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INDIAN RAILWAY


TRAINING REPORT
On
Control Communication System



By
Antaripa Bhuyan
(Nagaland University)






SIGNAL AND TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT
TINSUKIA DIVISION
NORTHEAST FRONTIER RAILWAY

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CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that Miss Antaripa Bhuyan, a student of Nagaland
University have successfully completed her summer training on Electronics
and Telecommunication Engineering held from 07/07/2014 to 1/08/2014
under SSE/Tele/Auto/TSK. We wish her luck and good endeavor in life.





Signature
Mr. N. Singh
(Sr. DSTE/TSK)






Signature
Dipunja Nath
(JE/Tele/Auto/TSK)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very grateful to Mr. N. Singh (Sr. DSTE/TSK) for giving me the opportunity
to undertake this training at NF Railway, Tinsukia.
I also express my sincere gratitude to SSE/Tele/Auto/TSK, Mr. Dipunja Nath
(JE/tele/Auto/TSK), Abhijeet Phukan (Tech/TSK), Goutam Rabha (Tech/TSK) and
all the other people who have helped me doing our training. I am also grateful
for the inspiration and help received from the technical and non technical staff
of NF Railway, Tinsukia during the training.

Antaripa Bhuyan
(Nagaland University)












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PREFACE
Engineering student gain theoretical knowledge only through books .Only
theoretical knowledge is not sufficient for absolute mastery in any field.
Theoretical knowledge in our book is not of much use without knowing its
practical implementation. It has been experienced that theoretical knowledge
imparts practical solid foundation in our mind.
This report is infact a summary of what I have learned and seen during training
in Railway Organization. Succeeding chapters give details of what I have
learned in this period of time.















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CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
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2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
7-9
OF CONTROL WORKING
3. THE CONTROL
9-15
COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM
4. DIFFERENT CONTROL
16-25 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM AND
EQUIPMENT

5. PATCHING OF CONTROLS



6. INTERRUPTIONS & ROUTINE
TESTS
ON CONTROL CIRCUITS
27-28


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7. CONCLUSION 29






INTRODUCTION

The role of signaling and telecommunication Department in train operation plays
a very vital role in the Indian Railway. The signaling system is used for safe and
smooth train operation, optimum utilization of line capacity and train operation,
optimum utilization of line capacity and train warning and protection system.
The telecommunication department provides telecommunication infrastructure
for communication for efficient operation of train movements which include
passenger reservation system, unreserved ticketing system, FOIS/COIS/TMS/CMS.
Apart from these, there is also available Railway Private Telephone Exchange for
communicating with all Indian railway offices.
In this training period I understood the importance of Control Communication in
Indian Railway. The details chapters are discussed in brief in the later section.





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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL WORKING


Introduction to Control Working

Control or Train Traffic Control in Indian Railways is the name given to the
Train Operations System which is setup specifically for the purpose of running the trains
punctually and efficiently. This is achieved by closely monitoring and controlling individual train
movements and also by regulating the overall traffic movement


The Control Setup

The Control setup is implemented on divisional basis. For this purpose first, a Control
Office is setup at the Divisional Head Quarters and the total track area under the
divisional jurisdiction is divided into smaller segments called control sections. The
movements of the train traffic in each of these control sections is individually monitored
and regulated from the control office with an intention to provide an effective and
efficient train operating system. The control office is meant for giving necessary
directions and suggestions to the track side railway stations, signal cabins etc. in
regard to the train and traffic movements.

Means of Control

The control over the train traffic movements is exercised by means of a direct

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telephone communication between the Control Office and the way side train working
agencies like railway stations, signal cabins etc.

S&T department provides the telephone communication facility required between the
control office and all track side Stations and other agencies connected with train
working. This speech communication system between the Control Office and track
side stations is known as Control Communication System.






Objects of Control

Control over the movement of trains over a section of the Railway is exercised round
the clock to achieve the following: -

(a) Cohesion in moving train traffic

(b) To avoid delay to trains and traffic

(c) To effect economy in working of trains

(d) To improve the general working of trains and

(e) To increase the efficiency in working of trains


Elements of a Control

The basic elements involved in the train control system are
1) Control Offices,

2) Way Stations, and

3) Communication between Control office and Way stations



1) The Control Offices

The Control office is the central place from where the movements of all the trains are controlled
and regulated. The Control Offices setup at the divisional headquarters play key role in train

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operations. In addition to these, there also exist other control offices which either operate over
a smaller area of control or play a role of a coordinating agency between control offices.
The Control Office Organization at Divisional Headquarters

The control organization generally consists of a special officer deputed for
the purpose and the following staff:

Chief Controller: He is the executive authority in charge of the control office and
is responsible for the efficient operation of the control office.

