You are on page 1of 8

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 1

ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
Critical Analysis of Competitive Strategies on
Performance and Market Positioning: A Case Study of
Middle Level Colleges in Mombasa County.
Henry Peter Gommans

, Nickson lumwagi Agusioma

, Moses Kibe Kihiko




Scholar, Mount Kenya University

Abstract- Today, service organizations are shifting their focus
from transactional exchange to relational exchange by
developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers.
Extended relationships are reported to have a significant impact
on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime value.
Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as
the customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all
organizational activities. An institutions competitive behavior is
an important area for any manager, director, principal, and policy
makers. Among the explanations of firms' behavior is Michael
Porter's Generic model. The studyhas presented this model in
comparison with Porters five competitive forces of the industry.
In the researchers comparative discussion, the use of Porter's
model to evaluate firms' competitive behavior is supported. The
major aims of the study was to identify and analyze the
competitive strategies adopted by the Middle Level Colleges in
Mombasa County, and whether they enhance performance and
help in attaining market position. And lastly to determine the
challenges faced by these colleges when implementing
competitive strategies. In this study the target population
encompassed colleges located in Mombasa County amounting to
33% of the total population of 62 MLCs The focus has been on 6
public and 14 private colleges that offer both university and non
university courses. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of
closed and open-ended questions was used to collect data using
the drop and pick method. The data collected was processed by
first editing, coding, classifying and tabulation. The
studyanalyzed the data processing with the aid of Microsoft excel
2007-integrated package and the SPSS software. Some
recommendations that the study made includes the imposition of
managers originality and creativity. Constant improvement,
what the Japanese call Kaizen, is the only way a firm would
sustain its long term competitive advantage and success. It is
necessary for managers/ directors to develop strategies having
unique details and deviations from the studied approaches to
obtain superior performance.

I ndex Terms- Ibidem, Business Development Services,
Infrastructure, Kaizen, Public sector, Private sector and Content
analysis

I. INTRODUCTION
raditionally, the primary role or objective of any business
corporation has been to make profits and to serve the interest
of its owners. However, as a result of rapid environmental
changes, the society has become restless about its life and the
quality of it. Middle Level Colleges in recent years have emerged
under increasing pressure to redefine their role in society.
Environmental changes shape opportunities and challenges
facing organizations. Organizations need to adjust to these
changes to remain successful in future. For firms to succeed they
need to strategize their plans. The environment can be relatively
stable or turbulent and has affected many organizations.
Environmental changes affecting organizations include
competition, globalization, political and legal factors, changes in
consumer tastes and ecological factors. To become competitive,
institutions are becoming more aggressive in exploiting
opportunities and dealing with threats. However, an
organizations strength may not always bring success. Different
challenges have different approaches. Competition will
determine how appropriate a firms activities will contribute to
its performance, such as a cohesive culture, innovations or a
good implementation (Porter, 1998). Every institution that
competes in an industry has a competitive strategy. The strategy
may have been developed through a planning process or may
come up through the activities of the various functional
departments of the organization (Porter, 1980). For a strategy to
be successful, it must align well with the environment in which
the organization is set in. There are several Middle Level
Colleges, both public and private that offer national and
international diploma awards in a wide field of professions.
Middle Level Colleges (MLCs) play a significant role in
providing tertiary education in Mombasa County.
Both private and government owned Middle Level Colleges
complement each other in providing career focused education
and training programmes to the post secondary clientele. Middle
Level Colleges bridge the gap between supply and demand of
tertiary education in Mombasa, which is created by the inability
of the public institutions to meet the demand. The demand of
tertiary education has led to establishment of many MLCs
especially in Mombasa County. This has led to competition
among these colleges. The competition has made it necessary for
the MLCs to apply strategic practices through different
competitive strategies in their business. Due to a great number of
students graduating from form four every year, and lack of
enough space in the public (universities) institutions, there has
been a tremendous increase in the Middle Level Colleges, in
Mombasa. The demand for tertiary education has led to the
establishment of many Middle Level Colleges, especially in
major town centres and cities. This has led to stiff competition
among these colleges including the government sponsored ones.
T
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 2
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
The competition has made it necessary for these colleges to apply
the key competitive strategies to market their programs to gain
competitive edge. Middle Level Colleges are popular for their
career focused education and training programmes. Some admit
students who have qualified to join universities in the country but
are taken for courses which they do not want or which they find
not marketable. These colleges are also a source of income to the
owners or the proprietors. They also offer employment to many
people in the country, both the teaching and non-teaching staff2.
Statement of the problem
Tertiary institutions in the recent past in Mombasa County
have witnessed rapid growth resulting in the scramble for
available student clientele and their ever changing needs. The
success and survival of these colleges in the current business
environment has depended on the extent to which they are able to
learn, adapt and change (Karinga, 2012). Increase in competition
has greatly affected the colleges. This increase in competition has
resulted in competitors introducing low costs, shifts towards
quality, changed demands and needs of customers and lack of
finance. The increase in competition has posed a challenge for
the colleges which in turn forces them to change their strategies
by deciding to come up with new and different strategies. Some
past studies have been carried out on MLCs in Kenya by
Mwakundia (2005), and Kitoto (2005), focused on competitive
strategies applied by commercial colleges in Nairobi and
competitive strategies adopted in Kenya respectively. This study
therefore sought to fill the gap by conducting a research to
determine competitive strategies adopted by MLCs to enhance
performance and market positioning.

