You are on page 1of 71

Atatürk University College of Agriculture Publication

Number: 66

INTEGRATED ENGLISH

REFERENCE NOTES

Prof. Dr. Ziya YURTTAŞ

ERZURUM - 1999
2

FOREWORD

This booklet was prepared only as a source of reference for the intermediate level
intensive English courses that had been held annually in the College of Agriculture at
Atatürk University between 1978 and 1998. The details, explanations and exercises were
omitted, on purpose, for they were intended to be taken up during the courses.

Generally in schools, different parts of certain subjects are taught at different times
in the courses of English as a foreign language. A learner at intermediate level has to
integrate and consolidate these parts in order to establish a solid base for improvement.

In this booklet, the essentials of English Grammar are integrated by presenting related
parts together and simplified by sacrificing some details for the sake of practicality. It is
intended to provide a practical guideline for intermediate learners to reach to an advanced
level and for the advanced learners to maintain their level of proficiency in English. This
integrated approach makes it possible for learners to know what they already know and
they need to know.

Four basic skills, i.e., reading comprehension, listening comprehension, written


expression, and oral expression must be developed in learning a language. These skills are
based on Grammar and Vocabulary. A special attention must be given to each one of these
six basic components of linguistics in learning a foreign language in an efficient way. This
modest booklet has a limited objective of providing guidance for mainly one of them,
namely Grammar. The other components need to be dealt with separately to facilitate a
systematic learning.

Z.Y. 2004 - ERZURUM


ÖNSÖZ

Bu kitapcık, Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesinde 1978 yılından beri


düzenlenmekte olan orta düzey yoğun Đngilizce kursları için, yalnızca bir hatırlatma notu
olarak hazırlanmıştır. Kurslar sırasında ele alınacağı düşünülerek, bu kitapçıkta ayrıntılara,
açıklamalara ve alıştırmalara yer verilmemiştir.

Genellikle, okullarda yabancı dil derslerinde, belirli bir konunun değişik bölümleri
değişik zamanlarda verilmektedir. Orta düzeyde bir öğrencinin, ilerleme sağlayacak
sağlam bir temel oluşturabilmesi için bu bölümleri birleştirip bütünleştirmesi ve
pekiştirmesi gereklidir. Bu kitapcıkta Đngilizce gramerinin temel konuları ile ilgili
bölümler bir araya getirilerek bütünleştirilmiş ve bazı ayrıntılar ihmal edilerek
basitleştirilmiştir. Bu bütünleştirilmiş yaklaşım bir öğrencinin belirli bir konuda neler
bildiğini ve daha neler öğrenmesi gerektiğini kolaylıkla gösterebilir.
Bir dil öğreniminde dört temel becerinin geliştirilmesi gerekir. Bu beceriler okuma,
yazma, anlama ve konuşmadır. Bunlar gramer ve kelime bilgisine dayanır. Yabancı dil
öğreniminde etkinlik sağlayabilmek için dil biliminin bu altı temel bölümüne ayrı ayrı
çalışmak ve önem vermek gerekir. Sınırlı bir amaç için hazırlanmış olup, geçtiğimiz
yıllarda düzenlenen kurslara katılanların da katkıları ile geliştirilmiş olan bu notların
yabancı dil öğrenimi ile ilgilenenlere yararlı olmasını dilerim.

Z.Y. 2004 - ERZURUM


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

FIRST PART- ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SUMMARY ................................................1


1. TENSES (Zamanlar) .......................................................................................................1
2. MODALS (Modal Yardımcı Fiiller) ..............................................................................7
3. ACTIVE-PASSIVE (Etgen-Edilgen) .............................................................................8
4. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Aktarmalı Đfadeler) ................................................................9
5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Đlgi Zamirleri)..................................................................10
6. CAUSATIVE FORM (Ettirgen Yapı) .........................................................................11
7.TAG QUESTIONS (Tag Soruları)................................................................................11
8. PARTICIPATION (Katılım) ........................................................................................11
9. NOUNS (Đsimler) ...........................................................................................................12
10. PRONOUNS (Zamirler)..............................................................................................14
11. VERBS (Fiiller)............................................................................................................15
12. ADJECTIVES (Sıfatlar) ............................................................................................19
13. ADVERBS (Zarflar)....................................................................................................21
14. PREPOSITIONS (Edatlar).........................................................................................24
15. CONJUNCTIONS (Bağlaçlar) ...................................................................................26
16. VERBALS (Fiil Kökenli Kelimeler)...........................................................................28
17. PREFIXES (Ön Ekler)................................................................................................31
18. SUFFIXES (Son Ekler) ...............................................................................................31
19. MISCELLANEOUS (Muhtelif) .................................................................................32
Odds and Ends...................................................................................................................34
SECOND PART – IDIOMS..............................................................................................37
THIRD PART - PROVERBS AND TONGUE TWISTERS .........................................40
FOURTH PART - QUOTABLE QUOTATIONS ..........................................................42
FIFTH PART-LETTERS AND CERTIFICATES.........................................................52
SIXTH PART - VOCABULARY.....................................................................................57
A Poem................................................................................................................................67
1

FIRST PART

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SUMMARY

1. TENSES (Zamanlar)

1.1. Simple Tenses


1.1.1 Present Tense I go1 Giderim
1.1.2 Past Tense I went Gittim
1.1.3 Future Tense I will go Gideceğim
1.1.4 Conditional T. I would go Gidecektim

1.2. Continuous Tenses (C.T.)


1.2.1 Present C.T. I am going Gidiyorum
1.2.2 Past C.T. I was going Gidiyordum
1.2.3 Future C.T. I will be going Gidiyor olacağım
1.2.4 Conditional C.T. I would be going Gidiyor olacaktım

1.3. Perfect Tenses (P.T.)


1.3.1 Present P.T. I have gone Gitmişim (Gittim)
1.3.2 Past P.T. I had gone Gitmiştim
1.3.3 Future P.T. I will have gone Gitmiş olacağım
1.3.4 Conditional P.T. I would have gone. Gitmiş olacaktım

1.4. Perfect Continuous Tenses (P.C.T.)


1.4.1 Present P.C.T. I have been going Gitmekteyim
1.4.2 Past P.C.T. I had been going Gitmekteydim
1.4.3 Future P.C.T. I will have been Gitmekte
going olacağım
1.4.4 Conditional P.C.T. I would have been going Gitmekte olacaktım

I am going to go I am gonna go I will go


I was going to go I was gonna go I would go

I used to go Giderdim (Alışkanlık)


I would go Giderdim (Şarta bağlı)

1
Other verbs to be conjugated: to do, to be, to see, to have, to make. (to smoke for P.C.T.).
2

SAMPLE SENTENCES

1. I go to school every day in the morning at 8 o’clock with my friends by bus.


2. I went to school 10 minutes late yesterday.
3. I will go to school at one o’clock this afternoon.
4. I would go to school today, if I had completed my homework in time.

5. I am going to Istanbul now.


6. I was going to Istanbul, when I met him at the airport.
7. I will be going to Istanbul tomorrow afternoon at two o’clock.
8. I would be going to Istanbul at this moment, if had not missed the plane.

9. I have gone to Antalya three times in the past.


10. I had gone to Antalya two months before I met you.
11. I will have gone to Antalya the day after tomorrow.
12. I would have gone to Antalya by now, if I had not had an accident on Sunday.

13. I have been smoking for 3 years now.


14. I had been smoking for 10 years, when I stopped smoking.
15. I will have been smoking for 6 years by the end of this year.
16. I would have been smoking for 15 years now, if I had not stopped smoking 5 years
ago.
 I’m gonna go to downtown. Are you gonna come with me?
 I was gonna go to theatre, if you had come earlier.

 I used to go to movies at least three times a week, when I was a student.


 I would go to see him and apologize to him, if I were in your place.

If I go to Istanbul, Istanbul'a gidersem


I will see him
onu göreceğim.
If I had gone to Istanbul, Istanbul’a gitmiş olsaydım,
I would see him
onu görürdüm.
If I had gone to Istanbul, O zaman Istanbul'a gitmiş olsaydım,
I would have seen him.
Onu görmüs olacaktım.
3

CONJUGATION OF TENSES
1.1.1. Simple Present Tense (do, does) (go) (-s)
I go. I do not go. Do I go? Do I not go?
You go. You do not go. Do you go? Do you not go?
(He, She, It) goes. - does not go. Does - go? Does - not go?
We go. We do not go. Do we go? Do we not go?
You go. You do not go. Do you go? Do you not go?
They go. They do not go. Do they go? Do they not go?

1.1.2. Simple Past Tense (did) (go) (went)


I went. I did not go. Did I go? Did I not go?
You went. You did not go. Did you go? Did you not go?
- went. - did not go. Did - go? Did - not go?
We went. We did not go. Did we go? Did we not go?
You went. You did not go. Did you go? Did you not go?
They went. They did not go. Did they go? Did they not go?

1.1.3. Simple Future Tense (will) (go)


I will go. I will not go. Will I go? Will I not go?
You will go. You will not go. Will you go? Will you not go?
- will go. Will not go. Will - go? Will - not go?
We will go. We will not go. Will we go? Will we not go?
You will go. You will not go. Will you go? Will you not go?
They will go. They will not go. Will they go? Will they not go?

1.1.4. Simple Conditional Tense (would) (go)


I would go I would not go. Would I go? Would I not go?
You would go. You would not go. Would you go? Would you not go?
- would go. - would not go. Would - go? Would - not go?
We would go. We would not go. Would we go? Would we not go?
You would go. You would not go. Would you go? Would you not go?
They would go. They would not go. Would they go? Would they not go?

Do not Don't Will not Won't


Did not Didn't Would not Wouldn't
4

1.2.1. Present Continuous Tense (am, are, is) (- ing)

I am going I am not going Am I going? Am I not going? (1)

(1) Aren't I going?

1.2.2. Past Continuous Tense (was, were) (- ing)

I was going I was not going. Was I going? Was I not going?

1.2.3. Future Continuous Tense (will be) (- ing)

I will be going I will not be going Will I be going? Will I not be going?

1.2.4. Conditional Continuous Tense (would be) (-ing)

I would be going I would not be Would I be going? Would I not be


going going?
5

1.3.1. Present Perfect Tense (have, has) (gone)


I have gone I have not gone* Have I gone? Have I not gone?

*Have not: Haven't

1.3.2. Past Perfect Tense (had) (gone)


I had gone I had not gone Had I gone? Had I not gone?

1.3.3. Future Perfect Tense (will have) (gone)


I will have gone I will not have gone Will I have gone? Will I not have
gone?

1.3.4. Conditional Perfect Tense (would have) (gone)


I would have gone I would not have Would I have gone? Would I not have
gone gone?
6

1.4.1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (have been, has been) (- ing)
I have been going I have not been Have I been Have I not been
going going? going?

1.4.2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (had been) (- ing)


I had been going I had not been Had I been going? Had I not been
going going?

1.4.3. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (will have been) (- ing)


I will have been I will not have Will I have been Will I not have
going been going going? been going?

1.4.4. Conditional Perfect Continuous Tense (would have been) (- ing)


I would have been I would not have Would I have been Would I not have
going been going going? been going?
7

2. MODALS (Modal Yardımcı Fiiller)

2.1 Can Đktidar belirten yardımcı fiil


2.2 May Mezuniyet belirten yardımcı fiil
2.3 Must Mecburiyet belirten yardımcı fiil

I can go Gidebilirim I could have gone Gitmiş olabilirdim


(Muktedirim)
I may go Gidebilirim I might have gone Gitmiş olabilirdim
(Mezunum)
I must go Gitmeliyim I must have gone Gitmiş olmalıydım
(Mecburum)

Can be able to
Must have to, have got to, be obliged to, need to, be to, be compelled
to, be supposed to, should, ought to.

