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PROPOSAL FOR THE FINAL DISSERTATION

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT DUE TO INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION


AMONG THE DEWELLERS OF SMALL INDUSTRIAL ESTAT, ABBOTTABAD,
PAKISTAN.

Submitted to:
Supervisor:
DR. EJAZ AHMED KHAN

Submitter by:
DR. HAMMAD HABIB
Roll no. 07
MSPH – 2009
Health Services Academy
Islamabad
SYNOPSIS FOR RESEARCH RESEARCH PROCESS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION:............................................................................................................3
LITERATURE REVIEW:................................................................................................3
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.....................................................................................5
RATIONALE:....................................................................................................................5
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:..............................................................................................6
MATERIAL AND METHODS:.......................................................................................6
DATA COLLECTION:.....................................................................................................7
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS;....................................................................................8
REFERENCES:...............................................................................................................10
INFORMED CONSENT FORM....................................................................................11
QUESTIONNAIRE..........................................................................................................12
WORK PLAN:.................................................................................................................13
BUDGET:.........................................................................................................................14

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INTRODUCTION:
Industrial waste is waste generated by factories and industrial plants. Industrial wastes
can be hazardous or radioactive wastes and they can cause water and noise pollution.
Heat is also an industrial waste discharged into water altering the ecology of a stream or
water.1 Mostly hazardous waste is inadequately disposed of. Infiltration permits its
transport into ground water supplies. Most of it is generated and disposed in areas where
people rely on aquifers for drinking water. Much industrial waste is neither hazardous nor
toxic, such as waste fiber produced by agriculture and logging.1
Toxic waste and chemical waste are two designations of industrial waste. It is common to
find vacant open plots with pile and pile of garbage dumped on it. Children play in it and
breathe in its toxics on a daily basis. It is the poorer sections of society that are most
vulnerable to such forms of pollution.2
There is no single means of managing industrial wastes because the nature of the wastes
varies widely from one industry to another. Various methods of solid waste management
include sanitary landfill, recycling, composting, waste to energy method, incinerators,
etc. The most common disposal methods, particularly in the UK, are landfill. Incineration
is the second largest waste disposal method in most countries. A less common but more
sustainable method of waste disposal is anaerobic digestion.3,4
Geographic information systems (GIS) is a computer-aided database management and
mapping technology that organizes and stores large amounts of multi-purpose
information. GIS can be used for mapping population at risk and planning and targeting
of the interventions accordingly.5

LITERATURE REVIEW:
A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying
populations at risk from exposure to some environmental contaminant. Environmental
monitoring may be used to identify exposed populations using sampling of air, soil,
water, or vegetation, with or without the addition of contour plotting derived from the
concentrations of contaminants at spot sites.6

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Situation in Pakistan:
Pakistan, like other developing countries, is facing similar threats of depletion of ozone
layer, global warming, natural resource degradation and environmental pollution.
Resources were augmented to develop numerous industrial estates in all corners of the
country and today the number of industrial estates has increased to 72. The industrial
estates are distributed in all provinces. Sindh contains the largest number of industrial
estates (24), Punjab has established 20 industrial estates followed by 15 in NWFP, 10 in
Baluchistan and 3 in Federal Capital Area, Islamabad.1
Total number of registered industries in Pakistan is estimated to be 6634 out of which
1278 are considered highly toxic. Major industries of Pakistan include textile,
pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), sugar & food industries, ceramics,
steel, paper & pulp, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces. In
the race towards industrialization, a number of industrial estates were established at
Faisalabad, Gadoon Amazai, Nooriabad, Sheikhupura, G.T. Road, etc. in Pakistan.
However, little attention has been given to proper disposal of industrial waste.7
A big portion of the registered industries in Pakistan are considered to be highly
polluting. In Pakistan, only 3 percent of the total industrial units treat their wastes while
the rest discharges untreated effluent into rivers, lakes and sea.7
Dumping of untreated industrial wastes have caused contamination of surface and ground
water resources and threatened the aquatic life to the endangered level.8
Small Industrial Estate Abbottabad is located in the Abbottabad city. It is on the left of
main Qarakuram highway to Mansehra city. Major industries here include the marble,
sugar and food, ceramics, shoes and chapel making, vegetable oil and ghee etc. It is
adjacent to Ayub medical complex hospital and in surroundings there are many schools
as well.

