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AIRWORTHINESS CERTIEICATE * Never expires unless aircraIt is no longer registered or
the required maintenance has not been perIormed.
REGISTRATION CERTIEICATE * Valid unless aircraIt is sold, owner dies, or aircraIt is
unusable, i.e. damaged.
OPERATING LIMITATIONS * P.O.H. (limitations imposed by the manuIacturer) must
be on board the aircraIt.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE * Eor that aircraIt must be the most recent.
1 CURRENT ANNUAL (12 calendar months - signed oII by I.A. - Inspector oI Authorization)
NOTE: An annual can be substituted Ior a 100 hour, but not vice versa
3 A.D.`S All airworthiness directives must be complied.
4 E.L.T. Every 12 calendar months or 1/2 battery useIul liIe or aIter 1 cumulative hour oI use.
5 TRANSPONDER - Every 24 calendar months.
6 PITOT STATIC SYSTEM - Every 24 calendar months.
1 DAY V.F.R.
T achometer Ior each engine.
O il temperature gauge.
M aniIold pressure gauge.(Turbo powered)
A irspeed indicator.
T emperature gauge Ior each liquid cooled engine.
O il pressure gauge.
F uel gauge indicating quantity.
F uses 3 oI each kind required.
L anding light iI Ior hire.
A nti collision lights.
P osition lights.
S ource oI power.
L anding gear position lights. (r.g. - Retractable gear)
A ltimeter.
M agnetic Direction indicator.
E mergency locator transmitter. (II required by 9 1.207)
S eat belts.
NOTE: D.M.E. required above EL 240
What do you need to legally perIorm a Ilight?
1 Be current
2 Have completed a Bi-annual Elight Review
3 Valid medical certiIicate. (Know durations).
4 Pilot`s license
5 Sign oII in the aircraIt iI it is a i) Taildragger ii) High perIormance iii) High altitude capable
iv) Type rated iI required
6 Pass the I`M SAEE i) Illness ii) Medication iii) Stress
iv) Alcohol v) Eatigue vi) Emotion
7 Have all available inIormation to conduct the Ilight saIely. (91.103)
i.e. Runway lengths oI intended use.
TakeoII and landing distances.
Weather reports and Iorecasts.
Euel requirements.
Any alternative.
Any known traIIic delays, etc.
What are the privileges oI a commercial pilot`s license?
a) May act as P.I.C. oI an aircraIt carrying persons or property Ior compensation or hire.
b) May act as P.I.C. oI an aircraIt Ior compensation or hire.
c) May give instruction in an airship or balloon iI they hold an appropriate category and class
To remain current you must have completed the Iollowing:
1) Bi-annual Elight Review within 24 calendar months.
To carry passengers you must within the previous 90 days have completed:
1) 3 takeoII`s and landings as sole manipulator in category and class. (II tailwheel to a Iull stop
or iI operating at night to a Iull stop at night.)
A minimum equipment list is list equipment approved by the manuIacturer and the EAA. You can
legally Ily the aircraIt with/without this equipment.
How can we obtain weather inIormation?
i) E.S.S.
ii) D.U.A.T.
iii) Internet
iv) T.V.
v) T.W.E.B.
vi) T.I.B.S.
The Ilight service station oIIers three types oI brieIing:
a) Standard b) Abbreviated c) Eorecast
AIRMET is an advisory oI signiIicant weather phenomena at intensities lower that sigmets. i.e.
Moderate icing, Moderate turbulence, sustained winds oI ~ 30 knots at the surIace.
SIGMET advises on non convective weather that is potentially hazardous to all aircraIt. i.e.
Severe turbulence, severe icing, dust or sandstorms that reduce visibility to 3 miles.
CONVECTIVE SIGMET is weather advisory concerning convective weather signiIicant to the
saIety oI all aircraIt. i.e. Tornadoes, Lines oI thunderstorms, Embedded thunderstorms, Hail ~
3/4 inch.
METAR is an aviation routine weather report It is a hourly surIace observation oI conditions
at a particular airport.
T.A.F. is Terminal Aerodrome Eorecast It is a concise statement oI expected conditions at an
airport during a speciIied period. (Usually 24 hours.)
H.I.W.A.S. is Hazardous InIlight Weather Advisory Service.
A.T.I.S. is Automated Terminal InIormation Service.
T.I.B.S. is Telephone InIormation BrieIing Service.
E.F.A.S. is Enroute Elight Advisory Service, better known as Ilight watch 122.0.
PIREP. Pilot report - contains Location, Time, Altitude, AircraIt type, and at least one weather
element encountered.
CLASS A: Class A Airspace is the airspace Irom EL 180 or 18,000 Ieet MSL to EL 600 or
60,000. All pilots Ilying in Class A airspace shall Iile an Instrument Elight Rules
(IER) Ilight plan and receive an appropriate air traIIic control (ATC) clearance.
