H. Hirani
Department of Mechanical Engineering
22
5, 26
17 (8.30 am)
14
Tutorials
10% T
10% Q
(7 Oct. 7:00 pm)
(4 Nov 6.30 pm)
30% M
50% E
July: 23, 25, 30
August: 1, 6, 13, 20, 22, 27, 29
September: 17, 19, 24
October: 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, 22, 24, 31
November: 5, 7, 12
Distribution
Lecture
Contact Time: 16.30 to 17.30 Hours  Monday to Friday.
EXTRA CLASS: 11/10 (9.30:11.00), 16/10 (2:003.30 pm)
2
Topics
1. Introduction to machine elements design.
2. Strength and rigidity
3. Failure criteria
4. Factors of safety
5. Design of shafts
6. Design of couplings
7. Design of belt drives
8. Design of springs
9. Design of weldments
10. Design of fasteners
11. Gear design
12. Bearing selection
13. Design of bearings
REFERENCES:
1. Mechanical Engineering Design.
Shigley and Mischke..
2. Machine Design: An Integrated
Approach.. R. L. Norton
http://www.mech.uwa.edu.au/DANotes/intro/contents.html
Basics
Applications
3
Introduction to machine elements
design
E Machine design: Process of applying
scientific principles and techniques to
create machinery that works reliably
and safely.
ME 201: Solid Mechanics
ME 202: Strength of Materials
ME 203: Fluid Mechanics
Free body diagrams,
deformation under axial
loading, simple shear,
bending, stress, elastic
and plastic strains,
thermal strains, torsion
of circular shaft,
deflection of helical
spring, theories of failure
Properties of fluids, Navier Stokes equations
and their solutions.
Introduction to machine elements design..
E Machine: Structure + Mechanisms
Combination of rigid
bodies which do not have
any relative motion among
themselves
Automobile chassis
Machine tool bed
Machine columns
Slider crank mechanism
Cam and follower mech.
Gear train
Shafts, couplings, springs, bearings, belt and gear
drives, fasteners, and joints are basic elements
of machines.. Logic?
5
Gear box
Designing a complete
machine will be
impossible if we are
unaware of individual
elements. In this course
we will design individual
element in isolation
6
Scientific procedure to design
machine elements
Ultimate goal is to size and shape the
element so that elements perform
expected function without failure.
1. Predict mode & conditions of failure.
2. Force/Moment/Torque analysis.
3. Stress and deflection analysis.
4. Selection of appropriate material.
Thorough understanding of material prop.. essential
E Iterations Interrelated parts
7
Material Properties
E Generally determined through destructive
testing of samples under controlled loading
conditions.
E Tensile test (ME 329)
Apply load & measure deflection
Plotting of stress & strain
Strength, Youngs modulus,
Shear modulus, Fatigue
strength, resilience, toughness
0
0
0
, l l
l
l l
>
=
0
A
P
=
8
Stressstrain Diagram for
Metals
= E
modulus s Young'
tensile
tensile
E E
E E
>
=
n compressio
n compressio
Brittle
Ductile
elastic yield
al proportion elastic
>
>
E Ultimate strength: Largest stress that
a material can sustain before fracture
True stress Engineering stress
E Ductility: Material elongation > 5%.
A significant plastic region on the stress
strain curve
Necking down or reduction in area.
Even materials.
E Brittleness: Absence of noticeable
deformation before fracture.
NOTE: Same material can be either ductile or brittle depending
the way it is manufactured (casting), worked, and heat treated
(quenched, tempered).
45
18
10
37
30
25
20
60
30
260
415
345
395
520
615
552
552
483
130
265
220
295
350
380
345
207
275
207
165
172
207
207
207
200
193
200
Iron
Nodular cast iron
Malleable cast iron
Low carbon steel
Medium carbon steel
High carbon steel
Ferrite SS
Austenite SS
Martensitic SS
Ductility (% EL) S
u
(MPa) S
y
(MPa) E (GPa) Material
Ex: A flat SS plate is rolled into a cylinder with inner radius of
100mm and a wall thickness of 60 mm. Determine which of the
three SS cannot be formed cold to the cylinder?
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) % 1 . 23 100 %
1005 160 2 2
8 . 816 30 100 2 5 . 0 2
0
0
0
=
=
= = =
= + = + =
l
l l
EL
r l
mm t r l
fr
o fr
i
ANS: Ferrite SS
cannot be formed
to the cylinder.
11
Torsion Test (ME 329)
E G
E
G
l
r G
5 . 0
) 1 ( 2
0
+
=
=
=
0
d U
14
Resilience (energy per unit volume)
E
S
U
E
d E d U
y
R
R
el
el el
2
0
2
0 0
2
1
2
=
=
Ex: In mining operation the iron
ore is dumped into a funnel for
further transport by train. The
inside of the funnel wear rapidly
because of impact of the ore.
Which is the most efficient
choice of funnel surface
material: steel (E=207 GPa,
S
y
=380 MPa) or rubber (E=4
MPa, Sy=30 MPa) ?
15
Toughness (energy per unit volume)
[ ]
f ut y
T
S S U
d U
f
+ =
=
2
1
toughness of ion approximat an on, intergrati actual for available
seldom is curve strain and stress for expression analytical Since
T
0
AISI: American Iron and Steel Institute
Carbon steel 2
Carbon steel 3
Carbon steel 4
Carbon steel 5
Stainless steel 2
Stainless steel 3
Stainless steel 4
Stainless steel 5
Stainless steel 6
30
STRESS
(a) Normal, tensile (b) normal, compressive; (c) shear;
(d) bending; (e) torsion; (f) combined
J
y T
I
y M
A
P
b
s c t
=
=
=
, ,
Elementary equations. No discontinuity in crosssection. Holes, shoulders,
keyways, etc.
a. Before assembly
b. After assembly
Finite element model to calculate
stresses
33
Axial Load on Plate with Hole
avg
max
t
K
factor ion concentrat Stress
=
Plate with crosssectional plane
Half of plate with stress distribution.
Stress Concentration
h d b
P
) (
avg
=
Stress concentration factor for rectangular
plate with central hole.
EX: A 50mm wide and
5mm high rectangular
plate has a 5mm
diameter central hole.
Allowable stress is 300
MPa. Find the max.
tensile force that can
be applied.
Ans: d/b = 0.1; K
t
=2.7
A = (505)5
P = 25 kN
Stress concentration factor under axial load for
rectangular plate with fillet
EX: Assume
H=45mm,
h=25mm, and
fillet radius
r=5mm. Find
stress
concentration
factor.
Ans: ~1.8
Stress concentration factor under axial load for
rectangular plate with groove
Stress concentration factor under axial load for round
bar with fillet
Stress concentration factor for round bar with groove
40
Ex: Assuming 80 MPa as allowable strength of
plate material, determine the plate thickness
E Maximum stress
near fillet
E Maximum stress
near hole
E Allowable
K
t
=1.8
K
t
=2.1
b b
fillet
300
30
5000
8 . 1 =
=
( ) b b
hole
700
15 30
5000
1 . 2 =
=
80 =
allowable
b=8.75 mm
Stress concentration factor under bending for
rectangular plate with fillet
EX: Assume
H=45mm,
h=25mm, and
fillet radius
r=5mm. Find
stress
concentration
factor.
Ans: ~1.5
Stress concentration factor under bending for rectangular plate
with central hole
Stress concentration factor under bending for
rectangular plate with groove
Stress concentration factor under bending for round
bar with fillet
Stress concentration factor under bending for round
bar with groove
46
Ex: Assuming 100MPa as allowable
stress, determine the shaft dia, d.
E Due to symmetry,
reaction force at
each bearing =
1250 N.
E Stress
concentration will
occur at the fillet.
E K
t
=1.6
( )
( )
3 3
350 1250 32 32
d
d
M
avg
= =
( )
( )
100
350 1250 2 . 51
6 . 1
3
max
=
= =
d
avg
Diameter d=41.5 mm
Stress concentration factor under torsion for
round bar with fillet
Stress concentration factor under torsion for round bar with groove
49
Contact Stresses
E Two rolling surfaces under
compressive load experience
contact stresses.
Ball and roller bearings
Cams with roller follower
Spur or helical gear tooth contact
E Compressive load causes elastic deformation of surface
of solids over a region surrounding the initial point of
contact, thereby bringing two bodies into contact over a
small area in neighborhood of initial point of contact.
E Stresses are highly dependent on geometry of the
surfaces in contact as well as loading and material
properties.
Contact stresses
E As a ball passes over
another surface, the
theoretical contact
patch is point of zero
dimension. Roller
against cylindrical/flat
surface line of zero
width.
Zero areas Infinite
stress. Material will
elastically deform and
contact geometry will
change.
Deformation b will be
small compared to
dimensions of two
bodies.
Contact stresses ..
E Two special geometry cases are of
practical interest and are also simpler
to analyze are: sphereonsphere &
cylinderoncylinder.
By varying radii of curvature
of curvature of one mating
surface, sphereplane,
sphereincup, cylinderon
plane, and cylinderintrough
can be modeled.
E Radii of curvature of one
element infinite to obtain
a plane.
E Negative radii of
curvature define a
concave cup or concave
trough surface.
Spherical contact
=
2
max
1
b
r
p p
=
b
dr rd p F
0
2
0
is patch contact on load applied Total
[ ]
( )
max
2
3
max
0
max
2 2 2
0
2 2
max
0
2
max
3
2
or
3
2
or
2
assuming on
2
or
1 2 is patch contact on load applied Total
p b F
b
b
p
F
dt t t
b
p
F t r b
dr r r b
b
p
F
dr r
b
r
p F
b
b
b
=
=
= =
=
53
For axisymmetric point load
Timoshenko & Goodier suggested:
( )
( )
( )
( )
+ =
+
=
=
=
+ + = =
1
4
) 1 ( 2
2 1
4
2
3
x
2
3
1
2 1
2
3 1
2 1
2
3
2
3
5
2
2 2 2
5
3
3 2 2
5
2
2 2
z
G
F
E
G
r
z z r
G
F
z r F
z y
z F
z
r
z
r
F
r z
r
z
r
F
z
r
rz
z
r
Ref: S. Timoshenko and
J.N.Goodier, Theory of
elasticity, 2
nd
Edition,
McGraw Hill.
At surface z = 0, displacements???
=
b
dr rd p F
0
2
0
( )
( ) ( )
=
2
2
2
1
2
1
max
max
2
2
2
2
1 1
4
deflection Total
4
1
similarly
E E
b p
p
E
b
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
or
2
2 sin
2
1
or
1 2 cos
2
1
or
cos cos
1
sin b assuming on
/ 1
1
or
/ 1
2
2
1
or
/ 1
2
1
, s coordinate polar in
1 sphere of Deflection
max
1
2
1
1
2
0
max
1
2
1
1
2
0
max
1
2
1
1
2
0
max
1
2
1
1
2
0
max
1
2
1
1
0
2
max
1
2
1
1
0
2
0
2
max
1
2
1
1
p
E
b
p
E
b
d p
E
b
d b p
E
r
dr b r p
E
dr r
r
b r p
E
dr rd
r
b r p
E
r
b
b
b
= =
=
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
=
+
=
= +
+ =
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
max
2
2
2
1
2
1
max
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
5 . 1
4
or
1 1
2
1
2
1
4
or
1 1
4 2 2
or
2 2
: as such radii, geometric of in terms presented be can deflection Total
E E
R R
b
F
b
E E
R R
p
b
E E
b p
R
b
R
b
R
b
R
b
+
=
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
3
1 1
1 1
75 . 0
or
E E
R R
F
b
56
Static stress distribution
in spherical contact
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
+ + =
+
+ + + = =
+
+ =
3
2 2 2 2
max
3
2 2 2 2
max
5 . 1
2 2
3
max
5 . 1 1 2 1 5 . 0 5 . 0
1 2 2 1 5 . 0
1
z b
z
z b
z
p
z b
z
z b
z
p
z b
z
p
y x
z
+
=
=
4.59,4.34,4.5796,4.50, 4.582,4.58474.5948
6
4.5294
0.0987
( )
1
/
2
2
=
N
N d d
i i
d
59
Design Factors: Factor of Safety
E Necessary to calculate one or more factors
of safety to estimate likelihood of failure.
Stress
Deformation
Wear
E FOS is a ratio of two quantities that have
same units:
Strength/stress ; Critical load/applied load
Load to fail part/expected service load
Maximum cycles/applied cycles
Maximum safe speed/operating speed.
NOTE: FOS is deterministic. Often data are statistical and there is
a need to use Probabilistic approach.
Stress concentration factor, surface finish factor, size factor, etc.
60
Probabilistic Approach to Design
E Ex: Tensile tests on 9
pieces of hot rolled steel
were performed and
measured ultimate tensile
strength data are: 433
MPa, 444, 454, 457, 470,
476, 481, 493, and 510
MPa. Find the values of
mean, std. dev., and
coefficient of variation.
Assuming normal
distribution find the
probability density
function.
( )
( ) 1
2 34 . 24
1
05194 . 0 variation of Coeff.
34 . 24
67 . 468
2
34 . 24
67 . 468
2
1
s
s
=
=
= =
=
=
+
dx x f
e x f
MPa
MPa
x
s
s
=
Q
S
Q Q
Q
e
S
Q f
Q
Z
Z
Q
S
Q
where
dZ e R
S
Q Q
Z
=
=
+
0
2
1
Z
2
1
variable normal Let
0
2
x Q
y x Q
xy Q
y x Q
x C Q
Cx Q
C Q
1 =
=
=
=
+ =
=
=
x
y x
y x
y x
x C
x C
C
1
+
ALGEBRAIC MEAN STD. DEVIATION
FUNCTIONS Q
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
0
x
y x y
x y
C
x
y x
y x
y x
x
x
+
+
+
10 8 6
10 30 40
2 2
= + =
= =
Q
s
Q
1
10
10 0
0 at
=
=
=
Z
Q
=
0
2
2
1
2
1
z
z
dZ e F
63
ZTable
provides
probability
of failure
64
Value of normal variable provide the probability of
failure.
Z AREA
3 0.0013
2 0.0228
1 0.1587
0.5 0.3085
0 0.5000
0.5 0.6915
1 0.8413
2 0.9772
3 0.9987
In the present case Probability of failure is 0.1587 & reliability is
.8413.
Selecting stronger material (mean value of strength = 50 units!!!!)
0
65
( ) ( )MPa MPa S
y
15 , 184 & 32 , 270
: are bar tensile a of Stress and Strength : Ex
= =
dz e R
z
2
43 . 2
2
2
1
1 design of y Reliabilit
R = 10.0075 ????
Ref: Probabilistic Mechanical
Design, Edward B. Haugen, 1980.
Prob: A steel bar is subjected to compressive load. Statistics of load are (6500,
420) N. Statistics of area are (0.64, 0.06) m
2
. Estimate the statistics of
stress.
Ans: (10156, 1156.4) Pa.
Example: Stress developed in a machine element is given by:
Given P = (1500, 50) N, Strength = (129, 3) MPa, L
1
=(150, 3)
mm, L
2
=(100, 2) mm. Assume std. dev. of d is 1.5% mean
value of d. k = 0.003811.
Determine distribution of d if the maximum probability
of machineelementfailure is 0.001
=
=
n
i xi
i
x
1
2
2
: by expressed is function complex a of deviation Standard
( )( )
2
2
2
1
3
3 4 4 / L L kd P + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
[ ]
3
2 / 1
3
2 / 1
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
4
2
2
3
2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1136200
29047 261420 41830 12 291 . 1
1
002 . 0
85216
003 . 0
170430
015 . 0
4 13635
50
22724
2 1
d
e
d
d d
d
d
e
d
L L d P
L L d P
=
+ + + =
Statistically independent
( )( )
3
2
2
2
1
3
34087000
3 4 4 /
d
L L d k P
=
+ =
( )
( )
m 001 . 0
m 6686 . 0
11031
41748
2 . 1136
3000
1136200
6 3
34087000 6 129 0
09 . 3
2
3
2
3
2
2
1
2
3
2
3
=
=
+
= =
d
d d
d
e
d e
Z
68
Tolerances
E Machine elements are manufactured /
fabricated with some tolerance on
their basic (normal size, i.e. 20mm)
dimensions.
Tolerance: permissible variation in the
dimensions of a component.
Tolerance: Unilateral or bilateral.
03 . 0 02 . 0
04 . 0
04 . 0
00 . 0
00 . 0
04 . 0
20 20 20 20
+
+
69
Ex: A shaft resists a torque of (10000, 1100) N.mm at
location B shown in Figure. If ends of shaft are fixed
against rotation, estimate the statistics of torque
reactions T
1
and T
2
. Tolerance on location B is 0.375mm
E Eq. 1: Summation
of torques
E Eq. 2: Deflection at
location B.
1
5
2
4
B
T
1
T
2
x Q
y x Q
xy Q
y x Q
x C Q
Cx Q
C Q
1 =
=
=
=
+ =
=
=
x
y x
y x
y x
x C
x C
C
1
+
ALGEBRAIC MEAN STD. DEVIATION
FUNCTIONS Q
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
0
x
y x y
x y
C
x
y x
y x
y x
x
x
+
+
+
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 1
2 1
1100
10000
1100 , 10000 , ,
2 1
2 1
= +
= +
= +
T T
T T
T T
T T
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2 1 1
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
1
2 2
1 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
, ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
T L T L
T L T L
T L T L
T L T L
L T L T
T L T L
L T T L L T T L
T L T L
JG
T L
JG
T L
+ = +
=
+ = +
=
=
mm N
mm N
mm N T
mm N T
T
T
. 7 . 582
. 933
. 2 . 3846
. 8 . 6153
2
1
2
1
=
=
=
=
71
Fits
E Careful decision on tolerance is important
for assembling two components.
Relationship resulting from the difference
between sizes of components before assembly is
called a Fit.
Clearance fit: positive gap between hole and
shaft. Relative movement is possible.
Interference fit: Negative gap. Relative
movement is restricted.
Transition fit: border case. Either a clearance or
interference fit, depending upon actual values of
dimensions of mating components.
: Calculate assembled.
are ) (20 pin  crank a and ) (20 bearing A : Prob
061 . 0
0.040
000 . 0
0.013
+
Maximum and minimum diameters of the crankpin and
bearing.
Maximum and minimum clearance between crankpin and
bearing.
: Calculate
). (20 housing a in inserted is ) (20 seat A valve : Prob
000 . 0
0.021
035 . 0
0.048 +
+
+
Maximum and minimum diameters of the valve seat and
housinghole.
Maximum and minimum interference between the seat and its
housing.
Known as 20H6e7
Known as 20H7s6
73
B.I.S. (Bureau of Indian Standards) System
of Tolerances
E As per B.I.S. tolerance is specified by
two parts (i.e. H6, e7). :
Fundamental deviation: Location of
tolerance zone w. r. t. Zero line.
Represented by an alphabet (capital or small).
Capital letters describe tolerances on hole, while
small letters describe tolerance on shaft.
Magnitude: by a number, often called grade.
There are eighteen grades of tolerance with
designations IT1, IT2,, IT17 and IT 18.
IT stands for International Tolerance.
Letter Symbols for Tolerances
H6e7
H7s6
75
76
77
1300 1150 1000 870 740 620 520 430 360 300 250
14
810 720 630 540 460 390 330 270 220 180 140
13
520 460 400 350 300 250 210 180 150 120 100
12
320 290 250 220 190 160 130 110 90 75 60
11
210 185 160 140 120 100 84 70 58 48 40
10
130 115 100 87 74 62 52 43 36 30 25
9
81 72 63 54 46 39 33 27 22 18 14
8
52 46 40 35 30 25 21 18 15 12 10
7
32 29 25 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 6
6
23 20 18 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 4
5
16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3
4
12 10 8 6 5 4 4 3 2.5 2.5 2
3
8 7 5 4 3 2.5 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1.2
2
6 4.5 3.5 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1.2 1 1 0.8
1
IT
Grade
315 250 180 120 80 50 30 18 10 6 3 inc.
250 180 120 80 50 30 18 10 6 3 1 over
Nominal Sizes (mm)
78
Hole 110H11
Minimum = 110mm + 0mm = 110.000mm ...
Maximum = 110mm + (0+0.220) = 110.220mm
Resulting limits 110.000/110.220
Tolerance of hub, t
lh
=220m
Shaft 110e9...
Maximum = 110mm 0.072=109.928mm...
Minimum = 110mm  (0.072 +0.087) = 109.841mm
Resulting limits 109.841/ 109.928
Tolerance of shaft, t
ls
=87m
Examples
79
Examples:
E Clearance Fit: In hydrodynamic bearings a critical
design parameter is radial clearance between
shaft and bearing. Typical value is 0.1% of shaft
radius. Tolerances cause additional or smaller
clearance. Too small a clearance could cause
failure; too large a clearance would reduce load
capacity.
E Interference Fit: Rollingelement bearings are
generally designed to be installed on a shaft with
an interference fit. Slightly higher interference
would require significant force to press bearing
on shaft, thus imposing significant stresses on
both the shaft and the bearing.
