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Elaborate the statement. Ans.) Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform their responsibilities. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling
This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. Say, for example, that the organization's goal is to improve company sales. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. These steps may include increasing advertising, inventory, and sales staff. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales.
After a plan is in place, a manager needs to organize her team and materials according to her plan. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing.
After a manager discerns his area's needs, he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees. A manager in a large organization often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal.
A manager needs to do more than just plan, organize, and staff her team to achieve a goal. She must also lead. Leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging. It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees.
After the other elements are in place, a manager's job is not finished. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's plans remain on track. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions, but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization.
Roles performed by managers A manager wears many hats. Not only is a manager a team leader, but he or she is also a planner, organizer, cheerleader, coach, problem solver, and decision maker — all rolled into one. And these are just a few of a manager's roles. In his classic book, The Nature of Managerial Work, Henry Mintzberg describes a set of ten roles that a manager fills. These roles fall into three categories:
This role involves human interaction. This role involves the sharing and analyzing of
This role involves decision making.
The table contains a more in-depth look at each category of roles that help managers carry out all five functions described in the preceding “Functions of Managers” section. MINTZBERG’S TABLE Category Role Activity Seek and receive information; scan periodicals and reports; maintain personal contact with stakeholders. Forward information to organization members via memos, reports, and phone calls. Transmit information to outsiders via reports, memos, and speeches. Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties, such as greeting visitors and signing legal documents. Direct and motivate subordinates; counsel and communicate with subordinates. Maintain information links both inside and outside organization via mail, phone calls, and meetings. Initiate improvement projects; identify new ideas and delegate idea responsibility to others. Take corrective action during disputes or crises; resolve conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environments. Decide who gets resources; prepare budgets; set schedules and determine priorities. Represent department during negotiations of union contracts, sales, purchases, and budgets. Informational Monitor
Disseminator Spokesperson Interpersonal Figurehead
Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator
Q2.) “Skills are the tool for performance”- explain various management skills? Ans.) Skills needed by managers:
Not everyone can be a manager. Certain skills, or abilities to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance, are required to help other employees become more productive. These skills fall under the following categories:
This skill requires the ability to use a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. Accountants, engineers, market researchers, and computer scientists, as examples, possess technical skills. Managers acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them through training and job experience. Technical skills are most important at lower levels of management.
This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in cooperation with others. Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust, enthusiasm, and genuine involvement in interpersonal relationships. A manager with good human skills has a high degree of self-awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize with the feelings of others. Some managers are naturally born with great human skills, while others improve their skills through classes or experience. No matter how human skills are acquired, they're critical for all managers because of the highly interpersonal nature of managerial work.
This skill calls for the ability to think analytically. Analytical skills enable managers to break down problems into smaller parts, to see the relations among the parts, and to recognize the implications of any one problem for others. As managers assume everhigher responsibilities in organizations, they must deal with more ambiguous problems that have long-term consequences. Again, managers may acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them by training and job experience. The higher the management level, the more important conceptual skills become. Although all three categories contain skills essential for managers, their relative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility. Business and management educators are increasingly interested in helping people acquire technical, human, and conceptual skills, and develop specific competencies, or specialized skills, that contribute to high performance in a management job. Following are some of the skills and personal characteristics that the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is urging business schools to help their students develop.
— ability to influence others to perform tasks — ability to evaluate yourself realistically
• Self-objectivity • Analytic
thinking — ability to interpret and explain patterns in information
flexibility — ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals
communication — ability to express ideas clearly in words communication — ability to express ideas clearly in writing impact — ability to create a good impression and instill to stress — ability to perform under stressful conditions
• Resistance • Tolerance
for uncertainty — ability to perform in ambiguous
Q3.) What is Negotiation? Explain the process of Negotiation?
Ans.) According to Robbins Negotiation is defined as “process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them”. There are two general approaches to Negotiation: a) Distributive bargaining b) Integrative bargaining
A) DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING: When engaged in distributive bargaining, one’s tactic is to get the opponent to agree to one’s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible. Hard distributive negotiation takes place when each party holds out to get its own way. Soft distributive negotiation takes place when one party is willing to make concessions to the other to get things over with. A soft approach leads to accommodation in which one party gives in to the other, or to compromise in which each party gives up something of value in order to reach agreement.
B) INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING: This strategy is adopted to create a win-win solution. Integrative bargaining builds long term relationships and facilitates collaborative work.
THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS:
STEP1 PREPARATION AND PLANNING: Based on the information, a strategy is developed. Both the parties Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) needs to be determined.. BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement for both the parties. STEP 2 DEFINITIONS OF GROUND RULES: At this stage, the venue, the negotiators and time will be decided. STEP 3 CLARIFICATION AND JUSTIFICATION When initial positions have been exchanged, the original demands of both the parties need to be explained and justified. Proper documentation is required at this stage to support each of the parties position. STEP 4 BARGAINING AND PROBLEM SOLVING: The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both the parties. STEP 5 CLOSURES AND IMPLEMENTATION: This is the final step, where the agreement is formalized and procedures to implement the agreement will be developed.
Q4.) Explain Classical Conditioning Theory?
Ans.) “Behaviorism” is a school of thought in psychology that assumes that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. One of the best-known aspects of behavioral learning theory is CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. In order to understand how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process.
The Unconditioned Stimulus The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.
The Unconditioned Response The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response. The Conditioned Stimulus The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In our earlier example, suppose that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus.
The Conditioned Response The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.