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Engage stakeholders, Risk communication


& community consultation

Industrial Wastes

Hazard Assessment Community


& Identification exposure assessment

GIS Maping

Risk characterization

Risk management

RATIONALE:

Literature supports the health risk to the community associated with hazardous /
industrial wastes. No study has so far been conduced on the industrial waste management
at small industrial estate Abbottabad. This study will help in the exploring of the
“iceberg” involved with the industrial pollution.

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

• Aim of the study:


Overall improvement in the industrial waste management in different industries of
Pakistan
• Objective:
• To determine risk posed to the community due to management of industrial waste at
small industrial estate Abbottabad.
• To describe the environmental risk through GIS at small industrial estate Abbottabad.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

• Study design:
It will be a cross sectional descriptive study.
• Duration of the study:
The study will be completed in a period of three (03) months from 1 st April 2010
to 30th June 2010.
• Study population:
Industries at small industrial estate Abbottabad and the people within the
surroundings of the industrial estate.
• Sampling method
Non-probability type of sampling will be done for selection of all of the
industries. Systematic random sampling will be done to select community
members. Water samples will be taken by simple random sampling.
• Sample size
All the industries in the area will be included in the study around 24 in
number. Also the people living in an area of 1 km near to the industrial estate will
be included in the study.

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Since prevalence of the issue is not known, the sample size is calculated by taking
prevalence to be 50% and by applying formula p(1-p)/e2, it turns out to be 100.
Thus 110 people will be included in the study.
• Significance:
Significance of the study is taken to be α level of 0.05 at 95% CI. Power of the
study will be taken to be not less than 80%.

Sample recruitment: (Inclusion & exclusion criteria)


All the industries within the specified area and who agree for participation in the study
will be included in the study. Also the people living in an area of 1 km near to the
industrial estate will be interviewed using the questionnaire. Those refusing to participate
will be excluded from the study.

DATA COLLECTION:
Variables:
• Outcome variable:
Polluted water
• Explainatory variable:
Type of waste produces
Quantity of waste produces
Disposal site of the waste
Type of waste pathway
Distance of the factory from community
Source of drinking water
Depth of drinking water source etc.
• Socio – demographic variables:
Age, sex, address, education etc.

Instruments
- Health impact assessment tool will be used which is pre-tested.
- GIS / Health mapper will be used for mapping the area.

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- GPS device etc.


- A semi – structured questionnaire.
- Laboratory tests for quality of water

Data analysis plan


Data will be analyzed using the health mapper for GIS mapping. SPSS version 17 will be
used for identifying the significance levels wherever applicable. Mean and standard
deviations will be calculated where necessary and applicable. Figures, tables and graphs
will be used to elaborate the results.
Dummy tables:
Table 1: Waste production by type of factory
Waste Produced
Hazardous Non - hazardous Others
Type of industry
Marble factory
Garments
Shoe factory
Ceramics
Oil & ghee
Paper factory

Table 2: Type of drainage pathway of different industries:


Type of waste Marble Oil & ghee Ceramics Paper factory
drainage Factory
Open
Close

Table 3: Distance of industry from the community:


Distance from the nearest house
< 100 meters >100 meters
Type of industry
Marble factory
Garments
Shoe factory
Ceramics

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS;

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Study approval will be taken from Institutional Review board Health Services Academy.
This study mainly involves the collection of data from the industrial estate therefore prior
to conducting the study, approval will be taken from public health officer, DCO and other
concerned authorities. Rights of the respondents will be considered and an informed
consent will be taken prior to the interview. Respondents will be informed about the
benefits of this study. They will also be told that if they do not want to participate in it,
their own will and the information collected will be kept confidential as well as their
identity and names.