Interference Fit
=0.001d mm
=0.0005d mm
=0.00025d mm
=0.00 mm
Semipermanent joint Heavy
Considerable pressure is
required to assemble
/disassemble joints.
Medium
Suitable for low speed and
light duty joints
Light
Require light pressure.
Suitable for stationary parts
Wringing
For 20mm shaft dia,
interference = 20 microns
81
Press Fit
E Pressure p
f
is caused by
interference between
shaft & hub. Pressure
increases radius of hole
and decreases radius of
shaft.
r
f
rs
rh
rs
rh
r
f
r
f
r
f
p
f
p
f
Base
line
82
( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) 0
2
sin 2 balance Force
strain Radial
strain ntial Circumfere
=
+ + =
+
=
= =
+
=
dz dr
d
dz rd dz d dr r d
E r dr
dr
r
E r d r
d r d r
r r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r r r
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
stress Radial
stress ntial Circumfere
i o
i o o i o o i i
r
i o
i o o i o o i i
r r
p p r r r r p r p
r r
p p r r r r p r p
+
=
r r
r r r p
+
=
( )
f r
f o
o f f
p
r r
r r p
=
+
=
max ,
2 2
2 2
max ,
( )
E r
r h
f
rh
= = strain ntial Circumfere
r
f
f
r
f o
o f f
r
r r
r r
E
p
h
+
=
2 2
2 2
max ,
( )
( )
+
=
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
stress Radial
1
stress ntial Circumfere
i f
i
f f r
i f
i
f f
r r
r r
r p
r r
r r
r p
= = strain ntial Circumfere
f
r
s
i f
f i
s
f
r
r r
r r
E
p
s
+
=
2 2
2 2
max ,
f r
i f
f f
p
r r
r p
=
=
max ,
2 2
2
max ,
2
( ) ( )
+
+ +
+
=
=
s
s
i f s
f i
h
h
f o h
f o
f f
rs rh
E
r r E
r r
E
r r E
r r
p r
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
r
r
or
ce interferen Total
Ex: A wheel hub is press fitted on a 105 mm diameter solid shaft. The
hub and shaft material is AISI 1080 steel (E = 207 GPa). The hubs
outer diameter is 160mm. The radial interference between shaft and
hub is 65 microns. Determine the pressure exercised on the interface of
shaft and wheel hub.
( ) ( )
( )
+
+
+
=
2 2
2
r
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
r
2
: solid is shaft If
: materials same of made are shaft and hub If
f o
o
f f
i f
f i
f o
f o f f
r r
r
E
p r
r r
r r
r r
r r
E
p r
ANS: p
f
=73 MPa
Hot rolling, Flame cutting
Sand Casting
Forging
Die Casting
Drilling
Cold Rolling, Drawing
Extruding
Planning, Shaping
Milling
Sawing
Boring, Turning
Reaming
Broaching
Plan grinding
Diamond turning
Cylindrical grinding
Super finishing
Honing
Lapping
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ITGrade
87
Fatigue Failure
E Catastrophic, occurs suddenly. Designers must
consider possibility of fatigue in every design.
Fatigue failure looks brittle even in ductile metals.
Parts often fail at stresses well below the ultimate
strength of mat.
?sufficient time for strain to fully develop.
Rankine published Causes of unexpected breakage of railway axles in
1843, postulating that materials experience brittleness under fluctuating
stresses.
Aloha Airlines flight 243, a Boeing
737200, lost about 1/3 of its cabin top
while in flight at 8.5 km. This failure,
which happened in 1988, was caused
by corrosion assisted fatigue.
Fatigue Failure
Machine parts subject to time varying
loading
2
2
min max
min max
=
+
=
a
m
Ex: A particular fiber on
surface of shaft subjected to
bending loads undergoes both
tension & compression for
each revolution of shaft. If
shaft is part of electric motor
rotating at 1440 rpm, the fiber
is stressed in tension &
compression 1440 times each
minute.
Stresses repeat a large
number of times, hence
failure is named as Fatigue
failure.
Crack initiation,
propagation, and fracture.
Fatigue is a concern whenever
cyclic loading is present.
Loading may be axial (tensile or
compressive), flexural (bending)
or torsional.
Fatigue Failure
appearance similar to brittle fracture:
fractured surfaces are flat.
Absence of necking
Damage accumulating phenomenon. Initial flaws
have a great effect on performance.
90
91
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Method
E Assumption: Cracks exist in parts even before
service begins.
E Focus: Predict crack growth and remove parts
from service before crack reaches its critical length.
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method..
Linear Elastic Fracture
Mechanics Method..
2b
d
2a
A
B
Linear Elastic Fracture
Mechanics Method..
Life Prediction
Paris equation (for region II)
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method..
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1 2 /
1
1
1
constants mat. are n & A
1
2
2 /
2 /
+
=
+
n
a
A
N N
a
da
A
N N
a
da
A
N N
K A
da
dN
K A
dN
da
c
i
c
i
c
i
c
i i
a
a
n
n
i
a
a
n n
i
a
a
n
n
i
a
a
n
N
N
n
Ex: Aluminum alloy square plate
(width= 25mm), having internal
crack of size 0.125 mm at center, is
subjected to repeatedly tensile
stress of 130 MPa. Crack growth
rate is 2.54 microns/cycle at stress
intensity range = 22 MPa(m)
0.5
.
Crack growth rate at stress
intensity range = 3.3 MPa(m)
0.5
is
0.254 nm/cycle. How many cycles
are required to increase the crack
size to 7.5mm?
ANS: 24509 cycles.
96
Fatigue Regimes
E Low cycle fatigue ( 10
3
cycles)
Latches on automobile glove compartment
Studs on truck wheels
Since static design often uses Yield strength (< S
ut
) in
defining allowable stresses, therefore static
approaches are acceptable for designing low cycle
component.
E High cycle fatigue (> 10
3
cycles)
Car door hinges Aircraft body panels
axial S S bending S S
ut l ut l
75 . 0 ; 9 . 0 =
97
Fatigue Strength
E Measured by testing idealized (R. R. Moore)
standard specimen on rotating beam machine.
Highly polished surface.
If specimen breaks into two equal halves, test is
indicative of mat. Fatigue strength. Otherwise, it is
indicative that material or surface flaw has skewed
results.
Test specimen is subjected to completely reversed
bending stress cycling at 66% S
ut
and cycles to
fatigue are counted.
E Procedure is repeated on other identical specimens
subjected to progressively decreasing stress
amplitude.
98
SN (Wohler) diagram
E Plot of fatigue strength (S) vs
logarithm of number of cycles (N)
Indicate whether material has endurance
limit (possibility of infinite life) or not.
Strength  Cycles
German engineer
99
Endurance Limit ( )
e
S
Torsion S S
Axial S S
bending S S
ut e
ut e
ut e
29 . 0
45 . 0
5 . 0
Steel For
=
ut e
ut e
ut e
ut e
ut e
S S cycles alloys
S S cycles alloys
S S cycles alloys Nickel
S S cycles alloys Copper
S S cycles alloys Magnesium
45 . 0 ) 10 * 5 ( Aluminum
55 . 0 ) 10 ( Titanium
42 . 0 ) 10 (
38 . 0 ) 10 (
35 . 0 ) 10 (
8
7
8
8
8
=
Example: The ultimate tensile strength of an axial
loaded steel member is 1080 MPa. Find out fatigue
strength as a function of number of cycles (10
3
<N<10
6
).
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
6
1 2
6
1
6
2
3
1 2
3
1
3
10 log ) 45 . 0 log( 10 log log
10
10 log ) 75 . 0 log( 10 log log
10
k k S k k S
cycle at S strength Fatigue
k k S k k S
cycle at S strength Fatigue
ut l
f
ut l
f
+ = + =
+ = + =
K
1
=0.07395 k
2
=3.13 (stress in MPa)
101
Endurance limit modification factors
E Endurance strength is measured
under best circumstances, which
cannot be guaranteed for design
applications.
Components endurance limit must be
modified or reduced from materials
bestcase endurance limit.
E Stress concentration factor, surface finish
factor, size factor, reliability factor,
temperature factor, etc.
Design factors
102
Reliability Factor
E Reliability factor
obtained from Table can
be considered only as a
guide (academic)
because actual
distribution varies
from one material to
other. For practical
applications, originally
determined data are
required.
1.0
0.897
0.868
0.814
0.753
0.702
0.659
0.620
50
90
95
99
99.9
99.99
99.999
99.9999
Reliability
factor, k
r
Probability of
survival, %
103
Surface Finish
Factor
104
Surface Finish Factor
0.995 272 Forged
0.718 57.7 Hot rolled
0.265 4.51 Machined or cold drawn
0.085 1.58 Ground
Exponent b Constant a Finishing
method
( )
b
ut finish
S a K MPa in =
Ex: A steel has S
ut
= 520 MPa. Estimate K
finish
for a machined surface.
ANS: 0.86
105
Temperature Factor
0.672 550C 1.0 250C
0.768 500C 1.02 200C
0.843 450C 1.025 150C
0.900 400C 1.02 100C
0.943 350C 1.01 50C
0.975 300C 1.00 20C
K
temp
Temperature
K
temp
Temperature
106
Stress Concentration Factor
E SCF is slightly lesser than SCF under
static loading.
Many mat. Relieve stress near a crack tip
through plastic flow.
E Notch sensitivity factor (range between
zero and unity).
E NSF is a function of notch radius.
E To avoid complexity in the present
course assume, SCF under fatigue
loading = SCF under static loading.
107
Size factor, K
size
<
=
mm d d
mm d d
K
size
254 51 51 . 1
51 79 . 2 24 . 1
157 . 0
107 . 0
NOTE: A 7.5mm diameter beam specimen is used for
testing fatigue strength. Larger the machine part, greater
is the probability that a flaw exit somewhere in larger
volume. Fatigue failure tendency
Applicable only
for cylindrical
components.
Necessary to define effective diameter based on
equivalent circular cross section for components having
noncircular crosssection.
Effective diameter for non
rotating cross sections
Effective dimension is
obtained by equating the
volume of material
stressed at and above
95% of maximum stress
to the same volume in the
rotating beam specimen.
Lengths will cancel out,
so only areas are
considered.
For a rotating round
section, the 95% stress
area is the area in a ring
having outside diameter
d and inside diameter of
0.95, so
( ) [ ]
2
2
2
95 . 0
0766 . 0 95 . 0
4
d d d A = =
50
30 kN
30 kN
Example: A hot rolled steel plate (S
ut
=400 MPa) at room
temperature is subjected to completely reversed axial load of 30
kN. Assume size factor and expected reliability as 0.85 and 95%
respectively. Determine the thickness of plate for infinite life.
STEP 1: Estimate endurance limit of mat.
STEP 2: Estimate endurance limit of plate.
Find modification (i.e reliability, finish,
temp., stress concentration and size)
factors.
5
0.45*400
0.868
0.7
1.0
2.5 1/2.5 =0.4
0.85
Thickness = 20.2
Example: A rod of steel (S
ut
=600 MPa) at room temperature
is subjected to reversed axial load of 100 kN. The rod is
machined on lathe and expected reliability is 95%. There is no
stress concentration. Determine the diameter of rod for an
infinite life.
STEP 1: Estimate endurance limit of
mat. 0.45*600 = 270 MPa.
STEP 2: Estimate endurance limit of
plate.
Find modification (i.e
reliability, finish, temp., stress
concentration and size)
factors.
0.868, 0.77, 1, 1, 1.24 d
0.107
ANS: Diameter = 19.3 mm
Example: A rotating bar made of steel (S
ut
=600 MPa) is
subjected to a completely reversed bending stress. The
corrected endurance limit of component is 300 MPa. Calculate
the fatigue strength of bar for a life of 80,000 rotations.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
MPa S
N S
k k
k k
k N k S
be can S strength Fatigue
f
f
f
f
372
9877 . 2 log 0851 . 0 log
10 log 600 * 9 . 0 log
10 log 300 log
log log
by expressed
2
3
1
2
6
1
2 1
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
112
Cumulative Fatigue Damage
E Suppose a machine
part is subjected to:
Fully reversed stress
1
for n
1
cycles.
Fully reversed stress
2
for n
2
cycles.
Fully reversed stress
3
for n
3
cycles.
E PalmgrenMiner cycle
ratio summation rule..
Miners rule
i i
i i
stress at fail to cycles N
stress at cycles n where
1
=
=
=
i
i
N
n
=
N N
i
i
1
(N) life fatigue total
the of s proportion are ,... , if
2 1
Example: A component is made of steel having ultimate
strength of 600 MPa and endurance limit of 300 MPa.
Component is subjected to completely reversed bending stresses
of:
350 MPa for 75% of time;
400 MPa for 15% of time;
500 MPa for 10% of time;
Determine the life of the component.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) 9877 . 2 log 0851 . 0 log
10 log 600 * 9 . 0 log
10 log 300 log
2
3
1
2
6
1
+ =
+ =
+ =
N S
k k
k k
f
2471
34010
163333
3
2
1
=
=
=
N
N
N
ANS: 20214 cycles
114
Tutorial I
E Question 1: A coupling hub (bore )
is shrink fitted on a solid shaft of 310h6. The
hubs outer diameter is 500 mm. Determine
the minimum and maximum pressure
exercise on the interface of shaft and
coupling. Assume .
E Answer: Min dia of coupling hole : 309.168
Max dia of coupling hole : 309.200
Min dia of shaft : 309.968
Max dia of shaft : 310.00
0 . 0
032 . 0
168 . 309
+
( ) GPa E E
s h s h
210 ; 29 . 0 = = = =
NOTE: Refer slide 77 to find tolerance for h6.
mm 0.768
309.2  309.968
hole of dia Max.  dia shaft Minimum ce interferen Minimum
=
=
=
mm 0.832
309.168  310.00
hole of dia Min.  dia shaft Maximum ce interferen Maximum
=
=
=
( )
(approx.) 155 . 0 , 25 . 0 , 210 problem present in the
2
ce Interferen
85) slide (refer to solid is shaft and materials, same of made are shaft and hub As
2 2
2
= = =
=
f o
f o
o
f f
r m r GPa E
r r
r
E
p r
Minimum pressure = 160.14 MPa
Maximum pressure= 173.48 MPa
Tutorial I
E Question 2: A component is made of AISI 1008 cold drawn
steel. Assume there is no stress concentration, size factor =
0.87, and expected reliability is 99%. The component at
temperature of 100C is subjected to completely reversed
bending stress of:
140 MPa for 60% life
180 MPa for 25% life
200 MPa for 15% life
Determine the life of component.
E ANS: Refer slide 16 to determine S
ut
=340MPa. Determine
K
temp
=1.02 (from slide 105), K
finish
=0.9624 (from slide 104)
and K
r
=0.814 (from slide 102).
Corrected endurance strength for 10
3
cycles = 212.7 MPa
Corrected endurance strength for 10
6
cycles = 118.2 MPa
583 . 2 & 0851 . 0
10 and 10 for strengths calculated Using
log log
express to 100 no. slide Refer
2 1
6 3
2 1
= =
+ =
k k
k N k S
S strength Fatigue
f
f
Using fatigue strength equation:
N
1
cycles to fail component at stress 140 MPa = 136200
N
2
cycles to fail component at stress 180 MPa = 7104
N
3
cycles to fail component at stress 200 MPa = 2059
Using Palmgren Miner rule (refer slide 112)
Life of component, N = 8893 cycles
118
Fluctuating Stresses
Fatigue failure criteria
for fluctuating stresses
???
119
Fatigue failure criteria for
fluctuating stresses
E When alternating stress
=0, load is purely static.
Criterion of failure will
be S
yt
or S
ut
.
E When mean stress=0,
stress is completely
reversing. Criterion of
failure will be endurance
limit.
E When component is
subjected to mean as
well alternating stress,
different criterions are
available to construct
borderline dividing safe
zone and failure zone.
Remark: Gerber parabola fits failure points of test data. Soderberg line
is conservative.
120
Goodman line Failure criterion
Widely used, because
It is completely inside failure
points of test data, therefore it
is safe.
Equation of straight line is
simple compared to equation of
parabola.
S
e
S
yt
S
yt
S
ut
O
A
B
C
a
Area OABC
represents
region of safety.
r
S S
m
a
e
a
ut
m
= =
= +
tan
1
r
S S r
S S r
a
m
e ut
e ut
a
=
+
=
NOTE: Equations are applicable for >
1
1
= +
= +
y
a
y
m
e
a
ut
m
S S
S S
( )
m
a
m y a
e ut
e y ut
m
S
S S
S S S
=
tan
S
e
S
yt
S
yt
S
ut
O
A
B
C
tan
1
r
S S r
S S r
a
m
e ut
e ut
a
=
+
=
[ ]
[ ]
2
5
10
tan
N.m 5
) 5 ( 15 * 5 . 0 M mean Moment
N.m 10
) 5 ( 15 * 5 . 0 M range Moment
m
a
= =
=
+ =
=
=
r
M
M
m
a
mm 9.54 d
MPa 3 . 117
=
=
a
122
Shafts
E Rotating machine
element, circular in cross
section, that supports
gears, pulleys, sprockets,
etc. and transmits power.
E Steps on shaft provide shoulders for
positioning gears, pulleys, bearings, etc.
E Fillet between two crosssections of different
diameters is provided to reduce the effect of
stressconcentration (refer slide 47 & 48).
123
Torsion of circular shaft
( )
4 4
max
3
max
1
r
16
or,
16
L
T, Torque by
ends at the loaded section cross uniform of shaft circular a in Stress
1
i o
o
d d
d T
d
T
J
r T
r G
=
= =
=
=
+
( ) ( )
+ + =
+ =
+
+ =
2 2
3
max
2
3
2
3 3
max
2
2
max
16
or
16
2
32
2
32
or
2 2
T M M
d
d
T
d
M
d
M
=
=
=
=
y
m
fsm f
e
a
f f
y
m
fsm f
e
a
f f
m
y
m
f
e
a
f
y
ys
ys
m
f
e
a
f
S
T
K N
S
M
K N d
S d
T
K N
S d
M
K N
S
N
S
N
S
S
S
N
S
N
128
Example: Design a shaft that must transmit 2 hp at 1725 rpm. Shaft is loaded
with a spur gear and a sheave. Assume stress concentration for 2.25 for step
radii in bending, 1.57 for step radii in torsion, and 2.5 at keyways. Assume
corrected endurance strength = 50 MPa and yield strength is 150 MPa.
s g s g
s g s g A
F F R F R F R F
F F R q F p F b R M
35 . 0 6 . 0 0
35 . 1 4 . 0 0
1 2 1
2 2
+ = = + + +
=
= = + +
=
F
r
F
g
Ref: Machine Design:
An Integrated
Approach.. R. L. Norton
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) N R R
N R R
N R R
N R R
y y
x x
y y
x x
66 0 35 . 0 110 6 . 0
7 . 32 162 35 . 0 40 6 . 0
44 0 35 . 1 110 4 . 0
7 . 234 162 35 . 1 40 4 . 0
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
= + =
= + =
= =
= =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 1
2
1 1
1
172 162 127 7 . 234 50 40 0 7 . 32
172 127 50 0
sections at various plane in xz function Moment
+ + + =
+ + + =
z z z z M
z F z R z F z R M
xz
sx x gx x xz
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
1 1
2
1 1
1
127 44 50 110 0 66
172 127 50 0
sections at various plane yz in function Moment
+ + =
+ + + =
z z z M
z F z R z F z R M
yz
sy y gy y yz
Calculate moment
m N M
m N M
m N M
m N M
m N M
m N M
yzD
yzC
yzB
xzD
xzC
xzB
. 088 . 0
. 088 . 0
. 508 . 2
. 0769 . 1
. 2329 . 7
. 2426 . 1
=
=
=
=
=
=
0805 . 1 ; 2334 . 7 ; 7989 . 2 = = =
D C B
M M M
6
1
2
2
3
6
1
2
2
2
6
1
2
2
1
16
3
32
16
3
32
16
3
32
method ASME Using
=
y
m
fsm f
e
D
f f
y
m
fsm f
e
C
f f
y
m
fsm f
e
B
f f
S
T
K N
S
M
K N d
S
T
K N
S
M
K N d
S
T
K N
S
M
K N d
( )
m N T
T
m
m
. 3 . 8
1725
60
2
746 * 2
=
ANS: d
1
=11.7 mm
d
2
=15.0 mm
d
3
=09.8 mm
As per available drawing d
1
>d
2
.
Therefore select d
3
=10mm,
d
2
=17mm, and d
1
=20 mm.