Deputy Chief Controller: He directly supervises the work of the section
controllers, assists them during their work and also scrutinizes the control charts.

Section/Train Controller: He deals with the actual movement of the trains in
his section. His main duties include

Power Controller: For Looking after and arranging the train engines and
engine crew r e q u i r e m e n t s in the division by contacting loco sheds. In
electrified sections the power controller is called as Traction Loco Controller
(TLC).

Traction Power Controller: A TPC is also provided in electric-traction areas for
the purpose of managing the traction power supply and OHE system.


2) Way Station

The length of the control section is determined purely on traffic considerations, so that from the
transmission point of view the best conditions are not always obtained. Communication is
normally required with
a) Railway station

(b) Signal Cabin

(c) Loco shed

d) Sidings (in special cases)

e) Officers rooms (as per requirement)

(f) Officers' residences (as per requirement)

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(g) Residences of other emergency staff.

3) Communication between Control Office & Way Stations

The Communication plays an important role in control working because the means
of train control is only through the speech communication between the controller and
all his way side stations. Hence the efficiency of the control working mainly depends on
the performance of the communication system provided between the control office
and all the way side stations in the division.




THE CONTROL COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS

Control Communication

The speech communication facility provided between a divisional control office and
all the way side stations falling under its jurisdiction for the purpose of facilitating
supervision and control of train traffic movements is generally known as the control
communication.

Control Circuit

Every section controller in the control office is provided with an independent speech
communication link which enables him to speak with any way side station in his
control section. This independent speech or telephone communication link is called a
Control circuit. Hence the control communication contains number of such control
circuits to cater to the communication needs of various controllers/sections present in
the control office.
Railway Control Circuits

Railway Control Circuits are omnibus telephone circuits which provide
communication with each train working point, thus facilitating efficient train

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operation. They should provide satisfactory and reliable communication between
the controller and the various way-side stations, important signal cabins, loco
sheds, yard offices etc.

Types of Railway Control Circuits

According to traffic requirements and to cater to the needs of an Electric
Traction area or a Non-Electric Traction area following Railway Control Circuits is
provided:

a) Section Control/Train Control: This is provided for communication between
the Section/Train Controller in the control office and all wayside stations, junction
stations, block cabins, loco sheds and yards in a control section for the control
of train movements and effective utilization of section capacity.

i) Section Control is provided mainly to control the movement of trains within the
control section given.
ii) Every division contains such section control circuits.

iii) The locations connected in the section control circuits are all track side railway
stations, yards, Loco sheds, Goods sheds and residences & chambers of
important officials concerned.
iv) The section control circuits are provided both in RE and Non-RE Sections.

b) Deputy Control: This is provided for communication between the Deputy
Controller in the control office and important stations, junctions & terminal
stations, yard master's offices, loco sheds and important signal cabins in a division
for supervisory control of traffic operation in general and for collecting particulars
such as yard reports and mid-night figures, for getting information on the movements
of rolling stock, train ordering etc in particular.

c) Engineering control is mainly used for controlling maintenance activities of
engineering department like track maintenance, ballast movement, line blocks etc.


d) Emergency Control: Provided from selected points along the track route for
establishing communication between train crew (in case of emergency), traction

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and permanent way staff with traction power controller. The emergency
sockets are provided on rail posts at an interval of 1 Km (Max.) along the route.
They are also provided at FP/SP/SSPs, isolators (in yards) and near bridges.
The Emergency Control Circuit

In non-electrified sections provided with over head line wires for control working, to
contact the controller by the maintenance staff or Train Guard in emergencies, a 2-
wire portable telephone and a collapsible telescopic tubular pole are provided to them.
During emergencies they have to hook the portable telephone to the overhead line
wires directly using the telescopic tubular pole to establish communication with the
controller.