1.2 Statement of the problem
Tertiary institutions in the recent past in Mombasa County
have witnessed rapid growth resulting in the scramble for
available student clientele and their ever changing needs. The
success and survival of these colleges in the current business
environment has depended on the extent to which they are able to
learn, adapt and change (Karinga, 2012). Increase in competition
has greatly affected the colleges. This increase in competition has
resulted in competitors introducing low costs, shifts towards
quality, changed demands and needs of customers and lack of
finance. The increase in competition has posed a challenge for
the colleges which in turn forces them to change their strategies
by deciding to come up with new and different strategies. Some
past studies have been carried out on MLCs in Kenya by
Mwakundia (2005), and Kitoto (2005), focused on competitive
strategies applied by commercial colleges in Nairobi and
competitive strategies adopted in Kenya respectively. This study
therefore sought to fill the gap by conducting a research to
determine competitive strategies adopted by MLCs to enhance
performance and market positioning.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
To analyze the competitive strategies adopted by Middle
Level colleges in Mombasa County, towards market positioning
and the overall performance.
i) To identify the competitive strategies
adopted by the Middle Level Colleges.
ii) To ascertain whether the competitive
strategies adopted by Middle Level
Colleges enhances performance.
iii) To establish whether the competitive
strategies adopted by Middle Level
Colleges help in attaining market position.
iv) To determine the challenges faced by these
Colleges when implementing these
strategies.
1.4 Purpose of the study
The results of this study will be used by the Colleges to
establish the strategies they are currently employing to compete
and if so, note if they are effective. It will again help to
determine the challenges the colleges are facing in their industry.
The government especially the Ministry of Higher Education
Science and Technology will find the information important in
understanding the effects of the competitive strategy policy in the
industry and in coordinating higher education learning. To the
academicians, the study will provide a useful basis upon which
further studies in the industry could be conducted. It will also
contribute to the existing literature in the area of strategies that
academicians could use as a basis of further research. To other
players in the industry and other sectors.

1.5 Scope of the study
The study was limited as it looked at the analysis of
competitive strategies adopted by Middle Level Colleges towards
performance and market positioning. A survey was conducted on
14 private and 6 public sampled Middle Level Colleges operating
within Mombasa County. The study was carried out in a period
of eight months (February to September of the year 2012).
Accordingly the analysis and conclusions were based on this
time period.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW
This study was based on the competitive strategies
propounded originally by Michael Porter in 1980. The theory
states and recognizes three generic strategies from which
organizations can choose. These are cost leadership,
differentiation, focus. The studyhas viewed this past research that
form the foundation and scientific background for the research
questions investigated in this project, having a primary objective
of identifying the strategies adopted by Middle Level Colleges
and if there are any challenges when implementing them that can
affect their performance and market positioning.
Previous research has been presented in the same order as
the research questions, that is, the first part of the theory chapter
covers the previous research carried out regarding that particular
area and so on. Several theories have been advanced by various
scholars in the area.

III. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research approach, research
method, sampling design and how the statistical analysis of the
study was conducted. This study used a descriptive research
design. According to Glass & Hopkins, (1984) descriptive
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 3
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
research involves gathering data that describe events and then
organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection.
The study sought to identify the competitive strategies that
colleges are adopting and the competitive challenges they are
experiencing in implementing the strategies towards market
positioning and performance. Twenty Middle Level Colleges
were selected using convenience sampling technique, to which
questionnaires were administered.
The data for this research work was obtained essentially
from primary and secondary sources. The studytraced the history
on competitive strategies through secondary sources. The
studyused primary data in order to get new information relating
to the research problem. The data was collected through the use
of questionnaires which were administered by the
researcher. The purpose of the questionnaire was to identify the
competitive strategies adopted by the MLCs and ascertain
whether the competitive strategies adopted by MLCs enhance
performance. It also had to establish whether the competitive
strategies adopted by Middle Level Colleges help in attaining
market position. And determine the challenges faced by these
Colleges when implementing these strategies. The questionnaire
included both open and closed ended questions. The
questionnaire was administered to twenty heads of the sampled
institutions. The secondary data, which constitutes the source of
data, has been gathered from the Ministry magazines, bulletins,
in-house newsletters, annual reports on colleges on line, books
and journals on Strategic Management, competitive strategy and
competitive advantage.

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The chapter begins by presenting the general information of
the respondents that participated in the study. Thereafter, a
presentation of the data relating to the research questions of the
study is presented. The chapter presents the analysis of the data
collected through the open and close ended questionnaires. First
is the analysis of the general information of the respondents and
the MLCs under consideration followed by the analysis of the
competitive strategies on performance and market positioning
and the challenges experienced by the colleges in implementing
the strategies. The data was then analyzed using the SPSS and
presented in forms of tables, pie-charts and bar graphs. Other
information was interpreted using a Likert-Scale, where the
mean, variance and standard deviation were used. The study
sought information about respondents organizations on aspects
that were considered to be descriptive with respect to the subject
of the study. The aspects were in respect to the colleges years in
operation, their location, ownership, achievements, competitive
advantages towards performance and market position, nature of
exams, number of students and whether they adopt competitive
strategies that differentiate each one of them in the industry.
Further, seeking this information was considered necessary to lay
ground for understanding the challenges they face in
implementing competitive strategies. The completed
questionnaires were usable, but few lacked vital information. The
respondents were also asked to indicate the nature of exams they
were offering for their students at the end of each semester or
term. From the data collected it was noted that: 9 colleges offered
internal exams, professional exams both local and international
exams which was 47% of the sampled population; 3 colleges
offered both local and international professional exams which
comprised of 16% which was the same number as the colleges
that offered only an option of internal exams; 4 colleges offered
local professional exams which accumulated the remaining
percentage balance. Out of a sample size of 20 units, 19
respondents responded to the questionnaire indicating a 95%
response rate. The study showed that the ownership of the
college was comprised of the following: individually owned
42%, corporate 26%, comprising of partners and professional
body 16% respectively as show in table 4.1 below: Out of a
sample size of 20 units, 19 respondents responded to the
questionnaire indicating a 95% response rate. The study showed
that the ownership of the college was comprised of the following:
individually owned 42%, corporate 26%, comprising of partners
and professional body 16% respectively as show in table 4.1
below:


Table 4.1: College ownership

College Ownership Frequency Percentages
Individual 8 42%
Partnership 3 16%
Professional Body 3 16%
Corporate 5 26%
Total 19 100%

College Details
This section of the questionnaire sought to find out the basic
college information. The questionnaire sought to establish the
number of years the college has been in operation. The results are
summarized in the table 4.2. The results in the graph show that
majority of the colleges have been in operation above 10 years.
This was represented by 37% of the respondents. A significant
26% of the targeted colleges have been in operation for between
3 5 years. 21% in less than 3 years, while a mere 15% has been
in operation between 5 10 years. This implies that majority of
the colleges have enough experience to discuss the subject matter
(see table 4.2).