131
Design for fluctuating bending,
fluctuating axial & fluctuating torsion
factors. ion concentrat stress fatigue torsional are K and K where
fsm fs
J
r T
K
J
r T
K
m
fsm m
a
fs a
= =
factors. ion concentrat stress fatigue bending are K and K where
moment g fluctuatin to subjected is shaft If
fm f
I
r M
K
I
r M
K
m
fm m
a
f a
= =
A
F
K
A
F
K
m
t axial m
a
t axial a
= =
_ _
load axial g fluctuatin to subjected is shaft If
( )
( )
2
2
_
2
2
_
3
3
stresses Mises  von
m axial m m m
a axial a a a
+ + =
+ + =
132
Design for fluctuating bending &
fluctuating torsion
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
1
2 2 2 2
f
f
75 . 0 75 . 0
32
N
1
line Goodman modified in N safety of factor Using
+
+
+
=
=
ut
m fsm m fm
e
a fs a f
f
ut
m
e
a
S
T K M K
S
T K M K
N
d
S S
Example: Design a shaft to support attachments shown in Figure. Torque &
moment on shaft are both varying with time in repeated fashion, i.e., their
alternating & mean components are of equal magnitude. Mean & alternating
components of torque are both 17 N.m. There is no axial loads. Assume stress
concentration for 2.25 for step radii in bending, 1.57 for step radii in torsion, and
2.5 at keyways. Assume corrected endurance strength = 50 MPa and ultimate
strength is 250 MPa.
MPa S
MPa S
m N T
m N M
m N M
m N M
ut
e
D
C
B
250
50
. 17
. 1 . 1
. 3 . 7
. 8 . 2
=
=
=
=
=
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
6 / 1
2 2
3
1
2 2
75 . 0 0063 . 0
1 1
75 . 0
32
T K M K d
S S
T K M K d
fs f
ut e
fs f
+ =
+ + =
ANS: d
1
=18.2 mm
d
2
=19.2 mm
d
3
=18.0 mm
As per available drawing d
1
>d
2
.
Therefore select d
3
=19mm,
d
2
=20mm, and d
1
=22 mm.
Keys: ASME defines a key demountable element which
when assembled into keyways, provides a positive means for
transmitting torque between shaft and hub.
Keyways
Square Rectangular
Gib
head
taper
136
Keys
E Primary function: Transmit torque from
shaft to hub of mating element and vice
versa.
E Prevent relative rotation between shaft &
joining element.
E A recess or slot machine on shaft and/or
hub to accommodate key is called
Keyway.
E Keyway results in stress concentration
(~2.5) in shaft and hub.
25*14 85<d 95
22*14 75<d 85
20*12 65<d 75
18*11 58<d 65
16*10 50<d 58
14*9 44<d 50
12*8 38<d 44
10*8 30<d 38
8*7 22<d 30
6*6 17<d 22
4*4 10<d 12
5*5 12<d 17
3*3 8<d10
Key width* Height
(mm)
Shaft diameter
(mm)
Standard keys
NOTES: Parallel key
is placed with half of
its height in the
shaft and half in
hub.
Parallel keys are
typically negatively
toleranced.
Keyfit (backlash
impact & high
stresses) can be of
concern when
torque loading is
alternating from
positive to negative
each cycle.
Length of kept
should be lesser
than 1.5 times shaft
dia to avoid
excessive twisting.
Flat Key Assembly
NOTE: Key is inexpensive and relatively
easy to replace if keyway is undamaged.
Therefore, soft ductile material, having
lower strength that that of shaft material
is used for the key.
Stress concentration in Keyways
Radius
Torque
=
l w A
l
h
A
s
c
=
=
force shear subject to Area
2
force e compressiv subject to Area
Example: Design a key for fixing a
gear on a shaft of 25mm diameter.
Shaft transmits 15 kW power at 720
rpm to the gear. Assume yield
strength of key material is 150 MPa.
Referring to Table of standard keys, width of key = 8mm and
height is 7 mm.
Torque = 199 N.m
Tangential force = 15920 N
Length to avoid crushing failure: 30.3 mm
Length to avoid shear failure: 23 mm
140
Example: Design a key to transmit 475 N.m torque from the shaft to
hub. Shaft diameter is 50 mm. Assume yield strength of key material is
100 MPa.
Referring to Table of standard keys, width of key = 14mm and
height is 9 mm.
Tangential force = 19000 N
Length to avoid crushing failure: 42.2 mm
Length to avoid shear failure: 23.5 mm
141
Couplings
E Coupling is an element (a device)
that joins two rotating shafts to each
other.
142
Couplings
E Most common application is joining 2shafts
of 2separately (modular) built or purchased
units so that a new assembly can be formed
Motorpump
Motorgearbox
E Oldhams coupling
(parallel offset shafts),
Hookes coupling
(shafts having
intersecting axes) and
rigid/flexible
parallel coupling
144
Objectives of coupling are:
E Should be capable of transmitting torque
from driving shaft to driven shaft.
E Should keep two shafts in proper
alignment.
E Should be easy to assemble and
disassemble.
E Maintain zero relative motion between
parallel shafts Sleeve coupling
145
Design of Sleeve coupling
E Also known as Muff coupling and box
coupling.
E Uses sunk key, grabscrew or
interference fit.
=
+ =
d L
mm d D
mm d
5 . 3
) 13 2 (
70 For
( )
4 4
16
d D
D T
E In practice
E Torsional shear
stress
Iterations!!
+ve drive
Low power
Fluctuating
torque
Example: Design a muff coupling to connect two steel shafts
transmitting 25 kW power at 360 rpm. Maximum allowable
compression/tensile stresses in shaft and key are 100 MPa. Coupling
is made of grey cast iron, which should not be stressed beyond 35
MPa (tensile strength).
( )
mm d mm d
e
T
d
m N T T
40 or 8 . 38
6 100 * 577 .
16
diameter Shaft
. 15 . 663
60
360
2
25000
Torque,
3
1
= =
=
=
mm L
mm D
d L
mm d D
mm d
140
93
5 . 3
) 13 2 (
70 as
=
=
=
+ =
<
( )
MPa
d D
D T
35 . 4
16
stress shear
4 4
=
Coupling is safe
Design of key??
Choosing
key of 12*8
mm.
Minimum diameter of coupling is = Shaft dia +
height of key
D
min
= 40+8 48 mm.
Assuming stress concentration due to keyway = 2.5
( )
( )
mm d mm d
e
T
d
m N T T
53 or 7 . 52
6 100 * 577 .
5 . 2 16
diameter Shaft
. 15 . 663
60
360
2
25000
Torque,
3
1
= =
=
=
16*10 50<d 58
14*9 44<d 50
12*8 38<d 44
Key width* Height (mm) Shaft diameter (mm)
Standard keys
Choosing key of 16*10 mm.
D
min
= 53+10 63 mm.
Assuming stress concentration due to keyway = 2.5
( ) ( )
4
4
053 . 0
) 15 . 663 5 . 2 ( 16
5e6 3 0.577
coupling for stress shear allowable
=
D
D
( ) D D
4
4
4
10 181 . 4 053 . 0
=
D
min
= 53+10 63 mm.
Iteration 1: 0.0765
Iteration 2: 0.0795
Iteration 3: 0.0801
mm L and mm d mm D 185 , 53 , 81
: are coupling of dimensions Final
= = =
149
Flange coupling
E Consists of two
flanges: one on driving
shaft & other to driven
shaft.
E Flanges are connected
together by means of
bolts arranged on
circle concentric with
axes of shafts.
150
Proportions of
flange coupling
< =
< =
=
=
+ =
=
=
=
=
=
=
mm 180 d 100 6 N
mm 100 d 40 4 N
mm 40 d 3 N
bolts of Number
2 4
25 . 0
5 . 1
3
5 . 0
5 . 1
2
1
t d D
d t
d d
d D
d t
d l
d d
o
r
h
h
( )
( )
( )
=
=
=
2
d torque Resisting
d shear direct under Area
16
hub in stress shear Torsional
h
h
4 4
h
f
ys
h
h
h
h
d
K
S
t
t
d d
d T
( )
mm d
e
d 56
6 150 577 . 0
2 . 2984 16
diameter Shaft
3
1
=
4 , bolts of Number
280
14
84
168
28
84
112
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
N
mm D
mm t
mm d
mm D
mm t
mm l
mm d
o
r
h
h
( )( )
( )
( )
N.m 6366.8 torque Resisting
2
112 . 0
5 . 2
577 . 0 * 6 50
028 . 0 112 . 0 torque Resisting
54 . 11
056 . 0 112 . 0
112 . 0 2 . 2984 16
hub in stress shear Torsional
4 4
=
=
=
=
e
MPa
Stress concentration
factor for shaft with
keyway
K = 1/V
Ex: In previous example final
diameter of shaft was 56 mm,
height of key= 10 mm and
width=16mm. In other word R
= 28 mm, B = 5 mm and A =
8 mm. V = 0.68 K = 1.5
??? What next ???
18*11 58<d 65
16*10 50<d 58
14*9 44<d 50
Key width* Height (mm) Shaft diameter (mm)
Standard keys
153
Fasteners
Objective: To hold two or more machine
elements together.
E Threaded fasteners (bolts, screws, etc.)
E Rivets
E Weldments
E Adhesives (chemical)
E Snapfit
154
Threaded
fasteners
Adv: Elements can be
dismantled, if required,
without any damage to
machine parts.
E Pitch (p): distance from
a point on one thread to
same point on adjacent
thread.
E Lead (l): distance that
screw would advance
relative to nut in one
revolution
For single thread l=p
For double threads l=2*p
155
Thread profiles
Thread is basic feature of
threaded fasteners.
E ACME threads are often used
for power screws.
E UN & metric threads are
employed for fastening
purposes.
E Eight constant pitch UN threads
series are: 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20,
28, 32 threads per inch.
ACME
UN
156
UN profile
o
30 tan
5 . 0 p
h
t
=
Ccoarse pitch threads
FFine pitch threads
EFExtra fine pitch thread
Coarseness designation is
followed by crest diameter in
inches & number of threads per
inch
for example: UNF 16
Letter A for external threads
Letter B for internal threads
Three fits:
1. Loose Dirty environment
2. Normal
3. Tight Very clean environment
Ex: UNC 2 8 1B
157
M profile
o
30 tan
5 . 0 p
h
t
=
Coarseness designation is usually
considered only as coarse or fine,
omitting extra fine designation.
Instead of using threads per inch,
M thread series simply use pitch
distance between two threads in
mm.
for example: MF 6 1
G & H for external threads
e, f, g, h for internal threads
Ge loose fit. Greatest clearance.
Hh zero allowance. No deviation
Seven tolerance grades 3 to 9.
9 = loosest fit
3 = tightest fit EXAMPLE: MF 8 2G6
Metric fine thread with 8 mm as crest diameter having 2 mm pitch. Normal
Internal thread
M 42 3, M 42 4 M80, M90, M100
M 36 3, M 36 2 M72 6
M 30 3 M64 6
M 30 2 M56 5.5
M 24 2 M48 5
M 24 1.5 M42 4.5
M 20 2 M36 4
M 20 1.5 M30 3.5
M 16 1.5 M24 3
M 16 1 M20 2.5
M 14 1.5 M16 2
M 12 1.5 M12 1.75, M14 2
M 12 1.25 M10 1.5
M 10 1.25 M8 1.25
M 10 1 M6 1
M 8 1 M5 0.8
M 6 0.75 M 4 0.7
M thread Fine series M thread Coarse series
) 30 tan(
625 . 0
or
25 . 1
p
d d
h d d
r c
t r c
+ =
+ =
M8 means crest
diameter is 8 mm.
Types of Threaded Fasteners
Bolt and nut Cap screw
Stud
head
shank
threads
nut
low to medium thickness parts.
too weak material to make durable
threads.
frequent dismantling and
reassembly.
thick parts.
no place or arrangement to
accommodate nut.
Parts that are seldom
dismantled.
160
Bolt/screw heads
161
Bolt/screw heads
Example: Electric motor weighing 10 kN
is lifted by means of eye bolt as shown in
Fig. Eye bolt is made of steel having
permissible yield strength of 50 MPa.
Determine the size of bolt.
thread. M20 choose can We
20
8 . 0
size Bolt
16
6 50
10000 4
4
10000
stress Tensile
tension. to subjected be Bolt will
2
t
=
=
=
=
=
c
r
c
r
r
r
d
d
d
mm d
e
d
d
) 30 tan(
625 . 0
or
25 . 1
p
d d
h d d
r c
t r c
+ =
+ =
163
Tutorial II
E Question: A 18mm diameter shaft of 2 hp
motor needs to be coupled with 22mm
diameter shaft of a brake using a rigid
flange coupling. Assume that rated rpm of
motor is 1440 rpm and motor delivers
maximum torque at 70% of rated rotational
speed. Assume keys and bolts can tolerate
100 MPa tensile stress, while flange can
bear tensile stress of 50 MPa. Design
Keys (5)
Flanges (10)
Bolts (assume shear failure). (5)
Tutorial II Key
Design (refer Table on slide 137)
6*6 17<d 22
Key width*
Height (mm)
Shaft
diameter
(mm)
Standard keys
Choosing 6*6 mm
2
crosssection of keys
for 18mm and
22mm shaft.
l w A
l
h
A
s
c
=
=
force shear subject to area Key
2
force e compressiv subject to area Key
Tangential force on motor shaft = 1667 N
Tangential force on brake shaft = 1364 N
Key length for motor shaft to avoid crushing failure: 5.6 mm
Key length for motor shaft to avoid shear failure: 4.8 mm
Key length for brake shaft to avoid crushing failure: 4.5 mm
Key length for brake shaft to avoid shear failure: 3.9 mm
ANSWER: We can select key length > 6 mm.
m N T
Torque
. 15 torque applied
max. assume purpose design For
1345 . 14
60
7 . 0 1440
2
746 2
=
=
=
=
=
2
d torque Resisting
d shear direct under Area
16
hub in stress shear Torsional
h
h
4 4
h
f
ys
h
h
d
K
S
t
t
d d
d T
mm 40 d as 3 N bolts, of Number
90 18 72
5 . 4
27
54
9
27
36
) 18 ( shaft motor For
1
=
= + =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
mm D D
mm t
mm d
mm D
mm t
mm l
mm d
mm d
o o
r
h
h
mm 40 d as 3 N bolts, of Number
110 22 88
5 . 5
33
66
11
33
44
) 22 ( shaft brake For
1
=
= + =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
mm D D
mm t
mm d
mm D
mm t
mm l
mm d
mm d
o o
r
h
h
Pitch circle
dia for
motor shaft
flange &
brake shaft
flange need
to be same.
Let us choose
flange as per
motor shaft
dia & increase
bore size for
brake shaft.
Tutorial II Flange Design
( )
( ) ( )
( )
N.m 211.43
2
d torque Resisting
MPa 76 . 4
022 . 0 036 . 0
036 . 0 5 . 2 15 16 16
shaft brake for flange in stress shear Torsional
h
4 4 4 4
=
=
=
=
h
s
ys
h
h s
d
K
S
t
d d
d K T
Design is safe.
For better design, consider
min required value of flange
bore for brake shaft
d
hmin
=22 + 6 d
hmin
=28
( )
( )
h h
h
h
d d
d
d
e
+ =
=
6 4 4
4 4
10 62 . 6 022 . 0
022 . 0
5 . 2 15 16
6 50 577 . 0
formula stress shear torsional Using
Iterations
1. 25.5 mm
As this dim. is less than
28mm, therefore we
d
h
=28+4mm
assuming 2mm as
wall thickness
We can choose flange having hub diameter = 32.
3 N bolts, of Number
16 64
4
24
48
8
24
32
dimensions flange Final
1
=
+ =
=
=
=
=
=
=
o
r
h
h
D
mm t
mm d
mm D
mm t
mm l
mm d
Resisting torque = 148. 5 N.m
Tutorial II Bolt Design
Shear force on three bolts = Torque/(pitch circle radius)
= 15/(0.024)
= 625 N
Shear force on each bolts = 625/3
= 209 N
bolt. threaded 0.7 M4 choose can We
625 . 2
8 . 0
size Bolt
1 . 2
6 7 . 57
209 4
4
209
100e6 0.577
stress Shear strength Shear
2
= =
=
= =
=
c
r
c
r
r
r
d
d
d
mm d
e
d
d
168
MidSem Solution
E Question 1: Figure 1 shows a
rolling milling that reduces the
thickness of a rectangular sheet.
This figure indicates that velocity
of outgoing material (Vout) is
greater than velocity of ingoing
(Vin) material. Assume ideal
automatic (adaptable pressure
and velocity variation in work
roll) cold rolling operation and no
change in width of rectangular
sheet. Determine which of the
following material will permit
maximum reduction in the sheet
thickness for a given 50mm
thickness of ingoing material.
169
Answer to Question 1:
E Paper 1: AISI 1006 (20%), AISI 1016 (25%), AISI
1022 (34/35%), AISI 1044 (16%), and AISI 5160
(17.5%).
Answer: AISI 1022
E Paper 2: AISI 1008 (20%), AISI 1019 (25%), AISI
1030 (32%), AISI 1060 (17/22%), and AISI 5140
(28.6%).
Answer: AISI 1030
E Paper 3: AISI 1010 (20%), AISI 1035 (16%), AISI
1038 (12%), AISI 1095 (9/10%), and AISI 4820
(13.1%).
Answer: AISI 1010.
170
Question 2
E calculate the minimum tensile
strength required from a material to
avoid failure of tiebar. Nomenclature
of symbols is shown in Fig. 2.
Paper 1: P = 25 kN, D = 50mm, d =
35mm, and r = 5 mm
Paper 2: P = 20 kN, D = 40mm, d =
25mm, and r = 4 mm.
Paper 3: P = 30 kN, D = 60mm, d =
45mm, and r = 6 mm.
Fig. 2
171
Answer to Question 2
E To avoid failure of tiebar, tensile strength
needs to be greater than maximum tensile
stress.
Paper 1: Maximum tensile stress 44.2 MPa.
Paper 2: Maximum tensile stress 68 MPa.
Paper 3: Maximum tensile stress 31.7 MPa.
2
4
d
P
K
t
172
Question 3
E We are planning to design a thrust ball bearing, which
can bear axial load F. The diameter of readily available
spherical balls is d. Assume applied load will equally be
shared by all balls, and the ring (against which balls
will be pressed) is a flat surface (R
2
=). To maintain
ball bearing under elastic load limit, the maximum size
of contact patch should not exceeds b
1
. Determine the
minimum number of balls required for a safe design of
thrust ball bearing.
Paper 1: F = 2000 N, d = 6 mm, b
1
=250 microns,
1
=
2
=0.28; E
1
= E
2
=207 GPa.
Paper 2: F = 1000 N, d = 5 mm, b
1
=225 microns,
1
=
2
=0.29; E
1
= E
2
=210 GPa.
Paper 3: F = 3000 N, d = 7 mm, b
1
=275 microns,
1
=
2
=0.3; E
1
= E
2
=200 GPa
173
Answer to Question 3
( ) ( )
3
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
1 1
1 1
75 . 0
2 2
+
=
E E
R R
F
b
i
The maximum size of contact patch
Paper 1: F
i
= 97.5 N Number of balls = 2000/97.5.
Paper 2: F
i
= 87 N Number of balls = 1000/87.
Paper 3: F
i
= 108.8 N Number of balls =
3000/108.8
174
Question 4: Paper 1
E Design an economic muff coupling to
connect a 38mm diameter shaft of 10 hp,
750 rpm motor with a 23mm diameter
shaft of a gear box. Assume that motor
delivers the maximum torque at 70% of
rated rotational speed. Choose cast steel
(maximum allowable tensile stress = 35
MPa) as a material for the muff coupling.
Assume the maximum permissible tensile
stress for key material is 70 MPa.
Determine all the dimensions of muff
coupling and keys.
175
Answer to Question 4
E Selecting the cross section of keys:
8*7 for 23mm shaft
10*8 for 38mm shaft
l w A
l
h
A
s
c
=
=
force shear subject to area Key
2
force e compressiv subject to area Key
Tangential force on motor shaft = 7158 N
Tangential force on gear box = 11826 N
Key length for motor shaft to avoid crushing failure: 25.6 mm
Key length for motor shaft to avoid shear failure: 17.7 mm
Key length for brake shaft to avoid crushing failure: 50.5 mm
Key length for brake shaft to avoid shear failure: 38.3 mm
ANSWER: We can select 10*8*26 key for motorshaft and
8*7*51 mm for gearshaft.
m N T
Torque
. 136 torque applied
max. assume purpose design For
7 . 135
60
7 . 0 750
2
746 10
=
=
176
Answer to Question 4..
E Minimum length of muff coupling =
26+51 = 77 mm.
E Minimum value of external diameter
of muff coupling is = 38+ 8= 45 mm.
mm L
mm D
d L
mm d D
mm d
133
89
5 . 3
) 13 2 (
70 as
=
=
=
+ =
<
( )
MPa
d D
D K T
t
54 . 2
16
stress shear
4 4
=
Coupling is over
Designed.
Initial
design
Assuming stress concentration due to keyway = 2.5
( ) ( )
4
4
038 . 0
) 136 5 . 2 ( 16
5e6 3 0.577
coupling for stress shear allowable
=
D
D
( ) D D
5
4
4
10 6 . 8 038 . 0
=
D
min
= 45 mm.
Iteration 1: 0.0494
Iteration 2: 0.0502
Iteration 3: 0.0503
100mm. to reduced be
can length solution economic For
133 23
, 38 , 51
: are coupling of dimensions Final
2
1
mm L and mm d
mm d mm D
= =
= =
178
Question 5: Paper 1
E A magnesium machined
plate (shown in Fig. 3) at
room temperature is
subjected to completely
reversed bending load of
300 N.m. Assume ultimate
strength of material is
S
ut
=700 MPa, size factor
for plate is 0.85 and
expected reliability is 99%.
