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EXPERIMENT 1 –REACTION RATE

PRELAB DISCUSSION:

CHEMICAL KINETICS
- area of chemistry concerned with the speed at which chemical reactions occur

REACTION RATE
- determines how fast a reactant is used up or how fast a product is formed

COLLISION THEORY
For a chemical reaction to take place,
 Particles must collide
 With sufficient energy, and
 Proper orientation

ENERGY OF ACTIVATION (Ea)
- minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction. Lack of Ea, the molecules remains
intact and no change results in the collision.
Small Ea =  R no Ea = no change

 COLLISION (KE)  Ea  R  T



FACTORS AFFECTING THE REACTION RATE
NATURE OF REACTING
SUBSTANCE AND
STATE OF
SUBDIVISION
CONCENTRATION DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
TEMPERATURE DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
CATALYST ACCELERATOR
(+)
 COLLISION (KE)  Ea  R 
T
INHIBITOR
(-)
COLLISION (KE)  Ea  R  T
OTHERS PRESSURE P R T
PHYSICAL STATE Gas R
EXTERNAL
FACTORS
(MIXING)
 COLLISION (KE)  Ea  R  T





EXPERIMENT 1 –REACTION RATE
POST-LAB DISCUSSION:

Solution A Potassium iodate 0.1 M KIO3 Oxidizing agent
Solution B Sodium bisulfite 0.1 M NaHSO3 Reducing agent
Starch solution Indicator
Sulfuric acid 0.1 M H2SO4 Positive Catalyst


1. IO3
-
+ HSO3
-
 I
-
+ SO4
-2


IO3
-
 I
HSO3
-
 SO4
-2

(6e- +6H
+
+ IO3
-
 I
-
+ 3H2O) 2 (H2O + HSO3
-
 SO4
-2
+

2H
+
+ 2e-)6
12e- + 12H
+
+ 2IO3
-
 2I
-
+ 6H2O 6H2O + 6HSO3
-
 6SO4
-2
+

18H
+
+ 12e-
2IO3
-
 2I
-

6HSO3
-
 6SO4
-2
+

3H
+
/2
3HSO3
-
 3SO4
-2


6HSO3
-
+ 3HSO3
-
 6SO4
-2
+ 3SO4
-2



2. H
+
+ I
-
+ IO3
-
 I2
-
+ H2O

I
-
 I2
-
IO3
-
 I2
-

(2I
-
 I2
-
+2e-)10 (10e- + 12H
+
+ 2IO3
-
 I2
-
+ 6H2O)2
20I
-
 10I2
-
+20e- 20e- + 24H
+
+ 4IO3
-
 2I2
-
+ 12H2O
20I
-
 10I2
-
24H
+
+ 4IO3
-
 2I2
-
+ 12H2O
20I
-
+ 24H
+
+ 4IO3
-
 10I2
-
+ 2I2
-
+ 12H2O /2
10I
-
+ 12H
+
+ 2IO3
-
 5I2
-
+ I2
-
+ 6H2O /2


5I
-
+ 6H
+
+ IO3
-
 3I2
-
+ 3H2O


3. HSO3
-
+ I2 + H2O  I
-
+ SO4
-2
+ H
+


I2
-
+2e- 2I
-
H2O + HSO3
-
 SO4
-2
+ 3H
+
+ 2e-
H2O + HSO3
-
+ I2
-
 2I
-
+ SO4
-2
+ 3H
+




FACTORS AFFECTING THE REACTION RATE
NATURE OF
REACTANTS - STATE
OF SUBDIVISION
FASTER
REACTION
RATE
METALS OF GROUP 1A – 2A Readily loose electrons
and acquire a (+) charge
NONMETALS OF GROUP 7A Readily gain electrons
and acquire a (-) charge
IONIC/ELECTROVALENT COMPOUNDS
FINER/SMALLER PARTICLE SIZE
EFFECT OF
CONCENTRATION
Due to number of increase in the particles, increase collision. Dependence of
rate on concentration:


EFFECT OF
TEMPERATURE
DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL EXOTHERMIC  Ea
COLLISSIONACKERT ENDOTHERMIC  Ea
CATALYST Substance that
speeds up the rate of
chemical reaction
without itself being
consumed
uncatalyzed  Ea
catalyzed  Ea

ACTIVATED COMPLEX
- temporary species formed by the reactant molecules as a result of collision before they form
the products. High stable species with a potential energy.

By heating the mixture, you will raise the energy levels of the molecules.