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REFERENCES:

1. Industrial Pollution. [Online]. 2006 [cited 2009 Dec 10 on 15:20].Available


from:URL:http://www.apotokyo.org/gp/e_publi/penang_symp/Penang_Symp
_P159-166.pdf.
2. Ali, K., Javid, M.A., Javid, M., 1996. Pollution and Industrial Waste. 6th
National Congress Soil Sci., Lahore, p.122-131.
3. Solid waste and pollution – Silent killers by. Sohail Raza Dodhy, Copyright
2007 Ptj.com.pk
4. Mufti, S.A., Woods, C.A., Hasan, S.A. Biodiversity of Pakistan. Pakistan
Museum Natural History, Islamabad. 1997.
5. WHO. GIS Maping. [Online]. 2009 [cited 2009 Dec 11 on 10:40].Available
from:URL:http://www.who.int/health_mapping/about/en/
6. F L R Williams, S A Ogston. Identifying populations at risk from
environmental contamination from point sources. Occup Environ Med
2002;59:2–8
7. Mufti, S.A., Woods, C.A., Hasan, S.A., 1997. Biodiversity of Pakistan.
Pakistan Museum Natural History, Islamabad
8. J Zhejiang Univ SCIENCE B. Industries and environment. 2006 7(12):974-
980

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Annexure 1:

INFORMED CONSENT FORM

Industrial Waste Management at Small Industrial estat Abbottabad

Conducted by: Dr. Hammad Habib


Student MSPH 2009-10
Health Services Academy Islamabad

Name of Participant: ______________________


Age: _____________ Sex: ________________
Contact Information: ______________________________________________________
We are conducting a study on industrial waste management at small industrial estate
Abbottabad. Regarding this study, I will ask you a few questions. This will take about
ten minutes. I want you to answer these questions to the best of your knowledge. If you
have any queries about these questions you can ask for me to elaborate.
There is no risk involved in this study except your valuable time. There is no direct
benefit to you also. You are free to choose to participate in the survey. You may refuse to
participate as well. The information provided by you will remain confidential. Nobody
except principal investigator will have an access to it. Your name and identity will also
not be disclosed at any time. However the data may be seen by Ethical review committee
and may be published in journal and elsewhere without giving your name or disclosing
your identity.
If you have understood the purpose, risks and benefits of the study, please sign below to
confirm that you are willing to participate in survey.

Participant Signature or thumb impression: Date:

Interviewer Signature: Date:

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Annexure 2:
QUESTIONNAIRE

ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY RISK DUE TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AT


SMALL INDUSTRIAL ESTAT ABBAOTTABAD

Name of factory: _____________________ ID No. ______________________

Name of owner: ______________________ Location: ____________________

Area of the factory: ___________________

Duration of the factory in the area: __________________________________________

Distance of the factory from the community: _____________________________ (m)

Population type: ______________________ (rural / urban)

Type of the waste material produced: _________________________________________

Type of waste drainage pathway: __________________________ (open / close / other)

Length of waste drainage pathway: _________________________ (m)

Drainage of the waste pathway: _____________________________

Disposal site: ___________________________________________ (open / close / other)

Distance of the disposal site from the community: ______________ (m)

Source of drinking water: __________________________ (well / bore / municipal / etc)

Depth of the source of water: _________________________________________ (m)

Any other comments: ______________________________________________________

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Annexure 3:

WORK PLAN:

Tasks to be Person WEEKS


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
performed Responsible
Proposal Principal
writing researcher
Questionnaire Principal
development researcher
Field testing Principal
researcher
Data collection Data collection
team
Data entry Principal
researcher
Data analysis Principal
researcher
Report writing Principal
researcher
Submission of Principal
dissertation researcher

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Annexure 4:

BUDGET:

RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUDGET

S. Specification / Category Expense Balance % of total


No. (Rs.) (Rs.)
1 Questionnaire development 1000 1000
2 Consumable items 3000 4000
3 Stationary 3000 7000
4 Traveling 10000 17000
5 Printing etc 5000 22000
6 Data Collection 15000 37000
7 GPS device 5000 42000
8 Laboratory tests 10000 52000
9 Miscellaneous 5000 57000
10 Total 57000 57000

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