Determine the thickness of
plate for 10
7
cycles.
ut e
S S
cycles alloys Magnesium
35 . 0
) 10 (
8
=
179
Answer to Question 5
E We can start solution assuming stress
concentration factor = 2.0, and determine
thickness h.
E Size factor = 0.85
E Reliability factor = 0.814
E Surface finish factor = 0.7947
E Temp factor = 1.0
E Corrected fatigue strength at 10
3
cycles =
173.2 MPa.
E Corrected fatigue strength at 10
8
cycles =
67.4 MPa
2 1
log log
by expressed
k N k S
be can S strength Fatigue
f
f
+ =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4847 . 2 & 082 . 0
10 log ) 4 . 67 log( 10 log log
10
10 log ) 2 . 173 log( 10 log log
10
2 1
2
8
1 2
8
1
8
2
3
1 2
3
1
3
= =
+ = + =
+ = + =
k k
k k k k S
cycle at S strength Fatigue
k k k k S
cycle at S strength Fatigue
l
f
l
f
MPa S k k S
cycles at S strength Fatigue
f f
f
4 . 81 7 log
10
2 1
7
=
+ =
( )
( )
mm h
e
h
S d b
M
h
f
9 . 22
6 4 . 81 008 . 0 05 . 0
300 6
6
=
=
=
0.16 d/b
0.35 d/h
for K g Calculatin
t
=
=
E Stress concentration factor = 2.35.
E Corrected fatigue strength at 10
3
cycles = 147.47 MPa.
E Corrected fatigue strength at 10
8
cycles = 57.33 MPa
E Factors k
1
=0.082 and k
2
=2.4144
E Fatigue strength at 10
7
cycles = 69.25 MPa
E Thickness = 24.9 mm. .. ANSWER
182
Bolted Joints under Fluctuating Load
E Purpose of boltjoint:
Clamp two or more
parts together
Clamping force is
applied by twisting
nut until bolt elongate
almost to elastic limit.
If nut does not
loosen, bolt tension
remains as
preload/clamping
force.
183
E Tensile load
fluctuates between
load P
1
(min.) and P
2
(max.) Ex:
Connecting rod.
E Fatigue strength
criterion needs to be
followed for a successful
design of bolt under
fluctuating load.
Bolted Joints under
Fluctuating Load
184
Modifying factors
E Size factor
E Surface finish factor
E Stress concentration factor
E Reliability factor
E Temperature factor
2.1
2.3
2.8
3.8
2.2
3.0
3.6 to 5.8
6.6 to 10.9
Fillet Cut
threads
Rolled
threads
Metric grade
3*100 is UTS. 0.6*UTS is Yield strength
5*100 is UTS. 0.8*UTS is Yield strength
6*100 is UTS. 0.6*UTS is yield strength
185
Determining percentage of
total load shared by bolt?
p
p
b
b
p b
K
P
K
P
=
=
=
part in Deflection bolt in Deflection
P
K K
K
P
K
K P
P P
P P P
p b
b
b
b
p b
b
p b
+
=
+ =
+ =
or
l
E A
K
E A
P
l E
b
=
= =
or
limit, elastic n lesser tha is load total & law
s Hook' follows joint bolted assuming
+ =
+ =
2 2
4 1
1 1 1
r
te
c
se
b
br bs b
d
L
d
L
E K
K K K
25 2
mm 200 L If
12 2
mm 200 L 125 If
6 2
mm 125 L If
+ =
>
+ =
<
+ =
c t
c t
c t
d L
d L
d L
188
Joint (part) Stiffness
Approximations:
1. Two conical frustums
about joint midplane
and having a vertex
angle of 2
f
represent
the stresses in the joint.
2. Stress induced in joint is uniform throughout the
region.
Reference: Mechanical Engineering Design: Shigley and Mischke.
( )( )
( )( )
+ +
+ +
=
c w c w f i
c w c w f i
e
f c i
pi
d d d d L
d d d d L
d E
K
tan
tan
log 2
tan
Example
Bolt & nut are made of steel. Thread
crest dia = 14mm and root dia =
12mm. Find bolt and joint stiffness.
E
steel
=206.8 GPa, E
aluminum
=71 GPa
( ) ( )
m MN K
e
K
e e e K
d
L
d
L
E K
K K K
b
b
b
r
te
c
se
b
br bs b
/ 14 . 428
9 3357 . 2
1
3 . 1 12
12 * 4 . 0 20
3 . 1 14
14 * 4 . 0 35
9 8 . 206
4 1
4 1
1 1 1
2 2
2 2
=
=
+
+
+
=
+ =
+ =
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( )
m MN K
e
K
e e
K
d d d d L
d d d d L
d E
K
p
p
e
p
c w c w f i
c w c w f i
e
f c i
pi
/ 4 . 3393
5475 . 1
9 2513 . 5
14 14 * 5 . 1 14 14 5 . 1 ) 6 / tan( 25
14 14 * 5 . 1 14 14 5 . 1 ) 6 / tan( 25
log 2
) 6 / tan( 3 14 9 8 . 206
tan
tan
log 2
tan
1
1
1
=
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( )
m MN K
e
K
e e
K
p
p
e
p
/ 9 . 1068
6867 . 1
9 8029 . 1
14 14 * 5 . 1 14 14 5 . 1 ) 6 / tan( 30
14 14 * 5 . 1 14 14 5 . 1 ) 6 / tan( 30
log 2
) 6 / tan( 3 14 9 . 71
2
2
2
=
=
+ +
+ +
=
m MN K
K K
K K
K
K K K
p
p p
p p
p
p p p
/ 56 . 812
1 1 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
=
+
=
+ =
? % of load shared
by bolt?
Ex: A bolted assembly is subjected to an external force, which
varies from 0 to 10 kN. The combined stiffness of parts is three
times the stiffness of bolt. The bolt is initially tightened with 11.25
kN. The ultimate and yield strength of bolt material are 660 MPa
and 460 MPa respectively. Assume stress concentration factor =
2.2 and expected reliability = 90%. Consider factor of safety = 2.
Determine the size of bolt with fine threads.
( )( ) ( ) factor ion concentrat stress / factor 5 . 0 strength Endurance y reliabilit S S
ut e
=
( )( ) ( )
MPa S
MPa S
e
e
55 . 134
2 . 2 / 897 . 0 330
=
=
N P
K K
K
P P P
N P
K K
K
P P P
b
p b
b
i b
b
p b
b
i b
11250
bolt on load Minimum
13750
bolt on load Maximum
min
min min
max
max max
=
+
+ =
=
+
+ =
N P
P P
P
N P
P P
P
ba
b b
ba
bm
b b
bm
1250
2
load g Alternatin
12250
2
load Mean
min
max
min
max
=
=
=
+
=
s y
a
y
m
s e
a
ut
m
N S S
N S S
1
1
= +
= +
Refer slide
120121:
Modified
Goodman line
2
1
460 460
2
1
55 . 134 660
= +
= +
a m
a m
MPa
MPa
a
m
25
205
=
=
( )
mm d
d
mm d e A
N S
P
P
c
r
r m
s y
m
m
11 . 9
9 . 0
dia. crest approx. bolt pitch  fine For
2 . 8 5 33 . 5
/
sustain to required area Bolt
=
=
= =
=
12250
1250
tan
1
= = =
= +
m
a
m
b
ba
s e
a
ut
m
P
P
N S S
MPa
MPa
a
m
435 . 22
951 . 219
=
=
Conclusion: Bolt
will be designed
based on yield
strength criteria.
Conclusion: Bolt
M101 will be
selected.
Iterations !!!!
193
Design of a SPRING
Definition
Material (s)
Constraints
Equations
Examples
Energy Storage Component
Elasticity is a basic requirement.
194
Energy Storage
Component
Elasticity is a basic
requirement.
Requirement of
relatively large
deformation.
P
P
Property bar
charts
Metals Polymers Ceramics Composites
PEEK
PP
PTFE
WC
Alumina
Glass
CFRP
GFRP
Fibreboard
Y
o
u
n
g
s
m
o
d
u
l
u
s
,
G
P
a
Steel
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Aluminum
o
r S E / =
Covalent bond is stiff (S= 20 200 N/m) Metallic & Ionic (15100 N/m)
Polymers having Van der Waals bonds (0.5 to 2 N/m). r
0
~ 3*10
10
m)
ATOMIC SIZE
E
W
V
2
? ELASTIC ENERGY/VOLUME
Which
material is
the best??
196
197
Better than spring steel
1030 Rubber
Economic & easily shaped
1.52.5 Nylon

1012 GFRP
Comparable in performance
with steel, expensive
1520 CFRP
Expensive, corrosion
resistant
1520 Ti alloys
Traditional choice: easily
formed and heat treated.
1525 Spring
steel
Brittle in tension; good only
in compression
10100 Ceramics
Comment
MATERIAL
( )
3 2
.... m MJ E M
f
=
198
Natural frequency
DN
g k
d
f
DN d Weight
Weight
g k
f
n
n
1
4
2
1
2
=
=
=
E
W
V
2
E
W
V
2
E
W
w
199
? ELASTIC ENERGY/COST
E C
M
m
f
2
=
E
M
f
2
=
Better than spring steel 1030, 1030 Rubber
Economic & easily shaped 1.52.5, 1.52 Nylon
 1012, 35 GFRP
Comparable in performance with
steel, expensive
1520, 48 CFRP
Expensive, corrosion resistant 1520, 48 Ti alloys
Traditional choice: easily formed
and heat treated.
1525, 23 Spring
steel
Brittle in tension; good only in
compression
10100, 550 Ceramics
Comment
MATERIAL
E M
f
2
=
201
Rubber Springs
E Hookes law?
Stiffness increases with increase in
deflection.
E Temperature dependence.
E Useful if damping/cushioning is
required?
E Often hybridized with metals. .
Requires detailed analysis.
StressStrain for One Cycle
Energy Storage.
Elasticity.
Relatively larger deflection.
Min loss of Energy
Metals are preferable materials.
Metals, glasses and ceramics
have low intrinsic damping, which
is measured by Loss coefficient.
Loss factor is high in soft metals
like lead and pure aluminum, while
low in heavily alloyed metals like
bronze and high carbon steel.
In polymers, loss factor depends
on ratio of operating temperature
to glass transition temperature.
E
1
203
204
Relative Cost
1.0
2.6
1.3
3.1

7.6
4.0

8.0
27.0
205
Most Popular Springs:
Helical Compression Springs
Initial load P
l
l
l
~ 0.85 l
f
Can we overcome this constraint ?
Max load P
max
l
0
~ 1.15 l
s
Reason ???
Ends Used in Compression Springs
Figure (a) Plain; (b) plain and ground; (c) squared; (d) squared and ground.
Eccentric loading ? Increasing stresses on one side of spring.
Active Coils.
Passive Coils.. Turns which do not affect the deflection.
207
Force &
Torque
cos P
sin P
cos P
sin P
cos P
cos P
0 sin
cos 10 If
P
P P
o
Due to compressive loading, Helical Compression Spring will
be subjected to Direct Shear and Torsion.
Figure (c) Torsional and transverse loading
with no curvature effects; (d) Torsional and
transverse loading with curvature effects.
Pure torsional loading
Transverse loading
Centroidal axis
+ = =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
C
k k
d
PC
C d
PC
d
P
d
d Cd P
d
P
d
d D P
A
P
J
Tr
s s
5 . 0
1 ;
8
2
1
1
8
4 * . 8
4 / ) 32 / (
) 2 / ( * ) 2 / . (
2
2
2 4
2 4
max
Mathematical Formulation
Stress Strength >
max
,
ys
s
S
N factor Safety =
210
E Wahl determined the
stress concentration
factor (Wahl factor)
that includes both
direct shear and stress
concentration due to
curvature.
C C
C
K
w
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
+
=
C
5 . 0
1 > >
To make spring, wire is curved into coil shift in neutral axis towards
the center of curvature Nonuniform stress distribution Stress
concentration on the inner surface of curvature.
Spring Index, C = D/d
Constraint on Min value of C ???
211
Spring Stress Factor
1.311
1.253
1.213
1.184
1.162
1.145
1.131
1.119
1.1
1.083
1.071
1.063
1.056
1.050
1.045
1.042
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
K
w
K
s
C (=D/d)
212
Under static load, yielding is the failure criterion.
Ductile materials yields locally and stress concentration is
negligible.
Under dynamic load, the failure will be fatigue and stress
concentration due to curvature will play important role.
load fatigue for
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
load static for
5 . 0
1
C C
C
k
C
k
c
c
+
+ =
c
k
d
PC
2
max
8
=
1.3
2.1
2.4
3.2
3.8
4.2
4.8
7.5
8.5
9.5
0.11
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.28
0.35
0.45
0.55
0.65
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.8
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.5
3.0
Third
Preference
Second
Preference
First
Preference
Preferred Diameters for Spring Steel Wire, mm
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
First
Preference
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.0
9.0
11.0
13.0
15.0
Second
Preference
Ultimate Strength of Spring wire
ut yt
yt ys
S S
S S
75 . 0
577 . 0
=
=
max
,
ys
s
S
N factor Safety =
b
ut
Ad S =
Initial guess
1
2.6
1.3
3.1
4.0
711
1753.3
2153.5
1831.2
1909.9
2059.2
1867
2065
2911
0.1822
0.1625
0.1833
0.1453
0.0934
0.146
0.263
0.478
0.5 16
0.3 6
0.5 16
0.5 12
0.8 11
0.3 2.5
2.55
510
Cold Drawn
Music wire
Oil temp.
ChromeVanadium
Chrome Silicon
302 Stainless (A313)
Relative
Cost
Coefficient
A (MPa)
Exponent
b
Range
(mm)
Material
215
Designing Helical Compression
Springs for Static Loading
max
,
ys
s
S
N factor Safety =
60
65
55
55
45
50
40
40
A227 and A228
Hardened and tempered steel (A229,A230, A232, A401)
Austenitic stainless steel (e.g. A313)
Nonferrous alloys ( B134, B159, B197)
After set
removed
Before set
removed
Max percent of UTS
Material
Max. Torsional yield strength for Helical
compression springs in static applications
216
Maximum Torsional Fatigue
Strength for round wire
helical compression spring
S
ys
49
47
46
S
ys
42
40
38
S
ys
42
39
36
S
ys
36
33
30
10
3
10
5
10
6
10
7
Peened Unpeened Peened Unpeened
ASTM A230 & A232 ASTM 228, Stainless
Steel & Nonferrous
Percent of UTS Fatigue
Life
(Cycles)
Home Work: Create torsional shear SN diamgram for 0.25mm,
0.5mm and 1.0 mm of ASTM A228 unpeened spring wire.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
Number of rotations
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
o
f
U
T
S
Unpeened
Peened
Ex: Design a cold drawn steel wire helical compression
spring, having minimum possible spring index. Static
axial load = 500 N. Min value of factor of safety = 1.2
ANSWER: Design Load = Applied load * factor of safety
P = 600 N
Minimum possible spring index, C = 5
Material data for cold drawn steel wire
b
ut
Ad S =
1 1753.3 0.1822 0.5 16 Cold Drawn
Relative
Cost
Coefficient
A (MPa)
Exponent
b
Range
(mm)
Material
MPa
d
S
ut
1822 . 0
3 . 1753
=
1 . 1
5 . 0
1
=
+ =
c
c
k
C
k
E Strength = 0.45 S
ut
E Stress
c
k
d
PC
2
max
8
=
2 2
2 1822 . 0
4 . 8403
789
mm
N
d
Stress
mm
N
d
Strength
=
=
( )
6743 . 3
6507 . 10
789
4 . 8403
8178 . 1 1
1822 . 0 2
=
=
=
d
mm d
d
Choosing preferred diameter of spring steel wire from slide
213, d=4 mm
( )
( )
( ) MPa 438 1 . 1
004 . 0
5 500 8
2
max
= =
a
a
N D
d G
d G
N D P
3
4
4
3
8
P/ k Stiffness
8
P
U
Deflection
= =
=
? Series combination
? Parallel arrangement.
Ex: Design a economic cold drawn steel wire helical compression
spring, subjected to maximum of 550 N axial compression load.
Spring needs to have a stiffness of 75 N/mm. Assume G=80000
N/mm
2
and square & ground ends of spring
ANSWER: We need to determine wire diameter, coil diameter,
and number of turns. We need to check the safety of spring
against 550 N load.
2 1822 . 0
789
mm
N
d
wire steel drawn cold of strength Torsional =
+ =
C
d
PC 5 . 0
1
8
stress shear Maximum
2
max
=
=
a a
a
a
N N
N
N D
d G
As we require stiffness = 75 N/mm, therefore we need to
change one of geometry parameter of spring. Easiest is to
change coil diameter D. First we choose N
a
=5 and check the
value of spring index.
( )
( )
mm D
D
97 . 18
5 8
4 80000
75
3
4
=
=
7425 . 4
4 / 97 . 18
=
=
C
C
As C < 5, we select
N
a
=4. D = 20.44
mm. d=4 mm.
E Example: Design a helical compression spring for
the valve mechanism. The axial force acting on
spring is 300 N when valve is open and 100 N when
valve is closed. The length of spring is 25mm when
the valve is open and 35 mm when the valve is
closed. Assume ultimate tensile strength of spring
material is 1400 MPa. The permissible shear stress
should be taken as 30% of UTS. The modulus of
rigidity is 80000 MPa. The spring is to be fitted over
a valve rod and the minimum inside diameter of
spring should be 20mm.
mm N k
P
k
MPa
S
d D
mm D
ut
i
/ 20
25 35
100 300
stiffness, Spring
420
3 . 0 stress, shear e Permissibl
20 dia, mean Spring
20 dia, coil Minimum
=
= =
=
=
+ =
=
( )
+
+
+
=
+ =
d
d
d
d
C
d
PC
20
5 . 0
1
) 20 ( 300 8
420
5 . 0
1
8
3
2
max
=
=
a a
a
a
N N
N
N D
d G
As we require stiffness = 20 N/mm, therefore we need to
change one of geometry parameter of spring. Easiest is to
change coil diameter D. First we choose N
a
=9 and check the
minimum value of wire diameter.
( )
( )
23 . 20
23 . 24
9 8
4 80000
20
3
4
= =
=
=
d D D
mm D
D
i
As minimum coil
diameter is greater than
20mm, we can finalize
the spring dimensions.
224
Designing Helical Compression
Spring for Fatigue Loading
E When spring loads are dynamic (time
varying), a fatigue stress situation exist.
E In the helical compression spring loading
cases P
min
0.
E To solve problem ultimate shear strength,
shear yield strength, and fatigue strength
(at some number of cycles) are needed.
( )
( )
min max
min max
5 . 0
5 . 0
P P P
P P P
m
a
+ =
=
s
m
m w
a
a
k
d
C P
k
d
C P
2 2
8
;
8
= =
225
E Since all significant stresses in spring are shear
stresses, we may use a torsional Goodman diagram,
which is shown in following Figure.
Designing Helical Compression
Spring for Fatigue Loading
E This figure indicates that if
m
(S
ys
S
se
) ,
component will fail due to alternating stress (
a
).
Up to a certain point
(B), torsional mean
stress has no effect
on torsional
endurance limit.
Area OABC
represents region of
safety.
226
Designing Helical Compression Spring
for Fatigue Loading.. Considering FOS
E This figure indicates that if
m
(S
ys
S
se
)/N
s
,
component will fail due to alternating stress (
a
).
S
sy
/N
s
Ex: The exhaust valve system of diesel
engine is shown in Figure. The diameter of
valve seat is 30mm and the suction
pressure in the cylinder is 0.05 MPa. The
max. required valve lift =10 mm. Spring
stiffness = 10 N/mm. C = 7. Design this
spring for factor of safety greater than
1.25. Spring Mat. = Music wire.
E Min load = 0.05e6*pi/4*(0.03*0.03)
E Max. Load = Min load+10*10
( )
( ) N P P P
N P P P
m
a
4 . 85 5 . 0
50 5 . 0
min max
min max
= + =
= =
2 2
2 2
1631 8
1081 8
d
k
d
C P
d
k
d
C P
s
m
m
w
a
a
= =
= =
2129 . 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
0714 . 1
5 . 0
1
= +
=
=
+ =
C C
C
k
C
k
w
s
( )
ut sy
ut
S S
d S
45 . 0
5 . 2153
wire music For
1625 . 0
=
=
Iteration 1: At first iteration we start design using static mean
load and determine wire diameter using allowable shear yielding
(S
sy
/N
s
)
( )
( )
mm d
d d
5 . 1
1631
25 . 1
5 . 2153 45 . 0
2 1625 . 0
= =
MPa
d
m
m
11 . 637
1631
2
=
=
( ) ( )
MPa
d
N
S S
s
se sy
42 . 239
25 . 1
5 . 2153 15 . 0
1625 . 0
= =
As
m
> (S
sy
S
se
)/N
s
, component will fail due to yielding (
a
+
m
).