To be able to (muktedir olmak, yapabilmek)


I am able to go Gidebilirim I will be able to go Gidebileceğim
I was able to go Gidebildim I would be able to go Gidebilecektim
(Gitmeye muktedirdim)

To have to (Mecbur olmak, Zorunda olmak)


I have to go Gitmek zorundayım I will have to go Gitmek zorunda
olacağım
I had to go Gitmek I would have to go Gitmek zorunda
zorundaydım olacaktım

 If I go, I will be able to see him.


 If I had gone, I would have been able to see him.
 If you had fallen, you could have broken your leg.
 If you had started then, you could have finished it by now.
 If I go, I will have to see him.
 If I had gone, I would have had to see him.
 He must have studied really well (his grade is good).
 He should have studied really well (his grade is bad).
 I need two hundred dollars so that I can go there.
 I bought the car so that you would not have to walk.
 Do you have to go? I may have to go.
8

3. ACTIVE-PASSIVE (Etgen-Edilgen)

Active Voice2 Passive Voice3


1 She writes a letter A letter is written by her
2 She wrote a letter “ was “
3 She will write a letter “ will be “
4 She would write a letter would be “

5 She is writing a letter " is being “


6 She was writing a letter " was being “
7 She will be writing a letter " will be being “
8 She would be writing a letter " would be being “

9 She has written a letter " has been “


10 She had written a letter " had been “
11 She will have written a letter " will have been “
12 She would have written a letter " would have been “

13 She has been writing a letter " has been being “


14 She had been writing a letter " had been being “
15 She will have been writing a letter " will have been being “
16 She would have been writing a letter " would have been being “

He can write a letter. A letter can be written by him.


He may write a letter. A letter may be written by him.
He must write a letter. A letter must be written by him.

Let him write a letter. Let a letter be written by him.


Architect Ali has designed it. It has been designed by architect Ali.
He had broken a window. A window had been broken by him.4
______________________________________________________________________

A. Someone gave me a present.


P. I was given a present.
P. A present was given to me.

A. They made him believe that she died.


P. He was made to believe that she died.

2
S+V+O (Subject + verb + object)
3
O+ to be+ V3+ S (Object + to be fiilinin uygun hali + esas fiilin 3. yani past participle hali + subject)
4
Geçişli fiiller (transitive verbs) yani nesne alan fiiller veya neyi ve kimi sorularına cevap alınabilen fiiller
için P.V. yapılabilir. Geçişsiz fiiller (intransitive verbs, to go gibi) için P.V. yapılamaz.
9

4. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Aktarmalı Đfadeler)


Direct Statement Indirect Statement5
1. "I go".6 He said that He went.
2. "I went". " He went.
3. "I will go". " He would go.
4. "I would go". " He would go.

5. "I am going". He said that He was going.


6. "I was going". " He was going.
7. "I will be going". " He would be going.
8. "I would be going". " He would be going.

9. "I have gone". He said that He had gone.


10. "I had gone". " He had gone.
11. "I will have gone". “ He would have gone.
12. "I would have gone". " He would have gone.

13. "I have been going". He said that He had been going.
14. "I had been going". " He had been going.
15. "I will have been going". " He would have been going.
16. "I would have been going". " He would have been going.

"What are you doing”? He asked me what I was doing.


"Where were you going”? " where I was going.

"Can you help me”? " if I could help him.


"May I come in”? " if He might come in.
"Will you be able to go”? " if I would be able to go.
"Do you have to go”? " if I had to go.
"Did you have to go”? " if I had to go.

“Do you go?” “ if I went


“Did you go?” “ if Iwent

“Go” ! He told me to go “Don’t go”! He told me not to go

if = whether today-that day tomorrow-the next day


now - then this-that yesterday-the day before

5
Present tenses become past, past tenses remain the same.
Future tenses become conditional, conditional tenses remain the same.
6
When the introductory verb is in present or future tenses, the tense of the narrated part
may not change.
10

5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Đlgi Zamirleri)

Who Ki o Which (What, that) Ki o Where Ki orada


Whose Ki onun Of which Ki onun When Ki o zaman
Whom Ki ona (onu) To which Ki ona Of whom Ki onun
Who
• I saw the man who came to school on Sunday.
• The man who is coming toward us is a doctor.
• He who comes late deserves punishment.
• Those who were late missed the opening ceremony.
Whose
• I saw the man whose car was stolen yesterday afternoon.
• The man whose car was stolen yesterday afternoon is a lawyer.
• Did you see the lady whose car was without a license plate?
Whom
• I saw the man whom you gave money in the bank.
• The man whom I saw yesterday was quite tired and anxious.
• The man with whom I played billiards is a champion in...
Which (what, that)
• I picked up the pen which (that) was on the floor.
• I do not understand what you say.
• That is not what I want.
• This is the knife with which I cut the rope.
• The car to which you threw stone is a Cadillac Aldorado.

Where
This is the place where they had met first.
When
There will be a time when Turkey will be full a member of the European Union.

• He is the man, about whom you were talking = He is the man, whom you were
talking about = He is the man, you were talking about.

• He who comes early sits down.


• Atatürk is to Turkey what Washington is to U.S.A.
• Those who are coming now will have to go back soon.
11

6. CAUSATIVE FORM (Ettirgen Yapı)

To have something done To make somebody do something


To get something done To get somebody to do something

I have my shoes polished... I make Ali study English...


I had my shoes polished... I made Ali study English...
I will have my shoes polished... I will make Ali study English
I would have my shoes polished... I would make Ali study English...
I got my shoes polished I will get Ali to study English

7.TAG QUESTIONS (Tag Soruları)


You go to school, don't you? You do not go to school, do you?
You went to school, didn't you? You did not go to school, did you?
You will go to school, won't you? You will not go to school, will you?
You would go to school, wouldn't you? You would not go to school, would you?

8. PARTICIPATION (Katılım)
A. Affirmative Agreements B. Negative Agreements
Ali goes to zoo. I do too. He does not go to zoo. I don't either.
Ali went to zoo. I did too. He did not go to zoo. I didn't either.
Ali will go to zoo. I will too. He will not go to zoo. I won't either.
Ali would go to zoo. I would too. He wouldn't go to zoo. I wouldn't either.

I do too So do I I don't either Neither do I

It is a pen, isn’t it? Let's go, shall we?


You have to go, don't you? Open the door will you?
He may go, may he not? I am going, aren't I?
He has to go, doesn't he?

 He was made to study for four hours.


 She was made to pay for her mistake.
 I was made to believe that he was innocent.
 I will get him to accept the conditions
12

9. NOUNS (Đsimler)

9.1. Proper Nouns (Özel Đsimler)


Ali, Mary, January, Ankara, London, Canterbury
9.2. Common Nouns (Cins Đsimler)
cook, book, sinister, minister
9.3. Countable Nouns (Sayılabilir Đsimler)
apple, box, ranch, table
9.4. Uncountable Nouns (Sayılamayan Đsimler)
bread, butter, salt, water
9.5. Masculine Nouns (Eril Đsimler)
boy, man, prince, king
9.6. Feminine Nouns (Dişil Đsimler)
girl, woman, princess, queen
9.7. Neuter Nouns (Nötr Đsimler)
Things and animals whose sexes are not known
stone, steel, pots and pans
9.10. Nouns with the Same Form for M. and F.
child, parent, artist, painter, cousin
9.11. Nouns with Different Forms for M. and F.
father-mother, brother-sister, nephew-niece,
bull-cow, horse-mare, cock-hen
9.12 Plural Forms (Çoğul Şekilleri)
9.12.1. Regular Form
cat-cats, dog-dogs
9.12.2. Special Forms
9.12.2.1. Nouns Ending in O, ss, sh, ch, X
tomatoes, kisses, watches, boxes
exceptions: pianos, photos
9.12.2.2. Nouns Ending in fe, f,
wife-wives, life-lives,
wolf-wolves, self-selves,
9.12.2.3. Nouns Ending in y
9.12.2.3.1. Following a Consonant
baby-babies, lady-ladies
9.12.2.3.2. Following a vowel
day-days, boy-boys.
13

9.12.2.4. Nouns that are in plural form and take singular verbs :
Mathematics, Statistics, Athletics, Economics
9.12.2.5. Nouns that are in plural form and take plural verbs:
pants, trousers, pajamas, glasses,
pliers, shears, scissors, scales, tweezeers
9.12.3. Irregular Forms
fish-fish, trout-trout, sheep-sheep
news-news, baggage-baggage, information-information
man-men, woman-women, foot-feet
mouse-mice, louse-lice, ox-oxen
tooth-teeth, child-children
9.12.4. Original Latin or Greek Nouns
thesis-theses, crisis-crises,
alumnus-alumni, phenomenon-phenomena
erratum-errata, radius-radii
memorandum-memoranda, datum- data
basis-bases, axis-axes, nucleus nuclea
9.12.5. Others
sister in law-sisters in law
man student - men students
VIP- VIPs, MP MPs, UFO-UFOs
9.13. Possessive Forms (Đyelik Şekilleri)
Ahmet's apples, man's fob Jone's house, Jones’s house
Shakespeare's plays, the plays of Martha X A week's holiday ; a week holiday
A stone's throw, ten dollar gas Three dollars worth of gas
For heaven's sake, for goodness sake The keys of the car, the names of the cities

9.14. Articles (Tanıtıcılar7)


9.14.1. The Definite Article (Belirli Tanıtıcı) The
The boy, the girl, the sky, the old
The rich, the Alps, the U.S.S.R., the Netherlands, the U.S.A.
The North Pole, the Smiths
9.14.2. The Indefinite Article (Belgisiz Tanıtıcı) a, an
A boy, a girl, an apple, an hour, a university

7
Tanıtıcılar özel isimlerden önce kullanılmaz.
14

10. PRONOUNS (Zamirler8)

(A) (B) (C) ( D) (E)


I Me My Mine Myself
You You Your Yours Yourself
He Him His His Himself
She Her Her Hers Herself
It It Its Its Itself
We Us Our Ours Ourselves
You You Your Yours Yourselves
They Them Their Theirs Themselves

A. Personal Pronouns (Şahıs Zamirleri) (Özne)


B. Objective Pronouns (Nesne Zamirleri)
C. Possessive Pronouns (Mülkiyet Zamirleri)
D. Possessive Pronouns (Mülkiyet Zamirleri)
E. Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns (Dönüştürme ve Pekiştirme Zamirleri)
F. Interrogative Pronouns (Soru Zamirleri)
Who? Whose? Whom? Which? What? How? When?
G. Relative Pronouns (Đlgi Zamirleri)
Who, Whose, Whom, Which, What, That.
H. Demonstrative Pronouns (Đşaret Zamirleri)
This, That, These, Those
Đ. Indefinite Pronouns (Belgisiz zamirler)
One, Someone, Anyone, Somebody, Anybody, None, No One, Everyone, Everybody,
All.
______________________________________________________________________
I want nothing: I don't want anything
No: not any
Is everybody ready?

