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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

MATTER

MATTER – anything / any substance that has MASS and OCCUPIES SPACE

THEORY OF MATTER

Matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles.


Three types of particles are:
i. ATOMS
ii. IONS
iii. MOLECULES

MATTER

ELEMENT COMPOUND
A substance made from only ONE type of A substance made up from TWO or more
atom. DIFFERENT elements(atoms or ions) which
are chemically bonded together

ATOM MOLECULE ION MOLECULE


The SMALLEST A neutral particle Positively and A neutral particle
particle of an consists of SIMILAR Negatively charged consists of
element . (Normally non metal atoms particles, which are DIFFERENT non
it is a metal, noble which are formed from metal metal atoms which
gases and a few chemically bonded. and non metal are chemically
non metal elements atoms. bonded.
such as carbon and
silicon
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Substance Type of Particle Note


Sodium (Na) Atom A metal element
Carbon (C) Atom A non metal element
Two Oxygen atom are chemically bonded together to form a
Oxygen gas (O2) Molecule
Oxygen molecule
Two chlorine atom are chemically bonded together to form a
Chlorine gas (Cl2) Molecule
chlorine molecule
Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Ion Mg2+ ion and O2- ion are chemically bonded to form MgO
Potassium Chloride (KCl) Ion K+ ion and Cl- ion are chemically bonded to form KCl
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Molecule One atom carbon and 2 atoms Oxygen are chemically bonded
Tetrachloromethane (CCl4) Molecule One atom carbon and 4 atoms chlorine are chemically bonded

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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER

STATES OF MATTER
DESCRIPTION
SOLID LIQUID GAS

Drawing of particles
arrangement

Particles are arranged The particles are arranged


The particles are very FAR
Particles arrangement CLOSELY PACKED and in CLOSELY PACKED but NOT
APART from each other
ORDERLY manner in ORDER manner
Particles are only VIBRATE Particles can VIBRATE, Particles can VIBRATE,
Particles movement and ROTATE at their fixed ROTATE and MOVE ROTATE and MOVE
position. throughout the liquid. FREELY
Attractive forces between Very STRONG forces STRONG forces, but WEAK forces between
particles between particles weaker than force in solid patricles

Energy content Very LOW energy MODERATE energy Very HIGH energy

SUBLIMATION
FREEZING (heat is release)
(heat is release)
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MELTING
(heat is absorbed)

SUBLIMATION
(heat is absorbed)

BOILING
(heat is absorbed)

CONDENSATION
(heat is release)

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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

HEATING OF NAPHTHALENE.

Procedure
1. A boiling tube is filled 4 – 6 cm height with
naphthalene.
2. Thermometer is placed into it.
3. The boliling tube is immersed into a water
bath.
4. Make sure the naphthalene is totally
immersed in the water (as shown in the
diagram).
5. The wate is heated and stirred naphthalene
slowly using thermometer.
6. When temperature reach 60oC, start
stopwatch.
7. The temperature of naphthalene is recorded
at 30s intervals until the temperature
reaches 90oC.
Temperature /oC

Description HEATING CURVE

D Melting point is M oC
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A to B (SOLID STATE).
Heat is absorbed by particles. Kinetic energy increase.
B C The temperature increase.
M
B to C (SOLID + LIQUID)
Temperature remain constant. Heat is absorbed by
A particles to overcome forces between particles.

C to D (LIQUID)
The temperature increase. Heat is absorbed cause
t1 t2 t3 Time / s the kinetic energy become stronger.

Heating Curve

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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

COOLING OF NAPHTHALENE

Procedure
1. The boling tube is removed from the water
bath.
2. Put the boiling tube into a conical flask.
3. Stirred constantly with thermometer to avoid
super cooling.
4. The temperature is recorded every 30 s
intervals until temperature reaches 60oC.
Temperature /oC

Description COOLING CURVE


P
Freezing point is M oC

P to Q (LIQUID STATE).
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Heat is released by particles. Kinetic energy decrease.


M Q R The temperature decrease.

Q to R (SOLID + LIQUID)
S Temperature remain constant. Heat is released by
particles to surrounding is exactly balanced by the
heat energy released as the particles attract one
another to form a solid.

t1 t2 t3 Time / s R to S (SOLID)
The temperature increase. The particles in substance
Cooling Curve released heat. The Kinetic energy is low.

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