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!/6 C omputer A dapti ve


Practi ce E xams
!/ B onus Q ues tion B ank for
F racti ons, D eci mal s,
& Percents
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for detai l s.
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P roblem Solving Lis t
Data Sufficiency Lis t
9dan l i at t an G M A T Prep
the new s tandard
11
21
23
25
39
41
45
55
57
63
69
71
75
T A BLE OF C ONT E NT S
79
85
88
89
IPart I: General \
1. D IGIT S & D E C IM A LS
In Action P roblems
Solutions
2. F RA C T IONS
In Action P roblems
Solutions
3. PE RC E NT S
In Action P roblems
Solutions
4. F D P's
In Action P roblems
Solutions
5. ST RA T E GIE S F OR D A T A SUF F IC IE NC Y
Sample Data Sufficiency Rephras ing
6. omC IA L GUID E PROBLE M S: PA RT I
Ipart II: A dvanced I
7. F D Ps: A D VA NC E D 91
In Action P roblems 103
Solutions 105
8. OF F IC IA L GUID E PROBLE M S: PA RT II 111
P roblem Solving Lis t 114
Data Sufficiency Lis t 115
PART I : GENERAL
T hi s part of the book covers both basi c and i ntermedi ate topi cs wi thi n F r ac t i on s,
D e c i mal s, &P e r c e n t s. C ompl ete Part I before movi ng on to Part II: A dvanced.
Chapter 1
----of--
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, at PERCENTS
DI GI TS &
DECI MAL S
I q . This Chapter

Pl ace Val ue
Usi ng Pl ace Val ue on the GM A T
Roundi ng to the Nearest Pl ace Val ue
A ddi ng Zeroes to D eci mal s
Powers of 10: Shi fti ng the D eci mal
T he Last D i gi t Shortcut
T he Heavy D i vi si on Shortcut
D eci mal Operati ons
DIGITS & DECIMALS STRATEGY
DECI MAL S
GM A T math goes beyond an understandi ng of the properti es of i ntegers (whi ch i ncl ude the
counti ng numbers, such as 1, 2, 3, thei r negati ve counterparts, such as -1, -2, -3, and 0).
T he GM A T al so tests your abi l i ty to understand the numbers that fal l i n between the i nte-
gers. Such numbers can be expressed as deci mal s. F or exampl e, the deci mal 6.3 fal l s between
the i ntegers 6 and 7.
I I
4
8 5 7
Some other exampl es of deci mal s i ncl ude:
D eci mal s l ess than -1: -3.65, -12.01, -145.9
D eci mal s between -1 and 0: -0.65, -0.8912, -0.076
D eci mal s between 0and 1: 0.65,0.8912,0.076
D eci mal s greater than 1: 3.65, 12.01, 145.9
Note that an i nteger can be expressed as a deci mal by addi ng the deci mal poi nt and the
di gi t O. F or exampl e:
8= 8.0 400= 400.0 -123 = -123.0
DI GI TS
E very number i s composed of di gi ts. T here are onl y ten di gi ts i n our number system:
0, 1,2,3,4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9. T he term di gi t refers to one bui l di ng bl ock of a number; i t does
not refer to a number i tsel f F or exampl e: 356 i s a number composed of three di gi ts: 3, 5,
and 6.
Integers can be cl assi fi ed by the number of di gi ts they contai n. F or exampl e:
2, 7, and -8are each si ngl e-di gi t numbers (they are each composed of one di gi t).
43,63, and -14 are each doubl e-di gi t numbers (composed of two di gi ts).
500,000 and -468,024 are each si x-di gi t numbers (composed of si x di gi ts).
789,526,622 i s a ni ne-di gi t number (composed of ni ne di gi ts).
Non-i ntegers are not general l y cl assi fi ed by the number of di gi ts they contai n, si nce you can
al ways add any number of zeroes at the end, on the ri ght si de of the deci mal poi nt:
9.1=9.10 =9.100
! M .anl i attanG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
Chapter 1
You can use a number
l i ne [0 deci de between
whi ch whol e numbers
a deci mal fal l s.
Chapter 1
You shoul d memori ze
the names of al l the pl ace
val ues.
DIGITS & DECI~ALS STRATEGY
Pl ace Val ue
E very di gi t i n a numbe has a parti cul ar pl ace val ue dependi ng on i ts l ocati on wi thi n the
number. F or exampl e, i the number 452, the di gi t 2 i s i n the ones (or "uni ts") pl ace, the
di gi t 5 i s i n the tens pl ~ce, and the di gi t 4 i s i n the hundreds pl ace. T he name of each l oca-
ti on corresponds to the! "val ue" of that pl ace. T hus:
2 i s worth two "uni ts" (two "ones"), or 2 (=2 x 1).
5 i s worth fi ve tens, or 50 (=5 x 10).
4 i s worth four hundreds, or 400 (=4 x 100).
I
:
We can now wri te the number 452 as the sum of these products:
452 =4 x 100 .+ 5 x 10 + 2 x 1
6 9 2 5 6 7 81 9 1 0 2 3 8 3 4 7
H T 0 H T 0 Hi T H T U T H T T
U E N U E N
u
E u E N E U H E
N N E N N E NI N N N I N N 0 N
D D D! D 5 T T D U
R R Ri R 5 H R S
E E Ei E 5 E A T
D D
01
D 0 D N H
5 R T D 0
,
H T U
B B B M M M T I T T 0 5 H 5
I I I I I I
H!
H H N 5 A
L L L L L L 010 0 E N
I
L L L L L L u' U U 5 D
I I I I I I
51
5 5 T
0 0 0 0 0 0
Ai
A A H
N N N N N N
NI
N N 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 Di D D
5i s 5
T he chart to the l eft anal yzes
the pl ace val ue of al l the di gi ts
i n the number:
692,567,891,023.8347
Noti ce that the pl ace val ues to
the l eft of the deci mal al l end
i n " -s," whi l e the pl ace val ues
to the ri ght of the deci mal al l
end i n "-ths." T hi s i s because
the suffi x "-ths" gi ves these
pl aces (to the ri ght of the deci -
mal ) a fracti onal val ue.
Let us anal yze the end bf the precedi ng number: 0.8347
!
8 i s i n the tenths pl ace, I gi vi ng i t a val ue of 8 tenths, or ~ .
I 10
3 i s i n the hundredths fl ace, gi vi ng i t a val ue of 3 hundredths, or 1~o .
i 4
4 i s i n the thousandths !pl ace, gi vi ng i t a val ue of 4 thousandths, or 1000'
i 7
7 i s i n the ten thousandths pl ace, gi vi ng i t a val ue of 7 ten thousandths, or 10 000 .
i '
T o use a concrete exampl e, 0.8 mi ght mean ei ght tenths of one dol l ar, whi ch woul d be 8
di mes or 80 cents. A ddi ti onal l y, 0.03 mi ght mean three hundredths of one dol l ar, whi ch
woul d be 3 penni es or $ cents.
9r f .anl i at t anG MAT' p r e p
the new s tandard
DIGITS & DECIMALS STRATEGY
Using Pl ace Val ue on the GMAT .
Some di ffi cul t GM A T probl ems requi re the use of pl ace val ue wi th unknown di gi ts.
A and B are both two-digit numbers , with A >B. If A and B contain the
s ame digits , but in revers e order, what integer mus t be a factor of (A - B)?
(A) 4 (B ) S (C) 6 (D) 8 (E) 9
T o sol ve thi s probl em, assi gn two vari abl es to be the di gi ts i n A and B: x and y.
Let A =~ (not the product of x and y: x i s i n the tens pl ace, and y i s i n the uni ts pl ace).
T he boxes remi nd you that x and y stand for di gi ts. A i s therefore the sum of x tens and y
ones. Usi ng al gebra, we wri te A =l Ox +y.
Si nce B's di gi ts are reversed, B =1l E J . A l gebrai cal l y, B can be expressed as l Oy +x. T he di f-
ference of A and B can be expressed as fol l ows:
A - B = l O x +Y - (l Oy +x) = 9x - 9y = 9(x - y)
C l earl y, 9 must be a factor of A-B. T he correct answer i s (E ).
You can al so make up di gi ts for x and y and pl ug them i n to create A and B. T hi s wi l l not
necessari l y yi el d the uni que ri ght answer, but i t shoul d hel p you el i mi nate wrong choi ces.
In general , for unknown di gi ts probl ems, be ready to create vari abl es (such as x, y, and z) to
represent the unknown di gi ts. Recogni ze that each unknown i s restri cted to at most 10 pos-
si bl e val ues (0 through 9). T hen appl y any gi ven constrai nts, whi ch may i nvol ve number
properti es such as di vi si bi l i ty or odds & evens.
Rounding to the Nearest Pl ace Val ue
T he GM A T occasi onal l y requi res you to round a number to a speci fi c pl ace val ue.
What is 3.681 rounded to the neares t tenth?
F i rst, fi nd the di gi t l ocated i n the speci fi ed pl ace val ue. T he di gi t 6 i s i n the tenths pl ace.
Second, l ook at the ri ght-di gi t-nei ghbor (the di gi t i mmedi atel y to the ri ght) of the di gi t i n
questi on. In thi s case, 8i s the ri ght-di gi t-nei ghbor of 6. If the ri ghr-di gi t-nei ghbori s 5 or
greater, round the di gi t i n questi on UP. Otherwi se, l eave the di gi t al one. In thi s case, si nce 8
i s greater than fi ve, the di gi t i n questi on (6) must be rounded up to 7. T hus, 3.681rounded
to the nearest tenth equal s 3.7. Note that al l the di gi ts to the ri ght of the ri ght-di gi t-nei gh-
bor are i rrel evant when roundi ng.
Roundi ng appears on the GM A T i n the form of questi ons such as thi s:
If x is the decimal 8.1dS, with d as an unknown digit, and x rounded to the
neares t tenth is equal to 8.1, which digits could not be the value of d?
In order for x to be 8.1when rounded to the nearest tenth, the ri ght-di gi t-nei ghbor, d, must
be l ess than 5. T herefore d cannot be 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9.
911.anf i at t anG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
Chapter 1
Pl ace val ue can hdp you
sol ve tough probl ems
about di gi ts.
15
Chapter 1
When you shi ft the
deci mal to the ri ght, the
number gets bi gger.
When you shi ft the
deci mal to the l eft, the
number gets smal l er.
16
DIGITS & DECIMALS STRATEGY
A ddi ng Zeroes i to D eci mal s
A ddi ng zeroes to the en~ of a deci mal or taki ng zeroes away from the end of a deci mal does
not change the val ue ofl the deci mal . F or exampl e: 3.6 = 3.60 = 3.6000
Be careful , however, not to add or remove any zeroes from wi thi n a number. D oi ng so wi l l
change the val ue of the !number: 7.01: ; t : . 7.1
Powers of 10: hi fti ng the D eci mal
Pl ace val ues conti nual l I decrease from l eft to ri ght by powers of 10. Understandi ng thi s can
hel p you understand th~fol l owi ng shortcuts for mul ti pl i cati on and di vi si on.
When you mul ti pl y an~number by a posi ti ve power of ten, move the deci mal forward
(ri ght) the speci fi ed number of pl aces. T hi s makes posi ti ve numbers l arger:
!
In words thousands hundreds tens ones tenths hundredths thousandths
In numbers 11000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001
In powers of ten
! 10
3
10
2
10
1
10 10-
1
10-
2
10-
3
,
3.9742 X 10
3
= ~,974.2
89.507 x 10= 895.07
(M ove the deci mal forward 3 spaces.)
(M ove the deci mal forward 1space.)
When you di vi de any number by a posi ti ve power of ten, move the deci mal backward (l eft)
the speci fi ed number o~pl aces. T hi s makes posi ti ve numbers smal l er:
i
4,169.2 + 10
2
=141.692
89.507 +10= $.9507
(M ove the deci mal backward 2 spaces.)
(M ove the deci mal backward 1space.)
Note that i f you need t~add zeroes i n order to shi fr a deci mal , you shoul d do so:
2.57 X 10
6
= 2,570,000
14.29+ 10
5
= 0~0001429
(A dd 4 zeroes at the end.)
(A dd 3 zeroes at the begi nni ng.)
F i nal l y, note that negati ve powers of ten reverse the regul ar process:
I
6,782.01 x 10-
3
1=6.78201 53.0447 + 10-
2
= 5,304.47
!
i
You can thi nk about thse processes as tradi ng deci mal pl aces for powers of ten.
F or i nstance, al l of the ~ol l owi ng numbers equal 110,700.
110.7 X 0
3
11.07 X 0
4
1.107 X 0
5
~.1107
X 0
6
I
~.01107
x .0
7
,
T he fi rst number gets smal l er by a factor of 10as we move the deci mal one pl ace to the l eft,
but the second number gets bi gger by a factor of 10to compensate.
I
: J v i an l i at t an G M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard
DIGITS & DECIMALS STRATEGY
The L ast Digit Shortcut
Someti mes the GM A T asks you to fi nd a uni ts di gi t, or a remai nder after di vi si on by 10.
In thi s probl em, you can use the Last D i gi t Shortcut:
T o fi nd the uni ts di gi t of a product or a sum of i ntegers, onl y pay attenti on to the
uni ts di gi ts of the numbers you are worki ng wi th. D rop any other di gi ts.
T hi s shortcut works because onl y uni ts di gi ts contri bute to the uni ts di gi t of the product.
ST E P 1: 7 x 7 =49
ST E P 2: 9 x 9 =81
ST E P 3: 3 x 3 x 3 =27
ST E P 4: 9 x 1x 7 =63
D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 9.
D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 1.
D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 7.
M ul ti pl y the l ast di gi ts of each of the products.
T he uni ts di gi t of the fi nal product i s 3.
The Heavy Division Shortcut
Some di vi si on probl ems i nvol vi ng deci mal s can l ook rather compl ex. But someti mes, you
onl y need to fi nd an approxi mate sol uti on. In these cases, you often can save yoursel f ti me
by usi ng the Heavy D i vi si on Shortcut: move the deci mal s i n the same di recti on and round
to whol e numbers.
What i s 1,530,794 -;-(31.49 x 10
4
) to the nearest whol e number?
Step 1: Set up the di vi si on probl em i n fracti on form:
1,530,794
31.49 x 10
4
1,530,794
314,900
Step 2: Rewri te the probl em, el i mi nati ng powers of 10:
~: Your goal i s to get a si ngl e di gi t to the l eft of the deci mal i n the denomi nator. In
thi s probl em, you need to move the deci mal poi nt backward 5 spaces. You can do thi s to
the denomi nator as l ong as you do the same thi ng to the numerator. (T echni cal l y, what
you are doi ng i s di vi di ng top and bottom by the same power of 10: 100,000)
1,530,794 15.30794
=
314,900 3.14900
Now you have the si ngl e di gi t 3 to the l eft of the deci mal i n the denomi nator.
Step 4: F ocus onl y on the whol e number parts of the
numerator and denomi nator and sol ve.
15.30794 ==11= 5
3.14900 3
A n approxi mate answer to thi s compl ex di vi si on probl em i s 5. If thi s answer i s not preci se
enough, keep one more deci mal pl ace and do l ong di vi si on (eg., 153 + 31 =4.9).
9danl i attanGM AT' Pr ep
the new s tandard
Chapter 1
Use the Heavy D i vi si on
Shortcut when you need
an approxi mate answer.
17
Chapter 1
T he rul es for deci mal
operati ons are di fferent
for each operati on.
18
D IGIT S & D E C I~A LS ST RA T E GY
D eci mal Oper~ti ons
A D D IT ION A ND SUJ 3T RA C T ION
T o add or subtract deci mal s, make sure to l i ne up the deci mal poi nts. T hen add zeroes to
make the ri ght si des of the deci mal s the same l ength.
4.319 +221.8
10- 0.063
Li ne up the
4.319
Li ne up the 10.000
deci mal poi nts +221.800
deci mal poi nts - 0.06,3
and add zeroes. 226.119
and add zeroes. 9.937
A ddi ti on & Subtracti o~: Li ne up the deci mal poi nts!
I
M ULT IPLIC A T ION I
T o mul ti pl y deci mal s, i $nore the deci mal poi nt unti l the end. J ust mul ti pl y the numbers as
you woul d i f they were whol e numbers. T hen count the t ot al number of di gi ts to the ri ght
of the deci mal poi nt i n ~he factors. T he product shoul d have the same number of di gi ts to
the ri ght of the deci mal l poi nr.
0.02 x 1.4
M ul ti pl y normal l y: 14
x2
28
I
T here are 3di gi ts to th~ri ght of the deci mal poi nt i n the factors (0 and 2 i n the fi rst factor
and 4 i n the second factor). T herefore, move the deci mal poi nt 3pl aces to the l eft i n the
product: 28 ~ 0.028. !
M ul ti pl i cati on: In the factors, count al l the di gi ts to the ri ght of the deci mal poi nt-
then put that many di Wts to the ri ght of the deci mal poi nt i n the product.
If the product ends wi rl i . 0, count i t i n thi s process: 0.8 x 0.5 = 0.40, si nce 8x 5 = 40.
If you are mul ti pl yi ng al very l arge number and a very smal l number, the fol l owi ng tri ck
works to si mpl i fy the cal cul ati on: move the deci mal s i n the opposi te di recti on the same
number of pl aces. .
0.0003 X 40,0001=?
M ove the deci mal poi nt RIGHT four pl aces on the 0.0003 ~ 3
M ove the deci mal poi nt LE F T four pl aces on the 40,000 ~ 4
I
0.0003 x 40,00~= 3x 4= 12
I
T he reason thi s techni que works i s that you are mul ti pl yi ng and then di vi di ng by the same
power of ten. In other "fords, you are tradi ng deci mal pl aces i n one number for deci mal
pl aces i n another number, T hi s i s just l i ke tradi ng deci mal pl aces for powers of ten, as we
saw earl i er.
9rf.anftattanG M~T 'Prep
the new s tandard
DIGITS & DECIMALS STRATEGY
D M SION
If there i s a deci mal poi nt i n the di vi dend (the i nner number) onl y, you can si mpl y bri ng
the deci mal poi nt strai ght up to the answer and di vi de normal l y.
E x. 12.42 +3 =4.14
4.14
3 ) 12 . 42
12
04
.3.
12
However, i f there i s a deci mal poi nt i n the di vi sor (the outer number), you shoul d shi ft the
deci mal poi nt i n both the di vi sor and the di vi dend to make the di v i sor a whol e number.
T hen, bri ng the deci mal poi nt up and di vi de.
E x: 12.42+ 0.3 -j> 124.2 +3 = 41.4
M ove the deci mal one space to the
ri ght to make 0.3a whol e number.
T hen, move the 'deci mal one space
i n 12.42 to make i t 124.2.
41.4
3 ) 12 4. 2
12
04
.3.
12
D i vi si on: D i vi de by whol e numbers!
You can al ways si mpl i fy di vi si on probl ems that i nvol ve deci mal s by shi fti ng the deci mal
poi nt i n the same di recti on i n both the di vi sor and the di vi dend, even when the di vi si on
probl em i s expressed as a fracti on:
0.0045 45 M ove the deci mal 4 spaces to the ri ght to make
both the numerator and the denomi nator
whol e numbers.
=
0.09 900
Note that thi s i s essenti al l y the same process as si mpl i fyi ng a fracti on. You are si mpl y mul -
ti pl yi ng the numerator and denomi nator of the fracti on by a power of ten-i n thi s case,
10\ or 10,000.
Keep track of how you move the deci mal poi nt! T o si mpl i fy mul ti pl i cati on, you can move
deci mal s i n opposi te di recti ons. But to si mpl i fy di vi si on, you move deci mal s i n the same
di recti on.
E qui val entl y, by addi ng zeroes, you can express the numerator and the denomi nator as the
same uni ts, then si mpl i fy:
0.0045
0.09
= 0.0045 = 45 ten thousandths +900 ten-thousandths = ~ = _5_ = 0 05
0.0900 900 100 .
: M anl i attanG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
Chapter 1
Remember, i n order to
di vi de deci mal s. you
must make me OUI'E R
number a whol e
number by shi fti ng the
deci mal poi nt.
19
Chapter 1
T ake a power or a root of
a deci mal by spl i tti ng the
deci mal i nto 2 pares: an
i nteger and a power of
ten.
20
DIGITS & DECI~ALS STRATEGY
POWE RS A ND ROOIS
T o square or cube a deci mal , you can al ways si mpl y mul ti pl y i t by i tsel f once or twi ce.
However, to rai se a deci mal to a l arger power, you can rewri te the deci mal as the product of
an i nteger and a power of ten, and then appl y the exponent.
(0.5)4 =?
Rewri te the deci mal :
0.5 =5 x 10-
1
A ppl y the exponent to each part:
I
C ompute the fi rst part td combi ne: 54= 25
2
= 625
I 625 x 10-
4
= 0.0625
Sol ve for roots of deci mal s the same way. Recal l that a root i s a number rai sed to a fracti on-
al power: a square root i ~a number rai sed to the 112power, a cube root i s a number rai sed
to the 113power, etc. '
~O.000027 =? i
Rewri te the deci mal . M ake the fi rst number somethi ng you can take the cube root of easi l y:
0.000027 =27 *10-
6
Wri te the root as a fracttonal exponent:
A ppl y the exponent to each part:
C ompute the fi rst part J nd combi ne:
I
(0.000027)1/3 = (27 X 10-
6
)1/3
(27) 1/3x (10-6)113= (27) 1/3x 10-
2
(27) 1/3= 3 (si nce 3
3
= 27)
3x 10-
2
=0.03
Powers and roots: R~i te the decimal using powers of ten!
I
Once you understand the pri nci pl es, you can take a shortcut by counti ng deci mal pl aces.
F or i nstance, the number of deci mal pl aces i n the resul t of a cubed deci mal i s 3ti mes the
number of deci mal pl aces i n the ori gi nal deci mal :
(0.04)3 = 0.000064
i
(0.04)3 = 0.000064
2 pl ac e s 2x 3=6pl ac e s
Li kewi se, the number of deci mal pl aces i n a cube root i s 1/3 the number of deci mal pl aces
i n the ori gi nal deci mal : i
~0.000000008 1=0.002 ~0.000000008
9 pl ac e s
= 0.002
9+3=3pl ac e s
However, make sure that you can work wi th powers of ten usi ng exponent rul es.
: Nf .anl i at t anG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON DIGITS & DECIMALS P ROB LEM SET
Probl em Set
Chapter 1
Sol ve each probl em, appl yi ng the concepts and rul es you l earned i n thi s secti on.
1.
2 .
3 .
4.
What is the s um of all the pos s ible 3-digit numbers that can be cons tructed us ing
the digits 3, 4, and 5, if each digit can be us ed only once in each number?