8
Zamirler özne yerine kullanılan sözcüklerdir
15

11. VERBS (Fiiller)

11.1. Infinitive Form to go


11.2. Present Form go
11.3. Past Form went
11.4. Past Participle gone
11.5. Regular Verbs (Düzenli Fiiller) (ask, asked, asked)
11.6. Irregular Verbs (Düzensiz Fiiller)
11.6.1.
Present Past Past Participle
Bet Bet Bet Bahse Girmek
Cast Cast Cast Atmak
Cost Cost Cost Malolmak
Hit Hit Hit Vurmak
Hurt Hurt Hurt Incitmek
Let Let Let Bırakmak
Set Set Set Kurmak
Spread Spread Spread Yaymak
Put Put Put Koymak
Quit Quit Quit Terketmek
Shut Shut Shut Kapatmak
11.6.2.
Build Built Built Inşa Etmek
Lend Lent Lent Ödünç Vermek
Send Sent Sent Göndermek
Spend Spent Spent Sarfetmek
11.6.3.
Get Got Got Elde Etmek
Go Went Gone Gitmek
Forget Forgot Forgotten Unutmak
Hang Hung Hung Asmak
Ring Rang Rung (Zil) Çalmak
Sing Sang Sung Şarkı Söylemek
Spring Sprang Sprung Sıçramak
Sit Sat Sat Oturmak
Win Won Won Kazanmak
16

11.6.4.
Hear Heard Heard Duymak
Read Read Read Okumak
Pay Paid Paid Ödemek
Say Said Said Söylemek

11.6.5.
Feed Fed Fed Beslemek
Lead Led Led Yol Göstermek
Hold Held Held Tutmak
11.6.6.
Feel Felt Felt Hissetmek
Keep Kept Kept Saklamak
Sleep Slept Slept Uyumak
Weep Wept Wept Ağlamak
Leave Left Left Bırakmak
Meet Met Met Karşılaşmak
Lose Lost Lost Kaybetmek
11.6.7
Bind Bound Bound Bağlamak
Find Found Found Bulmak
Shine Shone Shone Parlamak
Strike Struck Struck Vurmak, Grev
Yapmak
11.6.8.
Bring Brought Brought Getirmek
Buy Bought Bought Satın Almak
Fight Fought Fought Dövüşmek
Think Thought Thought Düşünmek
Catch Caught Caught Yakalamak
Teach Taught Taught Öğretmek
Sell Sold Sold Satmak
Tell Told Told Anlatmak
Make Made Made Yapmak
Stand Stood Stood Durmak
17

11.6.9.
Ride Rode Ridden Binmek
Write Wrote Written Yazmak
Rise Rose Risen Kalkmak
Bite Bit Bitten Isırmak
Hide Hid Hidden Saklamak
11.6.10.
Bear Bore Born Taşımak
Swear Swore Sworn Yemin Etmek
Tear Tore Torn Yırtmak
Wear Wore Worn Giymek
Break Broke Broken Kırmak
Speak Spoke Spoken Konuşmak
Choose Chose Chosen Seçmek
Steal Stole Stolen Çalmak
11.6.11.
Grow Grew Grown Büyümek
Know Knew Known Bilmek
Throw Threw Thrown Atmak
Fly Flew Flown Uçmak
Slay Slew Slain Katletmek
See Saw Seen Görmek
11.6.12
Take Took Taken Almak
Shake Shook Shaken Sarsmak
11.6.13.
Beat Beat Beaten Dövmek
Eat Ate Eaten Yemek
Fall Fell Fallen Düşmek
Do Did Done Yapmak
Go Went Gone Gitmek
Lie Lay Lain Yatmak, Uzanmak
Lay Laid Laid Yatırmak, Uzatmak
Lie Lied Lied Yalan Söylemek
18

11.6.14
Forbid Forbade Forbidden Yasaklamak
Give Gave Given Vermek
Begin Began Begun Başlamak
Drink Drank Drunk Içmek
Run Ran Run Koşmak

11.7. Verbs Followed by the Gerund


admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, defer, deny, dislike, dread,
enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep, mind, miss,
pardon, postpone, prevent, propose, remember, resent, resist,stop, suggest
To object to, to confess to, to get used to, to look forward to
 He objected to joining the army.
 He admitted robbing the bank.
 She appreciated receiving letters from her fans.
 I enjoy calling her once in a while.
 I don't mind walking to my office.
 I don't remember seeing her.
 I can't help laughing when I think of that joke.
 Stop talking, l can't stop loving you.
 I am looking forward to hearing from you.
 I can't stand listening to a loud music.
11.8. Verbs Followed By the Gerund or Infinitive
Start, begin, continue, intend
 I started studying. (I started to study!)

11.9. Verbs Followed By That and Verb-1


Suggest, recommend, insist, demand

 He suggested that we go.


 What do you suggest that we do?
 The kidnappers demanded that the father pay the ransom in small dollar bills.
11.10. Verbs Followed by the Gerund or Infinitive Taking a Different Meaning
try + gerund denemek I tried solving the problem.
try + to infinitive çabalamak I tried to pick up the stone.
stop + gerund bırakmak I stopped smoking.
stop + to infinitive için durmak I stopped to smoke.
19

12. ADJECTIVES (Sıfatlar)

12.1. Definitive, Comparative and Superlative Forms Of Adjectives


12.1.1. Regular One or Two Syllable Adjectives

Long Longer The Longest


Short Shorter The Shortest
Heavy Heavier The Heaviest
Old Older The Oldest
Weak Weaker The Weakest
Strong Stronger The Strongest

12.1.2. Regular Multi Syllable Adjectives


Beautiful More Beautiful The Most Beautiful
Important More Important The Most Important
Eccentric More Eccentric The Most Eccentric
Tiring More Tiring The Most Tiring
Tired More Tired The Most Tired
Boring More Boring The Most Boring
Bored More Bored The Most Bored

12.1.3. Irregular Adjectives


Good Better The Best
Bad Worse The Worst
Much More The Most
Little Less The Least

12.2. Comparisons
1. as.............. as I am as old as you are.
He is twice as old as she is.
2. more .......... than I am older than you are.
I am more important than you are.
I am better than you are.
3. The most.... among (in) He is the best runner among students.
She is the most beautiful girl in town. (... in the world)
20

• The sun is one million times as big as the Mars is.


• The population of Erzurum is about twice as much as that of Kars.
• The statue of Atatürk in Erzurum is twice as big as the one in Kars.
• Ahmet spends half as much money as Mehmet does.
• There are more than twice as many people in the world now as there were 25 years
ago.
• There are as many students in Erzurum as there are people in Kars.
• I have studied for as many years as you have lived.
• I am not as tired as you are: I am not tired as much as you are.
• A is 100 times richer than B.
• A is as tall as B. A is not as tall as B. A is not so tall as B.
• I am as generous as you are miser.
21

13. ADVERBS (Zarflar9)

13.1. Adverbs of Manner (Hal Zarfları)


Slowly Yavaşça Smoking kills slowly.
Quickly Hızlıca ……
Well Iyice
Badly Kötüce
Altogether Birlikte
Separately Ayrıca
Generally Genellikle
Particularly Özellikle
Deliberately Kasden
Accidentally Kazaen
Naturally Doğal Olarak
Artificially Yapay Olarak
Similarly Aynı Şekilde
Conversely Tersine Olarak
Apparently Görünüş Olarak
Certainly Muhakkak
Evidently Görünüşe Göre
Obviously Açık Olarak
Presumably Farazi Olarak
Fortunately Iyiki
Especially Özellikle
Actually Gerçekten
Mostly Çoğunlukla
Personally Şahsen
Undoubtedly Şüphesiz
Clearly Açıkça
Surely Emin Olarak
Definitely Muhakkak
Positively Kesin Olarak

9
Zarflar, bir fiilin veya sıfatın anlamını belirten veya kuvvetlendiren kelimelerdir
22

13.2. Adverbs of Time (Zaman Zarfları)

Now Şimdi It is time to go now.


Then O zaman, ondan sonar
Earlier Daha önce
Later Daha sonra
The day before Önceki gün
yesterday
The day after Öbür gün
tomorrow
Every third day Üç günde bir
All of a sudden Aniden
A while ago Biraz önce
A moment ago Biraz önce
A little later Biraz sonra
Right now Hemen şimdi (önce) He was here right now.
Right away Hemen şimdi (sonra) He will be here right away.
At the beginning Başlangıçta
At the end Sonunda
Until now Bu zamana kadar
From now on Bundan sonra (artık)
From then on Ondan sonra
Sooner or later Er veya geç
Eventually Sonunda (nihayet)
Lately Son zamanlarda
Recently Son zamanlarda
Soon Yakın zamanda
Immediately Derhal
In the meanwhile Bu arada
Every other day Gün aşırı

13.3. Adverbs of Place (Yer Zarfları)


Here Burada, burası, buraya He is here. It is here. Come here.
There Orada, orası, oraya

13.4. Adverbs of Frequency (Sıklık Zarfları)*


Once Bir kez I went there once.
Twice Iki kez
Three times Üç kez
All the time Her zaman
Always Her zaman
Frequently Sık sık
23

Occasionally Arada sırada


Periodically Periodik olarak
Once in a while Arada bir
Rarely Nadiren
Once in a blue Çok nadir
moon
Repeatedly Mükerrer olarak
Continually Sürekli olarak
Intermittently Kesintili olarak
* (Sıklık zarfları yardımcı fiillerden sonra, asıl fiillerden önce gelir) (I am always late)

13.5. Adverbs of Degree (Derece Zarfları)


Almost Hemen hemen It is almost completed.
Nearly Neredeyse
Quite Oldukça
Too Haddinden fazla
Enough Yeterli
Extremely Aşırı şekilde
Only Sadece
Just Sadece

13.6. Words with the Same Adjective and Adverb Forms


Fast Hızlı Don’t go too fast.
Late Geç
Hard Sert
Early Erken
Friendly Dostça
Low Düşük
24

14. PREPOSITIONS (Edatlar10)

In Içinde, içine It is in the box. Put it in your pocket.


Out Dışında, dışına
On Üstünde, üstüne
Off Uzağında, uzağına
At De, da, e, a
Over Üzerinde, üzerine
Under Altında, altına
In front of Önünde, önüne
At the back of Arkasında, arkasına
At the bottom of Dibinde
On the top of Üstünde
Around Çevresinde, çevresine
Across Karşısında, karşısına
Against Karşısında, karşısına
Along Boyunda, boyuna
Among Arasında, arasına
(ikiden fazla şey)
After Sonra
Before Önce
Behind Arkasında, arkasına
Below Altında, altına
Between Arasında, arasına
(iki şey)
Beyond Ötesinde, ötesine
By Yanında, yanına
Up Yukarıda, yukarıya
Down Aşağıda, aşağıya
From Den, dan
Into Içine
Near Yakınında, yakınına
Opposite Karşısında, karşısına
Outside Dışında, dışına

10
Edatlar bir nesnenin diğer bir nesneye göre konumunu belirten kelimelerdir.
25

Past Den öteye


Through Içinden, arasından
Until, till E kadar
To E doğru
With Ile
Without Ile olmaksızın

ABOVE
OVER

ON

TO FROM

IN OUT

THROUGH

INTO OUT OF

BY

BELOW
UNDER

A diagram of the most commonly used prepositions


26

15. CONJUNCTIONS (Bağlaçlar)

And Ve George and Jack go to bed at ten.


Or Veya
But Fakat
For Için, den dolayı
Yet Henüz, yine de
If Eğer
Although (though) E rağmen
Notwithstanding E rağmen
Nevertheless Yine de
Because Çünkü
Because of Den dolayı
In spite of E rağmen
In stead of Yerine
Due to Den dolayı
Besides Zaten, ayrıca, den başka
Except Den başka, hariç
Like Gibi
Likewise Aynı şekilde
As Gibi, ken (giderken)
Therefore Bunun için
However Buna rağmen
Whereas Halbuki
In fact Gerçekte, nitekim
As a matter of fact Aslında, zaten, nitekim
Not to mention the Kaldı ki
fact that
In as much as Madem ki, den dolayı
Since Madem ki, den dolayı
About Hakkında = (pertaining to, regarding, with
regard to in connection with, , related
to pursuant to, in relation to)
27

Either .......or Ya ........ya da...... Either you or your friend will have to
go there.

Neither.....nor Ne ........ne de....... Neither you noır your friend can pay
for that.

Both ........and Hem ....hem de...... Both you and your girl friend were
seen there.

Not only....but also Yalnızca ...değil, fakat Not only you but also your friends
aynı zamanda .......da are not wanted here.