( ) ( )
( )
1625 . 0 2
25 . 1
5 . 2153 45 . 0 8
d d
C P K P K
m s a w
=
+
( )
s
se
a
N
S
Check
mm d
d
<
=
=
2
4982 . 3
8375 . 1 1
23 . 7
10 7 8
2 100000
8 8
k Stiffness
3 3 3
4
=
= = =
k C
d G
N
N D
d G
a
a
Preferred wire
dia. = 1.6
Pressure wire dia.
229
Question 1: Determine
the deflection of springs
shown in Figure. Axial
load = 2000 N
MPa G mm D
mm d
MPa G mm D
mm d
000 , 80 , 15
, 3 , 12 N
2 Spring
000 , 100 , 30
, 6 , 12 N
1 Spring
a
a
= =
= =
= =
= =
Tutorial III
230
a
N D
d G
3
4
8
k Stiffness =
MPa G mm D
mm d
MPa G mm D
mm d
000 , 80 , 15
, 3 , 12 N
2 Spring
000 , 100 , 30
, 6 , 12 N
1 Spring
a
a
= =
= =
= =
= =
K
1
=50 N/mm
K
2
=20 N/mm
K = 50+20 = 70 N/mm
Axial load = 2000 N
Deflection = load/stiffness
Deflection = 28.5714 mm
Question 2: A helical compression unpeened spring,
made of ASTM A228, is preloaded with 25 N axial
force. The external force applied to compress spring
varies between zero to 100 N. Assume spring index
= 6, factor of safety 1.25. Determine wire diameter
for spring life = 10
7
cycles.
( )
ut sy
ut
S S
d S
45 . 0
5 . 2153
wire 228 ASTM For
1625 . 0
=
=
( )
( ) N P P P
N P P P
m
a
75 5 . 0
50 5 . 0
min max
min max
= + =
= =
2 2
2 2
1242 8
957 8
d
k
d
C P
d
k
d
C P
s
m
m
w
a
a
= =
= =
2525 . 1
615 . 0
4 4
1 4
0833 . 1
5 . 0
1
= +
=
=
+ =
C C
C
k
C
k
w
s
( )
( )
mm d
d d
3 . 1
1242
25 . 1
5 . 2153 45 . 0
2 1625 . 0
= =
Selecting d = 1.6 mm
( )
( ) ( )
MPa
d
N
S S
s
se sy
42 . 239
25 . 1
5 . 2153 15 . 0
1625 . 0
= =
( )
MPa
m
2 . 485
6 . 1
1242
2
= =
As
m
> (S
ys
S
se
)/N
s
, component will fail due to yielding (
a
+
m
).
( ) ( )
( )
1625 . 0 2
25 . 1
5 . 2153 45 . 0 8
d d
C P K P K
m s a w
=
+
7633 . 1
26 . 775 2 . 2198
1625 . 0 2
=
=
d
d d
ANSWER: Preferred d = 2mm
s
se
a
N
S
Check <
233
Elements to Transmit Power
 Shafts
Keys/Interferencefit
` Coupling
E Belt drive
E Chain drive (i.e. bicycle)
E Friction drive
E Gear drive
234
Design of Belt Drive
E Aim: Transmission of power over
comparatively long distance.
E +Ve:
E Low initial, assembly and running costs.
E Tolerance for misalignment Flexibility
E Absorb shocks.
E Isolate effect of vibration
E Ve:
E Efficiency (Slip).. Friction uncertainties
E Wear (short life) One year life
E Loss of elasticity (Creep)
Friction drive
Audio Tapes
Video Tapes
Data Cartridge
Conveyor belt
NOTE: Belts are subject to creep, therefore they require tensioning devices.
Toothed
wheel
p > 2 Timing
Grooved/
Sheaves
h
t
=6 to 23
V
Grooved d=3 to 20 Round
Crowned t=0.75 
5
Flat
Required Pulley Size range
(mm)
Cross
section
Belt
Type
Note: Time belt uses positive drive
mechanism, while other belt drives
use friction drive mechanism. Time
belt drive does not require any initial
tension. Teeth make it possible to
run at any speed.
d
h
t
Mechanism of Flat
Belt Pulley Drive
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(2) Eq. 0
0 5 . 0 sin 5 . 0 sin
(1) Eq.
0 5 . 0 cos 5 . 0 cos
2
2
=
= + +
=
= +
d v m dR d T
d v m dR d T d dT T
dR dT
dR d T d dT T
( )
( )
1
1 1
2
2
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
n integratio On
0 /
(1) Eq. from dR
e
mv T
mv T
d
mv T
dT
d
mv T
dT
d mv dT d T
ng Substituti
T
T
=
=
d
T
T
+
d
T
d
R
d
F
m
v
2
d
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + =
d
d
d
d
C
D D
D D D D D D C L
D D D D D D C L
D D D D C L
D D AB L
2
sin 5 . 0 4 or,
5 . 0 4 or,
2 5 . 0 2 5 . 0 4 or,
5 . 0 5 . 0 2 Length, Belt
1 2
1
1 2 2 1
2
1 2
2
1 2 2 1
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1 2
2
2 2 1 1
Initial Tension
1
2
2
2
1
e
mv T
mv T
=
d
driving driven
C
D D
7639 . 43 4755 . 2
4755 . 2
66 . 29
66 . 29
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
=
=
T T
T
T
e
mv T
mv T
T
1
=1204.6 N
T
2
= 504.3 N
Length = 5.9515 m
( ) ( ) ( )
+ + + =
d
d
C
D D
D D D D D D C L
2
sin 5 . 0 4
1 2
1
1 2 2 1
2
1 2
2
Stresses ????
Example: We need to reduce the speed of 11kW, 1440 rpm
motor to 500 rpm using a beltpulley drive mechanism. The belt
speed should not exceed 10 m/s. The angle of contact needs to
be greater than 165 degree. The leather belt, which can sustain
2.5 MPa tensile stress, is easily available. The density of belt is
0.95 gm/cc and coefficient of friction is 0.35. Assume the
thickness of belt is 5 mm. Determine (a) Dia of pulleys, (b)
length & width of belt and (c) belt tension.
500
1440
D
D
pulley driven of velocity Tangential pulley driving of velocity Tangential
driving
driven
=
=
mm D
N
driving
driving
6 . 132
60
D speed l tangentia Maximum
driving
=
=
mm D
driven
9 . 381 =
mm C
C
D D
d
d
driving driven
955
2
2sin  contact of Angle
1 
1
=
=
10
11000
2 1
= T T 5 5 . 2
1
=
b
T
( )
( )
( ) b T T
b T
b T
e
mv T
mv T
8265 . 0 74 . 2
74 . 2
475 . 0
475 . 0
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
=
=
( ) kg/m b 10 4.75 m
10
5
10
b
cm cubic
gm
.95 m
t w density/g Weight belt of h Mass/lengt
3 
=
=
=
10
11000
2 1
= T T 5 5 . 2
1
=
b
T
N T
N T
mm b
700
1800
144
2
1
=
=
=
Length ??
Commercial Flat Belts
100
112
125
152
180
200
76
90
100
112
125
152
200
224
25, 32,
40, 44
50, 63
76, 90
100
112
125
140
152
25
32
40
44
50
63
76
90
100
6 Ply 5 Ply 4 Ply 3 Ply
Width (mm) of High Speed
(Light to Medium duty: 2.3*V
W/mm per ply) belt
200
250
305
355
400
112
125
152
180
200
250
76
100
112
125
152
180
250
40, 44
50, 63
76
90
100
112
125
152
25
40
50
63
76
8 Ply 6 Ply 5 Ply 4 Ply 3
Ply
Width (mm) of FORT (Heavy
duty: 2.89*V W/mm per ply)
belt
Correct Initial tension Belt shorter than calculated length.
Belt of 3 Plies  15 mm per meter belt length
Belt of 4 to 6 Plies 10mm per meter belt length
Belt of 8 Plies  5 mm per meter belt length
152*4*2.3*15.708
? > 11 kW
Length = 5.9515 m
L = 5.892
Commercial Flat Belts.cont
. .
6 Ply 5 Ply 4 Ply 3 Ply
Width (mm) of High Speed
(Light to Medium duty: 2.3*V
W/mm per ply)
8 Ply 6 Ply 5 Ply 4 Ply 3 Ply
Width (mm) of FORT (Heavy
duty: 2.89*V W/mm per ply)
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.5
1. Normal load
2. Steady load, e.g. Centrifugal pump,
fans, machine tools, conveyors.
3. Intermittent load, e,g, heavy duty
fans, blowers, compressors,
reciprocating pumps, line shafts
4. Shock load, e.g. vacuum pumps,
rolling mills, hammers, grinders
Load Correction Factor, K
load
Type of Load
0.97
190
0.94 1.0 1.04 1.08 1.13 1.19 1.26 1.33 Contact
factor, K
arc
200 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 Arc of
contact
E Problem: Find the length of a suitable flat belt
(thickness of ply=2mm) that can transmit 11 kW
at 2000 rpm in a Conveyor system. Cd=2.5 m,
Ddriving_pulley =150 mm, Ddriven_pulley =450
mm, Ndriving_pulley =2000 rpm, =0.3. belt
material density = 970 kgf/m
3
m/s 15.708 v
m/s
60
ity Belt veloc
=
=
N d
v
N T T
v T T
3 . 700 708 . 15 / 11000
11000 ) ( as expressed be can smitted Power tran
2 1
2 1
= =
=
o
173 0215 . 3
2
sin 2 angle, Contact
1 1
1
1
= =
=
d
driving driven
C
D D
Load Correction Factor, K
load
=1.2
Contact factor, K
arc
=1+7*(1.041.0)/10
K
arc
=1.028
708 . 15 3 . 2
028 . 1 2 . 1 11000
) (
= belt ply one for Width
Let us choose a four ply belt having width = 100 mm
( ) ( )
kg/m 0.0791 m
) 1000 / 8 ( 100/1000 970/9.81 m
t w density/g Weight belt of h Mass/lengt
=
=
=
802 . 28 4755 . 2
4755 . 2
52 . 19
52 . 19
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
=
=
T T
T
T
e
mv T
mv T
T
1
=1194.4 N
T
2
= 494.14 N
In earlier example belt width =152mm,
T
1
=1204.6 N, T
2
= 504.3 N.
Which one is better???
What will happen if angle of
contact is increase ???
245
Arc of Contact
E Increasing angle of contact decreases
belt tension and increases belt life
N T T 3 . 700
2 1
=
2617 . 3
1416 . 3
0215 . 3
1
1
1
=
=
=
= =
= =
T T
T
T
T T
T
T
T T
T
T
3 . 441
6 . 466
1 . 494
2
2
2
=
=
=
T
T
T
??? 10% Reduction in belt
tension
1
2
2
2
1
e
mv T
mv T
=
= + =
+
=
d
C
D D
( ) ( ) ( )
+
+ + + + + =
d
d
C
D D
D D D D D D C L
2
sin 5 . 0 4 Length, Belt
1 2
1
1 2 2 1
2
1 2
2
d v m dN d T
d v m dN d T d dT T
dN dT
dN d T d dT T
T+dT
T
mv
2
d
Wedging action increases power transmitting
capacity.
Force components T, T+dT, and m v
2
d are
same as those of flat belt. However, normal force
as shown in Fig. is different
( )
( )
2
2 1
2
sin
2
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
sin
n integratio On
sin
0 sin /
(1) Eq. from dN
e
mv T
mv T
d
mv T
dT
d
mv T
dT
d mv dT d T
ng Substituti
T
T
=
=
d
T
T+dT
dF
Effective = 3.2361
Sin(18
0
)=0.309
Important points
( )
( )
d
d P
C
D D
D D C L
4 2
2
2
1 2
2 1
+ + + =
2, 2.25,
2.5, 3,
3.5, 4.0,
4.5, 5,
6,7, 7.5,
9, 10,
10.5, 11,
12, 13,
14, 15,
18
Pulley
pitch dia.,
inch
2
2
2
sin
2
1
1 2
1
+ =
=
=
d
C
D D
( )
1 2
2
3 D D C
D C
d
d
+
252
Example: Design a Vbelt drive connecting 7.5 kW
motor (rated speed 1440 rpm, shaft 1.5 inch) to a
compressor. We need speed reduction = 3. Assume
coefficient of friction = 0.25. Max center dist=500 mm.
ANSWER: Load correction factor for compressor = 1.3 (slide
242).
Effective power transmission = 1.3*7.5 = 9.75 kW
Let us select Vbelt with Bcross section (1711) and weight
0.189 kgf/m. Minimum pitch diameter of driving pulley is 125 mm.
We can select pulley of 5 inch diameter.
As speed reduction equal to 3 is required, therefore driven
pulley 3*5 inch = 15 inch.
( ) satisfied. are 3
1 2 2
D D C and D C
d d
+
( )
( )
( ) ( )
7686 . 12 2282 . 8 2282 . 8
7665 . 1
7665 . 1
18 sin / 25 . 0 exp
5756 . 9 * 5756 . 9 * 81 . 9 / 189 . 0
5756 . 9 * 5756 . 9 * 81 . 9 / 189 . 0
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
= =
T T
T
T
T
T
o
( )
N T T
V T T
1018
1000 * 75 . 9
2 1
2 1
=
=
N T
N T
6 . 142
6 . 1160
2
1
=
=
( )
( )
mm L
C
D D
D D C L
P
d
d P
2 . 1830
4 2
2
2
1 2
2 1
=
+ + + =
Let us choose nominal inside
length = 1727 mm
Pitch length = 1772 mm.
5 . 8064 496
16129
780 2 1772
2
+
+ + =
d d
d
d
C C or
C
C
mm C
d
17 . 479 =
6051 . 2 , 2682 . 0
2
sin
1
1 2
1
= =
=
d
C
D D
5756 . 9
60
= =
N d
V
254
Example: We require a Vbelt drive to connect 5 hp (3750 W)
motor (rated speed 1440 rpm, shaft 38mm) to a compressor. We
need speed reduction = 3. Assume coefficient of friction = 0.25.
Max center dist=650 mm. Calculate belt tensions and pitch length.
ANSWER: Load correction factor for compressor = 1.3 (slide
242).
Effective power transmission = 1.3*3750 = 4875 W
Let us select Vbelt with Across section (138) and weight
0.106 kgf/m. Minimum pitch diameter of driving pulley is 75 mm.
We can select pulley of 3 inch diameter.
As speed reduction equal to 3 is required, therefore driven
pulley 3*3 inch = 9 inch.
( ) satisfied. are 3
1 2 2
D D C and D C
d d
+
255
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3676 . 3 441 . 10 441 . 10
3567 . 0
3567 . 0
18 sin / 25 . 0 exp
7453 . 5 * 7453 . 5 * 81 . 9 / 106 . 0
7453 . 5 * 7453 . 5 * 81 . 9 / 106 . 0
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
= =
T T
T
T
T
T
o
( )
N T T
V T T
52 . 848
4875
2 1
2 1
=
=
N T
N T
25 . 90
75 . 938
2
1
=
=
( )
( )
mm L
C
D D
D D C L
P
d
d P
7 . 1787
4 2
2
2
1 2
2 1
=
+ + + =
Let us choose nominal inside
length = 1717 mm
Pitch length = 1750 mm.
0 2 . 2903 6356
6 . 5804
8 . 478 2 1750
2
= +
+ + =
d d
d
d
C C or
C
C
mm C
d
631 =
8995 . 2 , 1121 . 0
2
sin
1
1 2
1
= =
=
d
C
D D
7453 . 5
60
= =
N d
V
256
BEARINGS
E Mechanical
elements which
1. allow relative
motion between
two elements (i.e.
shaft & housing).
2. Bear load
Thrust load
Radial load
Combined load
1. Dry Contacts
2. Chemical Films
3. Lamellar Solids
4. Pressurized Lubricant Film
5. Elastomers
6. Flexible Strips
7. Rolling Elements 8. Magnetic
Field
Comparison of three bearing types
259
Rolling Element
Bearing
Rotation is always easier than linear motion.
Low friction & moderate lubricant requirements
are two important advantages of rolling bearing.
If you can buy it, dont make it!
Bearing selection.
~ 20,000 Varieties of bearings.
Conventional bearing steel to ceramics, with (out) cage (brass/polymers).
Pin.
Smallest bearings few grams. Largest 70 Tonnes
260
I.I.T. Bombay
261
Failure of Four Row Cylindrical
Roller Bearing
E Two large roller bearings (ID = 865
mm, OD = 1180 mm) failed in a cold
rolling mill Cost = Rs. 35,00,000 each
one bearing failed within 105 hours (installed on
05/01/03 and failed completely on 10/01/03), and
other failed within 300 hours of operation
(installed on 05/01/03 and removed on 24/01/03 due to
detection of excessive vibration and metal particles).
Expected life of bearings was approximately
40,000 operating hours
Survival rate 0.5% and 1.0%.
262
Failed Bearing
263
Bearing
subjected
to normal
load
E In rolling mills the load is of
constant direction. Only a
quarter of the outer race is
under load. For this reason,
the side faces of the outer
races are divided into four
zones indicated by I to IV.
E When the bearing is mounted
for the first time it is usual to
position zone I in the direction
of action of the load.
E After a period of
approximately 1000 operating
hours ( 2 months), outer race
is turned 90.
Conclusion: Rated bearing life = 4.* Life of one load zone.
Expected life of each load zone = 10,000 operating hours
E Detailed survey of failed
bearing indicated placement
of hole on the line of
maximum load.
E Four holes of 3/8 10 UNC 3B
of 45mm depth were drilled
and tapped to facilitate the
handling of outer race.
Hole
With new arrangement, no
complaint was received.
Company informed us that they
received 70,00,000 from bearing
company based on IIT report.
I
II
III
IV
W
I
II
III
IV
W
(a) Earlier arrangement (b) New arrangement
267
Video Clips of
Rolling Element Bearings
Radial Load
Axial Load
269
Ball Cylindrical roller Angular contact ball Tapered roller Spherical
roller
Ball Cylindrical roller
270
Cylindrical Roller Bearing
Higher coefficient of
friction because of small
diameter rollers and
rubbing action against
each other
271
Selection of bearing type
E Cylindrical & Needle roller Pure Radial Load
E Cylindrical roller thrust, ball thrust, four point
angular contact ball bearings Pure Axial load
E Taper roller, spherical roller, angular contact
bearings Combined load
E Cylindrical roller, angular contact ball bearing
High speed
E Deep groove, angular contact, and cylindrical
roller bearing High running accuracy
Rolling Element Bearings
y y Thrust ball
y y y Angular contact
ball
y y y Self Aligning
Spherical Roller
y y y Self Aligning Ball
y y y y Taper Roller
y y Needle
y Some
types
y Cylindrical Roller
y y y Deep groove ball
Low Med High Both Axial Radial
Misalignment
Capacity
Load Direction
Equivalent load: P = V X F
r
+ Y F
a
273
P = V X F
r
+ Y F
a
Equivalent load
V Rotation factor
X Radial factor
F
r
Applied radial load
Y Thrust factor
F
a
Applied thrust load
1.5
tan
.65
cot
.65 .42
cot
1 .4
cot
.4 1 1
Self
aligning
ball
bearing
.57
.68
.80
.95
1.14
1.63
1.44
1.24
1.07
.93
.70
.67
.63
.60
.57
1.09
.92
.78
.66
.55
1 1.0
.87
.76
.66
.57
.43
.41
.39
.37
.35
1.2 1 20
25
30
35
40
Angular
contact
ball
bearing
.19
.22
.26
.28
.3
.34
.38
.42
.44
2.30
1.99
1.71
1.55
1.45
1.31
1.15
1.04
1.00
0.56 0 1 2.30
1.99
1.71
1.55
1.45
1.31
1.15
1.04
1.00
0.56 1.2 1 .014
.028
.056
.084
.11
.17
.28
.42
.56
Y X Y X Y X V V F
a
/C
0
Deep
groove
ball
bearing
F
a
/VF
r
> e F
a
/VF
r
e F
a
/VF
r
> e
Stationary Rotating
e
Double row
Single row Inner ring Bearing type
Designation International Organization for Standardization
Multiply by 5 to get bore in mm
d<10mm618/8 (d=8mm)
d>500 mm511/530 (d=530mm)
00 = 10mm
01= 12mm
02 = 15mm
03 = 17mm
+Each rolling bearing is designed by a code that clearly indicates
construction, dimensions, tolerances and bearing clearance.
http://www.skf.com/portal/skf/home/products?newlink=first&lang=en
0 Double row angular contact ball bearings
1 Selfaligning ball bearings
2 Spherical roller bearings
3 Taper roller bearings
4 Double row deep groove ball bearings
5 Thrust ball bearings
6 Single row deep groove ball bearings
7 Single row angular contact ball bearings
8 Cylindrical roller thrust bearings
HK needle roller bearings with open ends
K Needle roller and cage thrust assemblies
N Cylindrical roller bearings
A second and sometimes a third letter are used to identify the
configuration of the flanges, e.g. NJ, NU, NUP; double or
multirow cylindrical roller bearing designations always start
with NN.