When climbing through 18,000 Ieet, the pilot will change the altimeter setting
Irom the local altimeter (30.01 Ior example) to 29.92. This ensures all aircraIt
Ilying in class A airspace have the same altimeter setting and will have proper
altitude separation
CLASS B: Class B Airspace is generally the airspace Irom the surIace to 10,000 Ieet MSL.
This airspace is normally around the busiest airports in terms oI aircraIt traIIic
such as Chicago or Los Angeles. Class B airspace is individually designed to meet
the needs oI the particular airport and consists oI a surIace area and two more
layers. Most Class B airspace resembles an upside down wedding cake. Pilots must
contact air traIIic control to receive an air traIIic control clearance to enter Class B
airspace. Once a pilot receives an air traIIic control clearance, they receive
separation services Irom other aircraIt within the airspace.
CLASS C: Class C Airspace is the airspace Irom the surIace to 4,000 Ieet above the airport
elevation. Class C airspace will only be Iound at airports that have an operational
control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, and that have a certain
number oI IER operations. Although Class C airspace is individually tailored to
meet the needs oI the airport, the airspace usually consists oI a surIace area with a
5 nautical mile (NM) radius, an outer circle with a 10 NM radius that extends Irom
1,200 Ieet to 4,000 Ieet above the airport elevation and an outer area. Pilots must
establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC Iacility
providing air traIIic control services prior to entering airspace. Pilots oI visual
Ilight rules (VER) aircraIt are separated Irom pilots oI instrument Ilight rules (IER)
aircraIt only. Anchorage International airport, located in Anchorage, Alaska, has
Class C airspace.
CLASS D: The Iourth airspace is Class D Airspace, which is generally that airspace Irom the
surIace to 2,500 Ieet above the airport elevation. Class D airspace only surrounds
airports that have an operational control tower. Class D airspace is also tailored to
meet the needs oI the airport. Pilots are required to establish and maintain two-way
radio communications with the ATC Iacility providing air traIIic control services
prior to entering the airspace. No separation services will be provided to pilots oI
VER (Visual Elight Rules) aircraIt. Pilots operating under VER must still use 'see-
and-avoid Ior aircraIt separation. Airports without operating control towers are
uncontrolled airIields. Here pilots are responsible Ior their own separation and
takeoII and landings. Uncontrolled airports use a 'UNICOM Irequency that pilots
will transmit their intentions to other aircraIt using the airport. EXAMPLE:
'CESSNA 1870 VICTOR (the aircraIt`s callsign) DEPARTING UNION CITY
(the uncontrolled airport) RUNWAY 17 (the pilot`s intentions).
CLASS E: The IiIth airspace to discuss is Class E Airspace which is generally that airspace
that is not Class A, B, C, or D. Class E airspace extends upward Irom either the
surIace or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. II
an aircraIt is Ilying on a Eederal airway below 18,000 Ieet MSL, it is in Class E
airspace. Class E airspace is also the airspace used by aircraIt transiting to and
Irom the terminal or en route environment normally beginning at 14,500 MSL Ieet
to 18,000 Ieet MSL. Class E airspace ensures IER aircraIt remain in controlled
airspace when approaching aircraIt without Class D airspace or when Ilying on
'Victor airways -- Iederal airways that are below 18,000 Ieet. NOTE: VER
aircraIt can 1 up to 17,500 Ieet IE they can maintain VER weather clearance
criteria (and the aircraIt is equipped to Ily at 17,500 Ieet).
CLASS G: Class G Airspace is uncontrolled airspace. IER aircraIt will not operate in Class G
airspace. VER aircraIt can operate in Class G airspace.
Airspace oI deIined dimensions within which
the Ilight oI aircraIt is prohibited i.e. Airspace
surrounding the White House.
That airspace within which the Ilight oI
aircraIt while not wholly prohibited is subject
to restrictions. Restricted areas denote the
existence oI unusual, oIten invisible, hazards
to aircraIt such as artillery Iiring, aerial
gunner etc. Penetration oI restricted areas
without prior authorization Irom the
controlling agency may be extremely
hazardous to the aircraIt and its occupants.
Airspace oI deIined dimensions, extending
Irom three nm outward Irom the coast oI the
United States, that contains activity that may
be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraIt. A
warning area may be located over domestic or
international waters or both.
Airspace oI deIined vertical and lateral limits
established Ior the purpose oI separating
certain military training activities Irom IER
An area that may contain a high volume oI
pilot training or an unusual type oI aerial
activity. Pilots should be particularly alert
when Ilying in this area. You can proceed
through MOA`s but should do so with caution
and it is advised to contact the controlling
agency Ior traIIic advisories.
