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iManager U2000 Unified Network Management

System
V100R009C00
Operation Guide for IP Service
Management
Issue 03
Date 2014-05-15
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2014. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions
and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations
of any kind, either express or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.






Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Address: Huawei Industrial Base
Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China
Website: http://www.huawei.com
Email: support@huawei.com
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About This Document
Related Version
The following table lists the product version related to this document.
Product Name Version
iManager U2000 V100R009C00

Intended Audience
This document describes the process and detailed steps of IP service configuration.
The intended audiences of this document are:
l Installation and commissioning engineers
l Network monitoring engineers
l Data configuration engineers
l NM administrators
l System maintenance engineers
Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Symbol Description
Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
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Symbol Description
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss,
performance deterioration, or unanticipated results.
NOTICE is used to address practices not related to
personal injury.
Calls attention to important information, best practices
and tips.
NOTE is used to address information not related to
personal injury, equipment damage, and environment
deterioration.

Command Conventions
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention Description
Boldface The keywords of a command line are in boldface.
Italic Command arguments are in italics.
[ ] Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are
optional.
{ x | y | ... } Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by
vertical bars. One item is selected.
[ x | y | ... ] Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by
vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.
{ x | y | ... }
*
Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by
vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of
all items can be selected.
[ x | y | ... ]
*
Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by
vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
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Convention Description
Boldface Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog
titles are in boldface. For example, click OK.
> Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the
">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains
all updates made in previous issues.
Changes in Issue 03 (2014-05-15) Based on Product Version V100R009C00
Second release. Modified 8.2.1 Creating a Dynamic L3VPN Service, 8.2.2 Creating a Static
L3VPN Service, and 5 Importing Services.
Changes in Issue 02 (2014-01-05) Based on Product Version V100R009C00
Second release. Added 7.4.3 Adjusting Interface Information About the MPLS Protection
Ring, 12.2.4 Creating a PWE3 in Dynamic L3VPN Service, 15.2 Performing Cross-Service
Check for Fault Locating, and 21 Configuration Example of the IP over WDM Service
Based on Universal Line Boards.
Changes in Issue 01 (2013-08-20) Based on Product Version V100R009C00
Initial release.
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Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii
1 IP Service Panorama......................................................................................................................1
2 IP Service Management Process.................................................................................................2
3 Learning About the GUI............................................................................................................27
4 Basic Concepts..............................................................................................................................30
4.1 Tunnel Overview..........................................................................................................................................................31
4.1.1 Introduction to the Tunnel.........................................................................................................................................31
4.1.2 Standards and Protocols Compliance of the Tunnel..................................................................................................32
4.1.3 Principles...................................................................................................................................................................34
4.1.3.1 Basic Concepts of the Tunnel.................................................................................................................................34
4.1.3.2 Working Principles.................................................................................................................................................35
4.1.3.3 Tunnel Protection Group........................................................................................................................................37
4.1.3.4 Application of the Tunnel.......................................................................................................................................39
4.2 MPLS Protection Ring Overview.................................................................................................................................40
4.2.1 Introduction to an MPLS Protection Ring.................................................................................................................41
4.2.2 Reference Standards and Protocols for an MPLS Protection Ring...........................................................................41
4.2.3 Principle Description for an MPLS Protection Ring.................................................................................................42
4.2.3.1 Basic Concepts.......................................................................................................................................................42
4.2.3.2 MPLS Protection Ring and Tunnels.......................................................................................................................43
4.2.4 Usage Scenarios of an MPLS Protection Ring..........................................................................................................44
4.3 PWE3 Overview...........................................................................................................................................................44
4.3.1 Introduction to the PWE3..........................................................................................................................................45
4.3.2 Reference Standards and Protocols of the PWE3......................................................................................................45
4.3.3 Principle.....................................................................................................................................................................46
4.3.3.1 PWE3 Basic Principle............................................................................................................................................46
4.3.3.2 VCCV.....................................................................................................................................................................50
4.3.3.3 Static and Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Hop PW...........................................................................................................50
4.3.3.4 PW Protection.........................................................................................................................................................51
4.3.3.5 ATM Cell Transparent Transmission.....................................................................................................................54
4.3.3.6 Service Demarcation Tag.......................................................................................................................................57
4.3.4 Overview of IP over PW...........................................................................................................................................63
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4.3.5 Principle of IP over PW.............................................................................................................................................64
4.3.5.1 Implementation Principle for IP over PW..............................................................................................................64
4.3.5.2 Protection for IP over PW Services........................................................................................................................65
4.3.6 PWE3 Service Application........................................................................................................................................67
4.4 VPLS Overview............................................................................................................................................................68
4.4.1 Introduction to VPLS.................................................................................................................................................69
4.4.2 Reference Standards and Protocols...........................................................................................................................69
4.4.3 VPLS Principle..........................................................................................................................................................69
4.4.4 VPLS Application......................................................................................................................................................73
4.5 L3VPN Overview.........................................................................................................................................................74
4.5.1 Basic Concepts of L3VPN.........................................................................................................................................74
4.5.2 Basic Concepts of MP-BGP......................................................................................................................................80
4.5.3 Label Allocation of MP-BGP....................................................................................................................................86
4.5.4 VPN Route Selection on PEs.....................................................................................................................................86
4.5.5 Route Advertisement of a Basic L3VPN...................................................................................................................87
4.5.6 Packet Forwarding on a Basic L3VPN......................................................................................................................90
4.5.7 IP DSCP Overview....................................................................................................................................................91
4.5.8 Advertisement of VPNv4 Routes..............................................................................................................................92
4.5.9 Introduction to DHCP Relay.....................................................................................................................................92
4.5.10 Principle of DHCP Relay........................................................................................................................................95
4.5.11 Static L3VPN...........................................................................................................................................................99
4.6 Composite Service Overview.....................................................................................................................................100
4.6.1 Introduction to the Composite Service....................................................................................................................100
4.6.2 Basic Functions of the Composite Service..............................................................................................................107
4.6.3 Composite Service Applications.............................................................................................................................107
5 Importing Services....................................................................................................................114
6 Automatically Discovering IP Services.................................................................................119
6.1 Automatically Discovering Single IP Services..........................................................................................................120
6.2 Automatically Discovering Composite Services........................................................................................................123
7 Deploying Tunnels and MPLS Protection Rings................................................................126
7.1 Tunnel Service Function Panorama............................................................................................................................128
7.2 Creating Tunnels.........................................................................................................................................................144
7.2.1 Creating a Single Tunnel.........................................................................................................................................145
7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in Batches....................................................................................................................................151
7.2.3 Creating Tunnels by Duplicating Existing Tunnels................................................................................................154
7.3 Creating Tunnel Protection.........................................................................................................................................157
7.3.1 Creating an APS-Based Tunnel Protection Group..................................................................................................158
7.3.2 Creating an MPLS Protection Ring.........................................................................................................................161
7.4 Adjusting an MPLS Protection Ring..........................................................................................................................165
7.4.1 Adding NEs to an MPLS Protection Ring for Capacity Expansion........................................................................165
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7.4.2 Deleting NEs from an MPLS Protection Ring for Capacity Expansion..................................................................171
7.4.3 Adjusting Interface Information About the MPLS Protection Ring........................................................................176
8 Deploying L3VPN Services.....................................................................................................181
8.1 L3VPN Service Function Panorama...........................................................................................................................182
8.2 Creating an L3VPN Service.......................................................................................................................................188
8.2.1 Creating a Dynamic L3VPN Service.......................................................................................................................189
8.2.2 Creating a Static L3VPN Service............................................................................................................................193
8.2.3 Creating a Static L3VPN Service Quickly..............................................................................................................200