International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 4
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
Table 4.2: Year of operation

Year of Operation Frequency Percentage
Less than 3 Years 4 21.05%
3 5 Years 5 26.31%
5 10 Years 3 15.79%
10 Years and Above 7 36.84%
Total 19 100%

Location
The respondents were asked to indicate where the colleges
were located. The study indicated that 63% of the colleges were
located within the CBD which was convenient for working
students who could easily part time for evening classes and 37%
outside the CBD. The bulk of the challenges may be generalized
on the location to this extent. The research findings are shown in
the figure 4.1 below:



Figure 4.1: College Location

Students Population
The respondents were asked to indicate the students
population in their respective colleges. From the findings
indicated in table 4.4 (see next page), 10 colleges have below
500 students representing 53%, 32% have between 501-1,000
students, while 16% have between 1,001 2,000 students. This
was required to help the studymake conclusions regarding the
size of the colleges.


Table 4.4: Students population

Students Population Frequency Percentage
Below 500 10 52.63%
Between 501-1000 6 31.57%
Between 1001-2,000 3 15.79%
Above 2,000 0 0%
Total 19 100%

Competitive Strategies Adopted
The competitive strategies currently employed by the MLCs
were the first objective of the research. This part gives a
summary of the extent to which the colleges use a given
competitive strategy. The respondents were asked to point out the
competitive strategies that their college were using towards the
general performance of the colleges and their market positioning.
The respondents were asked to use a scale of 1 to 5 to rank the
competitive strategies. In the given scale, 5 represented very
highly used/ very great extent and 1 represented not used at all/
no extent. There are three generic strategies open to a firm to
choose from. These are cost leadership, differentiation and focus
(Porter, 1985). It was essential to establish the importance each
of the respondents placed on these options. 53% of the sampled
colleges were very comfortable with using differentiation as the
most appropriate strategy for them; 16% opted the use of both
differentiation and focus as their appropriate strategy; 5% of the
sampled population used the three strategies in order to gain a
competitive edge; 5% used focus strategy. 21% of the
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 5
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
respondents did not answer this particular question. The distribution is clearly stipulated in the table 4.5.

Table 4.5: Competitive strategies

Competitive Strategies Frequency Percentage
Focus 1 5%
Differentiation 10 53%
Low cost 0 0%
Differentiation and focus 3 16%
Focus, differentiation and low cost 1 5%
No answer 4 21%
TOTAL 19 100%

Strategies on Performance
In determining the extent to which competitive strategies
were adopted by MLCs towards their performance, the study
used frequencies and percentages out of which mean scores,
variances and standard deviations were obtained to be used as
measure of extent.
x = mean =
n
Standard deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers
are; It is the square root of the variance. Variance is the average
of the squared differences from the mean. Standard deviation is
defined as:-
S = x)
2
n
The study investigated whether the colleges adopted
competitive strategies to remain competitive and up to its
performance level. The results in table 4.6 show the use of the
strategies towards effective performance. In determining the
extent to which these strategies were adopted by MLCs, just like
the extent of adoption of the other strategies, mean scores were
obtained to be used as measure of extent. A mean score of below
3.00 signify that a specific strategy was found to be adopted to a
moderate extent while the one with a mean of score of 4.00
show that it was found to be adopted to great extent. A strategy
with a mean score of 5.00 was considered to have been used to a
very great extent. The results in table 4.6 shows use of most of
the strategies to a moderate extent by the MLCs. The findings
show that a mean score of most of the strategies ranged between
3.00 and 4.00. This agrees to the measure defined above. The
combined extents of adoption were indicated by the mean scores
and the dissimilarity on the extents of adoption was indicated by
the standard deviation. Thus, the findings signify that MLCs that
participated in the research adopted the mentioned strategies to a
moderate extent, since most had a mean score ranging between
3.00 and 4.00. However, the study findings also revealed that
only one strategy was used at a very great extent, that is, having
highly skilled teachers which had a mean score of 5.00. This
implies that the MLCs have not adopted very aggressively the
strategies.