In the decimal, 2.4d7, d repres ents a digit from 0 to 9. If the value of the decimal
rounded to the neares t tenth is les s than 2:5, what are the pos s ible values of d?
If k is an integer, and if 0.02468 x 10
k
is greater than 10, 000, what is the leas t
pos s ible value of k?
5. Which integer values of b would give the number 2002 +10-
b
a value between
1 and 100?
6.
. 4 509 982 344
Es timate to the neares t 10, 000:' , , 4
5.342 x 10
7 . Simplify: (4.5 x 2+6.6) +0.003
8 . Simplify: (4 x 10-
2
)- (2.5 x 10-
3
)
9. What is 4, 563, 021 + 10
5
, rounded to the neares t whole number?
10. Simplify: (0.08)2+0.4
11. Data Sufficiency: The number A is a two-digit pos itive integer; the number B is the
two-digit pos itive integer formed by revers ing the digits of A. If Q = l O B - A , what
is the value of Q ?
(1) The tens digit of A is 7.
(2) The tens digit of B is 6.
12. Simplify: [8 - (1.08 +6.9)]2
13. Which integer values of jwould give the number -37, 129 x l Oi a value between
-100 and -1?
9danf zattanG MAT Prep
the new s tandard 21
Chapter 1
DIGITS & DECIMALSI P ROB LEM SET
14 S
I' fy 0.00081
. Impi :--
0.09
15. Simplify: ~O.00000256
: M .anl i attan GMAT" Pr e p
22 the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY D IGIT S & D E C IM A LS SOLUT IONS Chapter 1
1. 4: Use the Last D i gi t Shortcut, i gnori ng al l di gi ts but the l ast i n any i ntermedi ate products:
ST E P ONE : 2
5
= 32 D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 2.
ST E P T WO: 3
3
= 27 D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 7.
ST E P T HRE E : 4
2
=16 D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 6.
ST E P F OUR: 2x 7 x 6 = 84 D rop the tens di gi t and keep onl y the l ast di gi t: 4.
2. 2664: T here are 6 ways i n whi ch to arrange these di gi ts: 345, 354, 435, 453, 534, and 543. Noti ce that
each di gi t appears twi ce i n the hundreds col umn, twi ce i n the tens col umn, and twi ce i n the ones col umn.
T herefore, you can use your knowl edge of pl ace val ue to fi nd the sum qui ckl y:
100(24) + 10(24) +(24) = 2400 +240 +24= 2664.
3. to, 1,2,3, 4}: If d i s 5 or greater, the deci mal rounded to the nearest tenth wi l l be 2.5.
4.6: M ul ti pl yi ng 0.02468 by a posi ti ve power of ten wi l l shi ft the deci mal poi nt to the ri ght. Si mpl y shi ft
the deci mal poi nt to the ri ght unti l the resul t i s greater than 10,000. Keep track of how many ti mes you
shi ft the deci mal poi nt. Shi fti ng the deci mal poi nt 5 ti mes resul ts i n 2,468. T hi s i s sti l l l ess than 10,000.
Shi fti ng one more pl ace yi el ds 24,680, whi ch i s greater than 10,000.
5. {-2, -3}: In order to gi ve 2002 a val ue between 1and 100, we must shi ft the deci mal poi nt to change
the number to 2.002 or 20.02. T hi s requi res a shi ft of ei ther two or three pl aces to the l eft. Remember
that, whi l e mul ti pl i cati on shi fts the deci mal poi nt to the ri ght, di vi si on shi fts i t to the l eft. T o shi ft the dec-
i mal poi nt 2 pl aces to the l eft, we woul d di vi de by 10
2
T o shi ft i t 3 pl aces to the l eft, we woul d di vi de by
10
3
T herefore, the exponent -b = {2, 3}, and b = {-2, -3}.
6. 90,000: Use the Heavy D i vi si on Shortcut to esti mate:
4,509,982,344 4,500,000,000 450,000
~......:.....:"--=-- "' " = = 90,000
53,420 50,000 5
7.5,200: Use the order of operati ons, PE M D A S (Parentheses, E xponents, M ul ti pl i cati on & D i vi si on,
A ddi ti on and Subtracti on) to si mpl i fy.
9+6.6 = 15.6 = 15,600 =5200
0.003 0.003 3 '
8. 0.0375: F i rst, rewri te the numbers i n standard notati on by shi fti ng the deci mal poi nt. T hen, add zeroes,
l i ne up the deci mal poi nts, and subtract.
0.0400
- 0.0025
0.0375
9.46: T o di vi de by a posi ti ve power of 10, shi ft the deci mal poi nt to the l eft. T hi s yi el ds 45.63021. T o
round to the nearest whol e number, l ook at the tenths pl ace. T he di gi t i n the tenths pl ace, 6, i s more than
fi ve. T herefore, the number i s cl osest to 46.
10.0.016: Use the order of operati ons, PE M D A S (Parentheses, E xponents, M ul ti pl i cati on & D i vi si on,
A ddi ti on and Subtracti on) to si mpl i fy. Shi ft the deci mal s i n the numerator and denomi nator so that you
are di vi di ng by an i nteger.
(0.08)2=0.0064 =0.064 =0.016
0.4 0.4 4
9danl i attanGM AT' Pr ep
the new s tandard 211
Chapter 1
D IGIT S & D E C IM A LS ~OLUT IONS I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
11. (B) Statement (2) A LONE i s suffi ~i ent, but statement (1) al one i s not suffi ci ent. Wri te A as XY,
where X and Yare di gi ts (X i s the tens qi gi t of A and Yi s the uni ts di gi t of A ). T hen B can be wri tten as
IT , wi th reversed di gi ts. Wri ti ng these $umbers i n al gebrai c rather than di gi tal form, we have A =lOX + Y
and B = lOY +X T herefore, Q = lOB - A = 10(l OY +X) - (l OX + y) = 100Y + lOX - lOX - Y= 99Y.
T he val ue of Q onl y depends on the val ue of Y, whi ch i s the tens di gi t of B. T he val ue of X i s i rrel evant to
Q T herefore, statement (2) al one i s SUfF IC IE NT .
i
You can al so make up and test numbers' to get the same resul t, but al gebra i s faster and more transparent.
F or i nstance, i f we take Y =7, then Q =9 693, whi ch contai ns no 7's di gi ts. T hus, i t may be hard to see how
Q depends on Y.
12. 0.0004: Use the order of operati ons, PE M D A S (Parentheses, E xponents, M ul ti pl i cati on & D i vi si on,
A ddi ti on and Subtracti on) to si mpl i fy.
i
F i rst, add 1.08 +6.9 by l i ni ng 9P the deci mal poi nts: 1.08
~
7.98
8.00
~
0.02
0.02
xO.02
0.0004
i
T hen, subtract 7.98 from 8 by l i ni ng up the deci mal poi nts,
addi ng zeroes to make the deci mal s the same l ength:
F i nal l y, square 0.02, conservi ng ~he number of di gi ts to the
ri ght of the deci mal poi nt. .
13. {-3, -4}: In order to gi ve -37,129 ~val ue between -100 and -1, we must shi ft the deci mal poi nt to
change the number to -37.129 or -3.7t29. T hi s requi res a shi ft of ei ther two or three pl aces to the l eft.
Remember that mul ti pl i cati on shi fts th~deci mal poi nt to the ri ght. T o shi ft the deci mal poi nt 3 pl aces to
the l eft, we woul d mul ti pl y by 10-
3
T o shi ft i t 4 pl aces to the l eft, we woul d mul ti pl y by 10-
4
T herefore,
the e xpon e n t j = {-3, -4}.
14. 0.009: Shi ft the deci mal poi nt 2 spaces to el i mi nate the deci mal poi nt i n the denomi nator.
0.00081
0.09
=
0.081
9
T hen di vi de. F i rst, drop the 3 deci mal pl aces: 81 .;. 9 = 9. T hen put the 3 deci mal pl aces back: 0.009
15. 0.2: Wri te the expressi on as a deci mal rai sed to a fracti onal power, usi ng powers of ten to separate the
base from the exponent: (0.00000256)11~ = (256)1/8 X (10-
8
)118. Now, you can compute each component
separatel y and combi ne them at the fl ni *h: (256)118 x (10-
8
)1/8 =2 X 10-
1
=0.2.
24
M an l i at t an GM A T Prep
the new s tandard
Chapter 2
---of--
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, & P ERCENTS
FRACTI ONS
I ri This Chapter . . .
Numerator and D enomi nator Rul es
j. Si mpl i fyi ng Proper F racti ons
Ie Si mpl i fyi ng Improper F racti ons
,. T he M ul ti pl i cati on Shortcut
I No A ddi ti on or Subtracti on Shortcuts
i D i vi di ng F racti ons: Use the Reci procal
D i vi si on i n D i sgui se
i F racti on Operati ons: F unky Resul ts
I C ompari ng F racti ons: C ross-M ul ti pl y
i. Never Spl i t the D enomi nator
!. Benchmark Val ues
Smart Numbers: M ul ti pl es of the D enomi nators
When Not to Use Smart Numbers
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
F RA C T IONS
D eci mal s are one way of expressi ng the numbers that fal l i n between the i ntegers. A nother
way of expressi ng these numbers i s fracti ons.
F or exampl e, the fracti on ~, whi ch equal s 6.5, fal l s between the i ntegers 6 and 7.
13
2
I
4 6 5 7 8
Proper &acti ons are those that fal l between 0 and 1. In proper fracti ons, the numerator i s
al ways smal l er than the denomi nator. F or exampl e:
1 1 2 7
4' 2 ' 3 " ' 10
Improper &acti ons are those that are greater than 1. In i mproper fracti ons, the numerator
i s greater than the denomi nator. F or exampl e:
5 13 11 101
4' 2' 3' 10
Improper fracti ons can be rewri tten as mi xed numbers. A mi xed number i s an i nteger and a
proper fracti on. F or exampl e:
5 1
-=1-
4 4
Ji=6..!..
2 2
2!=3~
3 3
101 = 10_1_
10 10
A l though al l the precedi ng exampl es use posi ti ve fracti ons, note that fracti ons and mi xed
numbers can be negati ve as wel l .
9tf.anliattanG M A T Prep
the new s tandard
C hapter 2
Proper and i mproper
&acti ons behave
di fferendy i n many cases.
27
Chapter 2
T hese rul es onl y appl y to
posi ti ve proper
fracti ons!
FRACTI ONS ST~TEGY
Numerator anf Denominator Rul es
C ertai n key rul es govern the rel ati onshi p between the numerator (the top number) and the
denomi nator (the bortqrn number) of proper fracti ons. T hese rul es are i mportant to i nter-
nal i ze, but keep i n mi nd that, as wri tten. they onl y appl y to positive & actions.
A s the NUM E RA T ORi goes up, the fracti on INC RE A SE S. If you i ncrease the numerator of
a fracti on, whi l e hol di ng the denomi nator constant, the fracti on i ncreases i n val ue.
1 2: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- <- i<- <- <- <- <- <- <- <- <...
8 8' 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
A s the D E NOM INA T ~R goes up, the fracti on D E C RE A SE S. If you i ncrease the denomi -
nator of a fracti on, whi te hol di ng the numerator constant, the fracti on decreases i n val ue as
i t approaches O. !
33333 3
- >-+ >- >- >- ...>-- ...~0
2 3 4 5 6 1000
A ddi ng the same number to BOT H the numerator and the denomi nator bri ngs the fracti on
C LOSE R T O 1, regardl ess of the fracti on's val ue.
If the fracti on i s ori gi nal l y smal l er than 1, the fracti on increases i n val ue as i t approaches 1.
<1!+1 _ 2 2+9 11 11+1000 1011
<-- =-< =
2 2+1 - "3
3+9 12 12+1000 1012
T hus:
1
.2
11 1011
1
<-., ..
<- <-- ... ~
2
~
12 1012
C onversel y, i f the fracti on i s ori gi nal l y l arger than 1, the fracti on decreases i n val ue as i t
approaches 1.
3 31+1 4 4+9 13 13+1000 1013
>_.- =
>-- = -> ---
2 2+1 3 3+9 12 12+1000 1012
T hus:
3 4 13 1013
1 -> -> >-- ... ~
2 3! 12 1012
9r f .anl i at t anG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
Simpl ifying Fractions
Si mpl i fyi ng fracti ons i s a process that attempts to express a fracti on i n i ts l owest terms.
F racti onal answers on the GM A T wi l l al ways be presented i n ful l y si mpl i fi ed form. T he
process of si mpl i fyi ng i s governed by one si mpl e rul e:
M ULT IPLYING or D M D ING both the numerator and the denomi nator by the same
number does not change the val ue of the fracti on.
4 4(3) 12 12(2) 24
-=--=-=--=-
5 5(3) 15 15(2) 30
24 24+6 4
-=--=-
30 30+6 5
Si mpl i fyi ng a fracti on means di vi di ng both the numerator and the denomi nator by a
common factor. T hi s must be repeated unti l no common factors remai n.
40 40+5 8 8+2 4
-=--=-=--=-
30 30+5 6 6+2 3
40 40+10 4
or i n one step: - = --- = -
30 30+10 3
Converting I mproper Fractions to Mixed Numbers
T o convert an i mproper fracti on i nto a mi xed number, si mpl y di vi de the numerator by the
denomi nator, stoppi ng when you reach a remai nder smal l er than the denomi nator.
9 2
-=9+4=4}9
4 8
1
Si nce 9+4 =2 wi th a remai nder of 1, we can wri te the
i mproper fracti on as the i nteger 2 wi th a fracti onal part of 1
over the ori gi nal denomi nator of 4.
9 1
T hus -=2-.
' 4 4
T hi s process can al so work i n reverse. In order to convert a mi xed number i nto an i mproper
fracti on (somethi ng you need to do i n order to mul ti pl y or di vi de mi xed numbers), use the
fol l owi ng procedure:
2..!. M ul ti pl y the whol e number (2)by the denomi nator (4)and add the numerator (1):
4
2x 4+1= 9 Now pl ace the number 9 over the ori gi nal denomi nator, 4: .2.
4
A l ternati vel y, si nce 2..!. = 2+..!., just spl i t the mi xed fracti on i nto i ts two parts and rewri te
4 4
the whol e number usi ng a common denomi nator:
1 1 8 1 9
2-=2+-=-+-=-
4 4 4 4 4
9t 1.anf u zt t anG MAT Prep
the new s tandard
Chapter 2
Si mpl i fyfracti ons by
mul ti pl yi ng or di vi di ng
both the numerator and
the denomi nator bythe
same nwnber.
29
Chapter 2
T hi s shortcut i s known
as "cancel l i ng."
30
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
The Mul tipl ication Shortcut
T o mul ti pl y fracti ons, rst mul ti pl y the numerators together, then mul ti pl y the denomi na-
tors together, and fi nal l y si mpl i fy your resul ti ng product by expressi ng i t i n l owest terms.
F or exampl e:
8 35
+--x- =
115 72
8(35)
15(72)
280 28 7
= =-- =
1080 108 27
T here i s, however, a shorrcur that can make fracti on mul ti pl i cati on much l ess tedi ous.
T he shortcut i s to si mpl i fy your products BE F ORE mul ti pl yi ng. T hi s i s al so known as
"cancel l i ng."
Noti ce that the 8 i n th~numerator and the 72 i n the denomi nator both have 8 as a factor.
T hus, they can be si mpl i fi ed from ~ to ~.
72 9
Noti ce al so that 35 i n the numerator and 15 i n the denomi nator both have 5 as a factor.
T hus, they can be si mpl i fi ed from ~ to Z.
15 3
Now the mul ti pl i cati on
i
wi l l be easi er and no further si mpl i fi cati on wi l l be necessary:
,
8 35
" " '---x- =
15 72
8(35)
15(72)
1(7) 7
=--=-
3(9) 27
Al ways try to cancel fa~ors before mul tipl ying & actions!
In order to mul ti pl y mi xed numbers, you shoul d fi rst convert each mi xed number i nto an
i mproper fracti on:
1 3
l -x6-
13 5
7 33
= -x-
3 5
You can si mpl i fy the probl em, usi ng the mul ti pl i cati on shortcut of cancel l i ng, and then
convert the resul t to a mi xed number:
7 33
-x-
$ 5
7(33) 7(11)
=--=--=
3(5) 1(5)
J.Z =15~
5 5
: Manf i at t an G M AT" Pr e p
the new s tandard
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
No A ddi ti on or Subtracti on Shortcuts
Whi l e shortcuts are very useful when mul ti pl yi ng fracti ons, you must be careful NOT to
take any shortcuts when addi ng or subtracti ng fracti ons. In order to add or subtract frac-
ti ons, you must:
(1) fi nd a common denomi nator
(2)change each fracti on so that i t i s expressed usi ng thi s common denomi nator
(3) add up the numerators onl y
You may need to si mpl i fy the resul t when you are fi ni shed; the resul ti ng fracti on may not
be i n reduced form.
3 7
i +12
9 14
-+-
24 24
9 14 23
24 +24=24
A nother exampl e:
11 7
---
IS 30
22 7
---
3 0 3 0
22 7 15
---=-
3 0 3 0 3 0
15 1
-=-
3 0 2
.. 3 9 7 14
A common denomi nator IS 24. T hus, 8"= 24 and 12 = 24'
E xpress each fracti on usi ng the common denomi nator 24.
F i nal l y, add the numerators to fi nd the answer.
Ad' . 30 11 22 d 7 th
common enommator IS 15= 30an 30stays e same.
E xpress each fracti on usi ng the common denomi nator 30.
Subtract the numerators.
Si mpl i fy .!2. to fi nd the answer: 21
30
In order to add or subtract mi xed numbers, you can convert to i mproper fracti ons, or you
can set up the probl em verti cal l y and sol ve the fracti on fi rst and the whol e number l ast.
A ddi ti on
7~=7~
3 6
1 3
+4-=4-
2 6
Subtracti on You may wi nd up wi th a negati ve
fracti on. Si mpl y combi ne i t after-
wards wi th the whol e number as
shown bel ow.
7~=7~=7+~
3 6 6
1 3 3
-4"2=4"6=4+"6
3+-
1
=2+
2
:2
2
6 6 6
9danfiattanG M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard
C hapter 2
T o add and subtract frac-
ti ons, you must l i nd a
common denonl i nator.
C hapter 2
T o di vi de fracti ons, l i p
the second fracti on and
mul ti pl y.
3 2
FRACTIONS ST~TEGY
D i vi di ng F racti ons: Use the Reci procal
In order to di vi de fracti ons, you must fi rst understand the concept of the reci procal . You
can thi nk of the reci prccal as the fracti on fl i pped upsi de down.
T he reci procal of 1. i s 4
4 3
T he reci procal of ~ i s 2..
9 2
What i s the reci procal of an i nteger? T hi nk of an i nteger as a fracti on wi th a denomi nator
of 1. T hus, the i nteger 5 i s real l y just 2. T o fi nd the reci procal , just fl i p i t.
, 1
T he reci procal of S or 2- i s ~.
'1 5
T he reci procal of S i s ~.
T o check i f you have fo!und the reci procal of a number, use thi s rul e: T he product of a
number and i ts reci precal al ways equal s 1. T he fol l owi ng exampl es reveal thi s to be true:
151 5
px-=-x-=-=1
, 5 155
In order to di vi de fracti ons,
(1) change the di vi sor i nto i ts reci procal , and then
(2) mul ti pl y thel fracti ons. Note that the di vi sor i s the second number:
1 3
P
h h di 3. . . al 4
rrst, c ange t e rvi sor - i nto ItS recl proc -.
4 3
-.-
2 4
1 442
-x-=-=-
2 3 6 3
T hen, mul ti pl y the fracti ons and si mpl i fy to l owest terms.
In order to di vi de mi xed numbers, fi rst change them i nto i mproper fracti ons:
S.!+S.!.. =12+l Z.
3 2 3 2
17 2 2
-x-=-
3 17 3
T h h
th di vi 17. . . al 2
en, c ange e rvi sor - i nto Its recl proc -.
2 17
M ul ti pl y the fracti ons, cancel l i ng where you can.
9rtanl i attanGM A T *Prep
the new s tandard
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
Division in Disguise
Someti mes, di vi di ng fracti ons can be wri tten i n a confusi ng way. C onsi der one of the previ -
ous exampl es:
~-:- !can al so be wri tten as a "doubl e-decker" fracti on thi s way:
1
2
3
4
D o not be confused. You can rewri te thi s as the top fracti on di vi ded by the bottom fracti on,
and sol ve i t normal l y (by usi ng the reci procal of the bottom fracti on and then mul ti pl yi ng).
1
2
3
4
1 3 144 2
=--:--=-x-=-=-
2 4 2 3 6 3
A l so noti ce that you can often si mpUfy qui ckl y by mul ti pl yi ng both top and bottom by a
common denomi nator:
1 . . ! . . x 4
2 2 2
3=-3- -=3
- - x 4
4 4
Fraction Operations: Funky Resul ts
A ddi ng and subtracti ng fracti ons l eads to expected resul ts. When you add two posi ti ve frac-
ti ons, you get a l arger number. When you subtract a posi ti ve fracti on from somethi ng el se,
you get a smal l er number.
However, mul ti pl i cati on and di vi si on of proper fracti ons (fracti ons between 0 and 1) yi el ds
UNE XPE C T E D resul ts. M ul ti pl yi ng two proper fracti ons yi el ds a SM A LLE R number.
D i vi di ng two proper fracti ons yi el ds a LA RGE R number.
OPERATI ON EXAMPL E I NCREASE OR DECREASE
A ddi ng 3 1 4
I NCREASE: Si mi l ar to addi ng pos-
-+-=-
i ti ve i ntegers, addi ng fracti ons
F racti ons
555
i ncreases thei r val ue.
Subtracti ng 3 1 2
DECREASE: Si mi l ar to subtracti ng
---=-
posi ti ve i ntegers, subtracti ng frac-
F racti ons
5 5 5
ti ons decreases thei r val ue.
M ul ti pl yi ng
3 1 3
DECREASE: Unl i ke mul ti pl yi ng
F racti ons
-x-=-
posi ti ve i ntegers, mul ti pl yi ng frac-
5 5 25
ti ons decreases thei r val ue.
D i vi di ng
3 1 3 5
I NCREASE: Unl i ke di vi di ng posi -
+-=- x-=3
ti ve i ntegers, di vi di ng fracti ons
F racti ons
5 5 5
1
i ncreases thei r val ue.
9danf tattattG MAT' Prep
t he ne w st andar d
Chapter 2
M ul ti pl yi ng and
di vi di ng posi ti ve proper
fracti ons may yi dd
. . uncxpccted resul ts.
Chapter 2
C ross-mul ti pl i cati on can
hel p you compare sets of
several fracti ons.