Whether ....or …..ip ........mediğini I don’t know whether or not he is in


....se de .....mese de Erzurum.
She will have to go there
Whether she wants it or not

The more ....the more Ne kadar çok .......... The more you study the higher grade
O kadar çok ............ you get.
The more you work, the more you
earn.
The higher you go, the harder you
fall

Just as ......so Nasıl ki .......ise, ayni -Just as Kosovo is sacred land to


şekilde........ the Serbs, so is Krajina to Croatians.
-Just as Chechenia is an internal
matter of Russia so is Karabag for
Azerbeijan.
28

16. VERBALS (Fiil Kökenli Kelimeler)

16.1. Gerund (Đsim Fiil)


16.1.1. Present
Swimming is a good exercise.
I like swimming in a warm pool.
She likes teaching tap dance.
I can't stand waiting in lines.
Being alone in a trip is boring.
I like your speaking with an accent

16.1.2. Past
Having been alone on that trip was boring.
He denied having been late for work.

16.2. Infinitive (Mastar)


16.2.1. Present

To exercise in the morning is good for health.


I like to swim in heated pools.
She has a lot of work to do.
I felt the earth move.
He saw him go into the building.

16.2.2. Past
To have seen him doesn't mean much.
It is unfortunate for him to have met her.
I am sorry to have met you.
I wish I had never met you.

16.3. Participle (Sıfat ve Zarf Fiiller)


16.3.1. Adjective Participle (Sıfat fiiller)
16.3.1.1. Present
The movie is exciting.
It is a very exciting movie indeed.
People living in the country are lucky.
The energy needed by all living things comes from the sun.
The lecture was interesting and informing.
29

16.3.1.2 Past
He is a retired teacher. (tired, disappointed etc.)
The broken chair will be repaired.
I will borrow the required money from the bank.
I am excited.

16.3.2. Adverb Participle (Zarf Fiiller)


16.3.2.1. Zaman Bildiren Adverb Participle
16.3.2.1.1. Present
Watching TV, he fell asleep (while...)
Entering the room, I saw the burglar (while...)
I saw him crossing the street (while)

16.3.2.1.2. Past
Having watched the game he left the stadium (... after that.)
Having finished his work, he went home (... after that..)

16.3.2.2. Sebep Bildiren Adverb Participle


16.3.2.2.1. Present
Being very hungry, I ate a lot. (Because ...)
Knowing him well, she did not believe him (Because...)

16.3.2.2.2. Past
(Having been) Wrapped in a blanket, he didn't mind spending the night
outside.
(Because...) Having been very hungry, I had eaten a lot.
Having received no letter from her for a long time, he was worried.
30

VERBALS

Gerund Infinitive Participle

Present Past Present Past

Adjective Adverb

Present Past

Time Cause

Present Past Present Past


31

17. PREFIXES (Ön Ekler)


Aboard : (Gemide, gemiye) Welcome aboard.
Abroad : (Yurt dışında, yurt dışına) I have not been abroad yet.
Archbishop : (Başpiskopos) Archbishop Makarios had been involved in politics.
Enrich : (Zenginleştirme) Protein can be used to enrich the flour.
Impossible : (Đmkansız) When something is not possible it is impossible.
Semiofficial : (Yarı resmi) AA is a semiofficial news agency.
Prehistoric : (Tarih öncesi) People did not know much in prehistoric times.
Post election : (Seçim sonrası) Post election politics has been quite complicated
Vice-president : (Başkan yardımcısı) Vice-president Johnson had an heart attack.

18. SUFFIXES (Son Ekler)


Drinkable : (Đçilebilir) This water is drinkable.
Kingdom : (Krallık) The United Kingdom is ruled by Elizabeth II.
Enriched : (Zenginleştirilmiş) This food has been enriched by extra protein.
Employed : (Đşçi, müstahdem) The employees will strike to raise their wages.
Childish : (Çocukça) It is childish to cry over simple things.
Civilized : (Medenileştirilmiş) The wild tribes are civilized now.
Americanize : Amerikalılaştırmak
Booklet : (Kitapçık) That booklet consists of only 30 pages.
Lakelet : (Gölcük) Van is a lake but Küçükçekmece is a lakelet.
Payment : (Ödeme) The size of the payment is determined by the
purchase power.
Careful : (Dikkatli) You have to be careful when you cross the street.
Careless : (Dikkatsiz) He fell on the ice because he was careless.
Carefulness : (Dikkatlilik) That job requires complete carefulness.
Carelessness : (Dikkatsizlik) The accident happened as a result of carelessness.
Separately : (Ayrı olarak) Place the pieces separately.
Naturally : (Doğal olarak) Naturally they will refuse the offer.
Personally : (Kişisel olarak) Personally, I hate cold weather.

Strong : güçlü Strength : güç, kuvvet (sıfattan isim)


Smoke : duman Smoky : Dumanlı (isimden sıfat)
Simple : basit Simplify : Basitleştirmek (sıfattan fiil)
32

19. MISCELLANEOUS (Muhtelif)


Three lane highway Üç şeritli karayolu
Hundred page book 100 sayfalık kitap
The tea is too hot to drink Çay içilmeyecek kadar sıcak
The tea is hot enough to drink Çay içilebilecek kadar sıcak
There is no body in the room There is not any body in the room
The movie is not interesting, I would rather (I'd …televizyon seyretmeyi tercih ederim.
rather) watch TV tonight
I had better (I'd better) start studying, or else I …çalışmaya başlasam iyi olur. Yoksa
will flunk the exam. sınavda çakarım.
They talk to each other. (2 persons)

They talk to one another. (More than 2 persons)

You can go whenever (or wherever) you want Her ne zaman istersen…
You can take whatever (or whichever) you Her ne istersen…
want
No matter what, I will go there Ne olursa olsun...
Sooner or later I'm gonna get you Er veya geç…
They came here one after another Onlar buraya birbiri peşine geldiler.
They came here one at a time Onlar buraya birer birer geldiler.
They came here one by one Onlar buraya birer birer geldiler.
They came here in a group of two Onlar buraya ikişer ikişer geldiler.
The more you study, the more you learn Ne kadar çok çalışırsan o kadar çok…
The more you work, the more you earn Ne kadar çok çalışırsan o kadar çok…
Did you happen to meet Mr. President Hiç (tesadüfen) başkanla karşılaştınız

I happened to be passing by the scene when Kaza olduğunda oradan tesadüfen
geçiyordum….
the accident happened.
You don't get into this, mind your own Bu işe karışma. Kendi işine bak.
business:
That is none of your business Bu iş seni ilgilendirmez.
You have to take a taxi in order to get there in Oraya zamanında varabilmek için taksi
ile gitmen gerekir.
time (... so, as to ..., so as not to...)
You have to study hard in order that (so that) Đngilizceyi iyi öğrenebilmen için…
you can learn English well
Has what happened to you happened to them Senin başına gelen onların başına da
geldi mi?
too
33

• Open the door.


• Please open the door (open the door please).
• Will you please open the door?
• Would you please open the door?
• Would you be so kind as to open the door please?

• The cars were travelling bumper to bumper.


• Put the boxes one on top of the other to save room (on top of one another)
• The workers put the rails end to end and welded them.
• The fishermen laid the fish side by side in the market.

• If it weren't for the umbrella, we would get wet.


• If it had not been for you, I would not have been able to go there.
• Had it not been for you, she would have died. (Inversion)
• Should one day you come here, please stop by my office.
• Should I hear from him, I will let you know.

• Did you use to go there?


• No. I didn't use to go there.

• Let us (me, him, her, it, , them) go. Shall we?


• Let's stay here. Let's not stay here. Shall we go?

• This is the first time I have seen such a thing.


• If you had not been a stupid, you would not have listened to the same thing
every Sunday.
• You can’t have seen him yesterday, he was with me all day.
• Someone came here, didn't they?
• I am a doctor, aren't I?
• I heard him sing.
• I heard him singing.
• You can't go there until you have finished your work.
• Don't stick your neck out.
• He suggested that I see the doctor.
• To arrive in Istanbul.
• To arrive at the airport.
• To arrive on the scene.
34

• We will take turns.


• Whose turn is it?
• It is my turn.
• Sit at the table.
• Hold it tight, so that you won't fall
• He held it tight so that he wouldn't fall
• It is made of gold.
• It is made from (out of) packing cases.
• To fall in (out of) love with sb.
• Would you honorable MPS come to order please?
• To take a chance: to take a risk.
• To give a chance: to give an opportunity.
• Ski slopes in Erzurum are steeper than those in Sarıkamış.
• The population of Erzurum is twice as much as that of Kars.
• On behalf of : adına
• In behalf of : yararına
• 20 % of the students who passed the exams are girls.
• Half of those that were sent there were donkeys.
• I saw Ahmet go to school. (Action completed)
• I saw Ahmet going to school. (The action may not have been completed.)
• You have to be a little bit crazy to keep your sanity.
• Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut afterwards.
• Don't bite the hand that feeds you.
• May god give you twice as much as what you want for me!
• Every body must account for his actions.
• There are two sides to a coin.
• There are more to things than meets the eye.
• There is nothing to it.
• Every criminal must stand trial, and get a fair trial.

Odds and Ends


- to rank first
- to put someone to shame
- council of Higher Education
- ICBMs, airborne bombers, submarine based missiles
- a duplicate copy of important documents
- special thanks are due to those who...
- his philosophy is moderation in everything
35

- Jack of all trades, but master of none


- Don’t let this chance slip away.
- boil, grill, bake, fry,
- pots and pans, garnish
- extant X extinct
- poker, bridge, black jack, chess, backgammon
- heart, club, spade, diamond
- citius, altius, fortius
- wrestling, boxing, running, high-jumping, long-jumping, skating, skiing,
swimming, diving, riding, hammer-throwing, discus-throwing, javelin,
tennis, ping-pong, pole-vaulting, golf, football, voleyball, basketball, soccer,
etc.
- Five Pillars of Islam: praying, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, confirmation
of faith. (the sixth one, they say, is knowing your boundries)
- Mental Abilities : Intelligence, memory, perception, reasoning, orientation,
willpower stability, attention, sensitivity.
- Acrophobia: fear of height.
- Acrobat: acts in the heights.
- To pass (fail, flunk) the test
- To stand the test of time.
- To chant nursery rhymes.
- At ease, attention, fire.
- Open shed barns
- Honest to God : Vallahi
- Duplication, multiplication, replication, reproduction.
- Liberty, equality, fraternity.
- Dilemma: A difficult situation.
- Paradox: strange but true.
- Enigma: Muamma, esrar, şifre
- To be vulnerable to pressure
- To take somebody at his word.
- The theory of Lambrazo on the nature of man
- On the spur of the moment.
- To tell a lie
- To lie ander a tree
- To lay a wreath, (a foundation stone and a L)
36

Addition 2+3=5 Two plus three equals five.


Two plus three is five.
Subtraction 5-3 = 2 Five minus three equals two.
Multiplication 5 x 6 = 30 Five multiplied by six equals thirty.
Five times six is thirty.
Division 30 : 6 = 5 Thirty divided by six equals five.