Table 4.6: Strategies on Performance





















Strategies Mean Variance Standard
Deviation
Highly skilled teachers 5 0.18 0.43
Continuous training of staff 4 0.90 0.95
Part time teachers hired on a needy basis 3 0.45 0.67
Low cost staff 3 0.18 0.42
Staff remuneration in tune with the market trends. 3 0.18 0.42
Holiday classes, weekend classes, evening classes offered. 4 0 0
Operating in more than one branch 3 0.90 0.95
Continuous reevaluation of company vision and mission 4 1.09 1.04
Team building efforts 4 0.36 0.6
Quick delivery timeliness. 4 0.27 0.52
Inviting guests speakers to teach some courses 3 0.36 0.6
Offering free computer classes & internet 4 1.36 1.17
Having a library 3 2.18 1.48
Giving scholarships to needy students 3 0.73 0.85
Take advantage of any attractive opportunity 4 2.00 1.41
Have audio visual presentations 3 0.55 0.74
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 6
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
Strategies in relation to market positioning
The third objective of the study was to ascertain whether the
competitive strategies adopted by MLCs help attain market
positioning. To help answer this question the questionnaire was
divided into two parts: one was identification of the marketing
tools used by Middle Level Colleges and the second was the
strategies adopted in the various fields of marketing to help
shapes the marketing positions of the MLCs in Mombasa
County. To achieve the study objective, the respondents were
asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived the
challenges their respective colleges face in strategy
implementation. The respondents were asked to use a scale of 1
to 5 to rank the challenges. In the given scale, 5 represented to a
very great extent and 1 represented to no extent. Table 4.7
shows the results of the study. The table shows use of most of the
marketing tools adopted to a moderate extent by the MLCs. The
findings show that a mean score of most of the tools range
between 3.00 and 4.18.


Table 4.7: Marketing tools

Marketing Tools Mean Variance Standard
Deviation
Personal selling 3.73 0.64 0.8
Public relations 4.09 0.09 0.3
Direct marketing 4.00 0.18 0.42
Advertising 4.18 0.18 0.42
Brands and branding 3.36 0.55 0.74
Sponsorship 3.00 0.36 0.6

The result showing the strategies used in relation to the
effectiveness of market positioning of MLCs showed that most
of the mean of the strategies were above 3.50 while two of them
were below the mean of 3.00. This indicated a positive use of the
identified strategies see table 4.8 below.


Table 4.8: Strategies towards market position

Strategies Mean Variance Standard
Deviation
High level of service quality 4.18 0.18 0.42
Continuous service innovation based on customer need. 4.27 0.27 0.52
New topics introduced based on customer needs 4.64 1.18 1.09
Focus on selling one service only 2.45 0.27 0.52
Organize loyal customers events 2.82 0.27 0.52
Using the students to market the college 4.18 0.55 0.74
Participate on corporate social responsibility 3.82 0.18 0.42

Challenges Faced in Strategy Implementation
The fourth objective of the study was to determine the
challenges the MLCs are experiencing when implementing the
competitive strategies. This study was conceived with the
expectation that organizations that have the urge to achieve and
sustain competition would endeavor to counter the challenges
encountered when implementing the competitive strategies. To
achieve the study objective, the respondents were asked to
indicate the extent to which they perceived the challenges their
respective colleges faced in strategy implementation. The
respondents were asked to use a scale of 1 to 5 to rank the
challenges. In the given scale, 5 represented to a very great
extent and 1 represented to no extent. See table 4.9 for the
results of the study. The table shows the extent to which the
MLCs perceived the challenges their respective colleges face in
strategy implementation. Mean scores were obtained to be used
as measure of extent. A mean score of below 2.00 signify that a
specific challenge was found in employing competitive strategies
mentioned to a less extent while the one with a mean of score of
3.00 show that it was found in employing competitive strategies
to a moderate extent. A challenge with a mean score of 4.00 and
above was considered in employing competitive strategies to a
large extent. The findings in table below show that majority of
the challenges presented to the respondents were, to a moderate
extent perceived to affect the implementation of competitive
strategies in the Middle Level Colleges. It is observed from the
findings that most of the challenges have mean scores of 2.00
and only three have mean scores of 3.00. From these
observations, it is apparent that the colleges experience
challenges in strategy implementation. The challenges that were
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 7
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
found to have a moderate impact in strategy implementation
include: cost and high cost of skilled staff and the rest had little
impact in strategy implementation. On the other hand, taking a
further look at the findings the study reveals that different
proportions of the respondents points out that the challenges of
strategy implementation are met in different extents. Some
respondents indicated the extent as not at all, to a little extent, to
a moderate extent, high extent and to a very high extent. For that
reason, the combined extent was indicated by the mean scores
and the dissimilarity on the extents of a adoption was indicated
by the standard deviation.