34
FRACTIONS ST~TEGY
Comparing Fractions: Cross-Mul tipl y
Which fractionl is greater, !... or ~?
9 5
T he tradi ti onal method of compari ng fracti ons i nvol ves fi ndi ng a common denomi nator
and compari ng the two fracti ons. T he common denomi nator of 9 and 5 i s 45.
7 35 4 36 4 7
T hus, - = -45 and - == -.-. We can see that - i s sl i ghtl y bi gger than -.
9 5 45 5' 9
However, there i s a shortcut to compari ng fracti ons cal l ed cross-mul ti pl i cati on. T hi s i s a
process that i nvol ves mul ti pl yi ng the numerator of one fracti on wi th the denomi nator of
the other fracti on, and ri ce versa:
Set up the fracti ons next to each other.
( 7 x 5)
35
(4 x 9)
36
4
5
C ross-mul ti pl y the fracti ons and put each answer by the
correspondi ng numerator (NOT the denomi nator!)
Si nce 35 i s l ess than 36, the fi rst fracti on must be l ess than the
second one.
7
9
<
T hi s process can save you a l ot of ti me when compari ng fracti ons (usual l y more than two!)
on the GM A T .
Never Spl it the! Denominator
One fi nal rul e, perhaps i the most i mportant one, i s one that you must al ways remember
when worki ng wi th compl ex fracti ons. A compl ex fracti on i s a fracti on i n whi ch there i s a
sum or a di fference i n ~e numerator or the denomi nator. T hree exampl es of compl ex frac-
ti ons are:
(a)
15 +10
5
15 +10
(c) 5 +2
5
(b) 15 +10
In exampl e (a), the numerator i s expressed as a sum.
In exampl e (b), the denpmi nator i s expressed as a sum.
In exampl e (c), both th~numerator and the denomi nator are expressed as sums.
i
When si mpl i fyi ng fracti ons that i ncorporate sums or di fferences, remember thi s rul e: You
I
may spl i t up the terms ~f the numerator, but you may NE VE R spl i t the terms of the
D E NOM INA T OR.
: M .anl i attanG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
T hus, the terms .i n exampl e (a) may be spl i t:
15+10 =J 2. +~ =3+2=5
5 5 5
But the terms i n exampl e (b) may not be spl i t:
5 ;t:2.+2. NO!
15+10 15 10
Instead, si mpl i fy the denomi nator fi rst:
551
---=-=-
15+ 10 25 5
T he terms i n exampl e (c) may not be spl i t ei ther:
15+10 ;t: J 2. +~ NO!
5+2 5 2
Instead, si mpl i fy both parts of the fracti on:
15+ 10 = 32.. :::3i
5 +2 7 7
Often, GM A T probl ems wi l l i nvol ve compl ex fracti ons wi th vari abl es. On these
probl ems, i t i s tempti ng to spl i t the denomi nator. D o not fal l for i t!
It i s tempti ng to perform the fol l owi ng si mpl i fi cati on:
5x - 2y =~ _2y =5_ 2 =3
x-y x Y
But thi s i s WRONG because you cannot spl i t terms i n the denomi nator.
T he real i ty i s that 5x - 2y cannot be si mpl i fi ed further.
x-y
6x-15y " ..
On the other hand, the expressi on 10 can be si mpl i fi ed by spl i tti ng the
di fference, because thi s di fference appears i n the numerator.
T hus: 6x-15y = ~_..! .?L = ~_ 3y
10 10 10 5 2
9danl i attanG MAT' Pr e p
t he ne w st andar d
Ch. apter 2
You can NE VE R spl i t
the denomi nator!
35
Chapter 2
When you fi nd seemi ng-
l y compl i cated fracti ons
on the GM A T , use
Benchmark Val ues to
make sense of them.
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
Benchmark Val ues
You wi l l use a vari ety of esti mati ng strategi es on the GM A T . One i mportant strategy for
esti mati ng wi th fracti ons i s to use Benchmark Val ues. T hese are si mpl e fracti ons wi th whi ch
you are al ready fami l i ar:
111112 3
10' 5' 4' 3' 2' 3' and 4
You can use Benchmark Val ues to compare fracti ons:
Wh
O h . i 127 162 "\
Ie ISgreater:-- or --r
255 320
If you recogni ze that 127 i s l ess than hal f of 255, and 162 i s more than hal f of 320, you
wi l l save yoursel f a l ot of cumbersome computati on.
You can al so use Benchmark Val ues to esti mate computati ons i nvol vi ng fracti ons:
105
What i s - of - of 20007
22 18
If you recogni ze that these fracti ons are very cl ose to the Benchmark Val ues ~ and ~, you
can esti mate:
1 1 10 5
- of - of2000 =250. T herefore, - of- of2000 =250.
2 4 22 18
Noti ce that the roundi ng errors compensated for each other.
10 10 1
-::::-=-
22 20 2
5 5 1
-::::::;-=-
18 20 4
. 10 1
You decreased the denomi nator, so you rounded up: - <-
22 2
ou i ncreased the denomi nator, so you rounded down: ~ >~
, 18 4
5 6 1
If you had rounded - to - =- i nstead, then you woul d have rounded both fracti ons up.
18 18 3
T hi s woul d l ead to a sl i ght but systemati c overesti mati on.
1 1
-x-x2000 ~333
2 3
T ry to make your roundi ng errors cancel by roundi ng some numbers up and others down.
: Jr tanl i attanG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
Smart Numbers: M ul ti pl es of the D enomi nators
Someti mes, fracti on probl ems on the GM A T i ncl ude unspeci fi ed numeri cal amounts;
often these unspeci fi ed amounts are descri bed by vari abl es. In these cases, pi ck real numbers
to stand i n for the vari abl es. T o make the computati on easi er, choose Smart Numbers equal
to common mul ti pl es of the denomi nators of the fracti ons i n the probl em.
F or exampl e, consi der thi s probl em:
The Crandalls ' hot tub is half filled. Their s wimming pool, which has a
capacity four times that of the tub, is filled to four-fifths of its capacity.
If the hot tub is drained into the s wimming pool, to what fraction of its
capacity will the pool be filled?
T he denomi nators i n thi s probl em are 2 and 5. T he Smart Number i s the l east common
denomi nator, whi ch i s 10. T herefore, assi gn the hot tub a capaci ty of 10 uni ts. Si nce the
swi mmi ng pool has a capaci ty 4 ti mes that of the pool , the swi mmi ng pool has a capaci ty of
40 uni ts. We know that the hot tub i s onl y hal f-fi l l ed; therefore, i t has 5 uni ts of water i n i t.
T he swi mmi ng pool i s four-fi fths of the way fi l l ed, so i t has 32 uni ts of water i n i t.
Let us add the 5 uni ts of water from the hot tub to the 32 uni ts of water that are al ready i n
the swi mmi ng pool : 32 +5 = 37.
Wi th 37 uni ts of water and a total capaci ty of 40, the pool wi l l be fi l l ed to !~of i ts total
capaci ty.
swi mmi ng pool
capaci ty: 40 uni ts
4/ 5 fi l l ed: 32 uni ts
hot tub
capaci ty: 10 uni ts
112fi l l ed: 5 uni ts
5l 1anhattanGM A T *Prep
the new s tandard
Chapter 2
You can often use Smart
Numbers to hel p you
sol ve probl ems wi th
unspcci fl ed amounts.
37
Chapter 2
If there i s even 1speci -
fi ed amount i n a prob-
l em, you cannot use
Smart Numbers to
sol ve i t.
FRACTIONS STRATEGY
When Not to Use Smart Numbers
In some probl ems, even ~hough an amount mi ght be unknown to you, i t i s actual l y speci -
fi ed i n the probl em i n another way. In these cases, you cannot use Smart Numbers to assi gn
real numbers to the vari abl es, F or exampl e, consi der thi s probl em:
Mark' s comic book collection contains 1/3 Killer Fis h comics and 3/8
ShazaamWoman comics . The remainder of his collection cons is ts of
B oom! comics . If Mark has 70 B oom! comics , how many comics does
he have in his entlre collection?
E ven though you do not! know the number of comi cs i n M ark's col l ecti on, you can see that
the total i s not compl etel y unspeci fi ed. You know a pi ece of the total : 70 Boom! comi cs.
You can use thi s i nformati on to fi nd the total . D o not use Smart Numbers here. Instead,
sol ve si mi l ar probl ems by fi guri ng out how bi g the known pi ece i s; then, use that knowl -
edge to fi nd the si ze of the whol e. You wi l l need to set up an equati on and sol ve:
1 3' 17
- Ki l l er F i sh +- Shakam Woman =- comi cs that are not Boom!
3 8 24
T herefore, .!...- of the comi cs are Boom! comi cs.
24
7
-x= 70
24
24
x= 70x-
7
x= 240
M ark has 240 comi cs.
In summary, do pi ck smart numbers when no amounts are gi ven i n the probl em, but do
not pi ck smart numbers when ~ amount or total i s gi ven!
: M.anf i at t an G MAT" Pr e p
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON
FRACTIONS P ROB LEM SET Chapter 2
Probl em Set
F or probl ems #1-5, deci de whether the gi ven operati on wi l l yi el d an INC RE A SE , a D E C RE A SE ,
or a resul t that wi l l ST A Y T HE SA M E .
1. Multiply the numerator of a pos itive, proper fraction by i .
2
2. Add 1 to the numerator of a pos itive, proper fraction and s ubtract 1 from its
denominator.
3. Multiply both the numerator and denominator of a pos itive, proper fraction by 3~.
4. Multiply a pos itive, proper fraction by i .
8
5. Divide a pos itive, proper fraction by ~.
13
Solve problems #6-15.
6. Simplify:
l O x
5+ x
7. Simplify:
8. Simplify:
3 1
- +-
5 3
2 2
- +-
3 5
9. Simplify: (given that ab =1=0)
10. P ut thes e fractions in order from leas t to greates t: ~
17
19 7
20 15
5 2
7 9
3
16
3
13
11.
P ut thes e fractions in order from leas t to greates t: 3..
3
12.
3 5
Lis a s pends - of her monthly paycheck on rent and - on food. Her roommate,
8 U
1
Carrie, who earns twice as much as Lis a, s pends - of her monthly paycheck on rent
4
and .!. on food. If the two women decide to donate the remainder of their money
2
to charity each month, what fraction of their combined monthly income will they
donate?
f Manl i at t anG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
39
Chapter 2
40
FRACTIONS P ROB LE~SET I N ACTI ON
13.
1 1
Rob s pends "2 of his monthly paycheck, after taxes , on rent. He s pends "3 on food
14.
1
and - on entertainment. If he donates the entire remainder, $500, to charity, what
8 !
is Rob' s monthly inco~e, after taxes ?
. . / 3 2 . . / 3 i
Are - and -- reciprocals ?
2 3
Es timate to the clos es t integer: What is ~ of ~ of 120?
30 20
15.
9r f .anl i at t anG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY FRACTIONS SOLUTIONS Chapter 2
1. INC RE A SE : M ul ti pl yi ng the numerator of a posi ti ve fracti on i ncreases the numerator. A s the numerator
of a posi ti ve, proper fracti on i ncreases, i ts val ue i ncreases.
2. INC RE A SE : A s the numerator of a posi ti ve, proper fracti on i ncreases, the val ue of the fracti on i ncreases.
A s the denomi nator of a posi ti ve, proper fracti on decreases, the val ue of the fracti on al so i ncreases. Both
acti ons wi l l work to i ncrease the val ue of the fracti on.
3. ST A YT HE SA M E : M ul ti pl yi ng or di vi di ng the numerator and denomi nator of a fracti on by the same
number wi l l not change the val ue of the fracti on.
4. D E C RE A SE : M ul ti pl yi ng a posi ti ve number by a proper fracti on decreases the number.
5. INC RE A SE : D i vi di ng a posi ti ve number by a posi ti ve, proper fracti on i ncreases the number.
6. C A NNOT SIM PUF Y: T here i s no way to si mpl i fy thi s fracti on; i t i s al ready i n si mpl est form.
Remember, you cannot spl i t the denomi nator!
7. 12x: F i rst, cancel terms i n both the numerator and the denomi nator. T hen combi ne terms.
8(X)(X)2(3) _ )(4(xf(3) _ 4(x)X(3) _ 4( )(3) -12
X2x - 'Xx - X - x - x
8. i :F i rst, add the fracti ons i n the numerator and denomi nator. T hi s resul ts i n ~; and ~~, respecti vel y.
T o save ti me, mul ti pl y each of the smal l fracti ons by 15, whi ch i s the common denomi nator of al l the frac-
ti ons i n the probl em. Because we are mul ti pl yi ng the numerator an d the denomi nator of the whol e com-
pl ex fracti on by 15, we are not changi ng i ts val ue.
9+5 14 7
~--=-=-
10 +6 16 8
9. 2(2b
2
~ a) or 4b
2
- 2a: F i rst, factor out common terms i n the numerator. T hen, cancel terms i n both
the numerator and denomi nator.
6ab(2b
2
- a)
--' --- =2(2b
2
- a) or 4b
2
- 2a
3ab
3 7 9 19 .
10. - <- <- <- : Use Benchmark Val ues to compare these fracti ons.
16 15 17 20
~ i s sl i ghtl y more than.!. .
17 2
.!.2. i s sl i ghtl y l ess than 1.
20
l .. i s sl i ghtl y l ess than .!. .
16 4
2. i s sl i ghtl y l ess than .!. .
15 2
3 7 9 19
T hi s makes i t easy to order the fracti ons: 16 <15<17 <20 .
fM.annattanG M A T "Prep
the new standard
41
Chapter 2
FRACTIONS SOLUTIONS I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
2325. 32 1
11. - <- <- <- : Usmg Benchmark Val ues you shoul d noti ce that - and - are both l ess than-.
9 13 3 7 .,. 13 9 2
2 S b hI.
- and - are ot more than - . Use dross-mul dpl l cadon to compare each pai r of fracti ons:
3 7 2
3 2
13
X
9"
3..~#2
3 A 7
3x 9=27
2 x 13 =26
3 2
->-
13 9
2 x 7 =14 S x 3 =IS
2 S
- <-
3 7
2 3 2 S
T hi s makes i t easy to order the fracti ons: - <- <- <-.
9 13 3 7
17
12. -: Use Smart Numbers to sol ve thi s probl em. Si nce the denomi nators i n the probl em are 8, 12, 4,
72
and 2, assi gn Li sa a monthl y paycheck of $24. A ssi gn her roommate, who earns twi ce as much, a monthl y
paycheck of $48. T he two women's monthl y expenses break down as fol l ows:
Rent F ood Leftover
3 S
24 - (9 +10) = 5 Li sa - of 24 =9 - of24 = 10
8 12
1 1
48 - (12 +24) =12 C arri e - of 48 = 12 - of 48 = 24
4 2
T he women wi l l donate a total of $17, out of thei r combi ned monthl y i ncome of $72.
13. $12,000: You cannot use Smart Numbers i n thi s probl em, because the total amount i s
speci fi ed. E ven though the exact fi gure i s not gi ven i n the probl em, a porti on of the total i s speci fi ed. T hi s
means that the total i s a certai n number, al though you do not know what i t i s. In fact, the total i s exactl y
what you are bei ng asked to fi nd. C l earl y, i f you assi gn a number to represent the total , you wi l l not be abl e
to accuratel y fi nd the total .
F i rst, use addi ti on to fi nd the fracti on of Rob's money that he spends on rent, food, and entertai nment:
1 1 1 12 8 3 23 1
- +- +- =- +-+ - =-. T herefore, the $SOOthat he donates to chari ty represents - of hi s total
2 3 8 24 24 24 24 24
monthl y paycheck. We can set up a proporti on: SOO=_1_. T hus, Rob's monthl y i ncome i s $SOOx 24, or
x 24
$12,000.
14. YE S: T he product of a number and i ts reci procal must equal 1. T o test whether or not two numbers
are reci procal s, mul ti pl y them. If the product i s 1, they are reci procal s; i f i t i s not, they are not:
13 213 2(13) 6
-x--= =-=1
2 3 2(3) 6
T he numbers are i ndeed reci procal s.
42
: M.anf i at t anG MAT Prep
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
FRACTIONS SOLUTIONS Chapter 2
15.Approximatdy 13: Use Benchmark Val ues to esti mate: .!!.i s sl i ghtl y more than .!. . ~ i s sl i ghtl y l ess
30 3 20
1 11 6 1 1 120
than -. T herefore, - of - of 120shoul d be approxi matel y - of - of 120, or - , whi ch i s sl i ghtl y
3 30 20 3 3 9
more than 13.
A nother techni que to sol ve thi s probl em woul d be to wri te the product and cancel common factors:
.!!.x~x120= (11)(6)(120)= (1l )()()(120) = (1l )(~6) = 66 = 13.2
30 20 (30)(20) ()<{5)(20) (5)(}Q:) 5
Note that for esti mati on probl ems, there i s no "correct" answer. T he key i s to arri ve at an esti mate that i s
cl ose to the exact answer=-and to do so qui ckl y!
: M.anf i at t anG MAT Prep
t he ne w st andar d
43
Chapter 3
---of--
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, & P ERCENTS
PERCENTS
I n This Chapter . . .
Percents as D eci mal s: M ul ti pl i cati on Shortcut
Percents as F racti ons: T he Percent T abl e
Benchmark Val ues: 10%
Percent Increase and D ecrease
Percent C hange vs. Percent of Ori gi nal
Successi ve Percents
Smart Numbers: Pi ck 100
Interest F ormul as
C hemi cal M i xtures
P ERCENTS STRATEGY
PE RC E NT S
T he other major way to express a part-whol e rel ati onshi p (i n addi ti on to deci mal s and frac-
ti ons) i s to use percents. Percent l i teral l y means "per one hundred." One can concei ve of
percent as si mpl y a speci al type of fracti on or deci mal that i nvol ves the number 100.
75% of the s tudents like chocolate ice cream.
T hi s means that, out of every 100 students, 75 l i ke chocol ate i ce cream.
I
fr .!" tho 75 hi h si l fi 3
n acnon rorm, we wnte ISas 100' w l C SImp 1 es to "4.
In deci mal form, we wri te thi s as 0.75 or seventy-fi ve hundredths. Note that the l ast di gi t
of the percent i s i n the hundredths pl ace val ue.
One common mi stake i s the bel i ef that 100% equal s 100. T hi s i s not correct. In fact, 100%
100
means --, or one hundred hundredths. T herefore, 100% = 1.
100
Percent probl ems occur frequentl y on the GM A T . T he key to these percent probl ems i s to
make them concrete by pi cki ng real numbers wi th whi ch to work.
Percents as D eci mal s: M ul ti pl i cati on Shortcut
One way of worki ng wi th percents i s by converti ng 'them i nto deci mal s. Percents can be
converted i nto deci mal s by movi ng the deci mal poi nt 2 spaces to the l eft.
70.7% =0.707
80.8% =0.808
75% =0.75
88% = 0.88
70% = 0.70 = 0.7
80% =0.80 =0.8
7% =0.07 0.7% =0.007
8% = 0.08 0.8% = 0.008
A deci mal can be converted i nto a percentage by movi ng the deci mal poi nt two spaces to
the ri ght. F or exampl e:
0.6 =60% 0.459 = 45.9% 0.28 =28% 0.3041 =30.41%
Remember, the percentage i s al ways bi gger than the deci mal !
Note that there are numbers greater than 100%. If 100% = 1, consi der the fol l owi ng:
2 =200% 4.1 = 410% 5.68 =568% 3 = 300%
C hangi ng percents i nto deci mal s i s one fast way to sol ve "percent of" probl ems.
What is 65% of 500?
T he phrase "percent of" (% of) si gnal s mul ti pl i cati on. "Is" means "equal s," of course. So we
have x = 0.65(500) = 325.00 = 325.
9dan l i at t an G M A T Prep
the new s tandard
C hapter 3
A percent i s si mpl y a
fracti on wi th a
denomi nator of 100.
47
Chapter 3
Be careful that you have
correctl y i den ri fl ed the
part and the whol e when
setti ng up your percent
tabl e.
P ERCENTS STRATEGY
Percents as F racti ons: T he Percent T abl e
A si mpl e but useful wa~of structuri ng basi c percent probl ems on the GM A T i s by rel ati ng
percents to fracti ons th~ough a percent tabl e as shown bel ow.
Percentage
Numbers F racti on
A PA RT i s some PE RC E NT of a WHOLE .
P ART
PA RT PE RC E NT
=
WHOLE
WHOLE
100
100
Example 1: What is 30%of 80?
We are gi ven the whol e and the percent, and we are l ooki ng for the part. F i rst, we fi l l i n the
percent tabl e. T hen we set up a proporti on, cancel , cross-mul ti pl y, and sol ve:
P ART
100
30 x
x= 24 lOx =240
WHOLE 80
We can al so sol ve thi s probl em usi ng deci mal equi val ents: (0.30)(80) = (3)(8) = 24
Example 2: 75% of what number is 21?
We are gi ven the part and the percent, and we are l ooki ng for the whol e. F i rst, we fi l l i n the
percent tabl e. T hen we set up a proporti on, cancel , cross-mul ti pl y, and sol ve:
P ART
x
21 75
x= 28 3x= 84
WHOLE 100
Li kewi se, we can al so sol ve thi s probl em usi ng deci mal equi val ents:
(0.75)x =21 then move the deci mal ~ 75x =2,100
x= 28
Example 3: 90 is what percent of 40?
We are gi ven the part and the whol e, and we are l ooki ng for the percent. Note that the
"part" (90) i s BIGGE R than the "whol e" (40). T hat i s okay. J ust make sure that you are tak-
i ng the percent OF the "whol e." Here, we are taki ng a percent OF 40, so 40 i s the "whol e."
F i rst, we fi l l i n the percent tabl e. T hen we set up a proporti on agai n and sol ve:
P ART
100
90 x
x= 225 4x= 900
WHOLE 40
90 i s 225% of 40. Noti ce that you wi nd up wi th a percent BIGGE R than 100%. T hat i s
what you shoul d expect when the "part" i s bi gger than the "whol e."
: M .an l i at t an G M A T "Prep
the new s tandard
P ERCENTS STRATEGY
Benchmark Val ues: 10%
T o fi nd 10% of any number, just move the deci mal poi nt to the l eft one pl ace.
10% of 500i s 50 10% of 34.99 =3.499 10% of 0.978 i s 0.0978
You can use the Benchmark Val ue of 10% to esti mate percents. F or exampl e:
Karen bought a new televis ion, originally priced at $690. However, s he had
a coupon that s aved her $67. For what percent dis count was Karen' s
coupon?
You know that 10% of 690 woul d be 69. T herefore, 67 i s sl i ghtl y l ess than 10% of 690.