Classical Conditioning in the Real World In reality, people do not respond exactly like Pavlov's dogs. There are, however, numerous real-world applications for classical conditioning. For example, many dog trainers use classical conditioning techniques to help people train their pets. These techniques are also useful in the treatment of phobias or anxiety problems. Teachers are able to apply classical conditioning in the class by creating a positive classroom environment to help students overcome anxiety or fear. Pairing an anxiety-provoking situation, such as performing in front of a group, with pleasant surroundings helps the student learn new associations. Instead of feeling anxious and tense in these situations, the child will learn to stay relaxed and calm.
Q5.) How are culture and society responsible to built value system? Ans) Following are the most important research with regard to establishing relationship between national culture and values.
HOFSTEDE’S RESEARCH Hofstede in order to find the common dimensions of culture across the countries, gathered data from surveys with 116 respondents working for IBM from more than 70 countries around the world. The underlying concept of four dimensions is described below: 1. Power distance- this dimension measures the ‘SOCIAL EQUALITY” i.e. to what extent a society accepts unequal distribution of power in families, institutions and organizations. Inequalities of power in organizations are generally manifested in hierarchical superior-subordinate relationships. 2. Uncertainty avoidance- this is a representation of a society’s tolerance for uncertain situations. It measures to what extent a society manages those situations by providing specific and conventional rules, regulations and norms; by accepting the possibility of absolute truths and the accomplishments of expertise. 3. Individualism Vs Collectivism- Individualism gauges to what extent Individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups. Collectivism on the other hand emphasizes on ‘social ties or bonds’ between individuals. 4. Masculinity Vs Femininity- this dimension refers to what extent dominant values in a society emphasizes masculine social values like a work ethic expressed in terms of money, achievement and recognition as opposed to feminine social role which show more concern for people and quality of life. Hofstede and Bond have identified a fifth dimension called ‘Long term Orientation’ which measured employee’s devotion to work ethic and their respect for tradition.
GLOBE project integrates the above mentioned cultural attributes and variables with managerial behavior n organizations. The GLOBE project has identified nine cultural dimensions viz: 1. Uncertainty- avoidance: GLOBE project defined third dimension as the extent to which a society or an organization tries to avoid uncertainty by depending heavily on prevalent norms, rituals and bureaucratic practices. 2. Power distance: it is the degree to which power is shared unequally in a society or an organization. 3. Collectivism 1 i.e. Social collectivism: it is the degree to which society and organization encourages and recognizes collective performance. 4. Collectivism 2 i.e. in group collectivism: it is the degree to which individuals take pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their organizations and families. 5. Gender egalitarianism- GLOBE has defined this as an extent to which a society or an organization minimizes gender differences and discrimination. 6. Assertiveness: it is the degree to which individuals, both in organizational and social context are assertive and confrontational. 7. Future Orientation: it is the degree to which individuals are encouraged in long term future- oriented behaviors such as planning, investing etc. 8. Performance Orientation- this dimension encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement. 9. Human Orientation: it is the degree to which organizations or society encourage or reward for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous and caring.
Q6.) Write short notes on:
(a) Locus of control (b) Machiavellianism Ans.) THE LOCUS OF CONTROL:
The Locus of Control is a 13 item questionnaire developed by Rotter (1966). It measures generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. People with an internal locus of control believe that their own actions determine the rewards that they obtain, while those with an external locus of control believe that their own behavior doesn't matter much and that rewards in life are generally outside of their control. Scores range from 0 to 13. A low score indicates an internal control while a high score indicates external control. Within psychology, Locus of Control is considered to be an important aspect of personality. The concept was developed originally Julian Rotter in the 1950s . Locus of Control refers to an individual's perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her life. Or, more simply: A locus of control orientation is a belief about whether the outcomes of our actions are contingent on what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personal control (external control orientation)." Thus, locus of control is conceptualised as referring to a unidimensional continuum, ranging from external to internal:
External Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behavior is guided by fate, luck, or other external circumstances
Internal Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behavior is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts.
Is an internal locus of control desirable? In general, it seems to be psychologically healthy to perceive that one has control over those things which one is capable of influencing. In simplistic terms, a more internal locus of control is generally seen as desirable. Having an Internal locus of control can also be referred to as "selfagency", "personal control", "self-determination", etc. Research has found the following trends:
• • •
Males tend to be more internal than females As people get older they tend to become more internal People higher up in organizational structures tend to be more internal .
However, its important to warn people against lapsing in the overly simplistic view notion that internal is good and external is bad . There are important subtleties and complexities to be considered. For example:
Internals can be psychologically unhealthy and unstable. An internal orientation usually needs to be matched by competence, self-efficacy and opportunity so that the person is able to successfully experience the sense of personal control and responsibility. Overly internal people who lack competence, efficacy and opportunity can become neurotic, anxious and depressed. In other words, internals need to have a realistic sense of their circle of influence in order to experience 'success'. Externals can lead easy-going, relaxed, happy lives.
Sometimes Locus of Control is seen as a stable, underlying personality construct, but this may be misleading, since the theory and research indicates that that locus of control is largely learned. There is evidence that, at least to some extent, LOC is a response to circumstances. Some psychological and educational interventions have been found to produce shifts towards internal locus of control (e.g., outdoor education programs).
Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person’s tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. The concept is named after Renaissance diplomat and writer NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. High Mach individuals manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less and persuade others more. High Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors and flourish when they interact face to face with others, rather than indirectly and when the situation has a minimum number of rules and regulations, thus allowing room for improvisation. High Mach individuals make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning.
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