QJ Fourpoint contact ball bearings
278
In order of
increasing
outside
bearing
diameter
In increasing order
ACBB
SABB
SRB
TRB DGBB
TBB
DGBB ACBB CRTB
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
(DGBB): Both rings
possess deep grooves.
Bearing can support high
radial forces as well as axial
forces. There are singlerow
& double row DGBB. Widely
used in industry.
Cage/Separator: Ensures
uniform spacing and
prevents mutual contact of
rolling elements.
Shield: Profiles sheet steel
discs pressed into the
grooves of outer ring and
forming gaptype seals with
the innerring shoulders.
Seals: Often made of
elastic rubber. Bearings
sealed on both sides are
grease filled and in normal
working conditions the
grease filling lasts the entire
service life of the bearings.
Angular Contact Ball
Bearing (ACBB):
Raceways are so arranged
that forces are transmitted
from one raceway to other
under certain contact angle
angle between line of action
of the force & radial plane.
Due to CA, ACBB are better
suited to sustain high axial
loads than DGBB.
280
Cylindrical roller bearings
281
Examples of basic codes
282
Suffix
61804 618042Z 618042RS1
284
Basic Dynamic Load Rating: C
Radial load (thrust load for thrust bearings) which a group
of identical bearings with stationary outer rings can
theoretically endure one million revolutions of inner ring.
Static Load Rating: C
0
Radial load causing permanent deflection greater than
0.01% of ball dia.
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
RSH Sheet steel reinforced contact seal of acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber (NBR) on
one side of the bearing. L stand for low friction.
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Pressed brass
cage
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
E indicates reinforced ball set. TN9 indicates injection moulded snap type cage of glass fibre
reinforced polyamide
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Deep Groove Ball Bearing
292
Example: Assume radial and axial loads on a bearing
are 7500N and 4500N respectively. Rotating shaft dia =
70 mm. Select a single row deep groove ball bearing.
.19
.22
.26
.28
.3
.34
.38
.42
.44
2.30
1.99
1.71
1.55
1.45
1.31
1.15
1.04
1.00
0.56 1 .014
.028
.056
.084
.11
.17
.28
.42
.56
Y X V F
a
/C
0
Deep
groove
ball
bearing
F
a
/VF
r
> e
Rotating
e
Single row Inner
ring
Bearing type
F
a
/F
r
= 0.6; F
a
/C
0
=4500/31000 X = 0.56, Y= 1.37; P=10365
F
a
/C
0
=4500/68000 X = 0.56, Y= 1.65; P=11625
293
Rolling Element Bearings
Load Calculation: Tabular Approach
E Load rating
C > P x f
n
x f
L
x f
d
Where C = radial dynamic rating
P = calculated effective radial load
f
n
= speed (rpm) factor
f
l
= Life (hours) factor
f
d
= dynamic or service factor
Load classification Factor
Uniform 1.0
Light shock 1.5
Moderate shock 2.0
Heavy shock 3.0
294
295
Example 1: Radial load = 4448 N, Speed = 1000 rpm
Desired life= 30 000 hours, No Shock loading.
C > P x f
n
x f
L
x f
d
f
d
= 1.0; P = 4 448 N, f
n
= 2.78; f
l
= 3.42
=> C > 42, 290 N
296
Revisiting example discussed in slide 292
Example: Assume radial and axial loads on a bearing are 7500N and
4500N respectively. Shaft dia = 70 mm. Select a deep groove ball bearing.
Consider shaft rotates at 1000 rpm and expected bearing life =
30000 hours
F
a
/F
r
= 0.6; F
a
/C
0
=4500/31000 P=10365
F
a
/C
0
=4500/68000 P=11625
C > P x f
n
x f
l
f
n
= 2.78; f
l
= 3.42
Case 1: C = 98.55 kN
Case 2: C = 110. 53 kN
May be a good option for life = 1300 hr
Angular contact ball bearings are produced in a wide variety of
designs, such as:
fourpoint contact ball bearings
In SKF catalogue
contact angle =40 is
designated by suffix B.
Similarly contact angles
of 25 and 30 are
designated with suffixes
AC and A respectively.
P = 0.5 F
r
+ Y
0
F
a
Equivalent static
bearing load
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGNATIONS
GA: Two bearings arranged backtoback (or face to face)
will have a light preload before mounting.
GB: Two bearings arranged backtoback (or face to face)
will have a moderate preload before mounting.
M: Machine brass cage, ball centered.
CA: Internal clearance smaller than normal (CB) before
mounting
E: Optimized internal design
J: Pressed steel cage, ball centered.
P: Glass fibre polyamide 66 pressed cage, ball centered.
PH: Glass fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone pressed
cage, ball centered.
305
Mathematical Approach
In ideal case, bearings fail by surfacefatigue.
Dynamic load rating (catalogue C
0
reading) is the load which 90% (reliability=0.9)
of a group of identical bearings will sustain for minimum of 10
6
cycles.
( )
Speed 60
000 , 1000
P
C
hours in life Bearing
bearings roller for
3
10
bearings ball for 3
10
3 3 2 2 1 1
6
a
a a a
a
a
a
L P L P L P C
=
=
=
= = =
17 . 1
1
90
9 . 0
1
log
1
log
=
e
e
R R
L
L
306
Example 2: Radial load = 2 224 N, Speed = 1500 rpm
Desired life= 8 hours/day, 5 day/weeks for 5 years, Light Shock
loading. For shaft dia of 25 mm.
C > 2224*1.5*(10400*1500*60/10
6
)
1/a
C > 32, 633 N for BALL BEARINGS
C > 25, 978 N for ROLLER BEARINGS
307
Example 3: A radial load of 3000N combined with thrust load of
2500N is to be carried on a 6214 ball bearing for 70 mm dia
rotating shaft at 1000 rpm. Determine equivalent radial load to be
used for calculating fatigue life. Compare life of 6214 bearing with
that for a 7214 (nominal contact angle 30)
E Step 1: C
0
for 6214 is 45kN and 7214 is 60 kN. C for
6214 is 63.7 kN and 7214 is 71.5 kN
E Step 2:
E Step 3: Radial load for 6214 bearing is 5955N & for
7214 bearing radial load is 3070.
0.8 .76 .39 30 Angular contact ball bearing
.26 1.71 0.56 .056
Y X F
a
/C
0
Deep groove ball bearing
e
Single row, F
a
/VF
r
> e Bearing type
Homework: A single row cylindrical roller bearing N 205
ECP is subjected to pure radial load of 2800 N and rotational
speed = 1500 rpm. Estimate the bearing life for reliability = 0.99.
ANS: 3448 Hours
Homework: Select a suitable deep groove ball bearing for a
shaft of 30 mm dia rotating at 2000 rpm. Bearing needs to
support a radial load of 2000 N and axial load of 400 N.
Step 4: Life for 6214 will be 20,400 hours and for 7214,
life=210,550 Hours
Speed 60
000 , 1000
P
C
hours in life Bearing
3
=
309
Friction & Temperaturerise in REB
E Friction in a loaded
bearing between
rolling elements and
raceways is a complex
phenomenon,
resulting partly from
elastic hysteresis.
E Sliding resistance
occurs between rolling
elements at guiding
surfaces of the cage.
310
Sources of friction in Antifriction
Bearings
1. Elastic hysteresis in Rolling
0.0001 for Chrome
steel.
2. Sliding
3. Lubricant shearing
= du/dz
4. Seals
Load Dependent Friction Moment
mm dia, Bore d
N , F load Resultant P
friction of t Coefficien
N.mm load, pre) ( external to due moment Frictional M
/2) (
2 2
r
P
=
+ = =
=
+ =
=
a
P
F
d P M
.0015
.001
.002
.0011
.0025
Deep groove ball
Self aligning ball
Angular contact ball
Cylindrical roller
Needle roller
Bearing Type
Table: Coefficient of
friction for bearings
Generally is a function of
load. Data given in Table are
applicable for P = 0.1 C.
Lubricant and
Speed
Dependent
Friction
Moment
( )
( )
N.mm Moment, M
rpm speed, Rotational
/ mm oil, of viscosity Operating
2000 5 6 . 1
2000 10
L
2
3
3
3 / 2
7
=
=
=
< =
=
N
s
N v if d f e M
N v if d N v f M
m L L
m L L
+
+ =
f
f M
s
E Total friction moment M = M
P
+M
L
+M
S
Deep groove ball
Self aligning ball
Angular contact ball
Cylindrical roller
Needle roller
Bearing Type
10
10
10
25
50
f
2
20
20
20
10
20
f
1
Table: Friction factors for seals
Example: Estimate friction moment of 6214RS1
bearing running at 1,200 rpm under 5000 N radial load
when jet lubricated by synthetic ester jet engine oil
having a viscosity of 6 mm
2
/s (cSt) at operating
temperature.
Ans: 468.5 N.mm
mm N
P M
P
. 5 . 262 M
dia/2) Bore (
P
=
=
.0015 Deep groove ball
Bearing Type
N.mm 105 M
dia Max dia Min
s
2
1
2
=
+
+ =
f
f M
s
36000
6000 6
=
=
N v
N v
mm d
m
5 . 97
2
125 70
=
+
=
Deep groove ball
Bearing Type
10
f
2
20
f
1
( )
( ) ( )
101
5 . 97 36000 1 10
2000 10
3
3 / 2
7
3
3 / 2
7
=
=
=
L
L
m L L
M
M
N v if d N v f M
Ans: 468.5 N.mm. If bearing is operating at 1200
rpm (20 rps), then power loss = 59 Watts.
Average coefficient of friction =
59/(5000**1200/60*0.07)=0.0027
316
Bearing Temperature
E Dependence on total friction moment,
speed, extraneous heat source and heat
dissipation capability.
E Ideally operating temp needs to be
atmospheric temp because bearing friction
is small.
E Excluding extraneous heat, steady state
temperature of a bearing can be calculated
by balancing heat flow generated by
bearing and heat flow dissipated into
environment.
L R
Q generation heat of Rate Q rate n dissipatio Heat =
Heat flow
density W/m
2
Cooling factor
0.5 for warm environment
1 for natural cooling
2.5 for forced cooling
Angular
speed
rad/s
[ ] ( ) M B K t t q
t amb LB
= + Dia Max dia Min
Calculation of rate of heat generation ?
Heat flow dissipated to environment is calculated from
the difference between the bearing temperature and
ambient temperature, size of heat transfer surfaces and
heat flow density, which depends on cooling conditions.
<
=
2
34 . 0
m
2
/
4000
20000
4000 d if / 000 , 20
m W
B d
B m W
q
m
LB
Example: Estimate bearing operating temperature of
6214RS1 bearing running at 6,000 rpm under 5000 N
radial load when jet lubricated by synthetic ester jet
engine oil having a viscosity of 6 mm
2
/s (cSt) at
operating temperature. Assume ambient temp = 30C
and natural cooling of bearing.
( )
4 . 294
.
1000
5 . 468
60
6000 2
.
1000
5 . 468
60
2
generation heat of Rate
=
=
=
s
m N
s
m N N
M
2340 24
2
125 70
d
m
=
+
= B
4000 d as / 000 , 20
m
2
< = B m W q
LB
[ ]
0012 . 1 30
4 . 294
1000
24
1000
125 70
30 20000
+ =
=
t
t
[ ] ( ) M B K t t q
t amb LB
= + Dia Max dia Min
Bearing Mounting
E Bearings are mounted on shaft and housing with
transition to Interference fit.
E If interference fits exceed the internal radial
clearance, the rolling elements become preloaded.
C2, C3, C4 as
bearing suffix.
High operating
temperature
environment
requires larger
bearing
clearance.
Hot rolling, Flame cutting
Sand Casting
Forging
Die Casting
Drilling
Cold Rolling, Drawing
Extruding
Planing, Shaping
Milling
Sawing
Boring, Turning
Reaming
Broaching
Plan grinding
Diamond turning
Cylindrical grinding
Super finishing
Honing
Lapping
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ITGrade
1300 1150 1000 870 740 620 520 430 360 300 250 14
810 720 630 540 460 390 330 270 220 180 140 13
520 460 400 350 300 250 210 180 150 120 100 12
320 290 250 220 190 160 130 110 90 75 60 11
210 185 160 140 120 100 84 70 58 48 40 10
130 115 100 87 74 62 52 43 36 30 25 9
81 72 63 54 46 39 33 27 22 18 14 8
52 46 40 35 30 25 21 18 15 12 10 7
32 29 25 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 6 6
23 20 18 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 4 5
16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 4
12 10 8 6 5 4 4 3 2.5 2.5 2 3
8 7 5 4 3 2.5 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1.2 2
6 4.5 3.5 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1.2 1 1 0.8 1
International tolerance grade of industrial processes.
IT
Grade
315 250 180 120 80 50 30 18 10 6 3 inc.
250 180 120 80 50 30 18 10 6 3 1 over
Nominal Sizes (mm)
Preload ????
Negative internal clearance before operation.
Preload on rolling element bearing results
constant elastic compressive forces on rolling
element and raceway surfaces at their
contact points.
This makes the bearing extremely rigid and increases
the natural frequency of the shaft, which is suitable
for high speed operation.
This improves running accuracy and locating accuracy.
Preload is also used to prevent or suppress shaft
runout, vibration, and noise.
E Tolerances:
Allowable
0 m< IF< 12 m
Loose Preloading
Achievable
Boring, Turning
Plan grinding
Diamond turning
Cylindrical grinding
Super finishing
Honing
Lapping
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ITGrade
Example: We need to choose 03/04 bearing.
520 430 14
330 270 13
210 180 12
130 110 11
84 70 10
52 43 9
33 27 8
21 18 7
13 11 6
9 8 5
6 5 4
4 3 3
2.5 2 2
1.5 1.2 1
IT Grade
30 18
inc.
18 10
over
Nominal Sizes
(mm)
Super finishing
Honing
Lapping
6 5 4 3 2 ITGrade
0.1 misalignment results 52 m preloading for 30 mm
length
0.01 misalignment results 5 m preloading.
Example: Estimate bearing operating temperature of 6214RS1
bearing running at 6,000 rpm under 1000 N radial load when jet
lubricated by synthetic ester jet engine oil having a viscosity of 6
mm
2
/s (cSt) at operating temperature. Assume ambient temp =
30C, ball dia=6 mm, preloading of bearing = 10 microns, and
forced cooling of bearing.
mm N
P M
P
. 5 . 52 M
dia/2) Bore (
force applied only consider we If
P
=
=
.0015 Deep groove ball
Bearing Type
To consider effect of preloading we can use static load capacity provided in
catalogue. As per its definition load equal to static load capacity causes
permanent deflection greater than 0.01% of ball dia. In other words load
equivalent of 45000 N causes 0.01/100*6000=0.6 microns plastic
deformation of rolling elements. As per one engineering guess, if a ball is
deflected to 100 microns, then 99 microns will be elastic deformation
45000 N is causing 60 micron deflection of rolling element
( )
N
W
W
3062 ) 5 . 1 ^ 6 /( 45000 W Preload
6
45000
45000
60
10
1
2 / 3
3 / 2
1
3
2
3
2
1
= =
= =
For rolling elements relation between deflection and load is
expressed by
3
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
W
W
=
mm N
P M
P
. 3 . 213 M
dia/2) Bore (
load pre force applied to due moment Friction
P

=
=
+
N.mm 105 M
s
=
( )
( ) ( ) 101 5 . 97 36000 1 10
2000 10
3
3 / 2
7
3
3 / 2
7
= =
=
L L
m L L
M M
N v if d N v f M
Total moment = 419.3 N.mm
s
m N
s
m N N
M
.
5 . 263
.
1000
3 . 419
60
2
generation heat of Rate
=
=
=
2340 24
2
125 70
d
m
=
+
= B
4000 d as / 000 , 20
m
2
< = B m W q
LB
[ ]( )
36 . 0 30
5 . 263
1000
24
1000
125 70
5 . 2 30 20000
+ =
=
t
t
[ ] ( ) M B K t t q
t amb LB
= + Dia Max dia Min
329
Revisiting example discussed in slide 128
Example: Design a shaft that must transmit 2 hp at 1725 rpm. Shaft is loaded
with a spur gear and a sheave.
F
r
F
g
N R N R
N R N R
y x
y x
66 ; 7 . 32
; 44 ; 7 . 234
1 1
2 2
= =
= =
Addition: We require
DGBB for 20000
operating hours.
330
ANS: d
1
=11.7 mm
d
2
=15.0 mm
d
3
=09.8 mm
As per available drawing d
1
>d
2
.
Therefore select d
3
=10mm,
d
2
=17mm, and d
1
=20 mm.
N P
N P
239 44 234.7 P 2, bearing on load Radial
74 7 . 32 66 P 1, bearing on load Radial
2
2 2
2
1
2 2
1
= + =
= + =
C
1
> 74*(20000*1725*60/10
6
)
1/3
C
1
> 943.1 N
C
2
> 239*(20000*1725*60/10
6
)
1/3
C
2
> 3046 N
Choose appropriate bearing
332
Variable Loading
E Often bearings are
subject to variable
loading:
Bearing operates at
1000 rpm and
applied load of 500 N
for 100 hours, then
bearing operates at
1200 rpm and 250 N
for 250 hours.
E In such situation it is
advisable to find an
equivalent load
using
( )
( )
( )
a
a a a
a a a a
a a a a
f P f P f P P
L L L L
L L P L P L P
P
rotations of Number L , L , L
a
a
L L L
L P L P L P
P
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
1
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
1
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
...
...
...
then life, expected L IF
,...
bearings roller for
3
10
bearings ball for 3
...
...
+ + + =
+ + +
+ + +
=
=
=
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
Example: A ball bearing is run at four piecewise load and speed
conditions.
1 0.5333 1600 4000 0.4
2 0.3 900 3000 0.3
3 0.1333 400 2000 0.2
4 0.0333 100 1000 0.1
Applied
load, kN
Rotation
fraction
Product,
column 1*2
Speed,
rpm
Time
fraction
( )
3
1
4
3
4 3
3
3 2
3
2 1
3
1
f P f P f P f P P + + + =
( ) N P 2054 10 6636 . 8
3
1
9
= =
334
When to select REB
E Noise reduction & damping (energy
absorption)??
E Frequent start & stop
E Load increases with speed.
E Position of shaft
E Friction loss
E Cost
Inner Ring Rollers
Fresh oil Used oil
Reduction in coefficient of friction: Belt design
338
LUBRICATION
E Process by which the
friction in a moving
contact is reduced. Six
distinct form of
lubrication are:
Hydrodynamic
Hydrostatic
Elastohydrodynamic
Mixed
Boundary
Solid film
Aim: To reduce shear strength
of interface
340
Quantification of LUBRICATION using
dimensionless film parameter (Specific
film thickness)
2
,
2
,
min
b rms a rms
R R
h
+
=
E Boundary
lubrication, <1
E Mixed lubrication,
1<<3
E Hydrodynamic
lubrication, >5
E Elastohydrodynamic
, 3<<5
Hydrostatic
Solidfilm
Dependence of
h
min
of
roughness
341
Rootmeansquare
deviation
( ) dx x z
l
R
l
q
=
0
2
1
342
To understand functioning of lubricants one
needs to understand Dry FRICTION
Leonardo da vinci(14521519): F W;F A
Friction made by same weight will be of equal
resistance at the beginning of movement,
although contact may be of different breadths or
length
Friction produces the double the amount of
effort if weight be doubled
G.Amontons, 1699: F Fn; F A
343
C.A.Coulomb 1781 (17361806):
1)Clearly distinguished between static & kinetic friction
2)Contact at discrete points.
3)Friction due to interlocking of rough surfaces
4)No adhesion
5)f func(v)
kinetic static
344
TOMLINSONs Theory of Molecular attraction: 1929
E Relation between friction coefficient & elastic properties of
material involved.
E Clean Steel E=30 Mpsi, G=12 Mpsi
E Aluminum E=10 Mpsi, G=3.6 Mpsi
E Titanium E=15.5 Mpsi G=6.5 Mpsi
[ ]
Mpsi shear, in modulus is G
) * . 3 (
. 4 . 3
Mpsi modulus, young is E * 07 . 1
3 / 2
G E G
G E
f
II I
+
+
=
+ =
0.6558
0.5039
345
E Bowden & Tabor Model
Two friction sources
E Generally load on bearing surface is carried
on just a few points. These are subjected
to heavy unit pressure, and so probably
weld together. Adhesion force developed at
real area of contact.
E Deformation force needed to plough
asperities of harder surface through softer.
E Resulting friction force is sum of two
contributing terms
Adhesion = Attractive force across an interface
Interface = Contact boundary between two surfaces.
346
ADHESION Theory
Coefficient of
friction > 1.0 ????
348
ADHESION Theory
Two surfaces are pressed together under load W.
Material deforms until area of contact (A) is sufficient to support
load W. A = W/H.
To move the surface sideway, must overcome shear strength of
junctions with force F F = A s
349
E For most of untreated
materials H = 3
y
& s
=
y
/1.7321
E Expected value of
=.2
E Friction of metals
arises from strong
adhesion or welding at
the regions of real
contact.