Contain activities, which, iI not conducted in
a controlled environment, could be hazardous
to non-participating aircraIt. Operations are
suspended immediately when an aircraIt
approaches the area. There is no need to chart
CEA`s since they do not cause a non-
participating aircraIt to change its Ilight path.
HYPOXIA: Is a state oI oxygen deIiciency in the body suIIicient to
impair Iunctions oI the brain and other organs. Judgment,
memory, alertness, coordination and ability to make
calculations are impaired, and headache, drowsiness,
dizziness and a sense oI well being (Euphoria) occur. It can
be visually recognized in extreme cases by cyanosis (A blue
tint to a person`s skin color notably ear lobes, Iinger tips,
and lips). Hypoxia is prevented by heeding Iactors that
reduce tolerance to altitude, by enriching the air or by
remaining at lower altitudes.
HYPERVENTILATION: Normally occurs when a stressIul situation is encountered
and can occur subconsciously. As hyperventilation 'blows
oII` excessive carbon dioxide Irom the body, a pilot can
experience systems oI light-headedness, suIIocation,
drowsiness, and tingling in the extremities. Incapacitation
can eventually result Irom in-coordination and painIul
muscle spasms. Reducing the stress or placing a paper bag
over the nose and mouth can eliminate the problem breath
CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING: Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas
contained in exhaust Iumes. When breathed in minute
quantities over a period oI time, it can signiIicantly reduce
the ability oI the blood to carry oxygen. |Consequently
eIIects oI hypoxia occur. A pilot who detects the odor oI
exhaust or experiences symptoms oI headache, drowsiness,
or dizziness while using the heater should immediately shut
oII the heater and open air vents. II symptoms are severe or
continued aIter landing, medical treatment should be sought.|
MOTION SICKNESS Generally brought about by turbulent conditions or anxiety. II
you have a passenger complaining oI motion sickness allow
some Iresh air into the cockpit, and try diverting the
passengers attention. Eind some smoother air and iI
necessary reduce airspeed. Get the passenger involved in the
Ilight by having them search Ior waypoints or looking Ior
other aircraIt, by doing so may divert their mind away Irom
the Iact that they are Ieeling ill. Usually occurs among
inexperienced passengers. Always carry a motion sickness
SPATIAL DISORIENTATION Many diIIerent illusions can be experienced in Ilight. Some
can lead to spatial disorientation. Others can lead to landing
errors. Illusions rank among the most common Iactors cited
as contributing to Iatal aircraIt accidents. Various complex
motions and Iorces and certain visual scenes encountered in
Ilight can create illusions oI motion and position. Spatial
disorientation Irom these illusions can be prevented only by
visual reIerence to reliable Iixed points on the ground or the
Ilight instruments.
Center oI gravity: The point at which an aircraIt would balance iI it were
suspended in air.
EIIects oI Iorward center oI gravity:
* Higher stall speed: stalling angle oI attack reached at a higher
speed due to increase wing loading.
* Slower cruise speeds: Increased drag, greater angle oI attack to
maintain level Ilight.
* More stable: When angle oI attack is increased, the
airplane tends to reduce angle oI attack;
longitudinal stability.
* Greater back elevator
Pressure required: Longer take-oII roll, higher approach speed
and harder to Ilare.
EIIects oI aIt center oI gravity:
* Lower stall speed: Less wing loading
* Higher cruise speeds: Reduced drag, smaller angle oI attack
required to maintain level Ilight, less drag.
* Less stable: Stall and spin recovery more diIIicult; when
angle oI attack is increased it tends to result
in additional increased angle oI attack.
The above inIormation is only a guideline to your oral. There are many other areas that can be
asked so use it only as an aide to your study. As I`m sure you realize the majority oI the oral
will be based on your cross country Ilight plan. Take time on it. Call and get weather
inIormation and present your Ilight plan in a neat and proIessional manner. In association
with the Ilight plan be Iamiliar with your sectional review the legend and be particularly
comIortable with all items, and symbols along your route oI Ilight. You can expect numerous
questions on airspace it is a 'must know area.
Regardless oI the aircraIt type you are Ilying usually the Iirst Iew minutes oI your oral will
consist oI completing a data sheet with weight and balance on the aircraIt. Commit the speeds
to memory and do a practice weight and balance the night beIore to ensure that you get oII to
a good start.
1. Beacon colors at civilian and military airports.
2. Night Ilying and how your eye operates.
3. Oxygen requirements.
4. Validity oI medical certiIicates.
5. Minimum equipment lists.
6. Euel requirements Ior day and night Ilight.
7. Altitude at which an altitude encoding altimeter is required.
8. Lost and diversion procedures.
9. Alcohol level in the blood.
10. Light signals associated with loss oI communications.
11. Instrument errors and Iailures.