When circuits are through underground cables, it is not possible to connect a portable
telephone to the control wires to establish communication between control office and
any point on the railway line. To get over this difficulty tapings are provided from the
underground cable at intervals of about 1 KM a n d these are terminated on 6-pin
socket. The control office can be contacted by plugging a portable control telephone
into any of the sockets. As the maintenance staff of the Electrical Department has to
contact the Traction Power Controller frequently these tapings are taken from a
separate circuit instead of from the section control circuit so that the section
control circuit is not disturbed unnecessarily. This separate circuit is called the
Emergency Control Circuit.

The emergency control circuit is a 4-Wire circuit and works similar to any other 4-Wire
control circuit. To respond to a call initiated from an emergency socket, generally a
microphone and a loud speaker is provided with TPC. A separate cable quad is
allotted for the working of the emergency control circuit. The line diagram showing the
network details of emergency control circuit is given below. At Traction Power
Controllers room, two sets of 4 wire HQs. control office equipments are provided
one set for Traction Power Control working, and another for Emergency Control
working which has provision for transfer of call from emergency control circuit to the
Section Controller if needed.

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Media used in Control Communication
Following wired media are used for control working on Indian Railways.
(a) Optical Fiber cable
(b) Telecommunication quad cable used in Railway Electrified area
(c) 6 quad PET cable
(d) 4 quad PET cable
(e) Overhead Lines

In sections where fiber optic communication system is available, it will be used for
providing control communication, and any one of the cables listed at (b) to (d) above,
is used for extending Emergency control circuit, Block circuit, and other local
circuits between adjacent way stations.

The Selective Calling Systems implemented in Indian Railways

Since our railway control circuits are omnibus in nature, we need to use, as mentioned
above, the same selective calling method of signaling which is required for omnibus
circuits. So far the following types of selective calling techniques have been
implemented on Indian railways for control circuits. These are given in chronological

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order.

(a) STC Key Sending System

In this system coded impulses are generated by means of a rotary selector key
(STC Key-4001-A /4002-A /4002-B) mounted in a key case being turned at a time
to call any particular station. The impulses are received at the way stations by
polarized relays or selectors (STC Selector-4301-A) adjusted to close the contact
for the local ringing circuit for a particular code.

(b) PUSH Button Sending System

The Push Button Sending System consists of a push button panel and an
impulsing unit in the control office, instead of a rotary selector key of the previous
case. The panel is equipped with 16 push buttons, and any particular station being
called by operating 2 buttons corresponding to the first two digits of the code. For
prolonged ringing, the long ring key is operated. All stations can be signaled
simultaneously by pressing a general call key.

(c) Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) System

In this system for every key pressed in a push button panel two frequencies
are being transmitted simultaneously as per the standard DTMF frequency plan. 2
digit codes are used to call either one station at a time or a nominated group at a
time or all at the same time.
Description of the DTMF signaling system

DTMF is a system of signaling originally evolved for the transmission of dialing
information to automatic telephone exchanges from subscribers telephones. Its
versatility has lent itself suitable for the transmission of impulses in the selective calling
system used in Railway Control Circuits as well. In this system two tones of frequency
within the voice band are sent out on line corresponding to a given digit. Among these
two frequencies one is below 1000Hz (row) frequency and the other is above 1000Hz
(column) frequency, both within the VF band. The transmission of the tones is so fast
(typically in millisecond) that the signaling does not interfere with the speech at all.


DTMF TONES Column Frequencies (Hz)

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r1+c1
1




r1+c2
2




r1+c3
3




r1+c4
A




r2+c1
4




r2+c2
5




r2+c3
6




r2+c4
B





r3+c1
7





r3+c2
8





r3+c3
9





r3+c4
C





r4+c1
G





r4+c2
0





r4+c3
LR





r4+c4
D


1209 1336 1477 1633















Advantages of DTMF selective calling system

The DTMF Selective calling system is adopted for Rly. Control communication
because of the following specific advantages:

(a) For Selective calling on O/H lines system (2W) or U/G cables (4W) system,
the DTMF signaling is adaptable. (Direct interface to line).

(b) No need for high voltage DC or 50v / 50Hz A.C. (No need for Signal
Regenerator Relay panels in the RE area) Low level signaling, 500mV typically.

(c) A maximum of 99 Way Stations can be connected as against the 78 stations in
17- impulse system.

(d) No moving parts, as the equipment is entirely solid state. A significant
improvement in system reliability.