9 Deploying VPLS Services........................................................................................................205
9.1 VPLS Service Function Panorama.............................................................................................................................206
9.2 Creating a VPLS Service............................................................................................................................................216
10 Deploying PWE3 Services......................................................................................................227
10.1 PWE3 Service Function Panorama...........................................................................................................................228
10.2 Creating PWE3 Services..........................................................................................................................................244
10.2.1 Creating CES Services One by One or in Batches................................................................................................245
10.2.2 Creating an ETH Service.......................................................................................................................................254
10.2.3 Creating an ATM Service......................................................................................................................................261
10.2.4 Creating an IP over PW Service............................................................................................................................267
10.2.5 Creating an ATM IWF Emulation Service............................................................................................................271
10.2.6 Creating an Interworking Emulation Service........................................................................................................276
10.2.7 Creating a Management PW..................................................................................................................................281
11 Deploying E-AGGR Services................................................................................................286
11.1 Service Function Panorama......................................................................................................................................287
11.2 Creating an E-AGGR Service...................................................................................................................................290
12 Deploying Composite Services.............................................................................................292
12.1 Composite Service Function Panorama....................................................................................................................293
12.2 Creating a Composite Service..................................................................................................................................306
12.2.1 Creating an H-VPLS Composite Service..............................................................................................................313
12.2.2 Creating a Customized Composite Service...........................................................................................................319
12.2.3 Creating a PWE3 in Static L3VPN Service (N:1).................................................................................................322
12.2.4 Creating a PWE3 in Dynamic L3VPN Service.....................................................................................................325
12.3 Modifying a Composite Service...............................................................................................................................328
13 Deploying Network Reliability............................................................................................329
13.1 Configuring BFD......................................................................................................................................................330
13.2 Configuring VRRP...................................................................................................................................................335
14 Service Monitoring..................................................................................................................340
14.1 Monitoring Service Alarms......................................................................................................................................341
14.2 Monitoring Service Performance..............................................................................................................................343
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15 Detecting Service Faults.........................................................................................................346
15.1 Locating Faults Using the Test and Check Function................................................................................................348
15.2 Performing Cross-Service Check for Fault Locating...............................................................................................350
15.3 Using a Test Suite to Locate Faults..........................................................................................................................351
15.4 Intelligent Service Fault Diagnosis...........................................................................................................................352
15.4.1 Service Fault Diagnosis.........................................................................................................................................352
15.4.1.1 PWE3 Service Fault Diagnosis...........................................................................................................................356
15.4.1.2 VPLS Service Fault Diagnosis...........................................................................................................................358
15.4.1.3 Composite Service Fault Diagnosis....................................................................................................................360
15.4.2 Diagnosing Faults for PWE3 Services..................................................................................................................362
15.4.3 Diagnosing Faults for VPLS and Composite Services..........................................................................................364
15.5 Ethernet OAM Detection..........................................................................................................................................366
15.6 MPLS OAM Detection.............................................................................................................................................369
15.7 Detecting MPLS-TP OAM.......................................................................................................................................373
15.8 Configuration Example--Fault Diagnosis (RTN+CX).............................................................................................376
15.8.1 Back-to-Back Networking Scenario......................................................................................................................377
15.8.2 Integrated Networking Scenario............................................................................................................................379
16 Configuration Examples-Routing........................................................................................383
16.1 Examples for Configuring Tunnels..........................................................................................................................384
16.1.1 Example for Configuring the Static CR Tunnel....................................................................................................384
16.1.1.1 Networking Configuration..................................................................................................................................384
16.1.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................384
16.1.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................386
16.1.2 Example for Configuring the RSVP TE Tunnel....................................................................................................393
16.1.2.1 Configuration Guidelines...................................................................................................................................394
16.1.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................395
16.1.2.3 Configuring Global MPLS and MPLS TE Tunnels...........................................................................................398
16.1.2.4 Configuring MPLS TE Tunnels.........................................................................................................................400
16.2 Examples for Configuring a PWE3 Service.............................................................................................................404
16.2.1 Examples for Configuring the ATM Service........................................................................................................405
16.2.1.1 Networking Configuration Diagram...................................................................................................................405
16.2.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................406
16.2.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................407
16.2.2 Example for Configuring the CES Emulation Service..........................................................................................411
16.2.2.1 Networking Configuration Diagram...................................................................................................................411
16.2.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................412
16.2.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................414
16.2.3 Example for Configuring the ETH Service...........................................................................................................416
16.2.3.1 Networking Configuration Diagram...................................................................................................................416
16.2.3.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................417
16.2.3.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................419
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16.2.4 Example for Configuring the ATM IWF Service..................................................................................................421
16.2.4.1 Networking Configuration Diagram...................................................................................................................421
16.2.4.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................422
16.2.4.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................424
16.2.5 Example for Configuring the Heterogeneous Service...........................................................................................427
16.2.5.1 Networking Configuration Diagram...................................................................................................................427
16.2.5.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................428
16.2.5.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................429
16.3 Example for Configuring a VPLS Service...............................................................................................................432
16.3.1 Example for Configuring the Full-Mesh Networking...........................................................................................432
16.3.1.1 Configuration Networking..................................................................................................................................432
16.3.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................433
16.3.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................435
16.3.2 Example for Configuring H-VPLS Networking....................................................................................................438
16.3.2.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................438
16.3.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................439
16.3.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................440
16.3.3 Example for Configuring Daisy Chain Networking..............................................................................................443
16.3.3.1 Configuration Networking..................................................................................................................................443
16.3.3.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................444
16.3.3.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................447
16.4 Examples for Configuring L3VPN Services............................................................................................................450
16.4.1 Example for Configuring a Full-Mesh VPN Service............................................................................................450
16.4.1.1 Network Configuration.......................................................................................................................................450
16.4.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................452
16.4.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................453
16.4.2 Example for Configuring a Hub-Spoke VPN Service...........................................................................................458
16.4.2.1 Network Configuration.......................................................................................................................................458
16.4.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................459
16.4.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................461
16.5 Example for Configuring Composite Services.........................................................................................................465
16.5.1 Example for Configuring the PWE3+VPLS Composite Service..........................................................................465
16.5.1.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................465
16.5.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................466
16.5.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................470
16.5.2 Example for Configuring the PWE3+L3VPN Composite Service.......................................................................476
16.5.2.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................476
16.5.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................477
16.5.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................480
16.5.3 Example for Configuring the VPLS+L3VPN Composite Service........................................................................485
16.5.3.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................485
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16.5.3.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................486
16.5.3.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................490
16.5.4 Example for Configuring the Inter-AS PWE3-OptionA Composite Service........................................................496
16.5.4.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................496
16.5.4.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................497
16.5.4.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................499
16.5.5 Example for Configuring the Inter-AS VPLS-OptionA Composite Service........................................................502
16.5.5.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................502
16.5.5.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................502
16.5.5.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................505
16.5.6 Example for Configuring the Inter-AS L3VPN-OptionA Composite Service......................................................508