62: six squared ax : a to the power x


63: six to the third power a-b : a to the power minus b.
a/b = c dividend / divider = quotient
a.b = c multiplied. multiplier = product
X = Σ X/N X bar equals sum X over N (average)
6 and 36 6 is a factor of 36, 36 is a multiple of 6 (çarpan ve kat)
a2 - b2 : (a+b) (a-b) The difference of two squared numbers is the product of
the sum and the difference of these numbers.
37

SECOND PART

IDIOMS

All the same yine de I was not invited to the conference, but I
will attend all the same.
As if sanki, imiş gibi He orders me to do things, as if he is my
father.
As soon as possible mümkün olan en Please let me know the result as soon as
kısa zamanda possible.
At first ilk önce At first, I thought that he was a student
At last nihayet At last, he was able to pay his debt.
At least en azından There were at least 500 people in the
theatre.
To be about to üzere olmak He was about to leave the room when I
went there.
To be familiar with aşina olmak I am familiar with that subject.
To be in charge of sorumlu olmak He is in charge of this department.
To be interested in ilgilenmek I am not interested in politics.
To be one's turn sırası olmak Now it is your turn to wash the dishes.
To be tired of bıkmak They are tired of uninvited guests.
To be used to alışık olmak People in Erzurum are used to cold.
To break down bozulmak My car broke down on the way.
To break up (with) bozuşmak He broke up with his girl friend yesterday.
To bring up çocuk yetiştirmek He was brought up in a village.
By the way sırası gelmişken By the way, I had met him in Paris.
To catch cold soğuk almak Take your coat with you, otherwise you
will catch cold.
To catch fire ateş almak The forest caught fire in a dry hot day.
To be fed up (with) bıkmak usanmak I am fed up with all this nonsense.
To be fond (of) hoşlanmak He is fond of Jane Fonda very much.
To be in need (of) ihtiyacı olmak The old man is in need of money and care.
To be out of question söz konusu A general amnesty is out of question for
olmamak the coming ten years.
To be through (with) bitirmek, ilişiği I am through with that research for this
kesmek semester
To beat about to bush lafı uzatmak Please don't beat about (around) the bush,
come to the point.
To change one's mind Fikrini değiştirmek Did you change your mind?
To come across karşılaşmak We come across different types of people
in the railway and bus stations.
To come to an end sona ermek Sooner or later, this tragedy will come to
an end.
To call for gerektirmek The project calls for a million dollar.
To catch up (with) yetişmek Turkey has been trying to catch up with the
38

West for the past 100 years.


To charged (with) ile itham etmek He was charged with murder and robbery.
To do away with kurtulmak, She did away with all her old clothes.
(to get rid of) başından atmak
To do one's best elinden geleni I will try do my best to accomplish it and
yapmak save my face.
To fall asleep uykuya dalmak He falls asleep right after he goes to bed.
To fall in love (with) aşık olmak Ferhat had fallen in love with Şirin.
To feel like canı istemek I don't feel like drinking tonight.
To feel sorry (for) acımak He feels sorry for the poor and gives them
money.
To find out anlamak I'll find out where he was at that time.
For the time being şimdilik He will keep his mouth shut for the time
being.
For nothing bedava, karşılıksız You can not get anything for nothing.
To get along geçinmek They can’t get along well with each other.
To get well iyileşmek I hope you will get well soon.
To get in touch (with) temasa geçmek You have to get in touch with the manager.
To get in the house eve girmek to get out of the house : evden çıkmak
To get on the bus arabaya binmek to get off the bus : arabadan inmek
To get up yataktan kalkmak to wake up : uyanmak
To get used to alışmak You will get used to it soon.
To give a call telefon etmek Give me a call tonight.
To give in taviz vermek I won’t give in any more.
To give up vazgeçmek He gave up his plan to go to Sakarya
Heads or tails yazı tura Heads or tails? Heads you win, tails I win.
To have nothing to do Bir şeyle ilgisi I have nothing to do with it.
with something olmamak
In other words diğer bir deyişle …in other words, he will not pay his debt.
To keep in mind akılda tutmak please keep in mind that ...
To keep in touch ilişkiyi devam Keep in touch with us even if you go far
(with) ettirmek far away.
To keep up (with) ayak uydurmak He can't keep up with the rest of the group
To let someone know birisine bildirmek Please let me know if you run into him.
To look after bakmak (çocuk vs.) The mother will look after the child.
To make fun (of) alay etmek Don't make fun of me sir.
To make up (with) barışmak He made up with his girl friend today.
To make up (for) telafi etmek I will make up for the time I lost…
To play a joke (on) şaka yapmak The students played a joke on the teacher.
To make money para kazanmak He made a lot of money in gambling.
To make up one's karar vermek Don't make up your mind without
mind consulting the consultant.
To change one's mind karar değiştirmek Don’t change your mind so often.
To make use of yararlanmak Turkey can make use of coal for energy.
To mind one's own kendi işine bakmak Mind your own bussiness. Don’t stick your
business nose into this matter.
Once and for all kesin olarak Resolve the matter once and for all.
39

Out of curiosity meraktan Just out of curiosity, how much money do


you make in one month?
Out of date demode Your shirts are out of date, keep them up
to date.
Out of order bozuk Don't turn the radio on. It is out of order.
To pay attention to dikkat etmek Pay attention to what I say.
To put out söndürmek They put the fire out.
To put off tehir etmek They had to put off the show because of
the bad weather.
To call off iptal etmek They called off the show for financial
reasons.
To put on weight kilo almak Some people put on weight fast, no matter
what...
To run into rastlamak He ran into his old friend in the street.
To see someone off birisini uğurlamak The honor troop was present when they
saw the president off.
To set fire to ateşe vermek They set fire to the house on purpose.
To shake hands el sıkışmak We shook hands when we broke up.
To shut up sesini kesmek If you don't have to talk, just shut up.
To show up çıkagelmek He showed up one hour after the show.
To slow down yavaşlamak The car slowed down and pulled over.
To stick to the point konuya bağlı Do not beat about the bush, come and stick
kalmak to the point.
To take a bus otobüse binmek You must take a bus or a taxi.
To take a chance Đşi şansa bırakmak Study hard. Don’t take a chance.
To take advantage of istirmar etmek Do not take advantage of his innocence.
To take after Birisine çekmek Who did he take after? He took after his
good for nothing uncle.
To take a seat bir yere oturmak He asked me to take a seat when I entered
the room.
To take into account hesaba katmak The teacher should have taken the
conditions in his family into account.
To take a break ara vermek We took a break after we studied an hour.
To take apart parçalamak They took the car apart to repair it.
To take by surprise şaşırtmak That news took me by surprise.
To take part in katılmak I would like to take a part in the research.
To take seriously ciddiye almak Don't take to the movies too seriously.
To take sides taraf tutmak A president should not take sides on
political matters.
To take someone for birisini birisine They often take me for my brother.
someone else benzetmek
To take up alışkanlık edinmek I gave up smoking but took up chewing
gum. Don’t take up a harmfull habit.
To turn someone birisini reddetmek The girl turned the boy down when he
down asked her for a date.
To wake up uyanmak I try to wake up early in the morning.
40

THIRD PART

PROVERBS AND TONGUE TWISTERS

Proverbs
 Treat others as you would like to be treated.
 Do not do to others, what you do not want others to do to you.
 Whatever you wish for yourself wish the same for the others
 One is as good as the extent to which he wants for others what he wants for himself
 We have two ears but only one tongue, so that we may hear more and speak less.
 Birds of a feather flock together.
 Rolling stones gather no moss.
 Barking dogs do not bite.
 A friend exaggerates one's virtues and enemy his faults.
 What is good for one may not always be good for others.
 One should not judge by appearance.
 One should not put the cart in front of the horse.
 Business is business.
 A lie calls for a hundred more.
 You can fool some of the people all of the time, all of the people some of the time,
but you can not fool all of the people all of the time (Lincoln).
 People who stay in glass houses should not throw stones (men dakka dukka)
 When the cats are away, the mice will play.
 Only the squeaky wheel gets the grease.
 Too many cooks spoil the soup.
 Strike while the iron is hot.
 A penny saved is a penny earned.
 A friend in need is a friend indeed.
 A man is known by the company he keeps.
 A bird in hand is worth two in the bush.
 Action speaks louder than the words.
 The more you know, the more you know how much you don't know.
 Easy come, easy go.
 Time is money (El vaktu naktun)
 Out of sight, out of mind
 God gives nuts to those who don't have teeth.
 Don't run after a girl or a bus, because there is always another one coming.
 If a diplomat says yes, it means perhaps.If a diplomat says perhaps, it means no.
 If a diplomat says no, he is not a real diplomat.
41

Tongue Twisters
 How much wood would a woodpecker peck, if a woodpecker could peck wood.
 Did you see Sally selling sea shells by the sea shores?
 Will you buy a rubber baby buggy bumper?
 Three hundred and thirty three thousand three hundred and thirty three (333.333).
 Peter Piper picked a pack of pickled pepper. How many packs of pickled pepper did
Peter Piper pick?
 Trouble trouble before trouble troubles you.
 The more you know, the more you know how much you don't know.
 It lasted from two to two, to two two..
 If the sentence that had HAD had had HAD HAD, it would be correct.
 Are you one of those whom we have not been able to Americanize?

A Nursery Rhyme
Eeney meeney monee moo.
Catch a tiger by his toe,
If he hollers let him go.
Eeney, meeney, monee, moo.
42

FOURTH PART

QUOTABLE QUOTATIONS

The World
Geography
 The world is one of the 9 planets of the solar system.
 The world rotates* on its own axis once every 24 hours.
 The Earth revolves* around the sun once a year.
 The moon is a satellite of the earth.
 The moon revolves around the earth on an orbit once a month.
 The moon is a satellite of the earth.
 The area of the world is about 510.000.000 km2 (square kilometers).
 The area of the world is about 600 times larger than that of Turkey.
 3/4 of the world area is covered by the sea (three fourths of the ...)
 The distance between the earth and the moon is about 384.000 km. A space craft
can cover this distance in less than three days.

History
 The history of the world dates back around 4 billion years.
 We are living at a time when machines do work that men used to do.
 Airplanes can cover a distance in as many hours now, as it used to take days by
other means of transportation in the near past.
 There are twice as many people in the world now as there were 50 years ago.
 Neil Armstrong, the commander of Apollo 11, is the first man to set foot on the
moon on July 21, 1969.
 America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
 Telephone was invented by A. Graham Bell in 1876.
 United Nations was established in 1945.
Economy
 The richest country in the world, in terms of per capita income, is Kuwait.
 According to Malthus, the population of the world increases in geometrical ratio
whereas the food production increases in arithmetical ratio. Therefore, the world
is bound to face a serious crisis stemming from the shortage of food.

Politics
 One of the most important problems facing the mankind today is the lack of
sense of justice among nations. Power is still the major factor in settling
disputes.
 Palestinian-Israeli dispute is the most important problem in the World Politics.
 Turkey is trying to join the European Union since 1963.

* Rotate: to turn on an axis


* Revolve: to turn around a point
43

Turkey
Geography
 Turkey is located between two continents, Asia and Europe.
 The area of Turkey is about 780.000 km2 (... square kilometers)
 Turkey has well defined borders on all sides.
 Turkey is surrounded by the sea on three sides. The Black Sea is in the north,
Aegean Sea is in the west and the Mediterranean Sea is in the south.
 The mountains along the coast are covered with forests whereas the mountains of
Central Anatolia is mainly bare.
 Due to the differences in climate and the formation of the terrain, Anatolia is
divided into a variety of agricultural regions.

History
 For many thousands of years, because of its unique geographical position, Turkey
has been the cradle of many civilizations and the scene of many historical events.
 Anatolia was captured and ruled by many nations, including Ionians, Persians,
Romans, Arabs, and Turks.
 It is not for nothing that Turkey is called as the "cradle of civilization"...

Economy
 The economy of Turkey is based on free market system.
 Monetary unit in Turkey is Turkish Lira.
 Per capita income in Turkey is about $5.000.
 Turkey is among a few nations in the world that are self- sufficient in food
production.
 If it weren’t for the waste and and mismanagement in the government in the past
20 years, the per capita income would have more than doubled now.

Social and Cultural Structure


 The population of Turkey is about 70 million which constitutes approximately %
1 (one per cent) of the world's population.
 30 % of the population live in rural areas in Turkey.
 Turkey can be considered as a land of contrasts in some ways. For example, some
people still live a traditional life while some have adopted a modern way of life.
 There is a big gap between the distribution of income both among the individuals
and the regions. These disparities need to be mitigated.
Politics

 Political parties based onreligion, race or class is outlawed in Turkey.


