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9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 1

SEPARATION OPERATIONS:
INTRODUCTION
u What are separation operations?
u Typical applications of separation operations
u Physical basis for separation operations
u Basic types of separation operations
u Performance characterization of separation operations
u Choice of separation operations
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 2
WHAT ARE SEPARATION OPERATIONS?
A Separation Operation
u Separates a multicomponent input stream into two or
more output streams whose compositions differ from that
of the input stream,
OR
uSeparates a mulitphase stream into its constituent
substreams
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 3
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
u Separation of a multicomponent stream
Distillation
Gas Absorption and Stripping
Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Fractional Crystalization
Dialysis
Pressure-Swing Adsorption (PSA)
u Separation of a multiphase stream
Filtration (solid-liquid)
Decantation (liquid-liquid)
Electrostatic Precipitation (gas-solid)
Knock-Out Drum (gas-liquid)
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 4
EO
Reactor
Gas-Gas
Exchanger
EO
A
b
s
o
r
b
e
r
Intercooler
CW
O2
C2H4
CH4
Purge
Cycle
Water
Cooler
EO
S
t
r
i
p
p
e
r
CW
Condenser
Knock
Out
Drum
CO2
A
b
s
o
r
b
e
r
CO2
S
t
r
i
p
p
b
e
r
CO2
EO to
Purification
Recycle
Compressor
BFW
HP Steam
Steam
Drum
PROCESS EXAMPLE: ETHYLENE OXIDE PFD
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 5
PROCESS EXAMPLE: ETHYLENE OXIDE
u Process Chemistry:
C2H4 + 1/2 O2 C2H4O (Ethylene Oxide [EO])
C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O
u Reactor Effluent
C2H4O (EO product)
C2H4 (unreacted raw material)
C2H6 (impurity in C2H4 feed)
O2 (unreacted raw material)
Ar (impurity in O2 feed)
CO2 (byproduct)
H2O (byproduct)
CH4 (diluent)
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 6
EO SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS
u Recover product EO and purify
Recover EO from reactor effluent via gas absorption in H2O
Recover EO from absorption H2O via stripping
Reabsorb EO in H20 to separate from dissolved gases
Further purify EO to satisfy downstream requirements
u Recover and remove byproduct CO2 and H2O
Recover CO2 using acid gas absorption
Remove via stripping
Recover H2O along with EO in EO absorber
u Purge feed impurities (C2H6 and Ar)
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 7
PHYSICAL BASIS FOR SEPARATIONS
All separations are based on a difference in some property
of the materials being separated.
u Size [Particle sieving, sort by length or diameter,
filtration]
u Color [Sort be color]
u Physical Properties
Vapor Pressure [Distillation, gas absorption, drying]
Solubility [Crystallization]
Magnetic Susceptibility [Ferrous metal separation]
Density [Decantation, flotation, sedimentation]
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 8
BASIC TYPES OF SEPARATIONS
u Phase Creation [Equilibrium Phase Separations]
Energy Separating Agent (ESA) [Simple distillation]
Mass Separating Agent (MSA) [Gas absorption, liquid-liquid
extraction, extractive distillation]
u Use of a Barrier [Membrane Separations]
Gas [Gas permeation]
Liquid [Dialysis, reverse osmosis]
Liquid-solid [Ultrafiltration]
u Use of a Solid [Adsorption]
Gas or liquid adsorption
Chromatography
u Use of a field or gradient
Gravity [decantation, sedimentation, flotation]
Electric Field [Electrostatic precipitation, electrodialysis]
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 9
SEPARATIONS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
u Product Purity
Must meet product specs to be saleable (product)
Must meet regulatory specs to be disposable (byproducts)
u Fractional Recovery
Fractional recovery of all important components must be high
enough to make process operable and economic
Generally a trade off between equipment cost and operating
penalties (loss of product, disposal costs, etc.)
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 10
Feed:
W
F
Z
i
Product:
W
P
Y
i
Byproduct:
W
B
X
i
SEPARATION SYSTEM
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 11
SEPARATOR CHARACTERIZATION
u Fractional Recovery (or Split Fraction) FR
j
Defined as the ratio of the amount of a key component j
appearing in the product stream to that in the feed stream
FR
j
= W
D
Y
j
/ W
F
X
j
Note that 0 < FR
j
<1
u Split Ratio SR
j
Defined at the ratio of the amount of a key component j appearing
in the product stream to that in the byproduct stream
SR
j
= W
D
Y
j
/ W
B
X
j
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 12
SEPARATION FACTOR DEFINITION
u Separation Factor SF
jk
(or Separation Power)
Defined as the ratio of the split ratio of component j to the split
ratio of component k
Components j and k and are chosen so that the separation
favors j in the product stream and k in the byproduct stream
SF
jk
= SR
j
/ SR
k
or
[ SF
j
/ (1 - SF
j
)]
SF
jk
=
[SF
k
/ (1 - SF
k
)]
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 13
SEPARATION FACTOR INTERPRETATION
uBy the guideline for choosing the key components j and k
SR
j
>1. and SR
k
<1.
Therefore SF
jk
>1.
u I f SF
jk
=1., there is no separation.
u Numerical examples for separation factors
FR =0.9 for j and 0.1 for k. Then SF =9 x 9 =81
FR =0.95 for j and 0.05 for k. Then SF =19 x 19 =361
FR =0.99 for j and 0.01 for k. Then SF =99 x 99 =9801
I n industrial practice, separation factors of 10,000 or more
are not uncommon.
9/4/99 Separation Operations: Introduction 14
CHOICE OF SEPARATION METHOD
u Choice is a tradeoff between cost and risk
u Separations that can be designed with a high degree of
confidence:
Simple distillation
Gas absorption and stripping
u Separations that can be designed to easily give high
product purities
Distillation
Liquid-liquid extraction
u Separations that have relatively high operating costs
Distillation