16.5.6.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................508
16.5.6.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................509
16.5.6.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................511
17 Configuration Examples-PTN...............................................................................................515
17.1 Examples for Configuring Tunnels..........................................................................................................................516
17.1.1 Example for Configuring a Static CR Tunnel.......................................................................................................516
17.1.1.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................516
17.1.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................517
17.1.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................519
17.1.2 Example for Configuring an RSVP TE Tunnel.....................................................................................................527
17.1.2.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................527
17.1.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................528
17.1.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................531
17.1.3 Example for Configuring IP and LDP Tunnels.....................................................................................................539
17.1.3.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................540
17.1.3.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................540
17.1.3.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................542
17.2 Examples for Configuring a PWE3 Service.............................................................................................................549
17.2.1 Example for Configuring an End-to-End IP over PW Service..............................................................................549
17.2.1.1 Example Description..........................................................................................................................................549
17.2.1.2 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................552
17.2.2 Example for Configuring a CES Service...............................................................................................................563
17.2.2.1 Example Description..........................................................................................................................................563
17.2.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................565
17.2.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................570
17.2.3 Example for Configuring an ATM Service...........................................................................................................587
17.2.3.1 Example Description..........................................................................................................................................587
17.2.3.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................588
17.2.3.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................591
17.2.4 Example for Configuring an ETH Service............................................................................................................615
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17.2.4.1 Example Description..........................................................................................................................................615
17.2.4.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................616
17.2.4.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................618
17.3 Example for Configuring a VPLS Service...............................................................................................................634
17.3.1 Example for Configuring the Full-Mesh Networking...........................................................................................634
17.3.1.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................634
17.3.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................634
17.3.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................635
17.3.2 Example for Configuring the Hub-Spoke Networking..........................................................................................654
17.3.2.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................654
17.3.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................655
17.3.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................659
17.4 Examples for Configuring L3VPN Services............................................................................................................669
17.4.1 Example for Configuring a Full-Mesh VPN Service............................................................................................669
17.4.1.1 Network Configuration.......................................................................................................................................669
17.4.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................671
17.4.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................674
17.4.2 Example for Configuring a Hub-Spoke VPN Service...........................................................................................698
17.4.2.1 Network Configuration.......................................................................................................................................698
17.4.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................700
17.4.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................701
17.5 Example for Configuring Composite Services.........................................................................................................719
17.5.1 Example for Configuring the PWE3+VPLS Composite Service..........................................................................719
17.5.1.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................719
17.5.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................719
17.5.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................722
17.5.2 Example for Configuring a PWE3+PWE3 Composite Service.............................................................................726
17.5.2.1 Configuration Networking Diagram...................................................................................................................726
17.5.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................726
17.5.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................727
17.6 Example for Configuring Dual-Homing Protection with 1:1 MC-PW APS and MC-LAG....................................729
17.6.1 Configuration Networking Diagram......................................................................................................................730
17.6.2 Service Planning....................................................................................................................................................730
17.6.3 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................................733
17.7 Configuration Case of VRRP...................................................................................................................................737
17.7.1 Configuration Networking Diagram......................................................................................................................737
17.7.2 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................................738
17.7.3 Service Planning....................................................................................................................................................741
18 Configuration Examples-RTN.............................................................................................. 743
18.1 Examples for Configuring Tunnels..........................................................................................................................744
18.1.1 Example for Configuring a Static CR Tunnel.......................................................................................................744
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18.1.1.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................744
18.1.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................744
18.1.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................746
18.1.2 Example for Configuring an RSVP TE Tunnel.....................................................................................................754
18.1.2.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................754
18.1.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................755
18.1.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................757
18.2 Examples for Configuring a PWE3 Service.............................................................................................................768
18.2.1 Example for Configuring a CES Service...............................................................................................................769
18.2.1.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................769
18.2.1.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................769
18.2.1.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................773
18.2.2 Example for Configuring an ATM Service...........................................................................................................788
18.2.2.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................788
18.2.2.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................789
18.2.2.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................792
18.2.3 Example for Configuring an ETH Service............................................................................................................807
18.2.3.1 Networking Diagram..........................................................................................................................................807
18.2.3.2 Service Planning.................................................................................................................................................807
18.2.3.3 Configuration Process.........................................................................................................................................808
19 Configuration Examples-Hybrid MSTP.............................................................................818
19.1 Examples for Configuring Tunnels..........................................................................................................................819
19.1.1 Networking Diagram.............................................................................................................................................819
19.1.2 Service Planning....................................................................................................................................................819
19.1.3 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................................822
19.2 Examples for Configuring a PWE3 Service.............................................................................................................830
19.2.1 Networking Diagram.............................................................................................................................................830
19.2.2 Service Planning....................................................................................................................................................831
19.2.3 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................................833
19.3 Example for Configuring a VPLS Service...............................................................................................................840
19.3.1 Networking Diagram.............................................................................................................................................840
19.3.2 Service Planning....................................................................................................................................................841
19.3.3 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................................845
20 Configuration Examples-Hybrid MSTP+PTN..................................................................850
20.1 Example for Configuring the SDH+PWE3 Composite Service...............................................................................851
20.1.1 Networking Configuration.....................................................................................................................................851
20.1.2 Service Planning....................................................................................................................................................852
20.1.3 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................................855
21 Configuration Example of the IP over WDM Service Based on Universal Line Boards
..........................................................................................................................................................861
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21.1 Networking Diagram................................................................................................................................................862
21.2 Service Planning.......................................................................................................................................................862
21.3 Configuration Process...............................................................................................................................................864
22 FAQ............................................................................................................................................869
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1 IP Service Panorama
The IP services supported by the U2000 are the tunnel, L3VPN, VPLS, PWE3, aggregation, and
composite services.
NOTE
l NEs supporting different IP services are different. "" indicates that the device supports this service
on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not support this service on the U2000.
l A function panorama can be accessed by clicking the associated cell in the following function matrix.
iManager U2000 Unified Network Management System
Operation Guide for IP Service Management 1 IP Service Panorama
Issue 03 (2014-05-15) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
1
2 IP Service Management Process
The U2000 supports E2E IP service creation and maintenance. The process of managing IP
services is described using flowcharts, and the window and document navigation paths for the
operation tasks are given to help you understand IP service management.
Routers and Switches
Figure 2-1 shows the process of managing IP services on routers and switches.
iManager U2000 Unified Network Management System
Operation Guide for IP Service Management 2 IP Service Management Process
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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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Figure 2-1 Process of managing IP services on routers and switches
Tunnel Deployment
Automatically
discover tunnels
Preparation VPN Deployment
Service Monitoring
and Maintenance
Create a tunnel
Create NEs
Configure MPLS
Create an L3VPN
service
Configure routes
Create a Layer 2 link
Configure interfaces Configure APS
protection
Configure tunnel
OAM
Configure BFD
Automatically discover
composite services
Create a VPLS
service
Create a PWE3
service
Create a composite
service
Configure BFD
Configure Ethernet
OAM
Configure TP OAM
Configure VRRP
View the service
topology
View performance
data
View service alarms
Diagnose services
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
Automatically discover
VPN services