Table 4.9 Challenges in Strategy I mplementation




















Overall Strategies

The findings of this research have brought to light a number
of issues regarding the strategies adopted by the MLCs in
Mombasa County. The overall results show that most of the
colleges are located within CBD, have been in operation for 10
years and above, have a population of below 500 students and
have crafted strategies that are focused on offering unique
products that are generally valued by customers and thus
following the differentiation strategies.

V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The findings that have been obtained from the data collected
have been used to verify the research questions. The study was
on the analysis of competitive strategies on performance and
market positioning. In order to fulfill the aim of the study, the
studyfocused on issues relating to identification of the strategies,
performance, market position and the challenges faced in the
implementation of these strategies. This chapter gives a brief
summary of the research, followed by the conclusion and
recommendations drawn from the study.
In Porters view (1985), competitive advantage is at the heart
of a firms performance in competitive markets. Thus, winning
business strategies are grounded in sustainable competitive
advantage. A company has competitive advantage whenever it
has an edge over rivals in securing customers and defending
against competitive forces. There are many sources of
competitive advantage: making the highest quality product,
providing superior customer service, achieving lower costs than
rivals having a more convenient geographic location, designing a
product that performs better than competing brands, making a
more reliable and longer lasting product and providing buyers
more value for the money (a combination of good quality, good
service and acceptable price). To succeed in a building a
competitive advantage , a firm must try to provide what buyers
will perceive as superior value either a good product at a low
price or a better product that is worth paying for.
According to Michael Porter (1985), the essence of
formulating competitive strategy is relating a company to its
environment. The best strategy for a given firm is ultimately a
unique construction reflecting its particular circumstance. From
the discussion in the previous chapters it can be realized that,
generic business strategies and tactics are time- tested approaches
to managing companies in specific competitive market situations.
As such they have become more important foundations, which
most managers regard as starting points for developing their
strategy/ tactics in an industry. However, to make these strategies
truly successful, managers must interpose their own originality
and creativity. This is because most managers, including rivals,
expect these strategies, and thus, to catch rivals unaware, a
somewhat new approach must be taken. Consequently, it is
necessary for managers to develop strategies having unique
details and deviations from the studied approaches to obtain
superior performance. Additionally, firms must continuously
strive to impose their tactics as well as their competitive position
and advantages, because it is only through constant improvement
that one stays ahead of competitors that are both copying and
improving themselves. Constant improvement, what the Japanese
Strategies Mean Variance Standard
Deviation
Cost (e.g. staff costs, premises etc). 3 0.64 0.8
Low staff morale 2 0.36 0.6
High cost of skilled staff 3 1.09 1.04
Lack of resources 2 0.09 0.3
Inability to meet service levels 2 0.45 0.67
Inability to attract repeat customers 2 0.18 0.42
Lack of collaborating with the other colleges 2 0.55 0.74
Cost flow challenges 3 0.64 0.8
Credit management 2 0.73 0.85
Lack of overall college direction 2 0 0
Lack of team work 2 0.27 0.52
No marketing budget 2 0.09 0.3
A well informed customer 2 1.73 1.32
Lack of controls (e.g. finances, etc) 2 0 0
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 8
ISSN 2250-3153
www.ijsrp.org
call Kaizen, is the only way a firm will sustain its long term
competitive advantage and success in a given industry.