E Similar & dissimilar
materials?????
H A W
real
= s A F
real
=
H
s
=
Shear stress of softer of contacting materials
350
PLOUGHING Effect
E Assume n conical asperities of hard metal in contact with
flat soft metal, vertically project area of contact:
( )
2
* 5 . 0 r n A =
H r n W ) * 5 . 0 (
2
=
H nrh F ) ( =
cot
2
=
Ploughing occurs when two bodies in
contact have different hardness. The
asperities on the harder surface may
penetrate into the softer surface and
produce grooves on it, if there is relative
motion.
E For = 45 = 0.6366
E For = 60 = 0.3676
E For = 80 = 0.1123
E Generally slopes of real surfaces are lesser
than 10 (i.e. > 80), therefore 0.1.
E Conclusion: Total , representing contribution for
both ploughing and adhesion terms, should not
exceed 0.3. For same material, = 0.2.
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0
.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Coefficient of friction vs cone angle
Cone angle
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
o
f
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
352
Junction Growth
2
2
2
. F
W
A
y
=
F =f (A) ????
Constant
Friction increases area of contact
353
Limiting Junction Growth
E Presence of weak interfacial films.
Assume shear stress,
i
.
max max
A F
i
=
2
max
2 2
max max
) ( 2 A
A
W
F
i y
i
= =
) ( 2
2 2
i y
i
=
Understanding this mechanism motivates to apply thin film
of low shear strength materials to the surfaces.
2
2
2
. F
W
A
y
=
354
EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATION
Metal surfaces of this () type have initial = [0.1, 0.3]. Higher
values are reached if surfaces continue to slid over each other. To
get true we need to degas the surface metal and perform
experiments in high vacuum conditions.
Contamination is beneficial
in reducing friction
355
for mixed lubrication = 0.01 0.1
for elastohydrodynamic lubrication = 0.001 0.01
356
357
358
Boundary Lubrication
Fig. Friction bounce
359
0.360
0.249
0.198
0.198
0.195
Pure mineral oil
2% oleic acid in mineral oil
10% oleic acid in mineral oil
50% oleic acid in mineral oil
Pure oleic acid
Friction
Coefficient
Lubricant
Table: Coefficient of friction influenced by %
of polar lubricant on steel surfaces.
Boundary Lubrication
High viscosity
Low viscosity
High viscosity requires higher pumping power. Therefore
little percentage of boundary additives is used.
400
Stainless steel
79
Nylon
14
Carbon graphite
21
PTFE
520
Steel
320
Zinc alloy
310
Tin bronze
150
Aluminum alloy
160
Silver
55
Copper lead
79
Tin babbit
69
Lead babbit
Tensile
strength, MPa
Material
) ( 2
2 2
i y
i
adhesion
=
adhesion ploughing total
+ =
Solid film
lubrication
Bimetallic babbit overlay
bearings.
Trimetallic copper/lead
bearings.
Aluminum bearings (less
expensive to manufacturer than
bimetal or trimetal copper/lead
bearings. Switching to aluminum
also gets rid of lead)
Homework: Estimate bearing operating temperature of
6214 bearing running at 6,000 rpm under 5000 N radial
load. Assume bearing surfaces are lubricated with
molybdenum disulphide (MoS
2
) solid film lubrication
mechanism. Shear strengths of bearing materials, bearing
MoS
2
interface and MoS
2
 MoS
2
interface are 250 MPa, 50
MPa and 20 MPa respectively. Assume ambient temp =
30C, ploughing component of friction coefficient is
negligible and natural cooling of bearing.
NOTE: It is preferable to use boundary or solid lubricant as
additives in liquid lubricant. For liquid lubricant main properties
is viscosity. Under boundary & mixed lubrication, liquid
lubricants work as carrier fluids.
363
VISCOSITY
E Consider surface 1 is
moving with a velocity V
on a film of thickness h.
E Imagine film is composed
of series of horizontal
layers and force F
causing these layers to
deform/slide on one
another just like a deck
of card.
Absolute viscosity
Dynamic viscosity
Constant of
proportionality
s
m
in s Pa in
dy
du
2
; .
;
= =
364
Viscosity
Physical propertyresistance to flow.
Due to internal friction and molecular
phenomena .
Dynamic Viscosity
o 1 cP=10
3
Pa.s
Kinematic Viscosity
o 1 cSt = 1 mm
2
/s
Grades of Oils:
SAE (Society of
Automotive Engineers)
ISO
365
Variation of viscosity with temp: Increase in
temp decreases intermolecular forces.
194 10.53 20.5 117  10W50
193 8.4 14.4 77.1 100 10W40
135 5.7 10.2 66.4 68 10W30
140 4.17 6.92 38 46 5W20
102 8.0 14.7 140 150 SAE 40
110 6.25 11.9 100 100 SAE 30
118 5.01 8.81 62.3 68 20W
107 3.20 5.57 32.6 32 10W
VI Viscosity In mPa.s
40
0
c 100
0
c 130
0
c
ISO
grade
SAE
grade
Pennsylvanian oil~VI=100
gulf coast oil ~ VI=0
100 *
H  L
U  L
VI =
VISCOSITY INDEX: Qualitative
comparison index
An oil with VI = 240 has less rate of viscosity change with
temperature compared to oil with VI 100.
100
0.00715
1
logY
logU  logH
antilog
VI then 100, VI If +
= >
Y is viscosity in
cSt at 100C
for fluid of
interest.
367
L
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
s
c
a
l
e
T c cS log constant ) 6 . 0 log( log
Equation s Walther'
= +
0.0401 10.53 20.5 117 10W50
0.0284 8.4 14.4 77.1 10W40
0.0312 5.7 10.2 66.4 10W30
0.0284 4.17 6.92 38 5W20
0.0376 8.0 14.7 140 SAE 40
0.0355 6.25 11.9 100 SAE 30
0.0326 5.01 8.81 62.3 20W
0.0294 3.20 5.57 32.6 10W
Viscosity In mPa.s
40
0
c 100
0
c 130
0
c
SAE
grade
( )
( )
in
in
e
t t
in
t t
e
in
=
=
log
Homework: Estimate bearing operating temperature of
6214 bearing running at 6,000 rpm under 5000 N radial load.
Oil bath lubrication mechanism is employed. The viscosity of
oil at room temperature is 27 mm
2
/s (cSt). Assume ambient
temp = 30C, =0.03/C and natural cooling of bearing.
mm N
P M
P
. 5 . 262 M
dia/2) Bore (
P
=
=
.0015 Deep groove ball
Bearing Type
2000 therefore , 1 Generally > N v
mm d
m
5 . 97
2
125 70
=
+
=
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 / 2
3
3 / 2 3 / 2
7
3
3 / 2
7
23 . 61
5 . 97 6000 2 10
2000 10
v M
v M
N v d N v f M
L
L
m L L
=
=
> =
Q
Deep groove ball
Bearing Type
2
Oil Bath
Lubrication factor f
L
( )
( ) ( )
s
m N
s
m N N
M
.
23 . 61 6 . 262 6283 . 0
.
1000
23 . 61 6 . 262
60
2
generation heat of Rate
3 / 2
3 / 2
+ =
+
=
=
2340 24
2
125 70
d
m
=
+
= B
( ) mm N v M M M
L P
. 23 . 61 5 . 262
3 / 2
+ = + =
4000 d as / 000 , 20
m
2
< = B m W q
LB
[ ]( ) ( ) ( )
3 / 2
3 . 0 exp( 27 23 . 61 6 . 262 6283 . 0
1000
24
1000
125 70
1 20000 t t + =
+
[ ] ( ) M B K t t q
t amb LB
= + Dia Max dia Min
[ ]( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3991 . 2 t 3406 . 2 t : 4 Iteration
3406 . 2 t 1796 . 2 t : 3 Iteration
1796 . 2 t 7083 . 1 t : 2 Iteration
7083 . 1 t 0 t : 1 Iteration
3 . 0 exp( 551 6 . 262 0021 . 0
3 . 0 exp( 27 23 . 61 6 . 262 6283 . 0
1000
24
1000
125 70
1 20000
3 / 2
3 / 2
= =
= =
= =
= =
+ =
+ =
t t
t t
Convergence !!!
372
FLUID FILM
BEARINGS
E Machine elements designed to produce smooth (low
friction) motion between solid surfaces in relative motion
and to generate a load support for mechanical
components.
Fluid between surfaces may be a gas, liquid or solid.
Word film implies that fluid thickness (clearance) separating
the surfaces is several orders of magnitude smaller than
other dimensions of bearing (width & length).
Successful design requires film thickness to be larger than
the micro asperities on the surfaces, operation without
contact of surfaces.
E Operation principles of liquid film bearings are
hydrodynamic, hydrostatic or combination.
>5
Hydrostatic Hydrodynamic
4/6/8 pockets
Axial coordinate
Axial coordinate
Very good control on the shaft
position.
High relative speed generates
much higher load capacity &
destabilize the shaftsystem.
Almost same value of coefficient
of frictions.
Significant difference in static &
kinetic friction coefficients
Require pressurized lubricant.
Requires lubricant flow to
compensate the leakage from
bearing ends.
Able to control the effect of
external vibration.. Active control
Able to damp the external
vibrations.
Infinite life if supporting ancillary
equipments function well
HDL provided an infinite bearing
life
Load support is a weak function
of lubricant viscosity.
Load support is a function of
lubricant viscosity.
External source of pressurized
fluid is required to levitate the
shaft surface and separate it
from bearing surface.. Costly
Relative motion between two
mechanical surfaces is utilize the
generate pressure and levitate
one surface relative to other
surface. Selfacting
Hydrostatic Hydrodynamic
375
Petroffs
Equation
C
R
P
N
RLP
C RL RN
ion t of frict Coefficien
C
RL RN
F
RL A RN V
2
2
2
/ 2 * 2 *
W
F
,
2 * 2 *
force, Friction
2 ; 2
=
=
=
=
= =
Friction = Shear Stress * Area
F = (Viscosity* V/h)*Area
C is radial clearance
Conclusion: Coefficient of
friction is a function of
speed, load and viscosity
Temperature Rise
E Friction, due to shear of lubricant film,
generates heat (FV)) in lubricant oil and
increases the temperature of lubricant.
E Assuming that total generated heat is
carried by the oil flowing through bearing
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
3
2 3
8
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
=
=
=
=
C
R
C
N
t or
L
C L C
RN
C
N R
t or
L
C m C
N R
t or
t C m N R
C
L R N R
flow oil by convected Heat generated Heat
P
P
P
P
( )
1000
/ 1760
/ 860
3
=
=
=
C
R
C kg J C
m kg
P
o
N t 2 . 52 =
117
77.1
66.4
38
140
100
62.3
32.6
Viscosity in
mPa.s 40
0
c
20.5 10W50
14.4 10W40
10.2 10W30
6.92 5W20
14.7 SAE 40
11.9 SAE 30
8.81 20W
5.57 10W
Viscosity in
mPa.s 100
0
c
SAE
grade
N t 2 . 52 =
Assume rotational speed = 900 rpm
783 = t
25.5258
48.7809
78.3000
109.6200
29.7540
51.9912
60.3693
91.6110
4.3660
6.8982
9.3177
11.5101
5.4184
7.9866
11.2752
16.0515
In hydrodynamic lubrication, increase in viscosity
increases load capacity but also increases
friction. We require Reynolds equation.
378
Reynolds Equation
E A basic pressure distribution equation for Fluid
Film Lub.
E In 1886, Reynolds derived for estimation of
pressure distribution in the narrow, converging
gap between two surfaces.
E Reynolds equation helps to predict hydrodynamic,
squeeze, and hydrostatic film mechanisms.
( ) ( ) ( )
+ +
+ +
0 2 1 2 1
3 3
2 6
equation Reynolds'
V V h W W
z
h U U
x z
P h
z x
P h
x
h
379
No pressure development within the parallel surfaces.
y
U
1
U
2
=0
U
1
U
1
380
Pressure driven flow
381
dz dx dz dy dx
x
p
p dz dx dy
y
dz pdy . . . . : balance Force
+ =
+ +
Small element of
Fluid with sides
dx, dy, and dz
y
u
y
u
y x
P
382
2 1
2
1
2
y
u
: n integratio On
C y C
y
x
P
u
C y
x
P
+ +
=
+
( )
2 2 1
2
1
2 1
2 2
1
2
2
2
) (
,
,
; U u 0, y : conditions boundary Using
U
h
y
U U
x
P yh y
u
C
h
x
P
h
U U
C U
U u h y
+ +
=
=
=
= =
= =
Check !!!
y
u
y x
P
383
( )
2 12
.
: unit width per direction  in x rate Flow
2 1
3
0
h
U U
x
P h
q
dy u q
x
h
x
+ +
=
=
( )
2 12
.
direction  z in rate flow Similarly
2 1
3
0
h
W W
z
P h
q
dy w q
z
h
z
+ +
=
=
0 ) (
equation continuity mass using derived is equation Reynolds
0
=
+ +
z
q
V V
x
q
z
h
x
Check !!!
( ) ( ) ( )
+ +
+ +
0 2 1 2 1
3 3
2 6
equation Reynolds'
V V h W W
z
h U U
x z
P h
z x
P h
x
h
Stretching action
Wedge
action
(inclined
surfaces
Squeeze action
(bearing
surfaces move
perpendicular to
each other)
C
a
n
c
a
r
r
y
H
i
g
h
l
o
a
d
s
f
o
r
s
h
o
r
t
d
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
( )
+ =
h
x
U U
z
P
z
h
2 1
3
6
1
: I tion Simplifica
( )
+ =
h
x
U U
x
P h
x
2 1
3
6 : II tion Simplifica
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
plong in green color
Simplification II
Simplification I
Length/diameter
=0.25
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
0
2E7
4E7
6E7
8E7
1E8
1.2E8
1.4E8
Comparison among pressure profiles at z = 0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
pshort in red
Length/ diameter = 2.5
Simplification I
Simplification II
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
0
2000000
4000000
6000000
8000000
1E7
12000000
14000000
16000000
18000000
2E7
22000000
Comparison among pressure profiles at z = 0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
pshort in red
Length/diameter = 1.0
Simplification II
Simplification I
388
Short Static Bearing
( )
+ =
h
x
U U
z
P
z
h
2 1
3
6
1
dx
dh
h
U
z
P
3 2
2
6
=
=
L
z
dx
dh
h
U
p
389
+
=
L
z
R
C
U
p
r
r
C
e
d R dx
L
z
dx
dh
h
U
p = =
; ;
4
3
equation following in h of expression Using
2
2
3
Load capacity of short journal
bearing
( )
2
2
2
2
3
0
1
2
2
cos ). . .(
centres of line of direction in component Load
2
2
=
=
r
C
L U
W dz Rd p W
L
L
( )
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
0
1
4
sin ). . .(
centres of line lar to perpendicu component Load
=
=
r
r r
C
L U
W dz Rd p W
L
L
( )
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
2
3
2 2
1 1
16
1
4
= + =
r
r
C
L U
W W W
2
1
4
tan tan
= =
W
W
r
391
Locking of Journal
Position
Journal OD
Bearing ID
0
2
0
=
=
=
W
value Max W =
=
=
0
1
max
0
2
0
1 0
W W < <
< <
< <
392
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
eccentricity ratio vs. attitude angle
Eccentricity ratio
A
t
t
i
t
u
d
e
a
n
g
l
e
Lesser the attitude angle, better the stability of bearing.
0+ 5 = 5 N
10 + 5 = 15 N
100 + 5 = 105 N
1000 + 5 = 1005 N
393
Friction force in Journal Bearing
E Petroff equation (explained on slide 375) inaccurate
dz Rd
h
U
F
dA F
h
dx
dp
h
U
L
L
. 0
;
2
2 /
2 / 0
+ =
= + =
2
1
2
=
r
C
ULR
F
If 0, F Petroff solution
h = C
r
+ e cos
( )
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
2
3
1 1
16
1
4
r
C
L U
W
Temperature Rise
E Friction, due to shear of lubricant film,
generates heat (FV)) in lubricant oil and
increases the temperature of lubricant.
E Assuming that total generated heat is
carried by the oil flowing through bearing
( )
( )
( )
( ) L C
F
t or
C L C
F
t or
C L C
RN
RN F
t or
t C m N R F
flow oil by convected Heat generated Heat
r
P r
P r
P
756800
1
2
2
2
2
2
=
=
=
=
=
( ) C kg J C
m kg
P
o
/ 1760
/ 860
3
=
=
395
Design of Hydrodynamic Journal
Bearing
1. Guess eccentricity
ratio
2. Calculate load
capacity, friction
force, temperature
rise.
3. Modify lubricant
viscosity.
4. Repeat steps 13
so that average
viscosity and load
converge.
( )
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
2
3
1 1
16
1
4
r
C
L U
W
2
1
2
=
r
C
ULR
F
( ) L C
F
t
r
756800
1
=
( )
in
t t
in
e
=
396
Ex: Determine the minimum film thickness, maximum pressure, coefficient of
friction for a hydrodynamic journal bearing, which supports a 600 N load at
rotational speed of 2000 rpm. The shaft dia is 40 mm. Assume bearing length
= 10 mm, oil viscosity at room temp (30C) = 15 mPa.s, =0.029, and radial
clearance 20 m.
Given: U = 4.19 m/s. Factor1 = U*L
3
**0.25/(C
r
2
)=8227 m
2
/s,
Factor2 = 2*U*L*R* /C
r
,
STEP 1: Assume = 0.5 W = 118 N
Assume = 0.75 W = 562 N
STEP 2: Assume = 0.8 W = 900 N, F = 6.58 N, t=43.5C
( )
2
1
2
=
Factor
F
( )
( )
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
16
1
1
Factor W
F t 607 . 6 =
( )
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
2
3
1 1
16
1
4
r
C
L U
W
( )
0042 . 0 5 . 43 = =
=
C t at
e
in
t t
in
o
STEP 3: Modify viscosity using
STEP 4: For = 0.8 W = 252 N, F = 1.84 N, t=12.2C,
=0.0105 W = 630.2 N, F = 4.6 N, t=30.4C.
Now it is preferable to increase . Let us assume = 0.82 and
t=21 C W = 613.5 N, F = 3.8 N, t=24.9C, =0.0073 W
= 546.2 N, F = 3.4 N, t=22.2C. =0.0077 W = 576 N, F =
3.5 N, t=23.4C.
Now it is preferable to increase . Let us assume = 0.83 and
t=23 C W = 649 N, F = 3.6 N, t=24C.
2
1
4
tan
=
o
28.7 0.82 Answer = =
( )
( ) micron h h
C h
6 . 3 82 . 0 1 20
1 , thickness film Minimum
min min
min
= =
=
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
max
3
max
2
2
max
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
sin
cos 1
75 . 0
4
0
sin
cos 1
3
4
sin
cos 1
3
0 z at occur will pressure Maximum
o
o r
t
in
r
t
in
r
C
L e
p
L
R
C
e R
p
L
z
R
C
U
p
+
=
+
=
+
=
=
7385 . 2
max
=
o
MPa p 48 . 6
max
=
0058 . 0
600
5 . 3
=
= =
W
F
How to
reduce
temperature
399
Groove arrangement to
feed to HB under pressure
Hybrid bearing
Pa pressure Feed P
m hole feed of Diameter d
m thickness film Local h
L
d
P h
Q
h
g
h
g
P
,
,
,
4 . 0
675 . 0
supply
75 . 1
supply
3
=
=
=
+ =
400
Ex: Determine the minimum film thickness, maximum pressure, coefficient of
friction for a hydrodynamic journal bearing, which supports a 600 N load at
rotational speed of 2000 rpm. The shaft dia is 40 mm. Assume bearing length =
10 mm, oil viscosity at room temp (30C) = 15 mPa.s, =0.029, and radial
clearance 20 m. Assume dia of feed oil is 2.5mm and supply pressure is 1.5 bar
Given: U = 4.19 m/s. Factor1 = U*L
3
**0.25/(C
r
2
)=8227 m
2
/s,
Factor2 = 2*U*L*R*pi()/C
r
,
STEP 1: Assume = 0.5 W = 118 N
Assume = 0.75 W = 562 N
STEP 2: Assume = 0.8 W = 900 N, F = 6.58 N
( )
( )
2 / 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
16
1
1
Factor W
( )
2
1
2
=
Factor
F
( )
( )
( )
C t
F
t or
C Q L C
RN
RN F
t or
t C m N R F
flow oil by convected Heat generated Heat
P P r
P
o
3 . 29
) 1 ( 254 . 0 189 . 4
64 . 27
2
2
2
2
3
=
+ +
=
+
=
=
=
( ) C kg J C
m kg
P
o
/ 1760
/ 860
3
=
=
( )
( ) s m Q
Pa P
m d
m h
L
d
P h
Q
P
h
g
h
g
P
/ 1 10 54 . 2
, 10 5 . 1
, 0025 . 0
, 1 10 20
4 . 0
675 . 0
3
3
8
5
supply
6
75 . 1
supply
3
+ =
=
=
+ =
+ =
( )
0064 . 0 33 = =
=
C t at
e
in
t t
in
o
STEP 3: Modify viscosity using
Continue
iterations !!!