PTN
Figure 2-2 shows the process of managing IP services on PTN NEs.
iManager U2000 Unified Network Management System
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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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Figure 2-2 Process of managing IP services on PTN NEs
Tunnel Deployment
Automatically
discover tunnels
Preparation VPN Deployment
Service Monitoring
and Maintenance
Create a tunnel
Create NEs
Configure the
control plane
Create a PWE3
service
Automatically discover
VPN services
Configure LSR IDs
for the NEs
Configure network-side
interfaces
Configure the MPLS
protection ring
Configure APS
protection
Configure tunnel
OAM
Automatically discover
composite services
Create an L3VPN
service
Create a VPLS
service
Create a composite
service
Configure Ethernet
OAM
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
Configure VRRP
View the service
topology
View performance
data
View service alarms
Diagnose services
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
Create a Layer 2 link
Configure BFD

RTN
Figure 2-3 shows the process of managing IP services on RTN NEs.
iManager U2000 Unified Network Management System
Operation Guide for IP Service Management 2 IP Service Management Process
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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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Figure 2-3 Process of managing IP services on RTN NEs
Tunnel Deployment
Automatically
discover tunnels
Preparation VPN Deployment
Service Monitoring
and Maintenance
Create a tunnel
Create NEs
Configure network-side
interfaces
Create a VPLS
service
Automatically discover
VPN services
Create a Layer 2 link
Configure LSR IDs
for the NEs
Configure APS
protection
Configure tunnel
OAM
Automatically discover
composite services
Create a composite
service
Configure Ethernet
OAM
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
View the service
topology
View performance
data
View service alarms
Diagnose services
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
Create a PWE3
service
Configure BFD
Configure BFD
Configure VRRP

Hybrid MSTP
Figure 2-4 shows the process of managing IP services on hybrid MSTP NEs.
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Operation Guide for IP Service Management 2 IP Service Management Process
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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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Figure 2-4 Process of managing IP services on hybrid MSTP NEs
Tunnel Deployment
Automatically
discover tunnels
Preparation VPN Deployment
Service Monitoring
and Maintenance
Create a tunnel
Create NEs
Create an aggregation
service
Automatically discover
VPN services
Configure LSR IDs
for the NEs
Configure network-side
interfaces
Configure APS
protection
Configure tunnel
OAM
Automatically discover
composite services
Create a VPLS
service
Create a PWE3
service
Create a composite
service
Configure Ethernet
OAM
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
View the service
topology
View performance
data
View service alarms
Diagnose services
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
Create a Layer 2 link

OTN
Figure 2-5 shows the process of managing IP services on OTN NEs.
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Operation Guide for IP Service Management 2 IP Service Management Process
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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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Figure 2-5 Process of managing IP services on OTN NEs
Tunnel Deployment
Automatically
discover tunnels
Preparation VPN Deployment
Service Monitoring
and Maintenance
Create a tunnel
Create NEs
Create a PWE3
service
Automatically discover
VPN services
Configure LSR IDs
for the NEs
Configure network-side
interfaces
Configure APS
protection
Configure tunnel
OAM
Automatically discover
composite services
Create a VPLS
service
Create a composite
service
Configure Ethernet
OAM
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
View the service
topology
View performance
data
View service alarms
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM
Create an ODU2 path