 Turkey is a country to be reckoned with.
44

Erzurum

Geography
 Erzurum is located in the north eastern part of Turkey.
 It has always been an important center because of its geographical location and
topographical position.
 A branch of the ancient Silk Road used to pass through the city.
 It is located on the skirts of majestic Palandöken Mountains, overlooks a large
plain and controls several passes to different directions.
 The population of Erzurum is about 400.000.
 The altitude of the city is about 1.800 meters.
 The city is surrounded by Palandoken Mountains on the south and Kargapazarı
Mountains on the north.
 The winters in Erzurum last for about six months from mid-November to the
end of April.
History
 Erzurum has a history of 6.000 years dating back to 4.000 B.C.
 Erzurum was captured and ruled by many nations such as Urartians,
Cimmerians, Persians, Romans, Arabs, Byzantians and Turks (Saltuqs, Ilhans
and Ottomans).
 The Citadel in the city was built by the Roman Emperor Theodosius in the 5th
Century, but the clock tower was built by the Saltuq Turks in 12th Century.
 Erzurum has been the capital city of Saltuqian Dynasty in 12th Century.
 There are many works of art in the city from the period of Saltuq, Ilhan, and
Ottoman Turks such as Grand Mosque, Double Minarets, Yakutiye Medresah
and Lala Pasha Mosque.
 Ulucami, the grand mosque, was built by Melik Nasrettin of Seljuks in the 12th
Century. It is covered by 7 parallel vaults, which provide 7 wide naves for the
prayers.
 The Double Minarets, a Theological College, was built by Sultan Alaattin
Keykubat of saltuqs, a branch of the Seljuks, in the 13th Century. It is the biggest
and most elaborately decorated building of its kind in Anatolia. It has a very
impressive portal with a highly decorated frame and a huge mukarnas (a
decorated arch of the portal). Elaborate stone carvings on the base of the
minarets and the reliefs on the walls have symbolic meanings representing the
beliefs of the Ilhanits before they adopted Islam. For example, the double headed
eagles and the dragons represent masters of the sky and the earth respectively.
 Yakutiye Medresah, a theological college, was built by Hodja Cemalettin
Yakutin in the 14th Century. The building is being used as a museum now.
 Lalapasha Mosque was built by the Governor Lala Mustafa Pasha who later
became the conqueror of Cyprus in the 16th Century during the reign of The
Suleyman the Magnificent. It is a typical example of classical Ottoman mosques
with a central dome supported by 4 main columns. It is the work of the great
architect Sinan.
 The city was occupied temporarily by the Russians three times in 1829, 1882
and 1916.
45

 Erzurum is the city where the foundation of the Republic of Turkey was laid in
Erzurum Congress in July 23rd. 1919 by Atatürk and his friends.
 Other points of interest in the city include the Rüstem Pasha Caravanserai which
is used as a marketplace for black stone jewelry, three tombs and old Erzurum
houses.
Economy
 For thermal and eco- tourism as well as rafting, trekking and mountain biking,
the economy of Erzurum depends mainly on three Sectors, namely, agriculture,
trade and turizm.
 Fodder crops and animal husbandry in Erzurum has a great potential for
development.
 The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Erzurum has more than 3.500
members. It is the biggest civil society organization in Erzurum.
 Tourism, especially the winter tourism, is becoming a major economical sector
in Erzurum. Palandöken Ski Center is one of the most popular ski centers in the
Country. When fully developed, the center will have a capacity of 32.000 skiers
per day. The center isonly 6 kilometers away from the city. There are four five
star luxurious hotels in the center and it has the longest ski runs and the best
snow quality in Turkey.
 There is an important potential in Erzurum.

Social and Cultural Structure


 Erzurum has been the center of culture, education and throughout the history.
 Double minarets and Yakutiye Medresah are the two important institutions of
higher education of 12th and 13th Century.
 Ataturk University is one of the biggest and most important institutions of
higher education in the Country with about 40.000 Students
 The people of Erzurum are called “dadash” which means “man of dignity “.

Politics
 People of Erzurum are known to be “conservative” in their political and social
views.
 Local elections will be held next year.
 In the political history of Erzrurum, no Mayor has been elected twice.
46

Cyprus Problem
Cyprus is an island in Eastern Mediterranean, only 40 miles off the cost of Turkey.
It is more than 300 miles away from the mainland Greece. Cyprus became a part of the
Ottoman Empire in 1571 and remained so, for more than 300 years. In 1923 Turkey
relinquished its sovereignty to England in accordance with the Treaty of Lausanne. The
population of Cyprus is about 600.000, a quarter of which is Turkish.

The essence of Cyprus problem is that the Greeks have, for a long time, wanted to
unite the island with Greece and eliminate the Turkish Population. Turkish people on the
island had been subjected to continious discrimination, intimidation, oppression
harassment and outright massacre for years. In 1974, Turkey intervened militarily in
accordance with the Treaty of Guarantee of 1960 to maintain the independence of the
island and protect the lives of the Turkish People. If the Turks had not been harassed out
of Cyprus, it has been calculated that the number of them would have been equal to that of
Greeks by now.

The best possible solution to the problem seems to be the establishment of a bi-
communal, bi-zonal, non-aligned and independent federal republic. This solution will
maintain the independence and integrity of the island, and will provide peace and security
to both communities.

There are two completely different communities on the island. They have different
cultural, social, ethnic, and religious backgrounds. They have different traditions and
aspirations. Past events have created a profound mistrust and enmity between them. These
communities can not live together at least for the time being. Therefore, they should live
side by side if peace and security on the Island are to be maintained.

The Greeks seem to maintain the idea of Enosis. Now, they are more interested in
mobilizing international pressure against Turkey than in reaching a just and lasting peace
through negotiations. There will not be a solution to the problem as long as Greeks follow
a policy of tension with Turkey. On the other hand an imposed solution to the question
will, almost certainly, lead to another crisis, another tragedy or even a shamefull ethnic
clensing like the one witnessed in Bosnia.
47

Turkish-Armenian Matter
Some Armenians are trying to win the sympathy of the world public opinion and gain
some political advantage at the expense of Turkey by making genocide claims and presenting only
one side of the story.

The Armenians, like many other communities, lived in total cultural freedom, peace, and
prosperity for many Centuries under the Ottoman rule. In late 19th Century those countries that
wanted to decimate the Ottoman Empire manipulated the Armenians for their own political aims
and encouraged them to fight against the empire and form an independent State. To that end, they
formed organizations such as Hinchak in 1987 and Tashnak groups in 1890 with armed units to
fight against the Ottoman security forces and harass the Muslim population. They started the first
riot and in Sason in 1894 and shed the bloods of many innocent people. In the following years
they intensified their violence in Eastern Anatolia. During the First World War, they fought
against the Ottoman army along side the Russians and committed mass murders

On April 24, 1915, the Ottoman Government decided to relocate or resetle the
Armenians of Eastern Anatolia to Syria which was a part of the Ottoman Empire at that time.
Many countries in history have relocated some of their citizens during the wars.

What Armenians claim to be genocide is in fact the relocation of the Armenians away
from the front line as a result of their own acts of violence. Subsequent loss of life due to the
inhuman conditions of war is well known to all. Genocide is an act of killing a group of people for
what they are, not for what they do. Ermenians were resetled for what they did during the war.

Most Armenians who scratch the healing wounds now are the descendents of those who
were resetled away from the front line during the War. If there had been a genocide at that time,
they would not have been able to make those claims now.

It is unfortunate that on the advent of 21st Century, some people are nurturing hatred and
violence again, killing innocent people including diplomats and expecting some benefits from
creating a biased World public opinion.

A group of bipartisan international experts must come together to bring out to light all
the facts about this matter and put an end to endless accusations, enmities, misunderstanding and
the exploitation of the good will of the international communities.

In the final analysis, both the Armenians and the Turks who lost their lives as a result of
the fabricated hatret are the victims of the super powers of that time which followed the policy of
“divide and rule”. Most of the conflicts in the Middle East of today stems from the same policy.
All those who want to tarnish the image of a nation must act responsible and give up creating
more hatret, conflict and violence.
48

Agriculture
 Agriculture can be described as the work of growing crops and raising farm
animals.

 Agronomy is the work of producing field crops in large and open fields.

 Horticulture is the work of producing fruits and vegetables in small and protected
areas.

 Agricultural extension is a technical service based on an out-of-school educational


system and aimed at improving the living conditions of the people who are
engaged in Agriculture.

 There are eleven Departments in the College of Agriculture at Atatürk University.


They are the Departments of: Horticulture, Plant Protection, Food Technology,
Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Mechanization,
Field Crops, Soil Science and Animal Husbandry, Aquaculture and Landscape
Architecture.
 Photosynthesis is a process by which chlorophyll containing cells in green plants
synthesize carbohydrates from carbodioxide and water in the presence of sun
light. In other words, it is a process by which plants make sugar from water and
air.

 Erosion occurs on sloping surfaces rather than level surfaces.

 Some bacteria are beneficial, but some are harmful, causing various diseases.
 A plow is an implement to till or turn over the soil.

 A roller is used to break up the clods and compact the seed bed.
 In general, tillage serves three purposes. It prepares the seed bed, destroys the
weeds, and improves the soil.

 Rotation is a practice of growing different crops at different times on the same


soil.

 A tractor can draw a two or more furrow plow.


49

Economics
 Economics is the study of man's activities aimed at satisfying the unlimited human
needs by means of limited resources. These activities include production,
distribution, consumption etc.

 Supply and demand are among the most important concepts in Economics. Supply
refers to the amounts of a commodity that the suppliers are willing to sell at
certain price levels in a certain market at a certain time. On the other hand,
demand refers to the amounts of a commodity that the consumers are willing to
buy at certain price levels in a certain market at a certain time.

 In a free market, the price of a commodity is determined at a point where the


amounts of supply and demand are equal. , the price of a commodity goes up as
the demand goes up, or the supply goes down, or vice versa.

 Inflation is an economic phenomenon which appears as a steady and sharp


increase in general price level. Inflation, by definition, refers to a high level of
increase in money supply in relation to the increase in production. Inflation can
also be defined as too much demand in relation to supply. It follows that the
solution to inflation is to decrease demand and increase supply by certain
measures.

 According to the law of diminishing returns, in production when one factor is


increased constantly while the others are held constant. the output will show three
stages:

1) Increases at an increasing rate.

2) Increases at decreasing rate.

3) Reaches a maximum and there after decrease.

 The law of diminishing returns is also called the law of diminishing marginal
productivity
50

Atatürk
Atatürk is the founder and the first president of the Turkish Republic. He was born
in 1881 in Salonika which is in Greece now but was a part of the Ottoman Empire at that
time. He attended military school and became an officer in the Ottoman Army in 1902.

He fought on several fronts in different wars and became a national hero after the
Gallipoli War in 1915. Ottoman Empire was invaded by several foreign powers after the
First World War. He started the Independence War against the invading powers in Samsun
on May 19th, 1919. He led the Nation to victory after a bitter and costly struggle on
August 30th, 1922. He established the Turkish Republic, on October 29th, 1923 and was
elected as the first President of the Republic.

The Turkish Republic was established on the principles of; republicanism,


nationalism, statism, secularism, populism, and revolutionism which have become to be
known as Kemalism. Atatürk has carried out several bold and broad reforms to create a
modern state on the ruins of the six-century old Ottoman Empire.

His many reforms include the following:


 Abolishing the Sultanate and establishing the Republic.
 Abolishing the Caliphate and Religious Code and establishing the secularism
and Civil Code.
 Closing down the religious orders.
 Changing hats and costumes.
 Introducing the Latin alphabet.
 Establishing several state institutions to promote peace, prosperity, and
progress in the Country.