Percent Increase and D ecrease
Some percent probl ems i nvol ve the concept of percent change. F or exampl e:
The price of a cup of coffee increas edfrom 80 cents to 84 cents . B y what
percent did the price change?
Percent change probl ems can be sol ved usi ng our handy percent tabl e, wi th a smal l adjust-
ment. T he pri ce change (84 - 80 = 4 cents) i s consi dered the part, whi l e the or i gi n al pri ce
(80 cents) i s consi dered the whol e.
CHANGE
100
4 x
C HA NGE PE RC E NT
ORIGINA L 100 ORIGINAL 8 0
L = ~= ~
% 20 100
20x= 100 x = 5 T hus, the pri ce i ncreased by 5%.
By the way, do not forget to di vi de by the ori gi nal ! T he percent change i s NOT 4%, whi ch
may be a wrong answer choi ce.
A l ternati vel y, a questi on mi ght be phrased as fol l ows:
If the price of a $30 s hirt decreas ed by 20%, what was the final price of the
s hirt?
T he whol e i s the ori gi nal pri ce of the shi rt. T he percent change i s 20%. In order to fi nd the
answer, we must fi rst fi nd the part, whi ch i s the amount of the decrease:
CHANGE
30
x 20
x= 6
5x= 30
100 ORIGINAL
T herefore, the pri ce of the shi rt decreased by $6. T he fi nal pri ce of the shi rt was
$30 - $6 =$24.
9dan l i at t an G MAT' P rep
the new s tandard
C hapter 3
T he whol e i s the
ori gi nal val ue. It i s not
necessari l y the l argest
number i n the probl em.
49
Chapter 3
100% pl us or mi nus a
percent change equal s
the percent OF the ori gi -
nal quanti ty that the new
quanti ty represents.
PERCENTS STRATEGY
Percent C hange vs. Percent of Original
Looki ng back at the cup of coffee probl em, we see that the new pri ce (84 cents) was hi gher
than the ori gi nal pri ce (80 cents).
We can ask what percent OF the ori gi nal pri ce i s represented by the new pri ce.
20x = 2,100 x = 105
T hus, the new pri ce i s 105% OF the ori gi nal pri ce. Remember that the percent C HA NGE i s
5%. T hat i s, the new pri ce i s 5% HIGHE R T HA N the ori gi nal pri ce. T here i s a fundamental
rel ati onshi p between these numbers, resul ti ng from the si mpl e i dea that the C HA NGE equal s
the NE W val ue mi nus the ORIGINA L val ue, or equi val endy, ORIGINA L + C HA NGE =
NE W:
If a q uantity is i ncreased by x percent, then the new q uantity is (100 +x)% OF the
original . Thus a 15% i ncrease produces a q uantity that is 115% OF the original .
Wi
. hi I' hi h ORIGINA L ( Percent Increase)
e can wnte t ISre anons Ip t us: x 1 + =NE W
100
In the case of the cup of coffee, we see that 80x (1 + _5_) = 80(1.05) = 84 .
100
Li kewi se, i n the shi rt probl em, we had a 20% decrease i n the pri ce of a $30 shi rt, resul ti ng
i n a new pri ce of $24.
T he new pri ce i s some percent OF the ol d pri ce. Let us cal cul ate that percent.
)4' 4 x
- -- - -
xr 5 100
5x = 400 x= 80
T hus, the new pri ce (20% LE SS T HA N the ori gi nal pri ce) i s 80% OF the ori gi nal pri ce.
If a q uantity is decreased by x percent, then the new q uantity is (100 - x)% OF the
original . Thus a 15% decrease produces a q uantity that is 85% OF the original .
(
Percent D ecrease)
We can wri te thi s rel ati onshi p thus: ORIGINA L x 1- =NE W.
100
: (20)
In the case of the shi rt, we see that 30x 1 - - =30 (0.80) =24.
100
T hese formul as are al l just another way of sayi ng ORIGINA LC HA NGE = NE W.
: Jvi anl i attan G M AT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
P ERCENTS STRATEGY
Example 4: What number is 50%greater than 60?
T he whol e i s the ori gi nal val ue, whi ch i s 60. T he percent change (i .e., the percent "greater
than") i s 50%. In order to fi nd the answer, we must fi rst fi nd the pan, whi ch i s the amount
of the i ncrease:
CHANGE
100
x 50
2x= 60 x= 30
ORIGINAL 60
We know that ORIGINA L C HA NGE = NE W. T herefore, the number that i s 50%
greater than 60 i s 60 +30 = 90, whi ch i s 150% of 60.
We coul d al so sol ve thi s probl em usi ng the formul a:
ORIGINA L x (1 + Percent Increase) = NE W
100
60(1 + 50) = 60(1.5) =90
100
Example 5: What number is 150%greater than 60?
T he whol e i s the ori gi nal val ue, whi ch i s 60. T he percent change (i .e., the percent "greater
than") i s 150%. In order to fi nd the answer, we must fi rst fi nd the pan, whi ch i s the
amount of the i ncrease:
CHANGE
100
x= 90
150 x
2x = 180
ORIGINAL 60
Now, x i s the C HA NGE , NOT the new val ue! It i s easy to forget to add back the ori gi -
nal amount when the percent change i s more than 100%. T hus, the number that i s
150% greater than 60 i s 60+ 90 = 150, whi ch i s 250% of 60.
We coul d al so sol ve thi s probl em usi ng the formul a:
ORIGINA LX(l + Percent Increase) =NE W
100
60(1 +150) = 60(2.5) = 150
100
F or D ata Suffi ci ency probl ems, al l you need to compute a percent change i s the RA T IO of
C hange to Ori gi nal . You do not need the actual val ues. In fact, because Ori gi nal +C hange
= New, you can compute the percent change usi ng the rati o of A NYl WO of the fol -
l owi ng: Ori gi nal , C hange, and New.
B y what percent did the price of a book increas e?
(1) The ratio of the book' s original price to its new price is 4 : 5.
(2) The ratio of the change in the book' s price to its new price is 1 : 5.
E i ther statement i ndi cates a 25% i ncrease i n pri ce, as you can see by pi cki ng numbers ($4
for the ori gi nal pri ce, $1 for the change, and $5 for the new pri ce). T he correct answer i s
(D ): E IT HE R statement i s suffi ci ent to answer the questi on.
9r 1.an l i at t an G M A T Prep
the new s tandard
C hapter 3
Be cspcci al l y careful of
percent change probl ems
where the percent
change i s greater than
100%.
Chapter 3
Pi ck real numbers to
sol ve successi ve percent
probl ems.
P ERCENTS STRATEGY
Successi ve Percents
One of the GM A T 's favori te tri cks i nvol ves successi ve percents.
If a ticket increas ed in price by 20%, and then increas ed again by 5%, by
what percent did the ticket price increas e in total?
A l though i t may seem counter-i ntui ti ve, the answer i s NOT 25%.
T o understand why, consi der a concrete exampl e. Let us say that the ti cket i ni ti al l y cost
$100. A fter i ncreasi ng by 20%, the ti cket pri ce went up to $120 ($20i s 20% of $100).
Here i s where i t gets tri cky. T he ti cket pri ce goes up agai n by 5%. However, i t i ncreases by
5%of the NE W PRIC E of $120 (not 5% of the or i gi n al $100 pri ce). 5% of $120 i s
0.05(120) =$6. T herefore, the fi nal pri ce of the ti cket i s $120 +$6 =$126.
You can now see that two successi ve percent i ncreases, the fi rst of 20% and the second of
5%, D O NOT resul t i n a combi ned 25% i ncrease. In fact, they resul t i n a combi ned 26%
i ncrease (because the ti cket pri ce i ncreased from $100 to $126).
Successi ve percents C A NNOT si mpl y be added together! T hi s hol ds for successi ve i ncreas-
es, successi ve decreases, and for combi nati ons of i ncreases and decreases. If a ti cket goes up
i n pri ce by 30% and then goes down by 10%, the pri ce has NOT i n fact gone up a net of
20%. Li kewi se, i f an i ndex i ncreases by 15%and then fal l s by 15%, i t does NOT return to
i ts ori gi nal val ue! (T ry i t-you wi l l see that the i ndex i s down 2.25% overal l .)
A great way to sol ve successi ve percent probl ems i s to choose real numbers and see
what happens. T he precedi ng exampl e used the real val ue of $100 for the i ni ti al pri ce of
the ti cket, maki ng i t easy to see exactl y what happened to the ti cket pri ce wi th each
i ncrease. Usual l y, 100 wi l l be the easi est real number to choose for percent probl ems.
Increasi ng a pri ce by 20% i s the same as mul ti pl yi ng the pri ce by 1.20.
Increasi ng the new pri ce by 5% i s the same as mul ti pl yi ng that new pri ce by 1.05.
T hus, you can al so wri te the rel ati onshi p thi s way:
ORIGINA L x (1.20)x (1.05) =F INA L PRIC E
When you mul ti pl y 1.20by 1.05, you get 1.26, i ndi cati ng that the pri ce i ncreased by 26%
overal l .
T hi s approach works wel l for probl ems that i nvol ve many successi ve steps (e.g., compound
i nterest). However, i n the end, i t i s sti l l usual l y best to pi ck $100 for the ori gi nal pri ce and
sol ve usi ng concrete numbers.
: M .an l i at t an G MAT' P rep
the new s tandard
P ERCENTS STRATEGY
Smart Numbers: Pi ck 100
M ore often than not, percent probl ems on the GM A T i ncl ude unspeci fi ed numeri cal
amounts; often these unspeci fi ed amounts are descri bed by vari abl es.
A s hirt that initially cos t d dollars was on s ale for 20%off. If 5 repres ents the
s ale price of the s hirt, d is what percentage of s ?
T hi s i s an easy probl em that mi ght l ook confusi ng. T o sol ve percent probl ems such as thi s
one, si mpl y pi ck 100 for the unspeci fi ed amount (just as we di d when sol vi ng successi ve
percents).
If the shi rt i ni ti al l y cost $100, then d =100. If the shi rt was on sal e for 20% off, then the
new pri ce of the shi rt i s $80. T hus, s = 80.
T he questi on asks: d i s what percentage of s, or 100 i s what percentage of 80? Usi ng a per-
cent tabl e, we fi l l i n 80 as the whol e and 100 as the part (even though the part happens to
be l arger than the whol e i n thi s case). We are l ooki ng for the percent, so we set up a pro-
porti on, cross-mul ti pl y, and sol ve:
P ART
10 0
10 0 x
100 x
-=-
80 100
x= 125 80x = 10,000
WHOLE 8 0
T herefore, di s 125% of s.
T he i mportant poi nt here i s that, l i ke successi ve percent probl ems and other percent prob-
l ems that i ncl ude unspeci fi ed amounts, thi s exampl e i s most easi l y sol ved by pl uggi ng i n a
real val ue. F or percent probl ems, the easi est val ue to pl ug i n i s general l y 100. T he fastest
way to success wi th GM A T percent probl ems wi th unspeci fi ed amounts i s to pi ck 100.
Interest F ormul as
C ertai n GM A T percent probl ems requi re a worki ng knowl edge of basi c i nterest
formul as. T he compound i nterest formul a, rel ati vel y rare on the GM A T , may l ook compl i -
cated, but i t just expresses the i dea of "successi ve percents" for a number of peri ods.
F ormul a E xampl e
$5,000 i nvested for 6 months at an annual
SIM PLE rate of 7% wi l l earn $175 i n si mpl e
INT E RE ST
Pri nci pal x Rate x T i me i nterest. Pri nci pal = $5,000, Rate = 7%
or 0.07, T Ime = 6 months or 0.5 years.
P r t = $5,000(0.07)(0.5) = $175
P ( r t t
$5,000 i nvested for 1year at a rate of 8%
C OM POUND
1 +- , where
compounded quarterl y wi l l earn approxi -
n
INT E RE ST
P = pri nci pal , r = rate (deci mal )
matel y $412:
$5,000(1 + 0.:8)"(1) = $5,412
n = number of ti mes per ~
t = number of years
9r t an l i at t an G M A T Prep
., . the new s tandard
C hapter 3
In a percent probl em
wi th unspeci fi ed
amounts, pi ck 100to
represent the ori gi nal
val ue.
53
C hapter 3
Set up a mi xture chart
wi th the substance l abel s
i n rows and "Ori gi nal ,"
"C hange" and "New" i n
the col umns. T hi s way,
you can keep careful
track of the vari ous com-
ponents and thei r
changes.
54
PERCENTS STRATEGY
Chemical Mixtures
A nother type of GM A T percent probl em bears menti on: the chemi cal mi xture probl em.
A 500 mL s olution is 20% alcohol by volume. If 100 mL of water is added,
what is the new concentration of alcohol, as a percent of volume?
C hemi cal mi xture probl ems can be sol ved systemati cal l y by usi ng a mi xture chart.
Volume (mL) ORIGINAL CHANGE NEW
Alcohol
Water
Total Solution
Note that Ori gi nal +C hange =New. M oreover, the rows contai n the parts of the mi xture
and sum to a total . Onl y i nsert actual amounts; compute percents off on the si de.
F i rst, fi l l i n the amounts that you know. We put 500 mL of sol uti on i n the Ori gi nal
col umn. We al so put +100 mL of water i n the C hange col umn. Si nce no al cohol was added
or removed, we put 0 mL of al cohol i n the C hange col umn. T hi s tel l s us that our total
C hange i s 100 mL as wel l . You do not need to i nput the uni ts (mL).
Volume (mL) ORIGINAL CHANGE NEW
Alcohol 0
Water +100
Total Solution 500 +100
Si nce the Ori gi nal sol uti on i s 20% al cohol , we can compute the ml of al cohol i n the
Ori gi nal sol uti on by aski ng: How many ml of al cohol i s 20% of 500 mL? Let us sol ve thi s
usi ng the deci mal equi val ent: x = (0.20)(500 mL) = 100 mL
Now, fi l l i n al l the remai ni ng numbers.
Volume (mL) ORIGINAL CHANGE NEW
I
Alcohol 100 0 100
Water 400 +100 500
Total Solution 500 +100 600
A l cohol 100 1
F i nal l y, we can fi nd the new al cohol percentage: =- =- ~0.167 =16.7%.
T otal 600 6
Note that wi th thi s chart, you can handl e proporti ons of many ki nds. F or i nstance, you
mi ght have been asked the concentrati on of water i n the fi nal sol uti on. Si mpl y take the
quanti ti es from the proper rows and col umns and cal cul ate a proporti on.
: M .anl i attanG MAT Prep
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON P ERCENTS P ROB LEM SET
Probl em Set
Sol ve the fol l owi ng probl ems. Use a percent tabl e to organi ze percent probl ems, and pi ck 100
when deal i ng wi th unspeci fi ed amounts.
1. x% of y is 10. y% of 120 is 48. What is x?
2. A s tereo was marked down by 30% and s old for $84. What was the pres ale price of
the s tereo?
3. From 1980 to 1990, the population of Mitannia increas ed by 6%. From 1991 to
2000, it decreased by 3%. What was the overall percentage change in the popula-
tion of Mitanniafrom 1980 to 2000?
4. If Y is decreas ed by 20% and then increas ed by 60%, what is the new number,
expres s ed in terms of y?
5. A 7%car loan, which is compounded annually, has an interes t payment of $210
after the firs t year. What is the principal on the loan?
6. A bowl was half full of water. 4 cups of water were then added to the bowl, filling
the bowl to 70% of its capacity. How many cups of water are now in the bowl?
7. A large tub is filled with 920 units of alcohol and 1, 800 units of water. 40% of the
water evaporates . What percent of the remaining liquid is water?
8. x is 40% of y. 50% of y is 40. 16 is what percent of x?
9. 800, increas ed by 50% and then decreas ed by 30%, yields what number?
10. Lori depos its $100 in a s avings account at 2%interes t, compounded annually. After
3years , what is the balance on the account? (As s ume Lori makes no withdrawals or
depos its .)
11. A full bottle contains 40% oil, 20%vinegar, and 40% water. The bottle is poured into
a larger bottle, four times as big as the original. The remaining s pace in the larger
bottle is then filled with water. If there were 8 mL of oil in the original bottle, how
much water is in the final mixture?
12. If 1, 600 is increas ed by 20%, and then reduced by Y%, yielding 1, 536, what is y?
: M annattanG MAT Prep
. the new s tandard
Chapter 3
55
C hapter 3
56
P ERCENTS P ROB LEM SET I N ACTI ON
13. A certain copy machine is s et to reduce an image by 13%. If Steve photocopies a
document on this machine, and then photocopies the copy on the s ame machine,
what percent of the original will his final image s ize be?
14. A bottle is 80% full. The liquid in the bottle cons is ts of 60% guava juice and 40%
pineapple juice. The remainder of the bottle is then filled with 70 mL of rum. How
much guava juice is in the bottle?
T he fol l owi ng probl em i s a D ata Suffi ci ency questi on.
15. Company Zonly s ells chairs and tables . What percent of its revenue in 2008 did
Company Zderive from its s ales of tables ?
(1) In 2008, the average price of tables s old by Company Zwas 10% higher
than the average price of chairs s old by Company Z
(2) In 2008, Company Zs old 20%fewer tables than chairs .
9r f .anl i at t anG MAT" Prep
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KE Y P ERCeNTS SOLUTIONS C hapter 3
1. 25: We can use two percent tabl es to sol ve thi s probl em. Begi n wi th the fact that y% of 120 i s 48:
P ART
12 0 10 0
48 y
4,800 = 120y
y= 40 WHOLE
T hen, set up a percent tabl e for the fact that x% of 40 i s 10.
P ART 10 x
1,000 = 40x
x= 25
WHOLE 40 10 0
We can al so set up equati ons wi th deci mal equi val ents to sol ve:
(0.0I y)(120) = 48 , so 1.2y =48 or y = 40. T herefore, si nce we know that (O .O l x)(y)= 10, we have:
(0.0I x)(40) = 10 40x= I ,000 x= 25.
2. $120: We can use a percent tabl e to sol ve thi s probl em. Rememberthat the stereo was marked down
30% from the ori gi nal , so we have to sol ve for the ori gi nal pri ce.
ORIGINAL
x 30
x 30
100x =30(84 +x) 100x = 30(84) +30x
CHANGE
--=-
$84+x 10 0
84+ x 100
70x = 30(84) x= 36
T herefore, the ori gi nal pri ce was (84 +36) = $120.
We coul d al so sol ve thi s probl em usi ng the formul a: ORIGINA L x (1 -
X(1-1:)=84 0.7x= 84 x=120
Percent D ecrease) = NE W
100
3.2.82% i ncrease: F or percent probl ems, the Smart Number i s 100. T herefore, assume that the
popul ati on of M i tanni a i n 1980 was 100. T hen, appl y the successi ve percents to fi nd the overal l percent
change:
F rom 1980-1990, there was a 6% i ncrease: 100(1 +0.06) = 100(1.06) = 106
F rom 1991-2000, there was a 3% decrease: 106(1 - 0.03) = 106(0.97) = 102.82
Overal l , the popul ati on i ncreased from 100 to 102.82, representi ng a 2.82% i ncrease.
4. 1.28y: F or percent probl ems, the Smart Number i s 100. T herefore, assi gny a val ue of 100. T hen, appl y
the successi ve percent to fi nd the overal l percentage change:
(1) y i s decreased by 20%: 100(1 - 0.20) = 100(0.8) = 80
(2)T hen, i t i s i ncreased by 60%: 80(1 +0.60) = 80(1.6) = 128
Overal l , there was a 28% i ncrease. If the ori gi nal val ue of y i s 100, the new val ue i s 1.28y.
5. $3,000: We can use a percent tabl e to sol ve thi s probl em, whi ch hel ps us fi nd the deci mal equi val ent
equati on.
P ART 7 21,000 = 7x
X= 3,000
2 10
10 0 WHOLE x
!M.anJi4ttanG M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard
57
Chapter 3
P ERCENTS SOLUTIONS
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
6. 14: T here are some probl ems for whi ch you cannot use Smart Numbers, si nce the total amount can be
cal cul ated. T hi s i s one of those probl ems. Instead, use a percent tabl e:
P ART 0.5x +4 70 0.5x +4 70 7
WHOLE x 100
x
=-=-
5x+ 40 = 7x
x= 20
40= 2x 100 10
T he capaci tyof the bowl i s 20 cups. T here are 14cups i n the bowl {70%of 20, or 0.5(20) +4}.
P ART 4
100
20 A l ternatel y, the 4cups added to the bowl represent 20% of the
total capaci ty. Use a percent tabl e to sol ve for x, the whol e. Si nce
x = 20, there are 14(50% of 20+4) cups i n the bowl .
x WHOLE
7. 54%: F or thi s l i qui d mi xture probl em, set up a tabl e wi th two col umns: one for the ori gi nal mi xture and
one for the mi xture after the water evaporates from the tub.
Original T h .. 1" i d i th b i 1,080
e remam10g l qUl 10 e tu IS 2,000' or
54%, water.
After Evaporation
Alcohol 920 920
Water 0.60(1,800) =1,080 1,800
TOTAL 2, 720 2,000
We coul d al so sol ve for the newamount of water usi ng the formul a:
ORIGINA LX(1 _ Percent D ecrease) = NE W
100
(
40 ) . f W:' 1,080 1,080 4 f h al
1,800 1- - = (1,800)(0.6) = 1,080 uni ts 0 water. ater IS = -- = 5 % 0 t e tot .
100 920+1,080 2,000
8. 50%: Use two percent tabl es to sol ve thi s probl em. Begi n wi th the fact that 50% of y i s 40:
P ART 40
100
50 4,000 = SO y
y= 80
y WHOLE
P ART
T hen, set up a percent tabl e for the fact that x i s 40% of y.
x
100
40 3,200 = 100x
x= 32
WHOLE 80
F i nal l y, 16 i s 50% of 32. We coul d al ternati vel yset up equati ons wi th deci mal equi val ents to sol ve:
x = (0.4)y We al so know that (O .5)y = 40, =so y = 80and x = (0.4)(80) = 32. T herefore, 16 i s hal f,
or 50%, of x.
9. 840: A ppl y the successi vepercent to fi nd the overal l percentage change:
(1) 800 i s i ncreased by 50%: 800 x 1.5= 1,200
(2) T hen, the resul t i s decreased by 30%: 1,200x 0.7 = 840
58
: : M .anl i attanG MAT" Pr e p
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY P ERCENTS SOLUTIONS
C hapter 3
10. $106.12: Interest compounded annual l y i s just a seri es of successi ve percents:
(1) 100.00i s i ncreased by 2%: 100(1.02) = 102
(2) 102.00i s i ncreased by 2%: 102(1.02) = 104.04
(3) 104.04i s i ncreased by 2%: 104.04(1.02) ==106.12
11. 68 mL: F i rst, organi ze the i nformati on for the ori gi nal si tuati on:
8mL = 40% oi l x mL = 20%vi negar
T here i s the same amount of water i n the ori gi nal as
there i s oi l . So, y = 8mL. If you know that 8mL i s
40% of the total , then 20%, or x, must be hal f as
much, or 4 mL. T he ori gi nal sol uti on contai ns 20
mL of l i qui d al l together.