Task Description
Table 2-1 lists all the operation tasks involved in the IP service management flowcharts, as well
as the window and document navigation paths for these tasks.
Table 2-1 Task description of managing IP services
Scenari
o
Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Preparati
on
Create NEs. Add the NEs to be
operated on the
U2000.
Choose File >
Discovery > NE
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Topo View
in Application
Center and choose
File > Discovery >
NE (application
style) from the main
menu.
Topology
Management >
Creating NEs >
Creating NEs in
Batches in U2000
Operation Guide
for Common
Features
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Operation Guide for IP Service Management 2 IP Service Management Process
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Create an
ODU2 path.
Create a
Layer 2
link.
During creation of a
tunnel, the U2000
automatically
calculates routes
based on the created
Layer 2 link.
l Create an
ODU2 path:
This operation
is required for
OTN NEs. A
Layer 2 link can
be generated for
OTN NEs only
after this
operation is
performed.
l Creating a
Layer 2 link:
This operation
is required for
all NEs other
than OTN NEs.
All links
between NEs
must be added to
the U2000.
l OTN: Choose
Service > WDM
Trail > Search
for WDM Trail
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose Service >
WDM Trail >
Search for
WDM Trail
(application
style) from the
main menu.
l Routers,
switches, PTN,
RTN and Hybrid
MSTP NEs:
Choose File >
Discovery >
Link (traditional
style) from the
main menu or
select Topo
View in
Application
Center and
choose File >
Discovery >
Link (application
style) from the
main menu.
l WDM Trails
Management >
Creating WDM
Trails >
Searching for
WDM Trails in
U2000
Operation
Guide for WDM
Services
Management.
l Topology
Management >
Creating
Connections >
Creating Links
Automatically
in U2000
Operation
Guide for
Operation
Guide for
Common
Features.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Configure
interfaces.
Configure the IP
addresses and
subnet masks of
interfaces.
The tunnel enabling
status must be
configured for
PTN, MSTP, and
RTN NEs.
l Routers, and
switches: Choose
Configuration >
Router/Switch/
Security
Configuration >
Plug-and-Play
Management
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fix-Network NE
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose
Configuration >
Router/Switch/
Security
Configuration >
Plug-and-Play
Management
(application
style) from the
main menu.
l PTN, and RTN:
In the NE
Explorer, select
the NE and
choose
Configuration >
Interface
Management
from the Function
Tree.
l Hybrid MSTP: In
the NE Explorer,
select an NE and
choose
Configuration >
Packet
Configuration >
Interface
Management
from the Function
Tree.
l Network
Deployment in
U2000
Operation
Guide for
Router and
Switch Network
Management.
l Configuring
Interfaces in
U2000
Operation
Guide for PTN
NE
Management.
l Configuring
Interfaces for
Packet Radio in
U2000
Operation
Guide for RTN
NE
Management.
l Configuring
Interfaces in
U2000
Operation
Guide for
Packet MSTP
NE
Management.
l Configuring
Board
Parameters >
Configuring
Ethernet
Boards in
Operation
Guide for LH
WDM & Metro
WDM NE
Management.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
l OTN: In the NE
Explorer, select
the appropriate
Ethernet board
and then select
Configuration >
Ethernet
Interface
Management >
Ethernet
Interface from
the Function
Tree.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Configure
MPLS.
Configure LSR IDs
for the created NEs.
The MPLS
capabilities and
remote peers must
be configured for
routers and
switches and their
interfaces. Peers are
configured between
NEs in non-direct
connection
scenarios.
l Routers, and
switches: Choose
Configuration >
Router/Switch/
Security
Configuration >
Plug-and-Play
Management
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fix-Network NE
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose
Configuration >
Router/Switch/
Security
Configuration >
Plug-and-Play
Management
(application
style) from the
main menu.
l PTN, RTN,
Hybrid MSTP,
and OTN NEs: In
the NE Explorer,
select the NE and
choose
Configuration >
Packet
Configuration >
MPLS
Management >
Basic
Configuration
from the Function
Tree.
l Network
Deployment in
U2000
Operation
Guide for
Router and
Switch Network
Management.
l Configuring
Interfaces >
Configure the
network-side
Layer 3
interface in
U2000
Operation
Guide for PTN
NE
Management.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Configure
routes.
Configure global
and interface
routes.
Global and
interface routes
must be configured
for RSVP TE
tunnels on routers
and switches.
PTN NEs:
l RSVP TE
Tunnel:
Configure IGP-
ISIS and MPLS-
RSVP.
l LDP Tunnel:
Configure IGP-
ISIS and MPLS-
LDP.
l Routers, and
switches: Choose
Configuration >
Router/Switch/
Security
Configuration >
Plug-and-Play
Management
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fix-Network NE
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose
Configuration >
Router/Switch/
Security
Configuration >
Plug-and-Play
Management
(application
style) from the
main menu.
l PTN: In the NE
Explorer, select
an NE and choose
Configuration >
Control Plane
Configuration
from the Function
Tree.
l Network
Deployment in
U2000
Operation
Guide for
Router and
Switch Network
Management.
l Configuring the
Control Plane in
U2000
Operation
Guide for PTN
NE
Management.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Tunnel
Deploym
ent
Automatic
ally
discover IP
services.
After a network is
built or a service is
configured on an
NE using the NE
Explorer, perform
automatic IP
service discovery to
add the related
information to the
IP service
management
window and
manage the
configured service
in end-to-end
mode.
The following IP
services support
this operation:
tunnel, L3VPN,
VPLS, PWE3, and
aggregation
services.
Choose Service >
Search for Service
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Search for Service
(application style)
from the main menu.
Automatically
Discovering IP
Services >
Automatically
Discovering Single
IP Services.
Create a
tunnel.
Tunnels can ensure
the security of
information
transmission and
bear multiple types
of VPN services
such as VPLS,
PWE3, and L3VPN
services.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying a
Tunnel > Creating
a Tunnel.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Creating
Tunnel
Protection
Based on
MPLS
Rings.
An MPLS
protection ring is
located at the server
layer but a tunnel is
located at the
service layer.
Compared with
traditional linear
protection
solutions, this
technology can
prevent multi-link
failures. If an
intersecting node is
configured, this
technology can also
prevent node
failures. In
addition, this
technology can be
used together with
linear protection
solutions to
improve protection
reliability.
Choose Service > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose
Protection Subnet >
IP Protection
Subnet > Create
MPLS Protection
Ring (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying a
Tunnel > Creating
Tunnel Protection
> Creating an
MPLS Protection
Ring.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Creating
Tunnel
Protection
Based on
APS.
This topic describes
how to create a
tunnel protection
group. If a tunnel
protection group is
created, the
services carried
over the active
tunnel are switched
over to the
protection tunnel
when the working
tunnel is faulty.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Search for
Protection Group
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Search for
Protection Group
(application style)
from the main menu.
or Choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Protection Group
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Protection Group
(application style)
from the main menu.
Deploying a
Tunnel > Creating
Tunnel Protection
> Creating a
Tunnel Protection
Group.
Configure
BFD.
A tunnel supports
BFD for TE and
BFD for LSP. The
U2000 supports
millisecond fault
detection on
tunnels.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click
the desired tunnel
and choose
Configure BFD
from the shortcut
menu.
Deploying
Network
Reliability >
Configuring BFD.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
VPN
service
deploym
ent
Create an
L3VPN
service.
In comparison with
L2VPN, on an
L3VPN, packets
are forwarded at the
network layer.
Choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Create L3VPN
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Create L3VPN
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying L3VPN
Services > Creating
an L3VPN Service.
Create a
VPLS
service.
VPLS is a Layer 2
VPN technology
over the MPLS or
Ethernet network. It
is mainly used to
join multiple
Ethernet LAN
segments through
the PSN and make
them operate as a
LAN.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Create VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Create VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying VPLS
Services > Creating
a VPLS Service.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Create a
PWE3
service.
PWE3 is a point-to-
point Layer 2 VPN
technology which is
used to simulate the
basic behaviors and
characteristics of
services, such as
ATM, FR,
Ethernet, TDM
circuit, SONET,
and SDH on a PSN.
Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Create PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Create PWE3
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying PWE3
Services > Creating
PWE3 Service.
Create an
aggregatio
n service.
By using the
U2000, you can
create an E-AGGR
service in the same
user interface. The
equipment supports
multipoint-to-point
service
aggregation, as well
as service
aggregation from
the NNI carried by
multiple PWs to
one UNI.
Choose Service > E-
AGGR Service >
Create E-AGGR
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
E-AGGR Service >
Create E-AGGR
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying E-
AGGR Services >
Create E-AGGR
Service.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Automatic
ally
discover
composite
services.
The U2000 can
automatically
discover services
that meet specific
requirements,
combine these
services into
composite services,
and display the
composite services
on the Composite
Service
Management tab
page. You can
perform this
operation when a
network is being
built or after IP
services have been
configured.
Choose Service >
Composite Service
> Search for
Composite Service
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service
> Search for
Composite Service
(application style)
from the main menu.
Automatically
Discovering IP
Services >
Automatically
Discovering
Composite
Services.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Create a
composite
service.
A composite
service is a
collection of
multiple services,
for example, VPLS
+L3VPN.
In a composite
service, the
function of
different services,
such as PWE3,
VPLS, L3VPN,
Unterminated EPL,
E-Line, SDH,
Terminated EPL,
and E-AGGR
services, can be
flexible aggregated
to address the issues
in single-service
scenarios. In
addition, composite
services support
service
visualization and
E2E management,
helping carriers
better adapt to
solutions, such as
IPRAN and IP Core
solutions.
Choose Service >
Composite Service
> Create Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service
> Create Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying
Composite
Services > Creating
a Composite
Service.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Configure
BFD.
Bidirectional
Forwarding
Detection for BFD
is a universal
mechanism used to
detect
communication
faults between
forwarding
engines. To be
specific, BFD
detects the
connectivity of a
data protocol on the
same path between
two systems. The
path can be a
physical link, a
logical link, or a
tunnel. BFD can be
regarded as a
service provided by
the system. The
upper-layer
applications
provide BFD
parameters such as
detection address
and detection time.
BFD creates,
deletes, or modifies
BFD sessions based
on these
information and
informs the upper-
layer applications
of the session
status. The upper-
layer applications
then determine
whether to take
actions as the BFD
session status
changes.
Choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click
the desired L3VPN
service and choose
Configure BFD
from the shortcut
menu.
The method for
configuring BFD for
other IP services is
the same as that for
the L3VPN service.
Deploying
Network
Reliability >
Configuring BFD.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Configure
Ethernet
OAM.
Ethernet OAM
improves Ethernet
management and
maintenance
capabilities and
guarantees network
stability. This
feature mainly
applies to the
Ethernet to
implement link-
level Ethernet
OAM between CE
to PE, and enhance
network reliability.
Choose Service >
Service Ethernet
OAM (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Service Ethernet
OAM (application
style) from the main
menu.
Deploying
Network
Reliability >
Configuring
Ethernet OAM.
Configure
TP OAM.
The TP OAM
function supports
continuity check for
tunnel and PWE3
services, achieving
rapid service fault
location and
isolation.
Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click
the desired PWE3
service and choose
PW OAM from the
shortcut menu.
The method for
configuring TP
OAM for a tunnel is
the same as that for
the PWE3 service.
Deploying
Network
Reliability >
Configuring
MPLS-TP OAM.
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Configure
VRRP.
Virtual Router
Redundancy
Protocol for VRRP
is a fault-tolerant
protocol. By
combining a group
of routers on a LAN
into a virtual router,
VRRP can switch
the services to other
routers through
certain mechanisms
when the next hop
router fails. This
ensures continuity
and reliability in
communication.
Compared with
other methods,
VRRP is easy to
configure and
convenient to
manage. The
advantage of VRRP
is that a default
route with higher
reliability can be
obtained without
changing the
networking. Also,
no dynamic routing
protocols or routing
discovery protocols
need to be
configured on the
host.
Choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click
the desired L3VPN
service and choose
Configure VRRP
from the shortcut
menu.
The method for
configuring VRRP
for other IP services
is the same as that for
the L3VPN service.
Deploying
Network
Reliability >
Configuring
VRRP.
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Scenari
o
Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Service
monitori
ng and
maintena
nce
View the
service
topology.
The service
structure is
displayed in a
service topology.
Choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select an
L3VPN service and
view the service
information in the
topology view on the
Topology tab page.
The method for
viewing information
about other services
in the topology is the
same as that for the
L3VPN service.
-
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Scenari
o
Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
View the
performanc
e data.
Performance
monitoring must be
focused on services
borne on networks
in order to evaluate
service operation.
Choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click an
L3VPN service and
choose Performance
> View History Data
from the shortcut
menu.
The method for
viewing performance
data about other
services is the same
as that for the
L3VPN service.
-
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Scenari
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Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
View
service
alarms.
To ensure normal
service operation,
use the U2000 to
check whether
major alarms about
IP services are
generated. View the
values of IP
Service
Monitoring
Template and
Faulty Service
Monitoring to
learn about the
service alarm status
and take preventive
measures in time.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fault
Management in
Application
Center and
choose Alarm
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(application
style) from the
main menu.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring >
Faulty Service
Monitoring
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fault
Management in
Application
Center and
choose Alarm
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring
(application
style) from the
main menu.
-
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Scenari
o
Task Description Navigation Path Reference
Chapter
Diagnose
services.
If an IP service does
not function
properly, rapidly
locate faults based
on the fault type.
Choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click
the desired L3VPN
service and choose
Fast Diagnosis or
Test and Check
from the shortcut
menu.
The method for
diagnosing other IP
services is the same
as that for the
L3VPN service.
Detecting Service
Faults.
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3 Learning About the GUI
The U2000 provides various service creation and management GUIs designed with a unified
style. Learning about GUI components and their functions helps to quickly and efficiently
provision and manage services.
Service Creation GUI
The U2000 provides neat service creation GUIs in which you can complete all service creation
operations. Figure 3-1 shows the tunnel creation GUI.
Figure 3-1 Tunnel creation GUI
1
2
3
NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.