HydroStatic Bearings (HSB)
E Completely removal of wear and reduction of
coefficient of friction to 1/500.
E Surfaces can be separated by full fluid film even at
zero speed.
No problem with micro roughness and waviness.
E Zero friction at zero speed.
Useful feature for large size telescopes and radars.
E High stiffness
Oil film thickness varies as cube root of load.
E Why not every bearing is based on Hydrostatic mechanism
High pressure supplyReliability & life of high pressure oil lines are always
in doubt.
3 / 1
W h
Hydrostatic Thrust Bearings
E Many loads carried by rotating machinery have
components that act in the direction of the
shafts axis of rotation. Bearings supporting
such loads are known as thrust bearings.
404
Elementary 1D Analysis
E Assume a shaft of
radius R
o
is located
coaxially with a
circular recess of
radius R
i
.
E Assume all the oil
in recess is at the
supply pressure P
s
.
405
E Elemental flow rate:
E If flow is axisymmetrical, and radial flow rate
is constant, then flow rate:
E If film thickness is constant, then on
integration:
rd
dr
dp h
q .
12
3
=
2 . .
12
3
r
dr
dp h
Q =
) (log
6
1
3
C r Q
p h
+ =
Refer slide
368
406
E Using two boundary conditions to find
unknown values of C
1
and Q
E Load carrying capacity:
E Substituting expression of p and rearranging
i
i
s
R r
R
R
r
R
p p =
0
0
0
R region in the
log
log
( )dr rd p R p W
o
i
R
R
i s
+ =
2
0
2
.
( )
=
i
o
o
i
o s
R
R
R
R
R p W
log . 2
1
.
2
2
2
=
1
2
1
1
1
log . 2
1
r
r
C W
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
load vs ratio
ratio
l
o
a
d
C1 = 10
( )dr rd p R p W
o
i
R
R
i s
+ =
2
0
2
.
) / 1 log(
1
6
1
3
0
r
p h
Q
s
=
) / 1 log(
1
1
2
r
C Q =
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
flow vs ratio
ratio
f
l
o
w
C2 = 10
) / 1 log(
1
1
2
r
C Q =
Generally we require high load capacity but low flow rate.
409
Power loss: consists of pumping
power and friction losses.
2
4
0 0
4
0
1
2
.
=
=
+ =
R
R
h
R
P
P Q P
P P P
i
f
s h
f h t
2
4
0 0
4
0
2
0
3
0
1
2 ) / log( 6
1
+ =
R
R
h
R
P
R R
h
P
i
s
i
t
= =
=
=
0
3
0
2
0
0
2
) (
R
i
R
f f
dr r
h
P r F P
r A
h
r
F
h
U
A F
Generally we require high load capacity, low flow rate and low
power loss.
410
Example: W = 1000 N, =5 rpm, R
0
=100 mm, R
i
=50
mm, =0.01 Pa.s. Optimize minimum film thickness for
minimum power loss
2
4
0 0
4
0
2
0
3
0
1
2 ) / log( 6
1
+ =
R
R
h
R
P
R R
h
P
i
s
i
t
( )
=
i
o
o
i
o s
R
R
R
R
R p W
log . 2
1
.
2
2
2
0
2
3
0 1
h
C
h C P
t
+ =
( )
Pa 824 , 58
5 . 0 1
) 2 log( . 2
1 . 0 *
1000
rad/s 5236 . 0
60
5 * 2
2 2
=
=
= =
s s
P P
s C
C
/ N.m 10 * 404 . 0
) N/(s.m 10 * 614 . 2
2 6
2
2 11
1
=
=
micron h
loss power
o
8 . 26
min
=
411
Homework
E A hydrodynamic journal bearing uses
SAE10W40 lubricating oil. Assume:
Room temperature, t
in
= 40C.
Effective operating temp, t
eff
= t
in
+0.5*t
Applied load = 2200 N
Journal radius = 40mm
Bearing length = 20mm
Rotational speed of journal = 30 rps
Radial clearance = 0.1% of journal radius
E Determine min. film thickness, max. fluid
pressure, and coefficient of friction.
GEARS
E To transmit power between shafts rotating
usually at different rotational speeds ? belt
drives
E Generally gear pair acts as a speed reducer
aiming torque amplification at output shaft.
? Friction
E Often gears are treated as pitch cylinder
which roll together without slip. Positive
drive provided by meshing teeth. ? belt
drives.
E Hybrid drives
out
in
A
m
= ratio, Torque
Engagement
413
Selection of Mechanical Drive
E Flat belt is cheapest. Vbelt is comparatively costly.
Gear drive is costliest.
E Maintenance of belt drive is relatively simple.
Periodic adjustment of centre distance in order to
compensate stretch of belt. In gear drive,
lubrication is important consideration in
maintenance.
E Shifting mechanism: Flat belt & gear drives are
preferred choice. In case of Vbelt, it is not possible
to use shifting.
E Flat belt for long center distance. Vbelt for
comparatively short centre distance. Gear for
smallest centre distance.
Spur Gear Drive
Spur Gears: Teeth
parallel to axis of rotation.
Suitable to transmit
motion between parallel
shafts.
Bending load
Radial load
Contact load
415
Helical Gears: Teeth are inclined to axis of rotation.
Helix angle is same for pinion (smaller gear) and gear.
However, hand of helix is opposite. Lesser noise compared
to spur gears.
Helical Gear Drive.
Bending, Radial, Thrust and Contact loads
416
Straight Tooth Bevel Gears: Teeth
formed on conical surfaces. Size of gear tooth
decreases towards apex of cone. Transmit motion
between intersecting shafts.
Bevel gear drive with straight teeth.
417
Worm Gears: Worm resembles a screw.
Direction of rotation of worm wheel??? High speed ratio.
Worm Gear Drive. (a) Cylindrical teeth; (b) double enveloping.
418
Velocity ratio
E Normally speed reduction
for a single pair of spur
gear is lesser than 6:1.
Size of gear wheel
increases Gear box size.
E For high speed reduction.
Two stage or three stage
construction are
preferred.
419
Spur Gear
Nomenclature
Basic spur gear Geometry.
Pitch circles: Imaginary
tangent circles.
Pinion: Smaller.
Circular pitch: Sum of tooth
thickness & width of space.
Addendum: Radial distance
between top land and pitch
circle.
Backlash: Difference
between tooth space and
tooth thickness.
Module: m=D
p
/Z
P
=D
G
/Z
G
Spur Gear Nomenclature
Second choice 1.125,1.375,1.75,2.25,2.75,3.5,4.5,5.5,7,9,11,14,18,22,28,36,45
Preferred 1,1.25,1.5,2,2.5,3,4,5,6,8,10,12,16,20,25,32,40
Modules
Conjugate Action
Catalogue B
All sizes shown above are in 20
o
PA =Presure Angle (Note: 14.1/2
o
PA is also supplied)
152.60 27 or 1 4.75
HBIGM04.75
142.80 27 or 1 4.5
HBIGM04.5
147.00 27 or 1 4.25
HBIGM04.25
1358.00 50 20
HBIGM20
124.60 27 or 1 4
HBIGM04
1190.00 50 18
HBIGM18
123.20 27 or 1 3.75
HBIGM03.75
980.00 40 16
HBIGM16
120.40 27 or 1 3.5
HBIGM03.5
665.00 40 14
HBIGM14
123.20 27 or 1 3.25
HBIGM3.25
616.00 40 12
HBIGM12
119.00 27 or 1 3
HBIGM03
560.00 40 11
HBIGM11
110.60 27 or 1 2.75
HBIGM02.75
512.40 32 10
HBIGM10
107.80 27 or 1 2.5
HBIGM02.5
456.40 32 9
HBIGM09
103.60 27 or 1 2.25
HBIGM02.25
392.00 32 or 11/4 8
HBIGM08
103.60 27 or 1 2
HBIGM02
329.00 32 or 11/4 7
HBIGM07
100.80 27 or 1 1.75
HBIGM01.75
193.20 27 or 1 6
HBIGM06
98.00 27 or 1 1.5
HBIGM01.5
172.20 27 or 1 5.5
HBIGM05.5
95.20 27 or 1 1.25
HBIGM01.25
155.40 27 or 1 5
HBIGM05
95.20 27mm or 1 1mm
HBIGM01
Pounds
Bore
diameter
of cutter
Module
MM
Pounds
Bore
diameter
of cutter
Module
MM
2 14  16 7
3 17  20 6
4 21  25 5
5 26  34 4
6 35  54 3
7 55  134 2
8 135  RACK 1
(European
Cutter No)
Cuts Teeth
BSS Cutter
Number
Catalogue B
Pitch and Base Circles.?
Cross belt
1m .8m 20 Stub
1.25m
1.35m
1m 25
1.25m
1.35m
1m 22.5
1.25m
1.35m
1m 20 Full
depth
Dede
ndum
Adde
ndum
,
deg
Tooth
system
c
424
Contact Ratio
)
Z
r
(2
recess of Length approach of Length
Base_pitch
action of Length
g
bg
+
=
425
Contact Ratio
g
bg og bp op
bg og bp op
bg og
bp op
bp op
Z
C r r r r
r r r r
r r
r r
c a b a
r r b
/ r 2
sin
ratio Contact
sin ) r r ( ab action, of Length
sin r ac Similarly
sin r cb or,
cb Length
a Length
sin r c a Length
bg
2 2 2 2
g p
2 2 2 2
g
2 2
p
2 2
* *
2 2 *
p
*
+
=
+ + =
=
=
=
=
=
Ex: For =20, Z
P
=19, Z
g
=37, and m=4; Find Gear Ratio,
circular pitch, base pitch, pitch diameters, center distance,
addendum, dedendum, whole depth, outside diameters, and
contact ratio. If center distance is increased by 2% what will
be new pressure angle and new contact ratio.
a
r
Z m
p
m
p
g
c
2 d d
mm 5 b m 1.25 b Dedendum,
mm 4 a m 1.0 a Addendum,
) (r C dist, center Nominal
d dia Pitch
cos p pitch Base
p or,
Z
d
pitch Circular
19
37
Ratio Gear
p op
g
g
b
c
g
g
+ =
= =
= =
+ =
=
=
=
=
=
b
bg og bp op
p
C r r r r sin
ratio Contact
2 2 2 2
+
=
=
p
p
new
r
r
02 . 1
cos
cos
1
New r
p
427
Design of
Spur Gears
E Breakage of gear teeth
E Excessive wear of gear
tooth surface
E Excessive noise
E Excessive heat
Patent U.S. 5,503,045
428
Forces on Gear
Tooth
tan component Radial
W Magnitude
action. of line the along gear, on tooth to
ing correspond tooth to one from ed transmitt is W Force point, pitch At
gear. pinion to by delivered being is T A torque
t
p
t r
p
P
W W
r
T
=
=
NOTE: Assumption of one tooth contact. Load sharing (contact ratio=1.6)???
Constant torque, but each tooth experiences repeated loading.. Fatigue
loading.
Additional load on bearings
Max load at pitch point
429
Ex: Pinion shaft passes 15kW at 2500 rpm. For =25,
Z
P
=14, m=4, and Gear Ratio=3.5, determine transmitted
loads on gear teeth. Find pitch diameters, mean and
alternative components of transmitted load.
( )
2
2
954 tan ,
2046 2 / / ,
56 14 4
. 55 . 200 3 . 57 5 . 3
3 . 57 ) 60 / 2500 2 /( 15000
49 14 5 . 3
t
t
t r
p p t
p p
g
p
g
W
load e Alternativ
W
load Mean
N W W load Radial
N d T W load Tangential
mm Z m d
m N T
T
Z
=
=
= =
== =
= = =
= =
= =
= =
47% load
Ex: A gear pair (Z
P
=23, =20, Z
g
=24, m=1.75, F=10.0 mm)
has center distance equal to 42 mm. Find nominal and running
contact ratios.
75 . 43 2 d d
mm 1875 . 2 b m 1.25 b Dedendum,
mm 75 . 1 a m 1.0 a Addendum,
125 . 41 ) (r C dist, center Nominal
42 d dia Pitch
1662 . 5 cos p pitch Base
5 . 5 p pitch Circular
23
24
Ratio Gear
p op
g
g
b
c
= + =
= =
= =
+ =
= =
=
= =
=
op
p
g g
c
c
d a
r
mm d Z m
mm p
mm p m
o
06 . 23
42
cos 125 . 41
cos
1
=
=
new new
m Y F
W
t
b
=
21
22
24
26
28
30
34
38
43
No. of
Teeth
0.245
0.261
0.277
0.290
0.296
0.303
0.309
0.314
0.322
Form
factor Y
0.409
0.422
0.435
0.447
0.460
0.472
0.480
0.485
50
60
75
100
150
300
400
Rack
0.328
0.331
0.337
0.346
0.353
0.359
0.371
0.384
0.397
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Form
factor Y
No. of
Teeth
Form
factor Y
No. of
Teeth
AGMA introduced velocity factor in terms of pitch
line velocity (m/s) in Lewis equation.
( ) profile cast iron cast
V
K
v
,
05 . 3
05 . 3 +
=
m Y F
W
t
b
=
( )
( )
( ) profile ground or Shaved
V
K
profile shaped or Hobbed
V
K
profile milled or Cut
V
K
v
v
v
56 . 5
56 . 5
56 . 3
56 . 3
01 . 6
01 . 6
+
=
+
=
+
=
m Y F
W K
AGMA
t v
b
=
Eq. Lewis
Useful for preliminary estimation
of gear size.
Ex: Find out the power rating (assuming static loading) of milled profiled spur
gear (AISI material, yield strength = 210MPa) for data: =20, Z
P
=16,
F=36mm, m=3.0, N = 20 rps. Assume factor of safety = 3.0.
Ans: Allowable bending stress = 70 MPa.
Pitch line velocity V=3.0 m/s.
K
v
= 1.5 , Form factor Y = 0.296
Tangential load = 1492 N.
Power rating = 4.475 kW.
Homework 15: Find out the power rating (for infinite life) of milled
profiled spur gear (AISI material, ultimate strength = 380MPa) for data: =20,
Z
P
=16, F=36mm, m=3.0, N = 20 rps. Assume factor of safety = 3.0.
Ans: Endurance strength = 190 MPa. Allowable strength = 84 MPa
Tangential load = 1790 N.
Power rating = 5.37 kW.
437
Driven Machines
Power Source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Heavy shock
Application factor, K
a
Uniform
(Electric motor,
turbine)
Light shock
(Multicylinder)
Moderate shock
1.00
1.20
1.30
1.25
1.40
1.70
1.50
1.75
2.00
1.75
2.25
2.75
AGMA Bending Stress
Equation
loading of point angle, pressure on depends Factor Geometry bending AGMA J
K K K
J m F
W K
m B a
t v
b
=
=
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
< 50
150
250
>500
K
m
Face
width, mm
Load distribution
factor K
m
t
R
B B B
B B
h
t
m where m K
m K
= =
< + =
2 . 1 0 . 1
2 . 1 m 0.5 4 . 3 2 factor thickness Rim
B
Ex: A gear pair (Z
P
=23, =20, Z
g
=24, m=1.75, F=10.0 mm)
transmits 8 N.m torque from crankshaft (rotational speed 8000
rpm) of single cylinder IC engine to wheels. Bore diameter of
pinion is 17 mm, and bore dia of gear is 20 mm. Using AGMA
bending stress formula to determine the maximum bending
stress. Assume gears are grounded.
m B a
t v
b
K K K
J m F
W K
=
Driven Machines
Power Source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Heavy shock
Application factor, K
a
Uniform
(Electric motor,
turbine)
Light shock
(Multicylinder)
Moderate shock
1.00
1.20
1.30
1.25
1.40
1.70
1.50
1.75
2.00
1.75
2.25
2.75
Given: F = 10 mm, m =
1.75, W
t
=
8000/(23*1.75*0.5)
1.6 < 50
K
m
Face
width, mm
Load distribution
factor K
m
( )
( )
1 2 . 1
4375 . 9 5 . 0
9375 . 3 75 . 1 * 25 . 2
875 . 35 75 . 1 * 25 . 1 * 2
3185 . 1
56 . 5
56 . 5
/ 86 . 16
60
8000 25 . 40
60
mm 25 . 40 75 . 1 * 23
6 . 1 0 . 2
= >
= =
= =
= =
=
+
=
= =
= =
= =
B B
p proot R
t
p proot
v
p
p
m a
K m
Bore d t
mm h
d d
V
K
s m
N d
V
d
K K
m B a
t v
b
K K K
J m F
W K
=
( ) gears ground
V
K
v
56 . 5
56 . 5 +
=
loading HPSTC for MPa
loading tip for MPa
K K K
J m F
W K
b
b
m B a
t v
b
8 . 273
6 . 368
=
=
=
J = 0.26
J = 0.35
443
Allowable Bending Stress vs.
Brinell Hardness
MPa H Grade
MPa H Grade
B b all
B b all
3 . 88 533 . 0 1
113 703 . 0 2
,
,
+ =
+ =
MPa
b
6 . 368 =
9 . 525 1
6 . 363 2
=
=
B
B
H required Grade
H required Grade
Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress for two grades of through
hardened steel [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012F90]
Core/case hardness ????
MPa
b
8 . 273 =
348 1
7 . 228 2
=
=
B
B
H required Grade
H required Grade
From previous example..
No bending failure if hardness is
greater than 230 HB for grade 2
material.
No bending failure if hardness is
greater than 350 HB for grade 1
material.
But failure occurs after 10
6
cycles
Why ??
445
Surface/Contact Stresses
in Spur Gears
E Surface failure of gear tooth
occurs due to very high local
contact stresses. Maximum
contact pressure at the
contact point between two
cylinders is given by:
( ) ( ) [ ]
+
+
=
=
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
1
max
1 1
/ 1 / 1 2
2
d d
E E
L
F
b where
L b
F
p
Refer Slide 57
As per nomenclature of gear
design: F = W, L=F, W = W
t
/cos , d
1
=d
p
*sin
As per nomenclature of gear
design: F = W, L=F, W = W
t
/
cos , d1=d
p
*sin
( ) ( ) [ ]
sin
1
1 1
/ 1 / 1
2
2
2 2
max
+
+
=
=
g p
g g p p
d d
E E
F
W
b where
F b
W
p
( ) ( ) [ ]
sin
1
1 1
/ 1 / 1
cos
2
cos / 2
2 2
max
+
+
=
=
g p
g g p p
t
t
d d
E E
F
W
b where
F b
W
p
( ) ( ) [ ]
+
+
=
=
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
1
max
1 1
/ 1 / 1 2
2
d d
E E
L
F
b where
L b
F
p
Surface contact
compressive
stress
( ) ( )
+
=
g g p p
g p
g p
t
c
E E
d d
d d
F
W
/ 1 / 1 cos sin
2
2 2
2
Z
Z
2
cos sin
1 1
1
p
g
2 2
g
g
g
P
p
P
Z
I
E E
C Let
+
=
( ) ( ) [ ]
+
=
g
p g
g g p p p
t
c
d
d d
E E d F
W
cos sin
2
/ 1 / 1
1
2 2
2
( ) ( )
+
=
g g p p
g p
g p
t
E E
d d
d d
F
W
p
/ 1 / 1 cos sin
2
2 2
2
max
I
C
d F
W
P
p
t
c
=
equation resistance pitting AGMA
c v m a
p
t
P
C C C
d I F
W
C =
Driven Machines
Power Source Unifor
m
Light
shock
Moderate
shock
Heavy
shock
Application factor, C
a
Uniform
(Electric
motor, turbine)
Light shock
(Multicylinder)
Moderate
shock
1.00
1.20
1.30
1.25
1.40
1.70
1.50
1.75
2.00
1.75
2.25
2.75
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
< 50
150
250
>500
C
m
Face width,
mm
Load distribution
factor C
m
( ) ( )
3 / 2
12 25 . 0 ; 1 56 50
200
v
B
v
Q B B A where
A
V A
C = + =
+
=
449
Calculation of Factor C
v
( ) ( )
3 / 2
12 25 . 0 and 1 56 50
200
v
B
v
Q B B A
A
V A
C
= + =
+
=
1.34
1.23
1.13
1
C
v
for 16.86 m/s velocity
15 m
10 m
7 m
5 m
Tolerance
9
10
11
12
AGMA
Q
v
Ex: A gear pair (Z
P
=23, =20, Z
g
=24, m=1.75, F=10.0 mm)
transmits 8 N.m torque from crankshaft (rotational speed 8000
rpm) of single cylinder IC engine to wheels. Bore diameter of
pinion is 17 mm, and bore dia of gear is 20 mm. Using AGMA
pitting resistance formula to determine the maximum contact
stress. Assume gears quality = 9, E = 2.e5 MPa, =0.3
0.0821 I
Z
Z
2
cos sin
1.34 1.6 2.0 187
1 1
1
equation resistance pitting AGMA
p
g
2 2
c
=
+
=
=
=
=
g
p
g
g
P
p
P
v m a
p
t
P
Z
I
C
E E
C
C C C
d I F
W
C