T hen, the sol uti on i s poured i nto a new bottl e wi th a
capaci ty of 80mL (4x 20). T he remai ni ng space, 60
mL, i s fi l l ed wi th water. T herefore, there are 68 mL
of water i n the fi nal sol uti on (8 from the ori gi nal
mi xture and 60added i nto the l arger bottl e).
y mL = 40% water
Volume (mL) ORIGINAL CHANGE NEW
Oil 8
Vinegar 4
Water 8
TOTAL 2 0
Volume (mL) ORIGINAL CHANGE NEW
Oil 8 0 8
Vinegar 4 0 4
Water 8 60 68
TOTAL 2 0 60 8 0
12.20: A ppl y the percents i n successi on wi th two percent tabl es.
P ART
10 0
192,000= 100x
x= 1,920
x 12 0
WHOLE 1, 60 0
T hen, fi l l i n the "change" for the part (1,920- 1,536 = 384) and the ori gi nal for the whol e (1,920).
P ART
10 0
384 y 1,920y = 38,400
y= 20
WHOLE 1, 92 0
A l ternati vel y we coul d sol ve for the new number usi ng formul as. Because thi s i s a successi ve percents prob-
l em, we need to "chai n" the formul a: once to refl ect the i ni ti al i ncrease i n the number, then twi ce to refl ect
the subsequent decrease:
1,600X(1 + 20 )X(1 - 1-)=1,536
100 100
1,920
X
(1 - 1-)=1,536
100
1,920 _1,920y = 1,536
100
1,920 - 1,536 = 19.2y 384= 19.2y 20= y
9r i .an l i at t an GM .A T * P r e p
the new s tandard 59
Chapter 3
P ERCENTS SOLUTIONS
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
13. 75.69%: T hi s i s a seri es of successi ve percents. Use Smart Numbers to assi gn the ori gi nal document an
area of 100 square uni ts.
87% of 100 =0.87 x 100 =87
87% of 87 = 0.87 x 87 = 75.69
14. 168 mL: If the bottl e i s 80% ful l , then the 70 mL of rum represents the empty 20%. Use your knowl -
edge of percents to fi gure out that 80% i s four ti mes as bi g as 20%. T herefore, there must be
4 x 70 =280 mL of the guava-pi neappl e mi xture i n the bottl e. (In other words, 0.2x =70mL , where x i s
the capaci ty of the bottl e. T hus x = 350mL and the guava-pi neappl e mi xture i s 350mL -70mL = 280mL.)
Use a percent tabl e to fi nd the amount of guava jui ce.
P ART
60 16,800 =100x
x= 168
x
10 0 WHOLE 2 8 0
We can al so set up equati ons wi th deci mal equi val ents to sol ve: (0.6)(280) =x, so 168 =x .
15. C : BOT H statements T OGE T HE R are SUF F IC IE NT to answer the questi on. T hi s probl em requi res
that you appl y the pri nci pl e that Pri ce x Quanti ty =Revenue. (F or more on thi s pri nci pl e, see C hapter 1of
the Wor d T r an sl at i on s Strategy Gui de.) In other respects, however, thi s probl em i s l i ke a mi xture probl em,
si nce there are onl y two components of C ompany Z's sal es: chai rs and tabl es. Set up a chart as fol l ows, and
pi ck Smart Numbers for the pri ce and quanti ty for ONE of the i tems onl y: say, the chai rs.
P rice
Q uantity Revenue
Chairs $10 10 0 $1, 0 0 0
Tables
TOTAL
Now fi l l the chart usi ng the statements:
Statement (1): INSUF F IC IE NT . We can compute the pri ce of tabl es, whi ch i s 10% hi gher than $10.
P rice Q uantity Revenue
Chairs $10 10 0 $1, 0 0 0
Tables $11
TOTAL
We do not have the tabl e quanti ty, so we cannot fi nd the percent of revenue deri ved from the tabl es.
Statement (2): INSUF F IC IE NT . We can compute the quanti ty of tabl es, whi ch i s 20% smal l er than the
quanti ty of chai rs.
P rice Q uantity Revenue
Chairs $10 10 0 $1, 0 0 0
Tables
8 0
TOTAL
60
9r l an l i at t an G M A T Prep
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
P ERCENTS SOLUTIONS C hapter 3
We do not have the tabl e pri ce, so we cannot fi nd the percent of revenue deri ved from the tabl es.
Statements (1) and (2) T OGE T HE R: SUF F IC IE NT .
P rice. Q uantity Revenue
Chairs $10 10 0 $1, 0 0 0
Tables $11 8 0 $8 8 0
TOTAL
$1, 8 8 0
Now, i n theory, we can compute $880 + $1,880 as a percent. However, you shoul d NOT compute thi s
number! It suffi ces to know that you gn compute i t.
: M .anl i attanG MAT Prep
the new s tandard 61
Chapter 4
-----of--
F RA C T IONS, D E C IM A LS, & PE RC E NT S
FDPs
I n This Chapter . . .
F D P C onnecti ons
C onverti ng A mong F racti ons, D eci mal s, and Percents
C ommon F D P E qui val ents
When T o Use Whi ch F orm
F D Ps and Word T ransl ati ons
FDP STRATEGY
FDP CONNECTI ONS
GM A T probl ems often do not test fracti ons, deci mal s, and percents i n i sol ati on. Instead,
many probl ems that test your understandi ng of non-i nteger numbers i nvol ve some ki nd of
combi nati on of fracti ons, deci mal s, and percents.
F or thi s reason, we refer to these probl ems as F OPs (an abbrevi ati on for fracti on-
deci mal -percent). In order to achi eve success wi th F OP probl ems on the GM A T , you must
understand the connecti ons between fracti ons, deci mal s, and percents; you shoul d be abl e
to shi ft amongst the three comfortabl y and qui ckl y. In a very real sense, fracti ons, deci mal s,
and percents are three di fferent ways of expressi ng the exact same thi ng: a part-whol e rel a-
ti onshi p.
A fraction expresses a part-whol e rel ati onshi p i n terms of a numerator (the part)
and a denomi nator (the whol e).
A decimal expresses a part-whol e rel ati onshi p i n terms of pl ace val ue (a tenth, a
hundredth, a thousandth, etc.),
A percent expresses the speci al part-whol e rel ati onshi p between a number (the
part) and one hundred (the whol e).
Converting Among Fractions, Decimal s, and Percents
T he fol l owi ng chart revi ews the ways to convert from fracti ons to deci mal s, from deci mal s
to fracti ons, from fracti ons to percents, from percents to fracti ons, from deci mal s to per-
cents, and from percents to deci mal s.
T O .
F RA C T ION
3
D E C IM A L 0.375
PE RC E NT
37.5%
F ROM . 8
D i vi de the numerator by
D i vi de the numerator by
F RA C T ION
the denomi nator:
the denomi nator and move
3
3+8=0.375
the deci mal twOpl aces to
-
Use l ong di vi si on i f
the ri ght:
8
necessary.
3+8=0.375 ~ 37.5%
Use the pl ace val ue of the
M ove the deci mal poi nt
D E C IM A L
l ast di gi t i n the deci mal as
two pl aces to the ri ght:
0.375
the denomi nator, and put
0.375 ~ 37.5%
the deci mal 's di gi ts i n the
numerator. T hen si mpl i fy:
375 3
--=-
1000 8
Use the di gi ts of the per-
F i nd the percent's deci mal
PE RC E NT
cent for the numerator and
poi nt and move i t two
37.5%
100 for the denomi nator.
pl aces to the l eft:
T hen si mpl i fy:
37.5% ~ 0.375
37.5 3
--=-
100 8
9danl i attanG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
C hapter 4
F racti ol l S, deci mal s, and
percents are al l di fferent
ways of expressi ng the
same rel ati onshi p.
65
Chapter 4
M emori ze these equi va-
l ents so you wi l l recog-
ni ze them qui ckl y on the
test.
FOP STRATEGY
Common FDP Eq uival ents
You shoul d memori ze the fol l owi ng common equi val ents:
Fraction
Decimal
Percent
X ' O O
0.01
1%
Y s o
0.02
2%
l i 5
0.04
4%
} i o
0.05
5%
X ' o
0.10
10%
~
-
0.11~0.111 ~11.1%
fa 0.125 12.5%
~
0.16 ~0.167
~16.7%
Y s 0.2
20%
~
0.25
25%
X'o
0.3
30%
~
-
0.3~0.333
~33.3%
?Is 0.375
37.5%
Ys
0.4
40%
} i
0.5
50%
Fraction Decimal
Percent
Ys 0.6 60%
: I s 0.625 62.5%
%
0.6 ~0.667 ~66.7%
Iro 0.7 70%
%
0.75
75%
~
0.8 80%
%
-
0.83~0.833 ~83.3%
Is 0.875
87.5%
l i o
0.9
90%
X'
1 100%
%
1.25
125%
%
-
1.3~1.33
133%
%
1.5
150%
%
1.75
175%
FOP STRATEGY
When T o Use Whi ch F orm
F racti ons are good for cancel l i ng factors i n mul ti pUcati ons. T hey are al so the best way of
exactl y expressi ng proporti ons that do not have cl ean deci mal equi val ents, such as 1/ 7.
Swi tch to fracti ons i f there i s a handy fracti onal equi val ent of the deci mal or percent and/or
you thi nk you can cancel l ots of factors.
What is 37.5% of 240?
If you si mpl y convert the percent to a deci mal and mul ti pl y, you wi l l have to do a fai r bi t of
ari thmeti c:
A l ternati vel y, you can recogni ze that 0.375 = i .
8
So we have (0.375)(240)= (~ )(;4030)= 3(30) = 90.
T hi s i s much faster!
0.375
x 240
o
15000
75000
90.000
A dres s is marked up 16~% to a final price of $140. What is the original price
3
ofthe dres s ?
F rom the previ ous page, we know that 16~% i s equi val ent to.!... T hus, addi ng.!.. of a
366
number to i tsel f i s the same thi ng as mul ti pl yi ng by 1+.!.. = Z-:
6 6
x =(%}40 = (; ) J .46 20 = 120 . T he ori gi nal pri ce i s $120.
D eci mal s, on the other hand, are good for esti mati ng resul ts or for compari ng si zes. T he
reason i s that the basi s of compari son i s equi val ent (there i s no denomi nator). T he same
hol ds true for percents. T he i mpl i ed denomi nator i s al ways 100, so you can easi l y compare
percents (of the same whol e) to each other.
T o convert certai n fracti ons to deci mal s or percents, mul ti pl y top and bottom by the same
number:
!Z. = 17 x 4 = 68 = 0.68 = 68%
25 25x4 100
T hi s process i s faster than l ong di vi si on, but i t onl y works when the denomi nator has onl y
2's and/or 5's as factors.
In some cases, you mi ght fi nd i t easi er to compare a bunch of fracti ons by gi vi ng them al l a
common denomi nator, rather than by converti ng them al l to deci mal s or percents. T he gen-
eral rul e i s thi s: prefer &acti ons for doi ng mul ti pl i cati on or di vi si on, but prefer deci mal s
and percents for doi ng addi ti on or subtracti on, for esti mati ng numbers, or for compar-
i ng numbers.
!M ~ta1tGM A T 'Prep
the new s tandard
C hapter 4
Use fi aa:i onsto caned
12ctoIs. Use deci mal s or
percents to esti m:tte or
compare quanti ti es.
C hapter 4
Know the common F D P
transl ati ons, so that you
can wri te them qui ckl y
and confi dentl y.
68
FOP STRATEGY
FDPs and Wor# Transl ations
F racti ons, deci mal s, and, percents show up i n many Word T ransl ati on probl ems. M ake sure
that you understand an4 can appl y the very common transl ati ons bel ow.
In the Probl em
X percent
of
ofZ
i
Y i ~X percent of Z
Yi ~ X percent of Z
. 1 f
i A i s - 0 B
. 6
Ci s 20% of D
E i s 10% greater than F
G i s '30% l ess than H
T he dress cost $J.
T hen i t was marked up 25%
and sol d.
mat i s the profi t?
9r l anl i attanG MAT Prep
the new s tandard
T ransl ati on
X
10 0
M ul ti pl y
Z i s the Whol e
Yi s the Part, and Z i s the Whol e
Y= (~)Z
10 0
P
(
percent) Wh I
art = x oe
10 0
A I
. Y X
ternanve: - =-
Z 10 0
Part Percent
=
Whol e 10 0
C = (0.20)D
E = (1.10)F
G = (100%-30%)H = (0.70)H
Profi t =Revenue - C ost
Profi t = (1.25) J - J
Profi t =(0.25)J
INA C T ION
FOP P ROB LEM SET C hapter 4
Probl em Set
1.
Expres s the following as fractions : 2.45 0.008
2. Expres s the following as fractions : 420% 8%
3. Expres s the following as decimals :
9 3, 000
2 10, 000
4. Expres s the following as decimals :
l E -
12!
4 3
5. Expres s the following as percents :
1, 000 25
10 9
6. Expres s the following as percents : 80.4 0.0007
7. Order from leas t to greates t:
8
0.8
18
8. Order from leas t to greates t:
1.19
120
--
84
9. Order from leas t to greates t:
2 i 2400%
7
40%
131.44%
2.401
10.
50
Order from leas t to greates t (x : F 0): v i -
2.9i - (i-){3.10%)
11. Order from leas t to greates t:
500
199
248, 000% 2.9002003
12. What number is 62.5% of 192?
13. 200 is 16%of what number?
F or probl ems #14-15, express your answer i n terms of the vari abl es gi ven (X, Y, and possi bl y Z ).
14. What number is X percent of Y?
15. X is what percent of Y?
9danfiattanG M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard 69
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY FOP SOLUTIONS C hapter 4
1. T o convert a deci mal to a fracti on, wri te i t over the appropri ate power of ten and si mpl i fy.
45 9. 49.
2.45 = 2 - = 2 - (mi xed) = - (i mproper)
100 20 20
8 1
0.008 = 1,000 = 125
2. T o convert a percent to a fracti on, wri te i t over a denomi nator of 100and si mpl i fy.
420% = 420 = 3!. (i mproper) = 41. (mi xed)
100 5 5
8 2
8%=--=-
100 25
3. T o convert a fracti on to a deci mal , di vi de the numerator by the denomi nator.
9
- = 9+2=4.5
2
It often hel ps to si mpl i fythe fracti on BE F ORE you di vi de:
3,000 = 2.... = 0.3
10,000 10
4. T o convert a mi xed number to a deci mal , si mpl i fythe mi xed number fi rst, i f needed.
27 3 3
1-=1+6-=7-
4 4 4
12!= 12+2 ~ = 14~ = 14.6
3 3 3
Note: you do not have to knowthe "repeati ngbar" notati on, but you shoul d knowthat 2/3 = 0.6666 ...
5. T o convert a fracti on to a percent, rewri te the fracti on wi th a denomi nator of 100.
1,000 = 10,000 10,000%
10 100
Or convert the fracti on to a deci mal and shi ft the deci mal poi nt two pl aces to the ri ght.
25 - -
- = 25 +9= 2.7777... = 2.7 = 277.7%
9
6. T o convert a deci mal to a percent, shi ft the deci mal poi nt two pl aces to the ri ght.
80.4 =8,040%
0.0007 = 0.07%
{ M ~l i at t an G MAr Pr e p
the new s tandard 71
C hapter 4
FDP SOLUTIONS
IN A C T ION A NSWE R KE Y
7.40% < 1
8
8<0.8: T o order from l east to greatest, express al l the terms i n the same form.
84-
18= 9 = 0.4444... = 0.4
0.8 = 0.8
40% = 0.4
0.4 <0.4 <0.8
A l ternatel y, you can use F OP l ogi c and Benchmark Val ues to sol ve thi s probl em: ~ i s _1_ l ess than _1_.
, 18 18 2
40% i s 10% (or _1_) l ess than _1_. Si nce ~ i s a smal l er pi ece away from _1_, i t i s cl oser to _1_ and
10 2 18 2 2
therefore l arger than 40%. 0.8 i s cl earl y greater than _1_. T herefore, 40% <~ <0.8.
2 18
8. 1.19 <131.44% <1:
4
0
: T o order from l east to greatest, express al l the terms i n the same form.
1.19=1.19
120 =1.4286
84
131.44% =1.3144
1.19<1.3144 <1.4286
i
9.2.401 <2.! <2400%: T o order frob l east to greatest, express al l the terms i n the same form.
7
2i =2.57
7
2400% =24
2.401 =2.401
A l ternatel y, you can use F OP l ogi c and Benchmark Val ues to sol ve thi s probl em: 2400% i s 24, whi ch i s
4
cl earl y the l argest val ue. T hen, use Benchmark Val ues to compare 2- and 2.401. Si nce the whol e number
7
porti on, 2, i s the same, just compare the fracti on parts. i i s greater than ~. 0.401 i s l ess than ~.
722
4 4
T herefore, 2- must be greater than 2.401. So, 2.401 <2 - <2400%.
7 7
10.3.10% <2.9 <~: T o order from l east to greatest, express al l the terms i n the same form.
17
(Note that, si nce x? i s a posi ti ve term common to al l the terms you are compari ng, you can i gnore i ts
presence compl etel y. If the common term were negati ve, then the order woul d be reversed.)
72
9rf.anliattanG M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY FOP SOLUTIONS
C hapter 4
(You can fi nd the fi rst few di gi ts of the deci mal by l ong di vi si on.)
2.9=2.9
3.10% = 0.0310
0.0310 <2.9<2.94
A l ternatel y, you can use F D P l ogi c and Benchmark Val ues to sol ve thi s probl em: 3.10% i s 0.0310, whi ch i s
cl earl y the smal l est val ue. T hen, compare 2.9and 2~ to see whi ch one i s cl oser to 3. 2.9 i s _1_ away
17 .. 10
from 3. 2~ i s _1_ away from 3. Si nce _1_ i s smal l er than _1_, 2~ i s cl osest to 3; therefore, i t i s l arger.
17 17 17 10 17
So, 3.10% <2.9<~.
17
11. ~~ <2.9002003 <248,000%: T o order from l east to greatest, express al l the terms i n the same
form.
500 =2.51
199
248,000% =2,480
2.9002003 =2.9002003
(You can fi nd the fi rst few di gi ts of the deci mal by l ong di vi si on.)
A l ternatel y, you can use F D P l ogi c and Benchmark Val .es to sol ve thi s probl em: 248,000% = 2,480,
whi ch i s cl earl y the l argest val ue. 500 i s approxi matel y 500 , or 2, whi ch i s 2.5. T hi s i s cl earl y l ess than
199 200 2
2.9002003. T herefore, 500 <2.9002003 <248,000%.
199
12. 120: T hi s i s a percent vs. deci mal conversi on probl em. If you si mpl y recogni ze that 62.5%=0.625 =2,
8
thi s probl em wi l l be a l ot easi er: 2x 192=2x 24=120. M ul ti pl yi ng 0.625 x 240 wi l l take much l onger to
8 1
compl ete.
13. 1,250: T hi s i s a percent vs. deci mal conversi on probl em. If you si mpl y recogni ze that
16%= 0.16 = -.!. ... = ~, thi s probl em wi l l be a l ot easi er: ~ x = 200, so x = 200x 25 = 50x 25= 1,250.
100 . 25 25 4
D i vi di ng out 200+0.16 wi l l probabl y take l onger to compl ete.
!M (J 1J ,l i attanGM A i [~Prep
the new s tandard
73
C hapter 4
FOP SOLUTIONS
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
14. XY : We can use deci mal equi val ents. X percent i s l i -., and we si mpl y need to mul ti pl y by Y.
100 100
A l ternati vel y we can set up a tabl e and sol ve for the unknown (i n thi s case, we wi l l cal l i t 2):
P ART
z x 100Z =XY
z=XY
100
WHOLE y
10 0
15. l OOX: We can use deci mal equi val ents. X equal s some unknown percent of Y (cal l i t Z percent), so
y
Z . 100X
X =- x Y , and we si mpl y sol ve for Z: -- =Z.
100 Y
A l ternati vel y we can set up a tabl e and $ol ve for the unknown Z:
P ART x
WHOLE
y
z 100X=Z Y
Z = 100X
Y
10 0
7 4
M anl i attanG MAT" Pr e p
the new s tandard
Chapter 5E ~~
--0/ -/ ; :
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, 5 P ERCENTS
ST RA T E GIE S FOR
DATA SUF F IC I'E N<J Y
I n This Chapter . . .
Rephrasi ng: One E quati on, One Vari abl e
Sampl e Rephrasi ngs for C hal l engi ng Probl ems
DATA SUFFI CI ENCY STRATEGY
Rephrasing: One Eq uation, One Variabl e
D ata suffi ci ency probl ems that deal wi th F D Ps usual l y present vari ous parts and whol es.
Keepi ng track of them can be di ffi cul t. T herefore, one strategy to hel p you sol ve these
probl ems i s to RE PHRA SE questi ons and statements i nto equati ons i n order to keep track
of what you know and what you need to know. Your ul ti mate goal i n wri ti ng equati ons i s
to combi ne them i n such a way that you ate l eft wi th a si ngl e equati on wi th onl y one vari -
abl e. T he vari abl e i n the equati on shoul d represent the quanti ty you are asked to nnd i n
the ori gi nal questi on.
If a brokerage firm charged a commis s ion of 2%of the total dollar amount of
a certain trade, what was the total dollar amount of that trade?
(1) The dollar amount of the trade minus the brokerage firm' s commis s ion
was $88, 000.
(2) The brokerage firm' s commis s ion decreas ed the profit earned on the
trade by 20%.
(A ) Statement (1) A LONE i s suffi ci ent, but statement (2) al one i s not suffi ci ent.
(B) Statement (2) A LONE i s suffi ci ent, but statement (1) al one i s not suffi ci ent.
(C ) BOT H statements T OGE T HE R are suffi ci ent, but NE IT HE R statement
A LONE i s suffi ci ent.
(D ) E A C H statement A LONE i s suffi ci ent.
(E ) Statements (1) and (2) together are NOT suffi ci ent.