R
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DIFFERENT CONTROL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS &
EQUIPMENTS

Systems of Control Communication:

The type of control communication network to be provided is decided by the type
of media deployed between the control office and the way stations. Based on the
media used, presently the following types of control communication systems are being
used in Indian Railways.

1) Overhead Alignment Based 2-Wire Control Communication System

2) Under Ground Cable Based 4-Wire Control Communication System

a) Conventional System - Using RE Main Cable with Loading

b) Equalizer Amplifier System - Using 4/6 Quad PET Cable without Loading

3) OFC Based Control Communication System

1) Overhead Alignment Based 2-Wire Control Communication System: The
Overhead 2-wire system is almost obsolete and is available in some branch
lines or less important routes

2) Under Ground Cable Based 4-Wire Control Communication System: The
underground cable based Conventional System is widely and extensively used

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throughout the Indian Railways and accounts for a large share.
Presently there are following two underground cable systems:
a) Conventional System - Using RE Main Cable with Loading

b) Equalizer Amplifier System - Using 4/6 Quad PET Cable without Loading


Conventional System & Its Equipments

Irrespective of the Control Communication system used, the following two
equipments are compulsory and these equipment should comply with the RDSO
specification No. IRS TC: 60/2007

(a)Control Office Equipment and

(b Way Station Equipment
In addition to these, in Conventional system using underground cable media,
following additional equipments are required.
(a)VF Repeaters (b) Isolation Transformer
DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT

Control Office Equipment: (RDSO Spec - IRS TC: 60-2007)

This is provided with the controller in the control office at the divisional head quarters.
With help of this equipment the controller can selectively call any required way station
in his section and can talk to him in regard to the movements of trains in the section.
The equipment comprises

a) Controllers Console
b) Table Microphone
c)Loud Speaker

d)Power Supply Unit

The controller calls any way station by sending a 2 digit DTMF station code using the
keypad. The called station code is displayed on the 2 digit 7-segment LED display
panel. When the controller keys-in the 2 digit code of a station the DTMF encoder
circuit converts these 2 digits into DTMF codes and transmits on the line to the way
stations. When a way station responds to his call the controller talks to him using
either handset or mic & loudspeaker combination.

Way Station Equipment: (RDSO Spec - IRS TC: 60-2007)

This equipment is provided at every way side station along the track and also at yard
master offices and loco sheds etc. This equipment consists of -

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(a)DTMF Decoder & Buzzer
(b)Speech Amplifiers
(c)Control Telephone and
(d)Power supply unit

On receiving a DTMF station code from the controller the DTMF decoder circuit
decodes and compares it with the pre-set station code. If the received code matches
with station code the buzzer rings and catches the attention of station master. The
station master then lifts his telephone hand set and talks with the controller.

VF Repeater: (RDSO Spec - IRS TC: 50-90)

This equipment is generally placed at every 50 Km intervals along the track. It
accommodates a pair of amplifiers - one each for each direction that is Trans and
Receive for every control circuit. These amplifiers compensate for the losses or
attenuation introduced by the quad cable conductors, joints, equipment tapings
etc. Each amplifier offers a maximum gain of 24 dB. There are three types of VF
amplifier modules in this equipment.
Isolation Transformers: (RDSO Spec - IRS TC: 22-76)

These transformers are provided at every way station, in cable huts, on the
underground cable circuits. One transformer is required for each pair of a quad.
These transformers are used for tapping (derivation) of control circuits and also as
isolation transformers, in RE-Areas, to nullify the induced voltages on the underground
cable conductors.

Cable Hut

Generally the isolation transformers are mounted on a rack and this rack is
placed inside a small room, constructed along the track side, is called Cable Hut.
These cable huts are located at every way station along the track.

EQUALIZER AMPLIFIER SYSTEM (RDSO/SPN/TC/34/ 2002 )

The control communication system so far we have discussed is used very extensively
all over the Indian Railways and is known as conventional system. A new control
communication system is introduced which is designed on a new concept to overcome
the difficulties faced in the installation and commissioning of conventional type of
control communication system. This system is called as Equalizer Amplifier type
Control Communication system. In this system, instead of Repeater Amplifiers at fixed

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intervals, Equalizer-Amplifiers are provided at every way station.


3) OFC Based Control Communication System: The OFC based control
communication system is the latest trend and it is gradually replacing all the other
control communication systems.