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1. Basic information area 2. Topology area 3. Details area
This area allows you to set
basic service attributes. You
only need to set a small
number of parameters, and
most of the parameters can be
set in batches using
predefined templates or be
automatically set based on
the selected NE.
The Physical Topology and
Service Topology tab pages
are displayed in this area. On
the Physical Topology tab
page, you can specify the
service source and sink by
double-clicking the desired
NEs and configure the NEs.
Before applying
configurations, you can
preview the configuration
result on the Service
Topology tab page.
This area is displayed by
clicking Details in the basic
information area. You can set
advanced service attributes in
this area.

Service Management GUI
The U2000 provides three-segment service management GUIs designed with a unified style. In
a service management GUI, you can query services and perform service O&M operations such
as diagnosis and performance monitoring. Figure 3-2 shows the tunnel management GUI.
Figure 3-2 Tunnel management GUI
1
2
3
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device
type.

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1. Filter criterion setting
area
2. Query result area 3. Details area
This area allows you to set
filter criteria for querying
services.
This area displays qualified
query results. You can select
a service from the list, right-
click, and choose an option
from the shortcut menu to
perform the desired O&M
operation.
This area displays service
details. You can select a
service in this area and view
the service details or modify
service parameters.
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4 Basic Concepts
About This Chapter
Before using various IP service-related functions, you must learn about the basic concepts to
facilitate IP service configuration.
4.1 Tunnel Overview
Different tunnel technologies are used in various scenarios and different protocols are used to
transparently transmit data packets.
4.2 MPLS Protection Ring Overview
Compared with traditional linear protection solutions, the Multiprotocol Label Switching
(MPLS) protection ring solution saves tunnel resources, reduces the consumption of network
element (NE) and link bandwidths, simplifies the configuration process, and improves service
reliability by protecting services in some scenarios where multiple NEs fail.
4.3 PWE3 Overview
In a packet switched network (PSN), PWE3 is a Layer 2 service bearing technology that emulates
as faithfully as possible the basic behaviors and characteristics of ATM services, Ethernet
services, low-rate CES circuit services, and other services. Such a technology can interconnect
the traditional network and PSN to share resources and expand the network. The MSTP
equipment supports only CES and Ethernet services.
4.4 VPLS Overview
When configuring VPLS services, you need to learn about the protocols relevant to the VPLS
services and the usage scenarios of these protocols.
4.5 L3VPN Overview
This topic describes basic L3VPN concepts.
4.6 Composite Service Overview
This topic describes the functions, basic concepts, and application scenarios of the composite
service.
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4.1 Tunnel Overview
Different tunnel technologies are used in various scenarios and different protocols are used to
transparently transmit data packets.
4.1.1 Introduction to the Tunnel
The U2000 supports tunnels using MPLS and IP.
MPLS Tunnel
MPLS acts as a transmission technology used for transparent packet transmission. The MPLS
tunnel is the tunnel defined in the MPLS protocol. Independent of services, the MPLS tunnel
implements end-to-end transmission and carries service-related PWs.
Figure 4-1 shows how the MPLS tunnel transmits services.
Figure 4-1 MPLS tunnel on the MPLS network
IMA E1
FE
ATM STM-1
MPLS tunnel
Ingress node Transit node Egress node IMA E1
FE
ATM STM-1
PW