Atatürk died on November 10th, 1938, but his memory and his works will live
forever. He is one of the greatest leaders of the Twentieth Century. Even if he had
achieved only one of his many accomplishments, he would still have deserved to be called
as one of the greatest leaders in the world.
51

Atatürk’s Address to the Turkish Youth

Turkish Youth!
Your first duty is to preserve and defend the Turkish independence and the Turkish
Republic forever.

This is the only foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is
your most valuable treasure. In the future too, you will have enemies both in the country
and abroad who will try to deprive you of this treasure. If, one day, you are compelled to
defend your independence and the Republic, you shall not hesitate to perform your duty no
matter what the circumstances and possibilities may be. These circumstances and
possibilities may be extremely unfavorable. The enemies who desire to destroy your
independence and your Republic may have won a victory unprecedented in the history of
the World. By force or deceit, all the fortresses and shipyards of your homeland may have
been seized, all the armies may have been dispersed and all the corners of your homeland
may have actually been occupied. What is more tragic and awesome than even these
eventualities, those in power may have fallen into ignorance, error, or even treason.
Moreover, they may identify their personal interest with the enemies' political claims. The
nation may have been completely deprived, destroyed and exhausted.

Turkish youth of the future, even under these circumstances, it is your duty to save
the Turkish independence and the Turkish Republic. The might that you will need is
already present in the noble blood in your veins.

M.K.Atatürk 1927
52

FIFTH PART
LETTERS AND CERTIFICATES

A Letter to a Friend

April 1st, 1986


ERZURUM

Dear A,

Thank you very much for your letter of March 8 th. It was very nice to hear from
you again. I am sorry for the delay in answering your letter. I was out of town for a two-
week vacation when it arrived. Lots of paper had piled up on my desk when I returned
from vacation, and it took me several days to catch up with the work.

It is nice to hear that you and your family are all well. I am happy to be able to say
that I and my family are all fine too. B had a cold last week. He is about over it and join
the football team now. The weather has been unusually warm around here for this time of
the year.

That is all there is to say for the time being. Please say hi, to C and D for me.
Please give my regards to your parents.

I am looking forward to hearing from you again.

With all my best wishes

E. F. U

P.S.
G. became engaged to H.T. yesterday
K will get married to L tomorrow.
53

A Letter of Application
______________________________________________________________________
April 2nd, 1986
ERZURUM

I.C.L.S.
1346 Connecticut Ave., 1200
N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 U.S.A.

Dear Sirs

I am a member of the teaching staff in the Department of... in the College of


Agriculture at Atatürk University in Turkey. I was given a scholarship to study in U.S.A.
for a period of one year. I would like to attend your school for three months for language
training before I start studying in my field.

I would appreciate if you could send me an application form and some information
regarding accommodation possibilities-in D.C.

Thank you very much in advance for your consideration. I am looking forward to
receiving an answer from you.

Sincerely yours,

K.L.A
Department of...........
. Ataturk University
25240 Erzurum-Turkey

Enclosures :
1. A copy of B.S. diploma
2. A letter of financial support
54

A Letter of Recommendation
______________________________________________________________________

April 3rd, 1986


ERZURUM

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

I am pleased to write this letter of recommendation in behalf of Dr. O.P. whom I


have known for over ten years and worked with since 1980. He was asked to join the
teaching staff in the College because of his distinguished record during his undergraduate
years.

Mr. P. is a diligent and intelligent person. He has a great sense of duty and
responsibility. He is known to be a man of patience and perseverance.

It is my belief that Dr. O.P. will be able to benefit greatly from an opportunity to
study abroad. I strongly recommend him for such an opportunity.

Very truly yours,

Prof. Dr. M. C. A
Chairman
Department of..................
College of Agriculture
Atatürk University
Erzurum / TURKEY

Some positive characteristics: careful, considerate, creative, co-operative, diligent, dedicated, energetic,
extravert, friendly, hardworking, imaginative, intelligent, meticulous, orderly, punctual, self confident,
vigilant,
55

A Letter of Confirmation
______________________________________________________________________

April 4th, 1986


ERZURUM

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that Dr. O.P. has been a member of the teaching staff in the
College of Agriculture at Atatürk University for the past five years. He was awarded a
scholarship by the Government to study abroad for a period of one year.
I would like to confirm that his scholarship covers in full, the travel expenses, per-
diem allowances, admission fees and medical expenses.

Prof. Dr. T.K.F


Dean
College of Agriculture
Atatürk University 25240
ERZURUM-TURKEY
56

______________________________________________________________________
Translation of a Diploma
______________________________________________________________________
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY
ERZURUM Photo
ATATURK UNIVERSITY and
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE seal

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER
DIPLOMA

Date of Diploma :
Diploma Number :
Department :

This is to certify that ...............................................................the son/daughter of


.......................born in the year........................ in .........................has been granted the title
of AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER on the date of............................. upon completing
his/her studies and examinations successfully in compliance with the special laws and
regulations of the College of Agriculture of Atatürk University to benefit from all the
rights and privileges provided by the laws of the Republic of Turkey.

Rector of Atatürk University Dean of College of Agriculture


.......... .........
Signature Signature

______________________________________________________________________
This is a complete and correct translation of the original

Date and confirmation:


57

SIXTH PART

VOCABULARY
 Just as keys are attached to rings, the words should be attached to sentences to
prevent them from being lost.

English Words

English Logic
When the English tongue we speak,
Why is break not rhymed with freak?
Will you tell me why it's true?
We say sew, but likewise few
And the maker of the verse
Can not cap his horse with worse?
Beard sounds not the same as heard
Cord is different from word
Cow is cow, but low is low;
Shoe is never rhymed with foe.
Think of hose and dose and lose,
And of goose and yet of choose.
Think of comb and tomb and bomb,
Doll and roll, and home and some,
And since pay is rhymed with say.
Why not paid with said, I pray?
We have blood and food and good;
Mould is not pronounced like could.
Wherefore done, but gone and lone?
Is there any reason known?
And in short, it seems to me,
Sound and letters disagree.
58

Homophones
Aisle (Ayıl) Koridor Isle Ada
Be (Bi) Olmak Bee Arı
Break (Breyk) Kırmak Brake Fren
Die (Day) Ölmek Dye Boya
Cell (Sel) Hücre Sell Satmak
Doe (Do) Dişi Geyik Dough Hamur
Hair (Heyr) Saç Hare Tavşan
Flour (Flawr Un Flower Çiçek
Heal (Hiil) Iyileşmek Heel Topuk
Idol (Aydıl) Put Idle Boş, Aylak
Mail (Meyl) Posta Male Erkek
Our (Avr) Bizim Hour Saat
Straight (Streyt) Doğru (Düz Hat) Strait Boğaz (Çanakkale)
Tail (Teyl) Kuyruk Tale Masal
Fair Doğru Adil Fare Ücret (Bilet v.b.)
American English English English Turkish
Baby bottle (nipple) Teat Biberon
Long distance call Trunk call Şehirlerarası telefon
Business suit Lounge suit Resmi elbise
Pants (slacks) Trousers Pantolon
Parka Onarak Mont
Shoestring Shoelace Ayakkabı bağı
Intermission Interval Ara (sinemada)
Meat grinder Mincer Kıyma makinası
Raisins Sultanas Kişmiş
Antenna Arial Anten
Closet Cupboard Dolap
Faucet Tap Muslık
Scotch tape Cellotape Şeffaf bant
Fender Mud quard Çamurluk
Baggage Luggage Bavul
Lost and found Lost property Kayıp eşya bürosu
Make reservation Book Yer ayırtmak
Subway Under ground Metro
Zero Naught Sıfır
59

Agricultural Words and Terms


General
Agriculture: Tarım Winnow: Savurmak Leaf: Yaprak
Horticulture:Bağcılık, Store: Depolamak Awn: Kılçık
Bahçecilik
Viticulture: Üzümcülük Germinate: Çimlenme Bud: Tomurcuk
Apiculture: Arıcılık Emerge: Çıkma Field Crops: Tarla bitkileri
Cultivate: Işlemek Flower: Çiçek, Çiçek açma Cash Crops: Gelir bitkileri
Plow: Sürmek, Pulluk Mature : Olgun, Subsistence Crops:
Olgunlaşma Geçimlik Ürünler
Sow: Ekmek Bran: Kepek Grain Crops: Daneliler
Plant: Dikmek Stable: Ahır Cereal Crops: Hububat
Mow: Biçmek Stem: Gövde (ağaç) Root Crops: Kök bitkileri
Reap: Biçmek Branch: Dal Industrial Crops: End. bit.
Harvest: Hasat etmek Bark: Kabuk Oil Crops: Yağ bitkileri
Trash: Dövmek Stalk: Gövde (sap) Fiber Crops: Lif bitkileri
Wilt: Sararma Seedling : Fide Poultry: Kümes hayvan
Thin: Seyreltme Fingerling: Yavru balık Feed: Hayvan yemi
Hoe: Çapalama Rotation: Münavebe Trough: Kurun (Su kapları)
Irrigate: Sulama Smut: Sürme Saddle Animals: Binek h.
Sprinkler: Yağmurlama Forage Crops: Yem Draft Animals: Çeki h.
bitkileri
Barn: Samanlık Fodder Crops: Yem Bit. Flora: Tabii Bitki varlığı
Furrow: Karık Cover Crops: Örtü bitkileri Fauna:Tabii Hayvan varlığı
Fallow: Nadas Bovine : Büyükbaş hayvan Farm Manure: Çiftlik
gübresi
To Leave Fallow: Nadasa Ovine: Küçükbaş Hayvan Beef: Sığır eti
bırakma Mutton: Koyun eti

Plants
Grains: Hububatlar
Barley: Arpa Millet: Darı Awned Wheat: Kılçıklı b.
Wheat: Buğday Lentils: Mercimek Rice: Pirinç
Corn: Mısır Oat: Yulaf Weed: Yabancı ot
Rye: Çavdar
60

Industrial crops
Cotton: Pamuk Tobacco: Tütün Flax: Keten, Jute: Kendir
Hemp: Kenevir Sugar Beet: Şeker pancarı

Fruits:Meyveler
Apple: Elma Cherry Pip: Kiraz çekirdeği Strawberry: Çilek
Pear: Armut Grape: Üzüm Mulberry: Dut
Peach: Şeftali Grapefruit: Greyfurt Pineapple: Ananas
Apricot: Kayısı Date: Hurma Orange: Portakal
Plum: Erik Fig: Incir Tangerine: Mandalina
Cherry: Kiraz Melon : Kavun Lemon: Limon
Pip: Çekirdek Watermelon: Karpuz Quince : Ayva

Vegetables: Sebzeler
Tomato: Domates Potato: Patates Squash: Kabak (Dolmalık)
Pepper: Biber Onion: Soğan Pumpkin: Kabak (Bal)
Egg Plant: Patlıcan Garlic: Sarmısak Cauliflower: Karnabahar
Cucumber: Salatalık Bean: Fasulye Cabbage: Lahana
Lettuce: Marul Melon: Kavun Mushroom: Mantar
Carrot: Havuç

Nuts: Kuruyemişler
Chestnut: Kestane Coconut: Hindistan Cevizi Pistachio: Antep Fıstığı
Walnut: Ceviz Almond: Badem
Peanut : Fıstık Cashew: Cashew Fıstığı

Fodder crops: Yem Bitkileri


Alfalfa: Yonca Vetch: Fiğ (Küspe) Grass: Çimen
Seinfoin: Korunga Clover : Üçgül Crushed Straw: Saman

Flowers: Çiçekler
Rose: Gül Carnation: Karanfil Daisy: Papatya
Tulip: Lale Violet: Menekşe Lavender: Lavanta
Jasmine: Yasemin Lily: Zambak
61