F i rst, assi gn a vari abl e to represent the unknown for wi .ch you are tryi ng to sol ve:
Let d = the total dol l ar amount of the trade
T hen, express the i nformati on gi ven i n the questi on, i denti fyi ng any other vari abl es you
need:
Let c = the brokerage fi rm's commi ssi on
c = 0.02d
T est each statement, wri ti ng equati ons to represent the i nformati on. If the i nformati on i n
the statement can be combi ned wi th the i nformati on i n the questi on to yi el d a si ngl e equa-
ti on wi th the si ngl e vari abl e d, the statement i s suffi ci ent:
Statement (1): d - c =88,000
Substi tute the val ue for c gi ven i n the questi on.
d - (0.02d) = 88,000
T hi s i s a si ngl e equati on wi th a si ngl e vari abl e so i t i s suffi ci ent to sol ve for d and answer the
questi on.
9r l anl i attanG MAl ' Pr e p
the new s tandard
C hapter 5
T ry to rephrase the
part-whol c rel ati onshi p
gi ven i n the questi on by
wri ti ng an equati on.
Chapter 5
Beware of statements
that i ntroduce too many
vari abl es. T hese are usu-
al l y not suffi ci ent to
answer the questi on.
78
DATA SUFFICIENCY STRATEGY
Statement (2) i ntroduces a new vari abl e i nto the pi cture: profi t.
Let p =the profi t before the commi ssi on
p - c = 0.80p
Si nce we do not know p, the amount of profi t from the trade before the commi ssi on, we
cannot sol ve for c , the.brokerage fi rm's commi ssi on.
Si nce we cannot fi nd 4, we are unabl e to determi ne d, the total dol l ar amount of the trade.
T hus, statement (2) i s !NOT suffi ci ent.
T he answer to thi s data suffi ci ency probl em i s (A): Statement (1) A LONE i s suffi ci ent, but
statement (2) al one i s not suffi ci ent. .
: Manf i at t anG MAT Prep
the new s tandard
DATA sumcmNCY REPHRASI NG EXAMPL ES
C hapter 5
Rephrasing: Chal l enge Short Set
In C hapters 6 and 8, you wi l l fi nd l i sts of F racti ons, D eci mal s, and Percent probl ems that have appeared on
past offi ci al GM A T exams. T hese l i sts refer to probl ems from three books publ i shed by the Graduate
M anagement A dmi ssi on C ounci l - (the organi zati on that devel ops the offi ci al GM A T exam):
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h E di t i on
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w, 2n d E di t i on
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ew book l argel y overl ap. Use one OR the other. T he questi ons
contai ned i n these three books are the property of T he Graduate M anagement A dmi ssi on C ounci l , whi ch
i s not affi l i ated i n any way wi th M anhattan GM A T .
A .syou work through the D ata Suffi ci ency probl ems l i sted at the end of Part I and Part II, be sure to focus
on r e phr asi n g. If possi bl e, try to r e phr ase each questi on i nto i ts si mpl est form be for e l ooki ng at the two state-
ments. In order to rephrase, focus on fi guri ng out the speci fi c i nformati on that i s absol utel y necessary to
answer the questi on. A fter rephrasi ng the questi on, you shoul d al so try to r e phr ase each of the two state-
ments, i f possi bl e. Rephrase each statement by si mpl i fyi ng the gi ven i nformati on i nto i ts most basi c form.
In order to hel p you practi ce rephrasi ng, we have taken a set of general l y di ffi cul t D ata Suffi ci ency prob-
l ems on T he O ffi c i al Gui de probl em l i st (these are the probl em numbers l i sted i n the "C hal l enge Short Set"
on page 115) and have provi ded you wi th our own sampl e rephrasi ngs for each questi on and statement. In
order to eval uate how effecti vel y you are usi ng the rephrasi ng strategy, you can compare your rephrased
questi ons and statements to our own rephrasi ngs that appear bel ow. Questi ons and statements that are si g-
ni fi cantl y rephrased appear i n bol d.
: : M .anl i attanGM A' I * Pr ep
~henew st andar d 79
C hapter 5
DATA SumC IE NC Y RE PHRA SING E XA M PLE S
Rephrasi ngs from T he Offi ci al Gui de F or GM A T ReWw, 12t h E di t i on
T he questi ons and statements that appear bel ow are onl y our r e phr asi n gs. T he ori gi nal questi ons and state-
ments can be found by referenci ng the probl em numbers bel ow i n the D ata Suffi ci ency secti on of T he
O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h e di t i on (pages 272-288).
025. What i s the uni ts di gi t of n ? (Possi bi l i ti es =3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9)
(1) T he uni ts di gi t of n i s 5 or 6.
(2) T he uni ts di gi t of n i s.4, 5, 6, or 9.
27. Let V.for = the vol ume of oi l present after the 200 gal l ons were removed
Let T =the total capaci ty of the tank
3
Vafter =-:;T
What i sT ? OR
What i s V4ftor?
1
(1) Vafter+200=Z T
! T + 200= .! .T
7 2
(2) Vafter =T -1,600
! T = T -1600
7 '
52.
y-x ?
--=-
x 100
y-x
--=?
x
y-x =L_'::'=L_I=?
x x x x
What i s L?
x
(1) y - x = 20
(2) L =2.
x 4
61. Let d = the number of guests served a doubl e scoop
Let s = the number of guests served a si ngl e scoop
What i s the val ue of d?
8 0
9rfanliattanG M A T "Prep
the new s tandard
D A T A SUF F IC IE NC YRE PHRA SINGE XA M PLE S C hapter 5
(1)0.6(d +s) = d
(2) 2d+ s= 120
( t ) ( t )
79.
1+-1 > 1+_2_,
P I 100 P 2 100'
P +P 1
t
1 >P +P '1.t l ?
1 100 1 100
(1) tl >~
(2) P l t l >P 2t 2
88. Let M =mortgagepayments
Let R = real estatetaxes
Let H =home i nsurance
M + R+ H= 12,000
What i s R? OR
Whati sM +H?
1
(1) R+ H= -M
3
(2) R =0.20(M +H)
SR= M + H
R+ SR =12,000
6R= 12,000
120. Let R =rent col l ectedi n 1997
(1-1- )(1+~ )R> R?
100 100
(1-1- )(1+~ 1?
100 100
x y xy
1+------>1?
100 100 10,000
x-y xy
-->--?
100 10,000
x- y> xy ?
100
(1) x> y
(2) xy < x-y
100
~n l i at t an G M A i l i Prep
tf\e news tandard 81
C hapter 5 D A T ASUF F IC IE NC YRE PHRA SINGE XA M PLE S
142. Li ttl e rephrasi ng of the questi on i s possi bl e unti l you create a framework usi ng the statements.
(1)
C ommi ssi on Rate (%) x Sal es ($) = C ommi ssi on ($)
!F i rsthal f of 1988
?
~econd hal f of 1988
Irotal for 1988
5%
(2)
C ommi ssi on Rate (%) x Sal es ($) = C ommi ssi on ($)
F i rst hal f of 1988
x ?
~econd hal f of 1988
x+ 60,000
rrotal for 1988
2x+ 60,000
143. Let x = the ori gi nal pri ce of stockX
Let y = the ori gi nal pri ce of stock Y
What i s the val ue of 0.9y ?
x
What i s the val ue of y ?
x
(1) l .l x =y
y =1.1
x
(2) O .l x= C~)(O .l y)
y 11
- =-
x 10
151. Whati sk?OR
What i s n ?
(1) k = 51,000
n = 4
(2) k = ~2.601X 10
9
167. What i s the tens di gi t of n ?
(1) T he tens di gi t of n i s 6
(2) T he tens di gi t of n i s 6 or 7
8 2
9rf.anfiattanG M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard
D A T A SumC IE NC Y RE PHRA SING E XA M PLE S C h.apter 5
Rephrasi ngs from T he O ffi c i al Gui de fur GM A T Quan t i t at i 4l e Revi ew, 2nd E di ti on
T he questi ons and statements that appear bel ow are onl y our r e phr asi n gs. T he ori gi nal questi ons and state-
ments can be found by referenci ng the probl em numbers bel ow i n the D ata Suffi ci ency secti on of T he
Official Gui de for GM A T Q} uzn t i t at i v e Re v i e w, 2nd E di t i on (pages 152-163). F i rst E di ti on numbers are
i ncl uded i n parentheses. Probl ems uni que to one edi ti on are so i ndi cated.
5. Let x = the percent di scount at whi ch the T V was bought
(5.) Let y =the percent mark-up at whi ch the T V was sol d
Let z =the ori gi nal (l i st) pri ce
Purchase Pri ce =z x (100 - x) and Sal e Pri ce =z x (100 - y)
100 100
What i s the val ue of z?
(1)x=15
(2) y= x - 5
(22. 1st E di ti on onl y)
Let s = money awarded to the spouse
Let a = money awarded to the ol dest chi l d
Let b = money awarded to the mi ddl e chi l d
Let c =money awarded to the youngest chi l d
s +a +b +c = 200,000
c = 200,000 - (a +b +s)
What i s the val ue of c ?
(1) s =100,000
a= 25,000
(2) b =c
a = c -12,500
s = c + 62,500
49. T he easi est way to sol ve thi s probl em i s to test numbers, maki ng sure to test both i nteger and
(48.) deci mal val ues for rand s.
50. Let n =the number of shares
(49.)
12,000
What i s the val ue of ?
n
: M an l i at t an G M A l '*Prep
the new s tandard 8 3
C hapter 5
What i s the val ue of n ?
D A T A SumC IE NC Y RE PHRA SING E XA M PLE S
(1) n { 12,000 + 1) = $12,300
n
12,000 +n = $12,300
n = 300
(2) n { 12,000 - 2) = 0.95{$12,300)
n
12,000 - 2n = 11,400
2n = 600
n = 300
75. Let r = the number of games remai ni ng for T eam A
(72.) Let t =total number of games pl ayed by T eam A =20 +r
Let w = games won by T eam A = 10 +r
What i s the val ue of w?
Better: What i s the val ue of n
(1) t = 25
(2) w = 10 +r = 0.60
t 20 +r
10 +r =12 +0.6r
O .4r = 2
r = 5
96. 2nd E di ti on onl y
Is-l <xSO? In other words, i s -1 <x A ND i s x :S O?
(I) No rephrasi ng necessary
(2) 0 <x +0.5 :S 1
-0.5 <xS 0.5
119. T he easi est way to sol ve thi s probl em i s to test numbers.
(113.)
84
9r 1.an l i at t an G M A T Prep
the new s tandard
C hap}er 6/[
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, aiP ERCENTS
OF F IC IA L GUI DE
PROBL EM SE T S:
PA RT I
I n This Chapter . . .
F racti ons, D eci mal s, & Percents Probl em Sol vi ng Li st
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de s: PART I
F racti ons, D eci mal s, & Percents D ata Suffi ci ency Li st
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de s: PART I
OF F IC IA L GUID E PROBLE M SE T S::PA RT I
C hapter 6
Practi ci ng wi th RE A L GM A T Probl ems
Now that you have compl eted Part I of F RA C T IONS, D E C IM A LS, & PE RC E NT S, i t i s ti me to test your
ski l l s on probl ems that have acrual l y appeared on real GM A T exams over the past several years.
T he probl em sets that fol l ow are composed of questi ons from three books publ i shed by the Graduate
M anagement A dmi ssi on C ounci l - (the organi zati on that devel ops the offi ci al GM A T exam):
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h E di t i on
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w, 2n d E di t i on
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ew book l argel y overl ap. Use one OR the other.
T hese books contai n quanti tati ve questi ons that have appeared on past offi ci al GM A T exams. (T he ques-
ti ons contai ned therei n are the property of T he Graduate M anagement M mi ssi on C ounci l , whi ch i snot
affi l i ated i n any way wi th M anhattan GM A T .)
A l though the questi ons i n the Offi ci al Gui des have been "reti red" (they wi l l not appear on future offi ci al
GM A T exams), they are great practi ce questi ons.
In order to hel p you practi ce effecti vel y, we have categori zed every probl em i n T he Offi ci al Gui des by topi c
and subtopi c. On the fol l owi ng pages, you wi l l fi nd two categori zed l i sts:
(1) Probl em Sol vi ng: Li sts E A SIE R Probl em Sol vi ng F racti on, D eci mal , and Percent questi ons contai ned
i n T he O ffi c i al Gui de s and categori zes them by subtopi c. .
(2) D ata Suffi ci ency: Li sts E A SIE R D ata Suffi ci ency F racti on, D eci mal , and Percent questi ons contai ned
i n T he O ffi c i al Gui de s and categori zes them by subtopi c.
T he remai ni ng O ffi c i al Gui de probl ems are l i sted at the end of Part II of thi s book. D o not forget about
the Part II l i st!
E ach book i n M anhattan GM A T 's 8-book strategy seri es contai ns i ts own O ffi c i al Gui de l i sts that pertai n
to the speci fi c topi c of that parti cul ar book. If you compl ete al l the practi ce probl ems contai ned on the
O ffi c i al Gui de l i sts i n each of the 8 M anhattan GM A T strategy books, you wi l l have compl eted every si ngl e
questi on publ i shed i n T he O ffi c i al Gui de s.
9danfiattanG.MAW*Prep
the new s tandard
8 7
Chapter 6
OFFI CI AL GUI DE PROBL EM SOL VI NG SET: PART I
Probl em Sol ving: Part I
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h E di t i on (pages 20-23 & 152-185), T he O ffi c i al Gui de
for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w (pages 62-85), and T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w,
2n d E di t i on (pages 62-86).
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ewbook l argel yoverl ap. Use one OR the other.
Sol ve each of the fol l owi ngprobl ems i n a notebook, maki ng sure to demonstrate howyou arri ved at
each answer byshowi ng al l of your work and computati ons. If you get stuck on a probl em, l ook back at
the F D P strategi es and content i n thi s gui de to assi st you.
Note: Probl em numbers preceded by "D " refer to questi ons i n the D i agnosti c T est chapter of
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h e di t i on (pages 20-23).
GENERAL SET - FRACTI ONS, DECI MAL S, & PERCENTS
Fractions
12t h E di t i on : 24, 37,43,45,74,95, 138, 175, 176, D 8
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 5, 11,37,39,44,46,48,51,57,61,73,79,88, 108, 112, 134, 135
OR 2n d E di t i on : 8, 14,39,42,46,48,50,53,59,60,61,69,88, 134
Digits and Decimal s
12t h E di t i on : 15,28, 79, 114, 129, 133, 143, 182, D 1, D l l
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 2, 4, 41, 65, 66, 93
OR 2n d E di t i on : 4, 6, 65, 93
Percents
12t h E di t i on : 8, 13, 19,47,61,78, 123, 128, 131, 139, D 21
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 8, 10, 13,24,33,47, 74, 95, 101, 114, 120
OR 2n d E di t i on : 10, 12,26,35,49, 73, 95, 101, 114, 120
Successive Percents and Percent Change
12t h E di t i on : 17, 60, 64, 92, 94, 109, 111, 115, D 12
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 6, 36, 40, 67, 89
OR 2n d E di t i on : 9, 38, 43, 66, 89
FDPs
12t h E di t i on : 10, 56
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 25, 27, 43, 56
OR 2n d E di t i on : 27, 29, 45, 58
Remember, there are more Offi ci al Gui de probl ems l i sted at the end of Part II.
8 8
: M anf i attanG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
OF F IC IA L GUID E D A T A SUF F IC IE NC Y SE T : PA RT I
C hapter 6
D ata Suffi ci ency: Part I
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h E di t i on (pages 24-26 & 272-288), T he O ffi c i al
Gui de for GM A T O J i .an t i t at i v e Re v i e w (pages 149-157), and T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w, 2n d E di t i on (pages 152-163).
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ew book l argel y overl ap. Use one OR the other.
Sol ve each of the fol l owi ng probl ems i n a notebook, maki ng sure to demonstrate how you arri ved
at each answer by showi ng al l of your work and computati ons. If you get stuck on a probl em, l ook
back at the F OP strategi es and content contai ned i n thi s gui de to assi st you.
Practi ce RE PHRA SING both the questi ons and the statements by usi ng vari abl es and constructi ng
equati ons. T he majori ty of data suffi ci ency probl ems can be rephrased; however, i f you have di ffi -
cul ty rephrasi ng a probl em, try testi ng numbers to sol ve i t. It i s especi al l y i mportant that you fami l -
i ari ze yoursel f wi th the di recti ons for data suffi ci ency probl ems, and that you memori ze the 5 fi xed
answer choi ces that accompany al l data suffi ci ency probl ems.
Note: Probl em numbers preceded by "0"refer to questi ons i n the D i agnosti c T est chapter of
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h e di t i on (pages 24-26).
GE NE RA L SE T - F RA C T IONS, D E C IM A LS, Be PE RC E NT S
F racti ons
12t h E di t i on : 9, 27, 59
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 2, 22 OR 2n d E di t i on : 2, 48
D i gi ts and D eci mal s
12t h E di t i on : 31,41,64, 100
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 30, 44, 48 OR 2n d E di t i on : 21, 30, 44, 49
Percents
12t h E di t i on : 2, 7, 33, 37, 48, 61, 63, 77, 79, 040
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 5, 36, 49, 52, 72, 89
OR 2n d E di t i on : 5, 36, 50, 53, 75, 93
Successi ve Percents and Percent C hange
12t h E di t i on : 55
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 1
F D Ps
12t h E di t i on : 43, 46, 52, 85
Remember, there are more Offi ci al Gui de probl ems l i sted at the end of Part II.
: .M .an l i at t an G M A T Prep
the new s tandard 8 9
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
PA RT I I : A D VA NC E D
T hi s part of the book covers vari ous advanced topi cs wi thi n F r ac t i on s, D e c i mal s, 6-
P e r c e n t s. T hi s advanced materi al may not be necessary for al l students. A ttempt Part
II onl y i f you have compl eted Part I and are comfortabl e wi th i ts content.
Chapter 7
--of- .
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS,&' PERCENTS
FDPs:
ADVANCED
I n This Chapter . . .
Repeati ng D eci mal s
T enni nati ng D eci mal s
Unknown D i gi t Probl ems
F ormul as T hat A ct on D eci mal s
F racti ons and E xponents & Roots
Percents and Wei ghted A verages
Percent C hange and Wei ghted A verages
Other Percent C hanges
E sti mati ng D eci mal E qui val ents
FDP$:ADVANCED STRATEGY
FDPs: ADVANCED
T hi s chapter outl i nes mi scel l aneous advanced topi cs wi thi n the area of F r ac t i on s, D e c i mal s,
& P e r c e n t s.
Repeating Decimal s
D i vi di ng an i nteger by another i nteger yi el ds a deci mal that ei ther termi nates (see bel ow) or
that never ends and repeats i tsel f
2+9=?
-
2 +9 = 0.2222 ... = 0.2 0.222...
9h.ooo
.La
20
i s
20
T he bar above the 2 i ndi cates that the di gi t 2 repeats
forever. You wi l l not have to use the bar on the
GM A T ; i t i s si mpl y a conveni ent shorthand.
General l y, you shoul d just do l ong di vi si on to determi ne the repeati ng cycl e. However, i t i s
worth noti ng the fol l owi ng patterns, whi ch have appeared i n publ i shed GM A T questi ons.
4 +9 = 0.4444 ... = 0.4 23 +99 = 0.2323 ... = 0.23
19-
- - - - 0 0909 - 0 09
11 - 99 -. ... - .
3 27 -
11 = 99 = 0.2727 ... = 0.27
If the denomi nator i s 9, 99, 999or another number equal to a power of 10 mi nus 1, then
the numerator gi ves you the repeati ng di gi ts (perhaps wi th l eadi ng zeroes). A gai n, you can
al ways fi nd the deci mal pattern by si mpl e l ong di vi si on.
Terminating Decimal s
Some numbers, l i ke v'2and 11:, have deci mal s that never end and nmr repeat themsel ves.
T he GM A T wi l l onl y ask you for approxi mati ons for these deci mal s (e.g., v' 2 =1.4).
Occasi onal l y, though, the GM A T asks you about properti es of "termi nati ng" deci mal s: that
i s, deci mal s that end. You can tack on zeroes, of course, but they do not matter. Here are
some exampl es of termi nati ng deci mal s: 0.2 0.47 0.375
T ermi nati ng deci mal s can al l be wri tten as a rati o of i ntegers (whi ch mi ght be reduci bl e):
Some i nteger
Some power of ten
2 1
02= - = -
. 10 5
47- 47
o. - 100
0.375 = 375 = 1
1000 8
Posi ti ve powers of ten are composed of onl y 2's and 5's as pri me factors. 'T hi s means that
when you reduce thi s fracti on, you onl y have pri me factors of2's and/or5's i n the denomi -
nator. E very termi nati ng deci mal shares thi s characteri sti c. If, after bei ng ful l y reduced, the
denomi nator has any pri me factors besi des 2 or 5, then i ts deci mal wi l l not termi nate. If the
denomi nator onl y has factors of 2 and/or 5, then the deci mal wi l l termi nate.
: Manl iattanGMAT prep
the new s tandard
Chapter 7
When you cxpn:ss termi -
nati ng deci mal s as frac-
dons i n l owest terms,
they onl y have 2's and/or
5's as pri me &ctors i n
thei r denomi nators.
C hapter 7
Wi th di ffi cul t unknown
di gi t probl ems, use the
answer choi ces as wel l as
gi ven constrai nts to nar-
row down the set of pos-
si bl e di gi ts qui ckl y.
94
FOPs:ADVANCED STRATEGY
Unknown Digit Probl ems
Occasi onal l y, the GM A T asks tough probl ems i nvol vi ng unknown di gi ts. T hese probl ems
l ook l i ke "brai nteasers"; i t seems i t coul d take al l day to test the possi bl e di gi ts.
However, l i ke al l other GM A T probl ems, these di gi t "brai nteasers" must be sol vabl e under
ti me constrai nts. A s a resul t, you al ways have ways of reduci ng the number of possi bi l i ti es.
Pri nci pl es:
(1) Look at the answer choi ces fi rst, to l i mi t your search.
(2) Use other gi ven constrai nts to rul e out addi ti onal possi bi l i ti es.
(3) F ocus on the uni ts di gi t i n the product or sum.
T hi s uni ts di gi t i s affected by the fewest other di gi ts.
(4) T est the remai ni ng answer choi ces.
E xampl e:
AB
x C A
OE BC
In the multiplication above, each letter s tands for a different non-zero digit,
with A x B <10. What is the two-digit number AB ?
(A) 23 (B ) 24 (C) 25 (D) 32 (E) 42
It i s often hel pful to l ook at the answer choi ces. Here, we see that the possi bl e di gi ts for A
and B are 2, 3, 4, and 5.
Next, appl y the gi ven constrai nt that A x B < 10. T hi s rul es out answer choi ce (C ), 25,
si nce 2 x 5 = 10.
Now, test the remai ni ng answer choi ces. Noti ce that A x B = C , the uni ts di gi t of the
product. T herefore, you can fi nd al l the needed di gi ts and compl ete each mul ti pl i cati on.
C ompare each resul t to the templ ate. T he two posi ti ons of the B di gi t must match.
