eruption began. By
January of the following year a new cone had breached the surface of the sea, and
formed an island known as Anak Krakatoa, meaning Child of Krakatoa. By 1973,
after years of intermittent eruptions, the island had grown to a height of 622 feet.
Activity continued into the 1980s.
Krakatoa before eruption
Telok Betong, destroyed by eruption
The strait of Sunda near Krakatoa