For this the following elements are used
i) OFC Cable
ii) Mux/Demux
iii) STM Equipment

i) OFC Cable: An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical
fibers that are used to carry light. The optical fiber elements are typically
individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable
for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Different types of cable are
used for different applications, for example long distance telecommunication, or
providing a high-speed data connection between different parts of a building.



Fig: OFC Cable


ii) Mux/Demux: Two type of Mux/Demux is generally used
a) Webfil
b) Puncom
The Webfil mux is a versatile 32-channel (2MBPS) digital voice and data multiplexer.
Besides, use as terminal equipment, it has the capacity of channel-wise drop and re-
insert as a wayside unit with flexible voice interfaces for different adaptations.
Channel 1 & 2 are used for signaling and synchronization respectively channel 3-32
are user channel
The various interfaces available are:
1) Power supply
2) NIM Card(Network Interface Module)
3) Tributary Card
4) 4W/2W E & M Card
5) Subscriber Interface
6) Exchange Interface
7) Hotline Interface


iii) STM Equipment:

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This is the information structure used to support information pay load over
head information field organized in a block frame structure which repeats
every 125 micro seconds.
There are various types of STM:
a) STM-1
b) STM-4
c) STM-16
d) STM-64
STM -1 is generally used in Indian railways. The STM-1 (Synchronous
Transport Module level-1) is the SDH ITU-T fiber optic network transmission
standard. It has a bit rate of 155.52 Mbit/s. higher levels go up by a factor of 4 at
a time. It can connect to 63 mux/Demux pair




Fig: Connecting Conventional Control Equipment to an omnibus speech channel on
OFC Network for providing Control
Communication



TEST ROOM EQUIPMENT OF EQUALIZER SYSTEM

Test room equipment plays vital role in the equalizer type control communication
system. It is used to perform the general maintenance functions like sending way
station codes for checking the ringing at way stations and also for fault localization and
restoration purposes. In addition to this it is used to perform remote operations on the
way station equipments. The Controller equipment is connected to the quad cable via
the test room equipment. The test room equipment consists of the following units

(a) DTMF Keypad & Display
(b) DTMF Tones Transceiver

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(c) Handset & Loud speaker
(d) Remote Monitoring & Battery Management unit (master)
(e) Equal i z er Amplifier
(f) Isolation Transformers

(g) Dual Power supply unit






DTMF Keypad & Display

A keypad with 16 keys, which is same like the keypad provided on the Controllers
Equipment and a 4 - digit 7-segment LED display are provided on the test room
equipment for testing and remote monitoring purposes. The display is 4-digit wide
because the remote command codes are 4 - digit long.






Equipment of control communication

1. CONTROL OFFICE EQUIPMENT

General Working Principle of DTMF Control office equipment:

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For DTMF tones generation the control office equipment contains a Microprocessor or
a Micro-controller. This Microprocessor/Micro-controller keeps scanning the
keyboard.

By 4 matrix) lines to check for any valid keyboard entry. As soon as a valid key closure
(corresponding to the first digit of the station code) is detected, the
processor/controller stores the information and display the digit pressed. The
processor/controller waits for second key closure (corresponding to the second digit of
the station code). If a second valid key is pressed within the specified period, the
processor/controller updates the display and activates the tone generator to transmit
DTMF tones for the keys pressed, in the order of key-press sequence. These tones
are connected to the line through a combiner amplifier, where they combine with
speech signals coming from the microphone/hand set. In the receive direction the
speech coming from the way stations is filtered and amplified before sending to the
loud speaker. A typical layout of control office equipment is as shown in the figure
given below



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DTMF WAY STATION EQUIPMENT
Working Principle:

In the way station decoder unit a 2-digit station code is set locally, using two DIP
switch units (each of 10 switches) which are named as FD (First Digit) switch and SD
(Second Digit) switch respectively. Controller transmitted DTMF code is received first
at way station by a DTMF tone decoder IC which converts the DTMF tones
representing the first digit into a 4-bit binary which is applied as input to a 4-to-16 line

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binary decoder. Depending on the 4-bit binary value only one of 16 outputs
becomes high. The high signal representing the First Digit of the way station code
passes through the FD DIP switch only if the setting on DIP switch matches with the
received digit. This same signal after passing through the FD DIP switch triggers a
second Mono-shot whose output is given as input data for a Flip Flop. Similarly the
second digit signal passes through SD DIP switch and applied as clock pulse to the
Flip Flop. The Flip Flop output triggers another mono-shot of 3 to 5 seconds timing
which drives a piezo buzzer and also activates a ring back tone (RBT) circuit. The
block diagram of Way station DTMF Decoder & Buzzer Activation Circuit is given
below.