REFERENCES
[1] Borge, R. & Gall, M.D. (1996). Education Research. New York: Longman
Publishers.
[2] Bennet, D. (1999). Editorial. International Journal of Operations &
Production Management, Vol. 19 (No. 5/6), pp. 448.
[3] Chorn, H. N. (1991). Management Decision, Vol. 29 No. , pp. 20-4, MCB
University Press Limited, 0025-1747.
[4] Cole G. A. (1997). Strategic Management. 2nd Edition. Seng Lee Press:
Singapore.
[5] Cronshaw, M., Davis, E. & Kay, J. (1994). On Being Stuck In-the-Middle
or Good Food Costs Less At Sainsburys. British Journal of Management.,
pp. 19-33.
[6] Davis, S. & Botkin, J. ( 1994). The Monster Under the Bed: How Business
Is Mastering the Opportunity of Knowledge for Profit. New York: Simon &
Schuster.
[7] Day, G. S. & Wensley, R. (1988). Assessing Advantage: A Framework for
Diagnosing Competitive Superiority. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 52. pp. 1-
20.
[8] Fleming, D.M., Chow, C.W. & Chen, G. 2009. Strategy, performance-
measurement systems, and performance: A study of Chinese firms,
International Journal of Accounting , vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 256-278.
[9] Glass, G. & Hopkins, K. (1984). Statistical methods in education and
psychology.2nd edition: Prentice-Hall.
[10] Hill, C. (1988). Differentiation Versus Low Cost or Differentiation and Low
Cost: A Contingency Framework. Academy of Management Review.
Vol.13.( No. 3), pp 401-412.
[11] Johnson, G., Scholes, K. & Whittington, R. (2005). Exploring Corporate
Strategy. 7thEdition. FT-Prentice Hall.
[12] Karinga, J. (2011). The use and integration of marketing communication
tools in learning institutions. Unpublished Masters of Business
Administration Research Project of the Kenyatta University.
[13] Kimondo, L. N., Njogu, G. W. & Sakwa, M. (2012). An Analysis of the
Competitive Strategies Employed by Private Universities in Kenya: A Case
Study of Private Universities in Nairobi. Canadian Research &
Development Center of Sciences and Cultures.
[14] Kitoto, L. (2005). Competitive Strategies Adopted by Universities in
Kenya. Unpublished Master of Business Administration Research Project of
the University of Nairobi.
[15] Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research Methodology. 2nd edition, New Age
International.
[16] Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management (11th Edition). Pearson
Education Inc: New Jersey, U.S.A.
[17] Miles, M. B. & Huberman, M. A. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis.
Second Edition. Sage Publications, London.
[18] Mureithi, D. W. (2010). Challenges faced by Montessori colleges in Kenya
in implementing competitive strategies. Unpublished Master of Business
Administration Research Project of University of Nairobi.
[19] Murray, A. (1988). A Contingency View of Porters Generic Strategies.
Academic of Management Review. Vol.13 (No.3) Pp. 390-400.
[20] Mwakundia, K. (2001). Competitive Strategies Applied by Commercial
Colleges in Nairobi CBD. Unpublished Master of Business
Administration Research Project of University of Nairobi.
[21] Neely, A. & Adams, C. (2001). The performance prism perspective, Journal
of Cost Management.
[22] Neely, A.D., Mills, J.F., Gregory, M.J., Richards, A.H., Platts, K.W. &
Bourne, M.C.S. (1996). Getting the Measure of your business, Findalay,
London.
[23] Neely, A., Mills, J., Platts, K., Richards, H., Gregory, M. & Bourne, M.
(1997).
[24] Designing performance measures: a structured approach, International
Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1131-
1152
[25] Pearce, J.A. & Robinson, R.B. (1991). Strategic Management: Formulation,
Implementation and Control. 4th Edition. Irwin: U.S.A.
[26] Pearce, J.A. & Robinson, R.B. (1997). Strategic Management: Formulation,
Implementation and Control. 7th Edition. Irwin: U.S.A.
[27] Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive Strategy. New York. The Free Press.
[28] Porter, M.E. (1985). Competitive Advantage. New York. The Free Press.
[29] Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for analyzing
Industries and Competitors. New York: The Free Press.
[30] Robbins, S.P & Coulter, M. (2002). Management. 7th Edition. Prentice-Hall
of India: New Delhi.
[31] Stoner, J., Freeman, E. & Gilbert, D. (2003). Management. 5th Edition.
Prentice-Hall of India: Private Ltd. New Delhi.
[32] Sugandhi, R.K. (2002), Customer Relationship Management, New Delhi:
New age International Publishers.
[33] Thompson, A. A. & Strickland, A. J. (1992). Strategic Management:
Concepts and Cases. 6th Edition. Irwin: USA.
[34] Woodcock, C.P. & Beamish, P. W. (2003). Concepts in Strategic
Management. 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill: Canada.

AUTHORS
First Author Henry Peter Gommans (Scholar), Mount Kenya
University e-mail: henrygommans@gmail.com
Second Author Nickson lumwagi Agusioma (Scholar),
Mount Kenya University, e-mail: nickagush@hotmail.com
Third Author Moses Kibe Kihiko (Scholar), Mount Kenya
University, e-mail: Mo Kihiko mokihiko@yahoo.com