The MPLS tunnel provides only an end-to-end channel and does not care which service is
encapsulated in the PW it carries. Data packets are first encapsulated in the PW, which is attached
with an MPLS label and sent to the MPLS tunnel for transmission. At the sink end, data packets
are recovered by retaining the original service features. In the tunnel, the intermediate nodes are
called transit nodes. A tunnel consists of the ingress, egress, and transit nodes.
Based on signaling types, MPLS tunnels can be classified into three types, that is, the static
tunnel, the static CR (Constraint-based Routed) tunnel, RSVP TE (Resource Reservation
Protocol-Traffic Engineering) tunnel, and LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) tunnel. These four
types of tunnels are different and the details are as follows:
l Static: Labels for static tunnels are distributed manually. No signaling protocol is used and
no control packet is exchanged.
l Static CR tunnel: A static CR tunnel is created with certain constraints. The mechanism for
creating and managing those constraints is CR. Different from a static tunnel that requires
only routing information, creating a CR tunnel has other configurations, such as the
bandwidth, route, and QoS parameters.
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l LDP: You only need to specify the ingress and egress nodes for an LDP tunnel. Then the
LDP protocol sets up a route for the tunnel. An LDP tunnel functions on the network that
supports the MPLS domain and therefore is more flexible.
l RSVP TE tunnel: You need to specify only the ingress and egress nodes for an RSVP TE
tunnel. The MPLS protocol automatically calculates a route for the tunnel. In addition, you
can specify constraint nodes to plan a specific route for the tunnel. You can configure FRR
protection and the QoS function for an RSVP TE tunnel. Therefore, an RSVP tunnel is
more flexible and safer than an LDP tunnel.
IP Tunnel
If an ATM or CES emulation service that travels through an IP network is required, the NE can
use the IP tunnel to carry the service. Figure 4-2 shows the protocol stack model of the ATM
service. In the case of the IP tunnel, the situation is similar to that where the IP header replaces
the MPLS external label (MPLS tunnel label) to establish a tunnel on the IP network. An ATM
emulation service can be provided between NE A and NE B, even though the IP network between
NE A and NE B does not support MPLS.
Figure 4-2 ATM PWE3 over IP tunnel
ATM
switch
IP network
ATM
E1/STM-1
ATM
PWE3
PW Label
Ethernet
ATM
E1/STM-1
ATM
switch
PTN Router PTN Router
NE A NE B
I P
ATM
PWE3
PW Label
Ethernet
I P

4.1.2 Standards and Protocols Compliance of the Tunnel
This topic describes the standards compliance and the two protocols that the tunneling
technology uses. The protocols are MPLS-LDP and MPLS-RSVP.Currently, the Hybrid
MSTP equipment does not support LDP and RSVP TE.
MPLS-RSVP Protocol
Multi-protocol label switch resource reservation protocol (MPLS-RSVP) supports MPLS label
distribution. When transmitting a label binding message, MPLS-RSVP carries resource
reservation information and acts as a signaling protocol to create, delete, or modify tunnels on
the MPLS network.
Basic Concepts of MPLS-RSVP
MPLS-RSVP is a notification mechanism of resource reservation on the network, reserving the
bandwidth on the control plane. MPLS-RSVP also acts as a label distribution protocol to set up
LSPs on the MPLS network.
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For details about MPLS-RSVP extension, see RFC 3209.
Resource Reservation Style
The LSP established using MPLS-RSVP is of a certain reservation style. When an RSVP session
is established, the receive end determines which reservation style to be used, and therefore
determines which LSP to be used.
l Fixed-filter (FF) style: When this style is used, resources are reserved for each transmit
end. Hence, transmit ends in the same session cannot share the resources with each other.
l Shared-explicit (SE) style: When this style is used, resources are reserved for all transmit
ends in the same session. Hence, transmit ends can share the resources.
NOTE
Currently, OptiX equipment supports only the SE resource reservation style.
MPLS-RSVP Message Type
MPLS-RSVP uses the following types of messages:
l Path message: The transmit end sends this type of message in the transmission direction of
data packets. The path status is saved on all the nodes along the trail.
l Resv message: The receive end sends this type of message in the reverse transmission
direction of data packets. The resource reservation is requested, and the reservation status
is created and maintained on all the nodes along the trail.
Parameters of the MPLS-RSVP State Timer
The parameters of the MPLS-RSVP state timer include the refreshing period of the Path or Resv
message, and the multiple of the path state block (PSB) timeout and reservation state block
(RSB) timeout.
When an LSP is being created, the transmit end adds the LABEL_REQUEST object to the Path
message. When the receive end receives the Path message with the LABEL_REQUEST object,
it distributes one label and adds the label to the LABEL object of the Resv message.
The LABEL_REQUEST object is saved in the PSB of the upstream node, and the LABEL object
is saved in the RSB of the downstream node. When the message indicating that the number of
message refreshing times exceeds the multiple of the PSB or RSB timeout is not continuously
received, the corresponding state in the PSB or RSB is deleted.
Assume that there is a resource reservation request, which does not pass the access control on
some nodes. In some cases, this request cannot be immediately deleted, but it cannot stop other
requests from using its reserved resources. In this case, the node enters the blockade state, and
the blockade state block (BSB) is generated on the node of the downstream. When the message
indicating that the number of message refreshing times exceeds the multiple of the PSB or RSB
timeout is continuously received, the corresponding state in the BSB is deleted.
MPLS-LDP Protocol
The multi-protocol label switch label distribution protocol (MPLS-LDP) is used for label
switched routers (LSR) to distribute labels on the network.
MPLS-LDP Peers
MPLS-LDP peers are two NEs that use MPLS-LDP to exchange the label mapping relationship
based on an LDP session.
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MPLS-LDP Session
An MPLS-LDP session is used to exchange label mapping and releasing messages between
different NEs. MPLS-LDP sessions are classified into the following types:
l Local MPLS-LDP session: The two NEs used to set up the session are directly connected.
l Remote MPLS-LDP session: The two NEs used to set up the session are not directly
connected.
MPLS-LDP Message Types
MPLS-LDP messages are classified into the following types:
l Discovery message: This type of message is used to notify and maintain the existence of
the equipment on the network.
l Session message: This type of message is used to set up, maintain, and end the session
between MPLS-LDP peers.
l Advertisement message: This type of message is used to create, change, and delete the label
mapping.
l Notification message: This type of message is used to provide suggestion messages and
error notifications.
Standards and Protocols Compliance
The tunneling technology is compliant with the following standards and protocols:
l ITU-T G.8110 MPLS layer network architecture
l ITU-T G.8110.1 Application of MPLS on the transport network
l ITU-T G.8121 Characteristics of transport MPLS equipment functional blocks
l RFC 3031 MPLS architecture
l RFC 3032 MPLS label stack encoding
4.1.3 Principles
Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is a tunneling technology, providing a routing and
switching platform that integrates the switching and forwarding technologies of labels and
network-layer routing technologies. In the MPLS architecture, the control plane is
connectionless and uses the powerful and flexible routing function of the IP network to meet
new network application requirements; the data plane is connection-oriented and uses short and
fixed-length labels to encapsulate packets for implementation of fast forwarding.
4.1.3.1 Basic Concepts of the Tunnel
This topic describes basic concepts of the tunnel. Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is a
tunneling technology, providing a routing and switching platform that integrates the switching
and forwarding technologies of labels and network-layer routing technologies. In the MPLS
architecture, the control plane is connectionless and uses the powerful and flexible routing
function of the IP network to meet new network application requirements; the data plane is
connection-oriented and uses short and fixed-length labels to encapsulate packets for
implementation of fast forwarding.
FEC
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Forwarding equivalence class (FEC) is a class of packets that are forwarded in the same way on
an MPLS network.
Label
A label is a short and length-fixed identifier. The label identifies the FEC that a packet belongs
to and is applicable only to the MPLS domain. One FEC may involve multiple labels but one
label can indicate only one FEC.
LDP
Label distribution protocol (LDP) is the control protocol for MPLS. Similar to the signaling
protocol of a traditional network, the LDP is responsible for classifying FECs, distributing labels,
and creating and maintaining LSPs or PWs. MPLS can use the following label distribution
protocols:
l Protocols exclusive for label distribution, such as LDP.
l Existing protocols extended to support label distribution, such as RSVP-TE.
l Currently, the Hybrid MSTP equipment does not support LDP and RSVP TE.
LSP
On an MPLS network, the trail that an FEC traverses is called label switched path (LSP), a
unidirectional path from the ingress node to the egress node. LSPs are classified into static LSPs
and dynamic LSPs. Static LSPs must be manually configured and dynamic LSPs are dynamically
generated using LDP.
LSR
Label switching routers (LSRs) are basic elements in an MPLS domain. All LSRs support MPLS.
Each node on an LSP is an LSR. An edge LSR (LER) resides at the edge of an MPLS domain
and connects to other user networks. The core LSR resides in the center of an MPLS domain.
Packets travel along an LSP and enter an MPLS domain. The incoming LER is the ingress node,
the outgoing LER is the egress node, and the intermediate nodes are transit nodes.
An LSR consists of the control unit and forwarding unit.
l The control unit distributes labels, selects routes, creates label forwarding tables, and sets
up or remove LSPs.
l The forwarding unit forwards received packets according to the label forwarding tables.
NHLFE
Next hop label forwarding entry (NHLFE) describes the operations that an LSR performs on
labels, including push, swap, and pop.
4.1.3.2 Working Principles
This topic describes the process of creating a tunnel and the working principles of a tunnel.
Process of Creating a Tunnel
Figure 4-3 shows the process of creating a tunnel.
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Figure 4-3 Process of creating a tunnel
Ingress node
Label request
packet
Label mapping
packet
Transit node Egress node
Set up the
forward entry
Allocate the ingress label
and set up the forward entry
Allocate the ingress label
and set up the forward entry
Label request
packet
Label mapping
packet