Connecting Way station Equipment to Quad Cable

On the omnibus control circuit the way station equipment is connected by means of a derivation
joint on the Underground (U/G) cable. The connection between the cable quad and the
way station equipment is shown by the following figure


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Control Communication System Layout

The layout showing the working of control with DTMF signaling consisting of
control office equipment, way station equipments, VF Repeaters and cable huts is as
shown in the figure



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PATCHING OF
CONTROLS
General Description

We have seen that the control communication is vital for smooth and efficient train

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operations. If this communication gets interrupted, not only the operations are hit
but also the way stations are de-linked from the Headquarters which master-minds the
train operations. As such whenever the control communication is interrupted either
totally or partially, alternate arrangements are made.

Patching of Control Circuits

The Control circuits which are connected mainly with the train traffic are generally two,
one is the Section control and other is the Deputy control. Both these circuits will
have the same alignment on overhead line or through same under-ground quad cable.
The section control is the more vital circuit concerned with the movement of trains,
than the other control. This section control circuit is used always, intensively, for train
control communication between controller and way stations.

In case there is any interruption due to a line fault in any portion of the section
control, the following patching arrangements are used to replace the interrupted
portion of the section control to achieve an interruption-free train control
communication.

(a) Patching with the Deputy control wires
(b) Radio patching, and
(c) Patching with Co-axial/OFC channels hired from BSNL.





INTERRUPTIONS & ROUTINE TESTS ON CONTROL
CIRCUITS

Introduction

The causes for interruption to control communication can be many. But, an S&T

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personnel should be aware of some of the common faults, the various
test procedures or practices to be adopted for detecting the cause of these faults
and also to localize the exact place where the fault occurred. Different test
procedures are to be adopted for different types of media used for providing the control
communication.
The faults occurring in the Overhead line may be classified under 4
categories:
(a) Disconnection

(b) Earth

(c) Contact

(d) Twist

a) Disconnection:



P A B C D Q


Consider a section P-Q with intermediate station A, B, C and D as shown. In the event
of disconnection between section B and C, ringing and speech would fail for all
stations between C and Q. The circuit between P and B will function normally. Assume
that the control office is located at P in which case the section is located by
ringing the last station of the correct section i.e., B and then ensuring that ringing is
not possible at the adjacent station C. Station B should be instructed to call C via block
telephone and ask the Station Master at C to confirm that controller is not heard with
his office switch connected as well as the line made through at C. Controller at P
ensures the faulty section is then localized as B - C.


b) Earth Fault:



P A B C D Q

Assume an earth fault in the section B&C which will cause heavy hum or induction if
one limb is earthed and also in the case of earthing of two limbs if the earth connection

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is not good. If the earth is made by slight rubbing contact with stay wire, pole or
bracket, there will be a crackling sound besides the hum. Localization is done as
before, but in this case the switch on C Station side at B station should be
disconnected to render working possible in section P and B.
c) Contact Fault





P A B C D Q

The symptom in this case is induction with AC, block bell beats and magneto
ringing as the case may be according to the circuit to which the contact is made.
Localization is done as before. Defective section has to be isolated for working in the
correct section.
d) Twist Fault



P A B C D Q

In this case the line will be silent. There will be breakdown for stations adjacent to and
beyond the fault. Localization is done as before and defective section is isolated.






CONCLUSION


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Human error, as well as the possibility of deliberate sabotage, poses a
considerable danger to passengers travelling on modern day railway, and on the
occasion where something has happened, the consequence have been disastrous.
In order to prevent passenger from this type of situation or threats, rail
transportation is becoming more modernized and increasingly automated for
greater safety. The signaling is a function essential for safe train operation and
maximizing the utilization of fixed and moving assets. Telecom on the other hand
caters for both safety related, operational and Administrative Communication
needs of the huge IR Network.
I have undergone a project on Control Communication at Indian Railway, Tinsukia
for a time period of four weeks where I got to learn about the various
technologies used by Railway for different purposes. It was a great learning
experience for me as an Engg Student and I would like to thank NF Railway TSK
Division for their dedication over the last four weeks.