23
24
x 62 x...a2
1,426
1,968
T he B's do not match
T he B's do not match
32
42
~ x 84
2,016
3,528
T he B's do not match
T he B's match A nswer i s (E ).
Note that you coul d have used the constrai nts to deri ve the possi bl e di gi ts (2, 3, and 4)
wi thout usi ng the answer choi ces. However, for these probl ems, you shoul d take advantage
of the answer choi ces to restri ct your search qui ckl y.
9danl i attanG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
FDPs: ADVANCED STRATEGY
Formul as That Act on Decimal s
Occasi onal l y, you mi ght encounter a formul a or speci al symbol that acts on deci mal s.
F ol l ow the formul a's i nstructi ons preci sel y.
Let us defi ne symbol [x] to represent the l argest i nteger l ess than or equal to x.
What i s [5.1]?
A ccordi ng to the defi ni ti on we are gi ven, [5.1] i s the l argest i nteger l ess than or equal to 5.1.
T hat i nteger i s 5. So [5.1] =5.
What i s [0.8]?
A ccordi ng to the defi ni ti on agai n, [0.8] i s the l argest i nteger l ess than or. equal to 0.8. T hat
i nteger i s O. So [0.8] = o. Noti ce that the resul t i s NOT 1. T hi s parti cul ar defi ni ti on does
not round the number. Rather, the operati on se e ms to be truncati on-si mpl y cutti ng off the
deci mal . However, we must be careful wi th negati ves.
What i s [-2.3]?
Once agai n, [-2.3] i s the l argest i nteger l ess than or equal to -2.3: Remember that "l ess
than" on a number l i ne means "to the l eft of." A "smal l er" negati ve number i s further away
from zero than a "bi gger" negati ve number. So the l argest i nteger l ess than -2.3 i s -3, and
[-2.3] =-3. Noti ce that the resul t i s NOT -2; thi s bracket operati on i s NOT truncati on.
Be sure to fol l ow the i nstructi ons exactl y whenever you are gi ven a speci al symbol or formu-
l a i nvol vi ng deci mal s. It i s easy to jump to concl usi ons about how an operati on works: for
i nstance, fi ndi ng the l argesti nteger l ess than x i s NOT the same as roundi ng x or truncati ng
x i n al l cases. A l so, do not confuse thi s parti cul ar set of brackets [x] wi th parentheses (x) or
absol ute val ue si gns Ixl.
Fractions and Exponents & Roots
On many GM A T probl ems, you need to know what happens to a fracti on when you rai se i t
to a power. T he resul t depends on the si ze and si gn of the fracti on, as wel l as on the power:
-1 o 1
- 3
2
-1
2
3
2
1
2
E VE N E XP O NE NT S (suc h as 2):
(-;J =~
- 3 9
-<-
2 4
(~lJ=
( J =
(%)2 =~
-1 1 1 1
3 9
--<-
- >-
-<-
2 4 2 4
2 4
resul t i s bi gger
resul t i s SM A LLE R
resul t i s bi gger resul t i s bi gger
: M anl i attanG MAr " Pr e p
the new s tandard
Chapter 7
~ you work wi th
formul as that act on dec-
i mal s, avoi d shortcuts
and fol l owdi recti ons!
95
C hapter 7
When you rai se a
fracti on to a power,
pay attenti on to both
the si gn and the si ze
(rel ati ve to +1or -1)
of the fracti on.
FOPs:ADVANCED STRATEGY
O D D E XP O NE NT S (suc h as 3):
(~J = -~7
(~l J = ~1
(lJ =l
(%J = 2:
-3 -27
-1 -1 1 1
3 27
->--
-<- ->- -<-
2 8
2 8 2 8 2 8
resul t i s SM A LLE R
resul t i s bi gger
resul t i s SM A LLE R resul t i s bi gger
A s you can see, the effect of rai si ng a fracti on to a power vari es dependi ng upon
the fracti on's val ue, si gn, and the exponent.
. 1
Be ready to re-generate these outcomes Wi th test numbers such as -
2
T o rai se a fracti on to a negati ve power, si mpl y rai se the reci procal to the equi val ent
posi ti ve power.
(
_7
3
)-2= (_37)2 7
2
49
=3 ' 2 =9
F i nal l y, remember that taki ng a root of a number i s the same thi ng as rai si ng that num-
ber to a fracti onal power.
A s a parti cul ar exampl e, note that taki ng the square root of a proper fracti on rai ses i ts
val ue toward 1.
F or more revi ew of exponents and
roots, see the Numbe r P r ope r t i e s
Strategy Gui de.
Percents and Weighted Averages
A mi xture chart can be used to sol ve wei ghted average probl ems that i nvol ve percents.
Kris -P cereal is 10%s ugar by weight, whereas healthier but les s deli-
cious B ran-D cereal is 2%s ugar by weight. To make a delicious and
healthy mixture that Is 4% s ugar, what s hould be the ratio of Kris -P
cereal to B ran-D cereal, by weight?
F i rst, set up a mi xture chart. T hi s ti me, i nstead of Ori gi nal /C hange/New, put the cere-
al brands and T otal across the top. We wi l l al so put the parts of each cereal i n the rows.
P ounds (Ibs ) Kris -P B ran-D
Total
Sugar
Other s tuff
Total Cereal
9r f .anl i at t anG MAT Pr e p
the new s tandard
FOP s : ADVANCED STRATEGY
We are not gi ven any actual wei ghts i n thi s probl em, nor are we asked for any such wei ghts .
.As a resul t, we can pi ck one Smart Number. Let us pi ck the total amount of Kri s-P: 100
pounds (l bs). Now we can compute how much sugar i s i n that Kri s-P: (0.10)(100) = 101bs.
D o not bother computi ng the wei ght of the "other stuff"; i t rarel y matters.
P ounds (Ibs ) Kris -P
B ran-Q Total
Sugar 10
Other s tuff
Total Cereal 100
Now set the total amount of Bran-O as x l b (we cannot pi ck another Smart Number). Si nce
Bran-O i s onl y 2% sugar, the mass of sugar i n the Bran-O wi l l be (0.02)x l b. We can now
add up the bottom row: the total amount of al l cereal s i s 100 +x l b. Si nce the total mi xture
i s 4% sugar, the wei ght of sugar i n the mi xture i s (0.04)(100 +x) l b.
P ounds (lbs ) Kris -P B ran-Q Total
Sugar 10 (0.02)x (0.04)(100 +x)
Other s tuff
Total Cereal 100 x 100+x
F i nal l y, we can wri te an equati on summi ng the top row (the amounts of sugar):
10+(0.02)x = (0.04)(100 +x) 6 = (0.02)x
10+(0.02)x = 4+(0.04) x
300=x
T he rati o of Kri s-P to Bran-O i s 100 : 300 or 1: 3.
T hi s resul t shoul d make sense: to make a 4% mi xture out of 10% and 2% cereal s, you need
much more of the 2%. In fact, 4% i s the average of 10% and 2%, wei ghted 1to 3.
Percent C hange and Wei ghted A verages
Wei ghted averages can al so show up i n "percent change" probl ems.
A company s ells only pens and pencils . The revenue from pen s ales in 2007
was up 5%from 2006, but the revenue from pencil s ales declined 13% over
the s ame period. If overall revenue was down 1%from 2006 to 2007, what
was the ratio of pencil revenues to pen revenues in 2oo6?
F i rst, set up a chart. We wi l l use the Ori gi nal /C hange/New framework, but we wi l l wri te
2006 and 2007 i n the col umn headers. We wi l l wri te Pen and Penci l Revenue i n the row
headers.
Dollars ($) 2006 Change
2007
P en Revenue
P encil Revenue
Total Revenue
9J .an l i at t an GM A r * P r e p
the new s tandard
C hapter 7
M ake sure that you set
up your mi xture chart
both to sum across and
[0 swn down, maki ng a
T otal col umn and row.
97
Chapter 7
Use an Ori gi nal l
C hange/New chart to
compute the wei ghted
average of percent
changes.
98
FOPs: ADVANCED STRATEGY
A s i n the previ ous probl em, we are not gi ven any actual amounts (i n thi s case, dol l ar rev-
enue), nor are we asked for any such revenue i n dol l ar terms. Rather, we are asked for a
rati o of revenue. A s a resul t, we can pi ck one Smart Number. Let us pi ck $100 for the
2006 Pen Revenue. Si nce that revenue went up 5%, the change i s +$5, and the 2007
Pen Revenue i s $105. Remember, al l amounts are i n some monetary uni t (say, dol l ars).
Dollars ($)
2 0 0 6 Change 2 0 0 7
P en Revenue
10 0 +5 10 5
P encil Revenue
Total Revenue
Now set the 2006 Penci l Revenue equal to $x. Remember, you cannot pi ck another
Smart Number, si nce you do not know what the rati o of 2006 revenue wi l l be. Si nce the
Penci l Revenue went down 13%, the change i n dol l ar terms i s -0.13x, and the 2007
Penci l Revenue i s 0.87x dol l ars.
You can al so wri te the 2006 T otal Revenue as the sum of that col umn. Si nce the T otal
Revenue went down 1%, the change (agai n, i n dol l ar terms) i s -0.01(100 +x), and the
2007 T otal Revenue i s 0.99(100 +x)
Dollars ($) 2 0 0 6 Change 2 0 0 7
P en Revenue 10 0 +5 10 5
P encil Revenue x -O .13x 0.87x
Total Revenue 100+ x - 0 . 0 1( 10 0 +x) 0 . 99( 10 0 +x)
F i nal l y, we can wri te an equati on summi ng the 2007 col umn:
105 + 0.87x =0.99(100+ x)
105+ 0.87x =99+ 0.99x
6 = 0.12x
600= 12x
50= x
Si nce the 2006 Pen Revenue i s $100, the rati o of Penci l Revenue to Pen Revenue i n
2006 i s 50 : 100, or 1: 2.
Be sure to answer the questi on exactl y as gi ven! T he probl em coul d easi l y ask for the
rati o of Pen Revenue to Penci l Revenue i n 2007, or for the rati o of ei ther part to the
total .
A gai n, thi s resul t shoul d make sense. A 5% i ncrease i n Pen Revenue and a 13% decl i ne
i n Penci l Revenue onl y average to a 1% decl i ne overal l i f there i s proporti onal l y more
Pen Revenue to start wi th. If the 2006 revenue of pens and penci l s were equal , then the
average change woul d just be a strai ght average (ari thmeti c mean):
+5%+(-13%) -8%
----- = -- = -4%
2 2
9r l anl i attanG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
FOP s : ADVANCED STRATEGY
A s i t stands, however, the overal l percent change i s a we i ght t d average of the two percent
changes. T he wei ghts are the 2006 (ori gi nal ) revenues:
(+5%)(100)+(-13%)(50) =+5-6.5
100+50 150
-1.5 _ l Ol L
---- 70
150
You can use a si mi l ar formul a to sol ve for the $50 and thus the revenue rati o. T he al gebrai c
steps are the same as they are wi th the chart.
(+5%)(100)+(-13%)(x) =-1%
100+x
In fact, to sol ve thi s equati on for x, you can si mpl y l eave the percents as percents, rather
than change them to deci mal s.
Last, do not forget that on any real GM A T probl em, you can:pl ug i nanswer choi ces. You wi l l
al ways be gi ven the correct rati o i n one of the answer choi ces. Si mpl y pi ck an answer choi ce
(say, a rati o of 1: 3) and i nvent revenues based on that rati o (say, $100 : $300). T hen work
forward from there, fi ndi ng the changes i n revenue per product "and overal l revenue. C ompare
your resul ts to the overal l change gi ven. Repeat as necessary. T hi s method can be computati on-
al l y i ntensi ve, but i t wi l l produce the correct answer eventual l y i n many si tuati ons.
F or more on Wei ghted A verages, see the WO r d T r an sl at i on s Strategy Gui de.
Other Percent C hanges
You can cal cul ate a percent change for any val ue that changes-even i f that val ue i s i tsel f a
fracti on, a rati o, a deci mal , or a percent, J ust keep the l abel s strai ght and pl ug i nto the two
"percent change" equati ons:
Ori gi nal +C hange = New
C hange
---":'- = Percent C hange
Ori gi nal
C onsi der the fol l owi ng probl em:
In the firs t quarter of 2008, Harry' s Hardware Store s old 300 hammers and
12, 000 nails . In the s econd quarter of 2008, the s tore s old 375 hammers and
18, 000 nails . B y approximately what percent did the ratio of hammers s old
to nails s old decreas e from the firs t quarter to the s econd quarter?
(A) 0.4% (B ) 2.1% (C ) 2.5% (0) 17% (E ) 25%
T he val ue that we care about i s the rati o of hammers sol d to nai l s sol d. T hus, we shoul d cal -
cul ate thi s val ue at vari ous poi nts i n ti me.
O
. . al Hammers 300 3~ 1
rIgm = Nai l s 12,000 = 12,OW 40
5WalI'lliattalI'lG M A T "Prep
the new s tandard
C hapter 7
If you use a formul a to
wri te the wei ghted aver-
age of percent changes
di rectl y, you can l eave
the percents as percents
(keepi ng the % si gn)
when you sol ve,
Chapter 7
You can measure the per-
cent change of a rati o as
l ong as you keep track of
the rati o's Ori gi nal val ue,
i ts New val ue, and i ts
absol ute change.
100
FOPs: ADVANCED STRATEGY
Note that i f you cal cul ate the deci mal equi val ent of 1140, you get 0.025or 2.5%. If you
had to guess at thi s poi nt, do not guess 2.5%!T he answer choi ces on probl ems such as thi s
one often contai n val ues that you mi ght cal cul ate al ong the way to an answer.
New =Hammers =~
Nai l s 18,000
Rather than si mpl i fy thi s fracti on, we shoul d remember what we are l ooki ng for: the per-
cent change from Ori gi nal to New. If we now fi gure out the percent OF the Ori gi nal that
the New represents, we can easi l y subtract 100%from that percent to get the percent
decrease. T he percent OF Ori gi nal comes from the rati o New , and i f we set up thi s
Ori gi nal
fracti on, we wi l l see how to cancel factors effi ci entl y.
375
New 18,000 375 12,000 375 12,,0',0',0'375 ;,(2
---= =--x--= x =-x--
Ori gi nal ~ 18,000 300 18,,0',0',0' 300 300}8 3
12,000
= 75ft = 15x5 =2.~83%
90ft 15x6 6
Now, i f the New i s 83%of the Ori gi nal , the C hange i s 83%- 100%= -17% of the
Ori gi nal . We can drop the negati ve si gn, si nce the questi on asks how much the rati o
decreased. T he correct answer i s (D ) 17%.
Be aware of the traps i n the i ncorrect answer choi ces. T he New rati o works out to approxi -
matel y 0.021, or 2.1%as a percent. M oreover, i f you subtract the New from the Ori gi nal ,
you get approxi matel y 0.004, or 0.4%. However, you must remember to di vi de by the
Ori gi nal , i n order to obtai n a percent change. F i nal l y, the trap i n (E ) 25%i s thi s: the
numerator of the rati o grew by 25%(from 300to 375), but the denomi nator of the rati o
grew by 50%(from 12,000to 18,000).You may NOT si mpl y subtract these numbers to
determi ne the percent change of the rati o.
Estimating Decimal Eq uival ents
When you are esti mati ng the deci mal equi val ent of a fracti on, you often have a few choi ces.
Es timate a decimal equivalent for ~. (B y long divis ion, ~ ~0.173077... )
52 S2
C hoi ce (1): M ake the denomi nator the nearest factor of 100or another power of 10.
9 9 18
- ~- = - = 0.18>real val ue (Hi gh esti mate: we l owered the denomi nator.)
52 50 100
C hoi ce (2): C hange the numerator or denomi nator to make the fracti on si mpl i fy easi l y.
9 9 1 -
- ~- =- =0.16 <real val ue (Low esti mate: we rai sed the denomi nator.)
52 54 6
: M .anl i attanG MAT Prep
the new s tandard
FOP s : ADVANCED STRATEGY
T ry not to change both the numerator and denomi nator, especi al l y i n opposi te di recti ons.
But i n a pi nch, you c an adjust both numbers - especi al l y i f your esti mati on does not have
to be that preci se (e.g., i n order to el i mi nate answers of a drasti cal l y di fferent si ze).
9 10 1 .
- ~~- = - = 0.2 real val ue (We rai sed the top an d l owered the bottom.)
52 50 5
If you need a more preci se esti mate, you can average a coupl e of methods, or you can thi nk
about smal l pe r c e n t adj ust me n t s:
100 000 100000 -
E sti mate ' . (B y the cal cul ator, , = 1,041.6 )
96 96
We fi rst adjust the denomi nator to 100 and perform the di vi si on:
100,OQO~100,000 =1,000 <real val ue (We rai sed the denomi nator.)
96 100
Now, you can make the fol l owi ng appr oxi mat i on , as l ong as you real i ze i t i s never exact,
and that you can onl y use i t for smal l adjustments. Use wi th cauti on!
You i ncreased the denomi nator from 96 to 100. T hat i s appr oxi mat e l y a 4% i ncrease.
C hange 4 4
--"' -- =- ~-
Ori gi nal 96 100
T hi s means that you can i ncrease the resul t by 4%, to make your esti mate more accurate:
1,000 (1.04) =1,040
Noti ce how cl ose thi s esti mate i s to the real val ue (1,040 i s 99.84% of 1,041.6).
9rf.anFiattanG MAT' P rep
the new s tandard
C hapter 7
Be abl e co esti mate deci -
mal equi val ents at l east a
coupl e of di ffi :rent ways.
and be aware of the
di recti on of the error
(whether your esri mare i s
hi gh or l ow).
101
INA C T ION FOP s : ADVANCED P ROB LEM SET
C hapter 7
Probl em Set (A dvanced)
(
6
6
)6
1. What is the units digit of GS ?
2. Which of the following decimals can be expres s ed as a fraction or ratio of integers ?
(Choos e all that apply.)
(A) 1t (B ) 0.146 (C) 1.3984375 (D) J 2
3 .
3
What is the length of the s equence of different digits in the decimal equivalent of "7 ?
4. Which of the following fractions will terminate when expres s ed as a decimal? (Choos e all
that apply.)
(A ) 2~6
(B) 27
100
(C) 100
27
(0) 231
660
(E ) 1~5
5.

~

In the multiplication above, each s ymbol repres ents a different unknown digit, and
x x = 36. What is the three digit integer ?
(A ) 263 (B ) 236 (C ) 194 (0) 491 (E) 452
D etermi ne whether probl ems #6-10 are T RUE or F A LSE .
6.(~3J > -~
( )
-2
x+ l x+ l
9. -x- >-x-' where xis a pos itive integer.
11. A profes s ional gambler has won 40% of his 25 poker games for the week s o far. If, all of a
s udden, his luck changes and he begins winning 80% of the time, how many more games
mus t he play to end up winning 60%of all his games for the week?
;M .anl i attanGM A T Prep
the new s tandard 103
C hapter 7
FOP s : ADVANCED P ROB LEM SET
INA C T ION
12. A feed s tore s ells two varieties of birds eed: B rand A, which is 40% millet and 60% s un-
flower, and B rand B , which is 65% millet and 35% s afflower. If a cus tomer purchas es a mix
of the two types of birds eed that is 50% millet, what percent of the mix is B rand A?
13. A grocery s tore s ells two varieties of jellybean jars , and each type of jellybean jar contains
only red and yellow jellybeans . If J ar B contains 20% more red jellybeans than J ar A, but
10%fewer yellow jellybeans , and J ar A contains twice as many red jellybeans as yellow
jellybeans , by what percent is the number of jellybeans in J ar B larger than the number of
jellybeans in J ar A?
14. Las t year, all regis tered voters in Kumannia voted either for the Revolutionary P arty or for
the Status Q uo P arty. This year, the number of Revolutionary voters increas ed 10%, while
the number of Status Q uo voters increas ed S%. No other votes were cas t. If the number of
total voters increas ed 8%, what fraction of voters voted Revolutionary this year?
15. Expres s the following as fractions : 0.15% 9.6%
16. Expres s the following as decimals : 2, 000% 0.030%
17. Expres s the following as percents : 36.1456 1
18. Order from leas t to greates t:
3 0.00751
200 x 10-
2
5 0.01 3
8
10
19. A credit card changed its rebate program from $2.50 rebated for every $500 s pent to $3
rebated for every $800 s pent. B y what percent did the ratio of rebate to s pending decline?
F or probl ems #20-23, express yout answer i n terms of the vari abl es gi ven (X Y, and possi bl y Z ).
20. What number is XOJ 6 greater than Y?
21. X is what percent greater than Y?
22. X is what percent greater than Y percent of Z?
23. Es timate the following fractions in terms of decimals , and note whether your es timate
is greater than or les s than the real value:
12
37
14
90
13
Sl
168
839
104
9rf.anliattanG M A T Prep
the new s tandard
IN A C T ION A NSWE R KE Y
FOP s : ADVANCED SOLUTIONS
C hapter 7
1. 6: F i rst, use the rul es for combi ni ng exponents to si mpl i fy the expressi on 6: . We subtract the exponents
6
to get 6: = 6. T hen, rai se thi s to the si xth power: 6
6
= 6
2
X 6
2
X 6
2
= 36 x 36 x 36. Ignore any di gi ts other
6
than the l ast one: 6 x 6 x 6 = 36 x 6. A gai n, i gnore any di gi ts other than the l ast one: 6 x 6 = 36. T he l ast
di gi t i s 6. '
2. (B) and (C ): Recal l that any fracti on can be expressed as a repeati ng or termi nati ng deci mal , and any
repeati ng or termi nati ng deci mal can be expressed as a fracti on. (A) does not exhi bi t a repeati ng pattern i n
the di gi ts of the deci mal (1t = 3.14159 ..., but the pattern does not repeat at any poi nt), nor does (0) (J 2=
1.41421. .., and agai n, the pattern does not repeat i tsel f). T herefore, (A) and (0) cannot be expressed as a
fracti on. T he deci mal i n (B) exhi bi ts a repeati ng pattern: 0.146 =0.146146146 ... = 146 . T he deci mal i n
999
(C)
' . be .ed th fracti 13,984,375 hi ch i al 179. ful l d d
termi nates, so It can express as e acti on ., w 1 15equ to-- m y re uce
10,000,000 . 128
form. Note that you ~ need to cal cul ate these fracti ons to answer the questi on; you onl y need to be
abl e to determi ne whe t he r the deci mal s can be expressed as a fracti on.
3. 6: General l y, the easi est way to fi nd the pattern of di gi ts i n a non-termi nati ng deci mal i s to
si mpl y do the l ong di vi si on and wai tfor the pattern to repeat (see l ong di vi si on at ri ght). T hi s
resul ts i n a repeati ng pattern of 0.428571 .