Trees: Ağaçlar
Willow : Söğüt Maple: Akçaağaç Okra: Bamya
Poplar: Kavak Palm Tree: Palmiye Spinach: Ispanak
Oak: Meşe Herbicide:Yabancı Ot Celery : Kereviz
Ilacı
Hazelnut: Fındık Pea: Bezelye Parsley: Maydanoz
Pine: Çam Chick-Pea: Nohut Leek: Prasa
Division : Bölüm Class: Sınıf Family: Familya

Animals and Insects


Bovine: Büyükbaş Hayvanlar
Cow: Inek Bull: Boğa Camel: Deve
Ox: Öküz Buffalo: Manda
Calf: Dana Pig: Domuz

Ovine: Küçükbaş Hayvanlar


Sheep: Koyun Lamb: Kuzu Doe: Keçi (Dişi), Dişi Geyik
Eve: Koyun Goat: Keçi
Ram: Koç Buch: Teke

Poultry: Kümes Hayvancılığı


Chicken: Tavuk Turkey: Hindi Duckling: Ördek yavrusu
Hen: Tavuk Goose: Kaz
Rooster: Horoz Duck: Ördek

Saddle Animals: Binek Hayvanları


Horse: At Mare: Kısrak Mule: Katır
Stallion: Aygır Donkey:Eşek

Domestic Animals : Ev Hayvanlar


Dog: Köpek Puppy: Guduk Kitten: K.Yavrusu
Bitch: Kancık Cat: Kedi
62

Insects: Böcekler
Fly: Sinek Butterfly: Kelebek Genus: Cins
Bee: Arı Spider: Örümcek Species: Tür
Mosquito: Sivrisinek Cockroach: Hamam b. Variety: Çeşit
Beetle: A. Böceği Silkworm: Ipek böceği Strain: Hat
Insecticide:Böcek Locust: Çekirge
Öldürücü

Wild Animals and Others


Land Animals: Kara Hayvanları
Wolf: Kurt Monkey: Maymun Rabbit: Tavşan
Fox: Tilki Zebra: Zebra Rat: Tarla faresi
Bear: Ayı Giraffe: Zürafa Mouse: Ev faresi
Lion: Aslan Elephant: Fil Bat: Yarasa
Tiger: Kaplan Beaver: Kunduz Squirrel: Sincap
Leopard: Leopar Jackal: Çakal

Sea Creatures: Deniz Yaratıkları


Whale: Balina Coral: Mercan Shrimp: Karides
Shark: Köpek Balığı Sponge: Sünger Lobster: Istakos
Dolphin: Yunus Balığı Octopus: Ahtapot Crab: Yengeç
Trout: Alabalık Mussel: Midye

Birds: Kuşlar
Sea Gull: Martı Crow: Karga Peacock: Tavus
Hawk: Atmaca Sparrow: Serçe Pheasant: Keklik
Dove: Güvercin Pigeon: Güvercin Vulture: Akbaba
Falcon: Şahin Eagle: Kartal Ostrich: Devekuşu
Canary: Kanarya Stork: Leylek Owl: Baykuş
Parrot: Papağan Crane: Leylek
63

Reptiles: Sürüngenler
Snake: Yılan Alligator: Timsah Snail: Sümüklü böcek
Scorpion: Akrep Turtle: Kaplumbağa Frog: Kurbağa
Crocodile: Timsah Worm: Solucan

Agricultural Implements
Fork: Dirgen Hammer: Çekiç Harrow: Sürgü
Rake: Tırmak Sickle: Orak Discharrow: Diskaro
Pick: Kazma Scythe: Tırpan
Shovel: Kürek Cart: Araba Seed Drill: Mibzer
Spade: Bel Küreği Plow: Pulluk Tractor: Traktör
Hoe: Çapa Roller: Merdane Trailer: Römork
Combine Harvester: Biçer Potato Planter: P. Dikici Wheel Barrow: El arabası
Döver

Household Tools
Scissors: Makas Driver: Tornavida Awl: Biz
Tweezers: Cımbız Bolt: Civata Strainer: Süzgeç
Pliers: Pense Nut: Somun Funnel: Huni
Pincers : Kerpeten Spanner: Somun anahtarı Bucket: Kova
Axe: Balta Wrench: Đng.Anahtar Nail: Çivi
Chopper: Satır, Falçata Saw: Testere Hammer: Çekiç
Lever: Levye Hacksaw: Demir testeresi Brush: Fırça
Drill: Matkap Ripsaw: Ağaç testeresi Broom: Süpürge
Screw: Vida Dust Pan: Faraş Mop: Paspas

Parts of a Human Body


The Skeleton : Đskelet Wrist: Bilek Forehead/Brow: Alın
Skull: Kafatası Fist: Yumruk Jaw: Çene Kemiği
Collar-Bone: Köprücük k. Hand: El Mustache: Bıyık
Shoulder-Blade: Kürek k. Palm: Aya, Avuç içi Beard: Sakal
Breastbone: Göğüş Kemiği Thumb: Başparmak Tooth: Diş
Rib: Kaburga Kemiği Finger: Parmak Lip: Dudak
Backbone/Spine: Omurga Nail: Tırnak Tongue: Dil
Hip-Bone/: Kalça Kemiği/ Leg: Bacak Eye: Göz
64

Pelvis: Leğen Kemiği Thigh: Uyluk Eyeball: Göz yuvarlağı


Kneecap: Dizkapağı Kemiği Knee: Diz Eyebrow: Kaş
Hair: Saç Calf: Baldır Eyelid: Göz kapağı
Head: Baş/Kafa Ankle: Ayak bileği Eyelashes: Kirpikler
Neck: Boyun Foot: Ayak Iris: Iris/Iris Tabakası
Throat: Boğaz/Gırtlak Heel: Topuk Brain: Beyin
Shoulder: Omuz Instep: Taban kemeri Wind Pipe: Soluk borusu
Chest: Göğüs Sole: Ayak tabanı Heart: Kalp Yürek
Back: Sırt Toe: Ayak parmağı Lung: Akciğer
Waist: Bel The Face: Yüz Liver: Karaciğer
Stomach/Tummy:Mide/Karın Eye: Göz Kidney: Böbrek
Hip: Kalça Nose: Burun Intestines: Barsaklar
Bottom/Buttocks: Kıç/Kaba Ear: Kulak Bladder: Sidik torbası
Armpit: Koltuk Altı Mouth: Ağız Vein: Toplardamar
Arm: Kol Cheek: Yanak, Avurt Artery: Atardamar
Upper Arm: Üst kol Chin: Çene Muscle: Kas/Adale
Forearm: Önkol Temple: Şakak Vessel: Damar
Elbow: Dirsek

Automotive Words and Terms


Car: Araba Gear: Vites Spare Tire: Yedek Lastik
Bus: Otobüs Clutch: Debriyaj Jack: Kriko
Truck: Kamyon Brake: Firen Lever: Levye
Bumper: Tampon Accelerator: Gaz Towing Rope: Çekme halat
Headlight: Ön Far Fan: Pervane Extinguisher: Yangın sön.
Signal: Sinyal Fan Belt: Pervane kayışı Fuel Tank: Depo
Fender: Çamurluk Starter: Marş Pot Hole: Kasis
Hood: Motor kapağı Spark Plug: Buji To Start: Çalıştırmak
Windshield: Ön cam Distributor: Distribitör To Speed Up: Hızlanmak
Wiper: Silecek Carburetor: Karbüratör To Swerve: Dir. Kırmak
Roof: Üst Kaporta Dashboard: Konsol Flat Tire: Patlak Lastik
Trunk: Bagaj Glove Compartment: To Slow down :
Torpido gözü Yavaşlamak
Wheel: Tekerlek Front Seat: Ön koltuk To Pull Over: Kenara çekmek
Tire: Lastik Back Seat: Arka koltuk To Stop: Durmak
Rear view mirror: Arkayı Seat Belt: Kemer To Repair the flat tire:
görüş aynası Lastik tamir etmek
Steering Wheel: Direksiyon Horn: Korna A Dent On The Fender:
simidi Çamurlukta bir çöküntü
To sound horn: Korna To Blow Horn: Korna
65

çalmak Çalmak

Military Terms
Private Er Artillery Topçu
Corporal Onbaşı Cavalry Süvari
Sergeant Çavuş Tank units Tankçı
Lieutenant Teğmen Military engineering Đstihkam
Second Lieutenant Üsteğmen Communication Muhabere
Units
Captain Yüzbaşı Cease- Fire Ateş Kes
Major Binbaşı Armistice Mütareke
Lieutenant colonel Yarbay Machine gun Makinalı tüfek
Colonel Albay Bullet Tabanca mermisi
General General Artillery round Top mermisi
One Star general Tuğ general Missile Füze
Two Star general Tüm general Nuclear warhead Nükleer başlık
Three Star general Kor general Gun powder Barut
Four Star general Or general Combat Çatışma
Marshal Mareşal Booby trap Bubi tuzağı
Chief of staff Genel kurmay baş. Armored vehicles Zırhlı araçlar
Army Kara kuvvetleri Trench Siper
Navy Deniz kuvvetleri Front line Savaş hattı
Airforce Hava kuvvetleri
Infantry Piyade

Latin Words and Abbreviations


De facto In Reality Fiili Durum
De jure In Law Yasal Olarak Durum
Phenomenon Event Olay
Phenomena Events Olaylar
Fait accompli Accomplished Fact Emri Vaki, Oldu Bitti
(Or) Vice Versa Conversely (Veya) Tersi
Vis-A-Vis Faceto Face, Compared to Yüz Yüze, E Göre
As Per In Accordance with E Uygun Olarak….
66

Datum Information (Sin.) Veri


Data Information (Pl.) Veriler
Thesis Thesis Tez
Theses Theses Tezler
Per Se In (By) itself Bizatihi
Per Capita Per Head Kişi Başına
Ad Hoc Specific Özel
In Vivo In living thing Canlı içinde
In Vitro Out of living thing Canlı dışında
Sine Quo Non Essential Olmazsa olmaz
Ceterus Paribus Other things being equal Diğer şartlar sabit
kaldığında
I.E. (Id Est) That Is Yani
E.G. (Exempli Gratia) For Example Mesela
Etc. (Et Cetera) And so on Vesaire
Et al. And others Ve diğerleri
Ibid ( Ibidem) In the book cited above Y.A.G.E.
C.V. Curriculum Vitae Özgeçmiş
Quid Pro Quo Something for something Kısasa kısas
Erratum Error Hata
Errata Errors Hatalar
Criterion Criterion Ölçüt
Criteria Criteria Ölçütler
Bona Fide Made in good faith Iyi niyetle yapılmış
Uni, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca.

Onomatopoeic Words (Tabiat sesleri taklidi kelimeler)


Bark: Havlama Hum: Mırıldanma (Şarkı) Knock: Kapıyı Vurma
Meow: Miyavlama Mırmır: Mırıldanma (Söz) Clap: Alkış Sesi
Hee Haw: Anırma Purr: Mırıldanma (Kedi) Chop: Odun Kırma
Quack: Vak Vak Snore: Horlama Chip: Kutuya Para Atma
Roar: Kükreme Piss: Işeme Moan: Inleme
Weigh: Kişneme Cough: Öksürme Crisp: Gevrek
Blah-Blah: Dırdır Crack: Çatırtı Bomb: Bomba lamak
Burb: Geğirme Crackle: Çıtırtı Snap: Ipin Kopması
Sneeze: Hapşırma Crash: Çarpışma Hick-Up: Hıçkırmak
Hush: Hış! Splash: Suya Çarpma
67

A Poem

Come, come again.


Whatever you are come again.
Be you an idol or fire worshipper or an atheist
Come again.
Our way is not the way of hopelessness;
Even if you have broken your oath or penitence a hundred times,
Come again,
Mevlana

Another Poem

Whatever you wish for yourself,


wish the same for the others.
That is the assence of four Books,
and the words of the fathers.

Yunus Emre