0.4285714
7)3.0000000
o
3.0
2.8
20
-14
60
-56
40
-35
50
-49
10
- 7
4. (A ), (B) and (D ): Recal l that i n order for the deci mal versi on of a fracti on to termi nate, the fracti on's
denomi nator i n ful l y reduced form must have a pri me factori zati on that consi sts of onl y 2's and/or 5's.
T he denomi nator i n (A ) i s composed of onl y 2'5 (256 = 2
8
). T he denomi nator i n (B) i s composed of
onl y 2's and 5's (100 = 22X 52). In ful l y reduced form, the fracti on i n (0) i s equal to~, and 20 i s com-
20
posed of onl y 2's and 5's (20=2
2
x 5). By contrast, the denomi nator i n (C) has pri me factors other that
2's and 5's (27 = 3
3
), and i n ful l y reduced form, the fracti on i n (E) i s equal to~, and 15 has a pri me
15
factor other than 2's and 5's (15 = 3 x 5).
!M .al l .l i a.ttanGM A !*Prep
the new s tandard
30
-28
2
105
C hapter 7
FOP s : ADVANCED SOLUTIONS
IN A C T ION A NSWE R KE Y
5. (B): F or these types of probl ems, i t i s usual l y easi est to el i mi nate answer choi ces that vi ol ate some con-
strai nt i n the probl em, then use the remai ni ng answer choi ces to see whi ch fi ts the pattern. (E ) can be rul ed
out, because 4 x 5 x 2 ::F - 36. A ddi ti onal l y, noti ce the uni ts col umn of the mul ti pl i cati on: the uni ts di gi t of the
two numbers are the same, and that di gi t i s the same as the uni ts di gi t of the resul t. Whi ch di gi ts have thi s
property? Onl y 1, 5,6, and O. 5 and 0 are not possi bl e here, so =1or 6. T hat el i mi nates (A) and (C ).
M ul ti pl yi ng out (B) and (D ), we see that 26 x 36 = 936, and 41 x 91 = 3,731. Noti ce that the tens di gi t of
the resul t. needs to match the tens di gi t of the 3-di gi t number (.), and that i s onl y true i n answer choi ce (B).
(A l so noti ce that the resul t needs to be a 3-di gi t number, and (D ) gi ves a 4-di gi t number as the resul t.)
6. T RUE : A ny negati ve number rai sed to an even power wi l l be l arger than the ori gi nal number, because
the resul t wi l l al ways be posi ti ve:
(~y =1~>-~
7. T RUE : A ny proper fracti on rai sed to a power greater than 1wi l l decrease. A ny negati ve number rai sed to
an odd power wi l l be negati ve. T herefore, any negati ve proper fracti on rai sed to an odd power wi l l be a smal l -
er negati ve number than the ori gi nal negati ve fracti on. Si nce i t i s a smal l er negati ve, i t i s a l arger number:
(~J =-~~>-~
8. F A LSE : A ny i mproper fracti on rai sed to a power greater than 1wi l l i ncrease. A ny negati ve number
rai sed to an odd power wi l l be negati ve. T herefore, any negati ve i mproper fracti on rai sed to an odd power
wi l l be a l arger negati ve number than the ori gi nal negati ve fracti on. Si nce i t i s a l arger negati ve, i t i s a
smal l er number:
(~4J =-~;<-~
9. F A LSE : A ny number x +1, where x i s posi ti ve, wi l l be greater than 1. T herefore, rai si ng that number
x
to a negati ve exponent wi l l resul t i n a number smal l er than 1:
(
X +1)-2 ( X)2 X +1
-- = -- <-- whenever x i s
x x+ 1 x
a posi ti ve number.
10. T RUE : l i s a proper fracti on. A ny posi ti ve proper fracti on rai sed to a power greater than 1wi l l resul t
4
i n a number smal l er than the ori gi nal fracti on. A ny posi ti ve proper fracti on rai sed to a power between 0
and 1wi l l resul t i n a numb" l arger than me ori gi nal fracti on. ill~(~r , whi ch wi l l be l arger than
( )
%
the ori gi nal fracti on of ~ because the exponent i s between 0 and 1. ~ ~0.806. You wi l l not have to
(
3)% 3
compute the actual val ue of 4 ' but you shoul d recogni ze that the resul t i s l arger than 4(=0.75).
106
:Jrf.anliattanG M A T Prep
the new s tandard
IN A C T ION A NSWE R KE Y
FOP s : ADVANCED SOLUTIONS C hapter 7
11. 25 more games: T hi s i s a wei ghted averages probl em. We can set up a tabl e to cal cul ate the number of
games he must pl ay to obtai n a wei ghted average wi n rate of 60%:
P oker Games Firs t 25 Games Remaining Games Total
Wins (0.4)25 = 10
(0.8)x (0.6)(25 +x)
Los s es
TOTAL 25 x 25+ x
T hus, 10+0.8x = (0.6)(25 +x) 10+ 0.8x =15 + 0.6x 0.2x =5 x= 25
12.60%: T hi s i s awei ghted averages probl em. We can set up a tabl e to cal cul ate the answer, and asswne
that we purchased 100 l bs, of Brand A :
P ounds (lbs ) B rand A B rand B Total
Millet 40 0.65x (0.5)(100 +x)
Other s tuff 60 0.35x (0.5)(100 +x)
Total birds eed 100 x l 00+ x
T hus, 40 +0.65x = (0.5)(100 +x) 40 + 0.65x =50 + 0.5x 0.15x =10
1,000
x= --
15
100 100 _ 1,500 _ 6 0
T herefore, Brand A i s =1500 1000 - -- - 0Vo of the total .
100+ 1,000 _'_+_'_ 2,500
15 15 15
13. 10%: T hi s i s a wei ghted average "percent change" probl em. We can set up a tabl e to cal cul ate the
answer, and assume that J ar A contai ns 200 red jel l ybeans and 100 yel l ow jel l ybeans:
J ellybeans J ar A Difference J ar B
Red 200 +40 200(1.2) = 240
Yellow 100 -10 100(0.9) = 90
Total J ellybeans 300 +30 240+90= 330
T hus, J ar B has 30, or 10%, more jel l ybeans than J ar A .
14. !!.:T hi s i s a wei ghted average "percent change" probl em. We can set up a tabl e to cal cul ate the
18
answer, and assume that l ast year, there were 100 Revol uti onary voters:
Voters Las t Year This Year Total
Revolutionary 100 +10 100(1.1) = 110
Status Q uo
x +O.05x x(1.05) =1.05x
Total Voters
100+x +0.08(100 +x) 110 +1.05x
! M .anl i attanG MAT Prep
.the new s tandard 107
C hapter 7
FOP s : ADVANCED SOLUTIONS
IN A C T ION A NSWE R KE Y
T hus, 100+x +0.08(100+x) = 110+1.05x
2 200
0.03x= 2 x= --= -
0.03 3
T hus, for every 100Revol uti onary voters l ast year, there were approxi matel y 67 Status Quo voters. T he
questi on, however, asks us to compute the percentage of voters who voted Revol uti onary thi s year. T hus,
the number of Revol uti onary voters thi s year i s (100)(110) = 110, and the number of Status Quo voters
200 210 110 110 11
thi s year i s -(1.05) = - = 70. T herefore, =- =- of voters, or approxi matel y 61.1%,
3 3 110+70 180 18
108+1.08x=110+1.05x
voted Revol uti onary thi s year.
15. T o convert a percent that contai ns a deci mal to a fracti on, wri te i t over a denomi nator of 100. Shi ft the
deci mal poi nts i n the numerator and denomi nator to el i mi nate the deci mal poi nt i n the numerator. T hen
si mpl i fy.
0.15%= 0.15 = 15 =_3_
100 10,000 2,000
9.6% = 9.6 = ~ = ....
100 1,000 125
16. T o convert a percent to a deci mal , drop the percent si gn and shi ft the deci mal poi nt two pl aces to the
l eft.
2,000% =20
0.030% =0.00030
17. T o convert a deci mal to a percent, shi ft the deci mal poi nt two pl aces to the ri ght.
36.1456 = 3,614.56%
1=100%
18 200 x 10-2<1. + ~ <0.00751
. 3 5 10 0.01
F i rst, si mpl i fyal l terms and express them i n deci mal form:
3 8 3 10 3
-+- =- x-=-=.75
5 10 5 8 4
0.00751
0.01
= 0.751 = 0.751
1
0.6 <0.75 <0.751
19.25%. T he Ori gi nal rati o i s $2.50/$500. T he New rati o i s $3/$800. We shoul d compute the percent
OF the Ori gi nal that the New rati o represents. T hen we can compute the percent change.
108
:M.anfiattanG M A T "Prep
the new s tandard
FOP s : ADVANCED SOLUTIONS C hapter 7 IN A C T ION A NSWE R KE Y
3
New = 800 = ~x 500= ~x 2-= ~x ~= ~= ~= 75%
Ori gi nal 2.5 800 2.5 8 2.5 8 1 8 4
500
Si nce the New i s 75% of the Ori gi nal , the C hange i s 75% - 100%= -25% of the Ori gi nal . We can drop
the negati ve si gn, si nce the questi on asks how much the rati o decreased. T he correct answer i s 250/0.
20. Y x ( 1+I~) :F or thi s probl em we can use the percent change formul a:
ORIGINA L x (1 + Percent Increase) = NE W
100
Here Yi s the ori gi nal number, and X i s the percent change; we sol ve for the new number:
YX(1 + ~)=NE W
100
I O O (X -Y) .
21. : F or thi s probl em we can use the percent change formul a:
Y
ORIGINA L x (1 + Percent Increase) = NE W
100
Here Yi s the ori gi nal number, and Xi s the new number; we sol ve for the percent:
YX(1 + pc t )= x 1+ P c t = X P c t = X-Y P c t = 100(X-Y)
100 100 Y 100 Y Y
I O ,O O O X -IOOYZ hl bl th h
22. : F or t 15 pro em we can use e percent c ange formul a:
YZ
ORIGINA L X(1 + Percent Increase) = NE W
100
Here Y percent of Z (whi ch i s l Z)i s the ori gi nal number, and X i s the new number; we sol ve for the
100
percent:
l Z (1 pct)_ X
-x + --
100 100
1 + Pct = 100X
100 rz
Pet 100X-l Z
-=----
100 zz
Pet =100(100X -l Z) 10,000X -100l 'Z
l Z l Z
23. T o esti mate a fracti on, we can ei ther change the denomi nator to a nearby factor of 10, or change ei ther
the denomi nator or numerator to make the fracti on easy to reduce. T here i s no "correct" way to do thi s,
but the cl oser to the real val ue, the better.
at an hat t _GM A T P r e p
the new s tandard 109
Chapter 7
110
FOPs: ADVANCED SOLUTIONS
I N ACTI ON ANSWER KEY
12 12 1 -
37' E i ther change the denomi nator to 36 = 3"= 0.3, a sl i ght overesti mate
(because we reduced the denomi nator), or to g= 2= 0.3, a sl i ght under-
40 10
esti mate (because we i ncreased the denomi nator).
E i ther change the denomi nator to ~ =0.14, an underesti mate (because
100
15 1 -
we i ncreased the denomi nator), or to - = - = 0.16, an overesti mate
90 6
(because we i ncreased the numerator).
13
51
13 1
E i ther change the denomi nator to - =- =0.25, an underesti mate (because
52 4
we i ncreased the denomi nator), or to ..!2=0.26, an overesti mate (because
50
we reduced the denomi nator).
168 168 21 1
839
' Best i s to change the denomi nator to - =- =- =0.2, a verysl i ght
840 105 5
underesti mate (because we i ncreased the denomi nator). Si mi l arl y, you mi ght
170 17 1
swi tch the fracti on to - =- =- =0.2, al though because we i ncreased
850 85 5
both the numerator and denomi nator sl i ghtl y, i t i s hard to tel l whether thi s
woul d be an underesti mate or overesti mate. If you mi ssed those rel ati on-
shi ps, you coul d change the fracti on to 168=0.21, a sl i ght overesti mate
800
(because we reduced the denomi nator).
: M .anl i attanG MAT' Pr e p
the new s tandard
C hapter 8, ;1~
--0/ - . .. A ;
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS, S.P ERCENTS
OF F IC IA L G{J ID E
PROBLE M SE T S:
PA RT II
I n This Chapter . . .
F racti ons, D eci mal s, & Percents Probl em Sol vi ng Li st
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de s: PA RT II
F racti ons, D eci mal s, & Percents D ata Suffi ci ency Li st
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de s: PA RT II
OF F IC IA L GUID E PROBLE M SE T S: PA RT II C hapter 8
Practi ci ng wi th RE A L GM A T Probl ems
Now that you have compl eted Part II of F RA C T IONS, D E C IM A LS, & PE RC E NT S, i t i s ti me to test
your ski l l s on probl ems that have actual l y appeared on teal GM A T exams over the past several years.
T he probl em sets that fol l ow are composed of questi ons from three books publ i shed by the Graduate
M anagement A dmi ssi on C ounci l - (the organi zati on that devel ops the offi ci al GM A T exam):
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h E di t i on
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T QJ uzn t i t at i v e Re v i e w
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T QJ uzn t i t at i v e Re v i e w, 2n d E di t i on
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ew book l argel y overl ap. Use one OR the other.
T hese books contai n quanti tati ve questi ons that have appeared on past offi ci al GM A T exams. (T he ques-
ti ons contai ned therei n are the property of T he Graduate. M anagement A dmi ssi on C ounci l , whi ch i s not
affi l i ated i n any way wi th M anhattan GM A T .)
A l though the questi ons i n the Offi ci al Gui des have been "reti red" (they wi l l not appear on future offi ci al
GM A T exams), they are great practi ce questi ons.
In order to hel p you practi ce effecti vel y, we have categori zed every probl em i n T he Offi ci al Gui des by topi c
and subtopi c. On the fol l owi ng pages, you wi l l fi nd two categori zed l i sts:
(1) Probl em Sol vi ng: Li sts M ORE D IF F IC ULT Probl em Sol vi ng F racti on, D eci mal , & Percent ques-
ti ons contai ned i n T he O ffi c i al Gui de s and categori zes them by subtopi c.
(2) D ata Suffi ci ency: Li sts M ORE D IF F IC ULT D ata Suffi ci ency F racti on, D eci mal , & Percent ques-
ti ons contai ned i n T he O ffi c i al Gui de s and categori zes them by subtopi c.
Remember that C hapter 6 i n Part I of thi s book contai ns the fi rst sets of Offi ci al Gui de probl ems, whi ch
are easi er.
E ach book i n M anhattan GM A T 's 8-book strategy seri es contai ns i ts own O ffi c i al Gui de l i sts that pertai n
to the speci fi c topi c of that parti cul ar book. If you compl ete al l the practi ce probl ems contai ned on the
O ffi c i al Gui de l i sts i n each of the 8 M anhattan GM A T strategy books, you wi l l have compl eted every si ngl e
questi on publ i shed i n T he O ffi c i al Gui de s.
~annat ~C; ~~~Pr ep
the new s tandard
113
C hapter 8
OFFI CI AL GUI DE PROBL EM SOL VI NG SET: PART I I
Probl em Sol ving: Part I I
from T he O ffi dal Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, u: E di t i on (pages 20-23 & 152-185), T he O ffi dal Gui de
for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w (pages 62-85), and T he O ffi dal Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w,
2n d E di t i on (pages 62-86).
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ewbook l argel yoverl ap. Use one OR the other.
Sol ve each of the fol l owi ngprobl ems i n a notebook, maki ng sure to demonstrate howyou arri ved at
each answer byshowi ng al l of your work and computati ons. If you get stuck on a probl em, l ook back at
the F D P strategi es and content i n thi s gui de to assi st you.
Note: Probl em numbers preceded by "D " refer to questi ons i n the D i agnosti c T est chapter of
T he O ffi dal Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h e di t i on (pages 20-23).
ADVANCED SET - FRACTI ONS. DECI MAL S. & PERCENTS
T hi s set pi cks up from where the General Set i n Part I l eaves off.
Fractions
12t h E di t i on : 181, 186,225
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 154, 162, 165, 167, 176 OR 2n d E di t i on : 165, 167, 176
Digits and Decimal s
12t h E di t i on : 108, 190,203,211,226
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 142, 174 OR 2n d E di t i on : 174
Percents
i z E di t i on : 156, 166, 193,223
Quan t i t at i v e Re oi e i o: 138, 143, 156, 158, 159
Successive Percents and Percent Change
12t h E di t i on : 151,220
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 100
OR 2n d E di t i on : 100, 154, 155
FDPs
t z E di t i on : 187
CHAL L ENGE SHORT SET - FRACTI ONS. DECI MAL S. & PERCENTS
T hi s set covers F racti ons, D eci mal s, & Percent probl ems from each of the content areas, i ncl udi ng both easi er and harder
probl ems, but wi th a focus on harder probl ems. T he C hal l enge Short Set dupl i cates probl ems from the General Set (i n Part I)
and the A dvanced Set above.
12t h E di t i on : 43, 79, 108, 109, 115, 131, 138, 143, 156, 166, 176,211,220,223, D l l , D 12
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 33, 37,41, 73, 79, 100, 101, 120, 134, 142, 143, 159, 165, 167
OR 2n d E di t i on : 35, 39, 61, 69, 100, 101, 120, 134, 143, 154, 155, 159, 165, 167
114
: : M anl i attanG MAT Pr e p
t he ne w st andar d
OF F IC IA L GUID E D A T A SUF F IC IE NC Y SE T : PA RT II C hapter 8
D ata Suffi ci ency: Part II
from T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h E di t i on (pages 24-26 & 272-288), T he O ffi c i al
Gui de for GM A T Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w (pages 149-157), and T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w, 2n d E di t i on (pages 152-163).
Note: T he two edi ti ons of the Quant Revi ew book l argel y overl ap. Use one OR the ocher.
Sol ve each of the fol l owi ng probl ems i n a notebook, maki ng sure to demonstrate how you arri ved
at each answer by showi ng al l of your work and computati ons. If you get stuck on a probl em, l ook
back at the F OP strategi es and content contai ned i n thi s gui de to assi st you.
Practi ce RE PHRA SING both the questi ons and the statements by usi ng vari abl es and constructi ng
equati ons. T he majori ty of data suffi ci ency probl ems can be rephrased; however, i f you have di ffi -
cul ty rephrasi ng a probl em, try testi ng numbers to sol ve i t. It i s especi al l y i mportant that you fami l -
i ari ze yoursel f wi th the di recti ons for data suffi ci ency probl ems, and that you memori ze the 5 ftxed
answer choi ces that accompany al l data suffi ci ency probl ems.
~: Probl em numbers preceded by "0"refer to questi ons i n the D i agnosti c T est chapter of
T he O ffi c i al Gui de for GM A T Re v i e w, 12t h e di t i on (pages 24-26).
A D VA NC E D SE T - F RA C T IONS, D E C IM A l S, & PE RC E NT S
T hi s set pi cks up from where the General Set i n Part I l eaves off.
F racti ons
12t h E di t i on : 113
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 113 OR 2n d E di t i on : 119
D i gi ts and D eci mal s
12t h E di t i on : 110, 151, 167,025
QR 2n d E di t i on : 96, 102, 104
Percents
12t h E di t i on : 88,92, 142
Successi ve Percents and Percent C hange
uE di t i on : 120
F D Ps
12t h E di t i on : 139, 143
C HA LLE NGE SHORT SE T - F RA C T IONS, D E C IM A LS, & PE RC E NT S
T hi s set covers F racti ons, D eci mal s, & Percent probl ems from each of the content areas, i ncl udi ng both easi er and
harder probl ems, but wi th a focus on harder probl ems. T he C hal l enge Short Set dupl i cates probl ems from the General
Set (i n Part 1) and the A dvanced Set above.
12t h E di t i on : 27, 52, 61, 79, 88,113, 120, 142, 143, 151, 167,025
Quan t i t at i v e Re v i e w: 5, 22, 48, 49, 72, 113
OR 2n d E di t i on : 5,49,50,75,96, 119
9danfiattanG M A T 'Prep
the new s tandard 115
Pal l of 8-B ook Series
1. Number P roperties
_ F racti ons, D eci mal s,
& Percents
3. Equations , Inequalities ,
& VICs
4. Word Trans lations
S. Geometry
6. Critical Reas oning
7. Reading Comprehens ion
8. Sentence Correction
Chapter By Chapter
:Manhattan ( . :i MA I -
P ART I: GENERAL
1. DIGITS & DECIMALS:
P lace Value, Es timation, P owers of 10, Las t Digit Shortcut, Heavy Divis ion Shortcut, Decimal Operations
2. FRACTIONS:
Simplifying, Multiplication Shortcut, Reciprocals , Cros s -Multiplication, Splitting Denominators ,
B enchmark Values, Smart Numbers
3. P ERCENTS:
P ercent Tables , P ercentage Change, Succes s ive P ercents , P ercent Formulas , P ercent Mixtures
4.FDP ' s :
FOP Connection, Convers ions , Common Equivalents
P ART II: ADVANCED
Includes s eparate chapter on numerous Advanced Fractions , Decimals , & P ercents topics s uch as Repeating and
Terminating Decimals , Unknown Digit P roblems , Es timating Decimal Equivalents , Fractions and Exponents & Roots ,
P ercents and Weighted Averages . This s ection als o includes additional practice problems .
What' s Ins ide This Guide
Clear explanations of fundamental principles .
Step-by-s tep ins tructions for important techniques .
Advanced chapter covering the mos t difficult topics .
In-Action practice problems to help you mas ter the concepts and methods .
Topical s ets of Official Guide problems lis ted by number (problems publis hed s eparately by GMAC)
to help you apply your knowledge to actual GMAT ques tions .
One full year of acces s to 6Computer Adaptive P ractice Exams and B onus Q ues tion B ank.
How Our GMAT P rep Guides Are Different
Challenges you to do more, not les s
Focus es on developing mas tery
Covers the s ubject thoroughly
Not jus t pages of gues s ing tricks
Real content, real s tructure, real teaching
More pages per topic than all-in-1 tomes
Comments From GMATTes tTakers
"I' ve loved the materials in the Strategy Guides . I' ve found I really learned a lot through them.
It turns out that this was the kind of in-depth s tudy and unders tanding that I needed.
The guides have s harpened my s kills . I like how each s ection s tarts with the bas ics and advances
all the way through the mos t complicated ques tions ."
"The material is reviewed in a very complete and us er-friendly manner. The s ubjects are taught
in a way that gets to the heart of the matter by demons trating how to s olve actual problems in
a very thorough and uncumbers ome fas hion."
"A very holis tic approach touching on all as pects of each topic, Very well thought-out curriculum.
Homework and drills are concis e and appropriate-very effective."