The creation process is as follows:
1. The ingress node uses the encapsulation protocol to calculate a path destined to the egress
node and sends a label request packet to the egress node along the trail.
2. After receiving the label request packet, the transit node forwards the packet to the egress
node.
3. After receiving the label request packet, the egress node assigns an ingress label to the
tunnel, sets up a forwarding entry, and sends a label mapping packet to the ingress node.
4. After receiving the label mapping packet, the transit node assigns an ingress label to the
tunnel, sets up a forwarding entry, and forwards the label mapping packet to the ingress
node.
5. After receiving the label mapping packet, the ingress node sets up a forwarding entry. The
tunnel is created successfully between the ingress node and egress node.
Working Process of a Tunnel
Figure 4-4 shows the working process of a tunnel.
Figure 4-4 Working process of a tunnel
IMA E1
FE
ATM STM-1
MPLS Tunnel
Ingress
node
Transit node
Egress
node
IMA E1
FE
ATM STM-1
PW
Packet
FEC
Push
Swap
Pop
Tunnel

At each LSR, LDP works with traditional routing protocols to set up a routing table and a label
mapping table for the FEC. Each LSR receives packets and performs the following NHLFE
operations on the packets:By manually configuring forwarding information and resource
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information, you can create a label mapping table for each NE. Each LSR receives packets and
performs the following NHLFE operations on the packets after the label mapping table is created:
l Push: The ingress node receives packets and checks for the FEC that the packets belong
to. Then the ingress node adds labels to the packets and transmits the encapsulated MPLS
packets to the next hop through the outbound interface.
l Swap: A transit node uses the forwarding unit to forward the packets according to the packet
labels and the label forwarding table. A transit node does not perform any Layer 3 operation
on the packets.
l Pop: The egress node strips labels from the packets and forwards the packets.
4.1.3.3 Tunnel Protection Group
Automatic protection switching (APS) of the MPLS tunnel is a network protection mechanism.
The protection MPLS tunnel protects the services transmitted in the working MPLS tunnel. If
the working MPLS tunnel is not functioning properly, the services are switched to the protection
MPLS tunnel. In this way, the services transmitted in the working tunnel are protected. OptiX
PTN equipment supports 1+1 and 1:1 APS protection of the MPLS tunnel.
Basic Information
APS
The automatic protection switching (APS) protocol is used to coordinate the actions of the source
and sink in bidirectional protection switching. Using the APS protocol, the source and sink
cooperate with each other to perform functions such as protection switching, switching delay,
and WTR.
According to ITU-T Y.1720, the source and sink both need to select channels in the APS. In this
case, the APS protocol is required for coordination. In the case of bidirectional protection
switching, the APS protocol needs to be used regardless of the revertive mode.
The APS protocol is always transmitted over the protection tunnel. Then the equipment at either
end knows that the tunnel from which the APS protocol is received is the protection tunnel of
the peer end and therefore determines whether the configurations of the working and protection
tunnels are consistent between both ends.
Switching Mode
MPLS APS provides two switching modes, that is, single-ended switching and dual-ended
switching. The PTN chassis-shaped equipment supports only dual-ended switchover. The PTN
case-shaped equipment supports single-ended and dual-ended switchover.
In the case of single-ended switching, when one end detects a fault, it only performs switching
at the local end and does not instruct the peer end to perform any switching.
In the case of dual-ended switching, when one end detects a fault, it performs switching at the
local end and also instructs the peer end to perform switching.
single-ended switching does not require the APS protocol for negotiation. It features rapid and
stable switching.
dual-ended switching ensures that the services are transmitted in a consistent channel, which
facilitates service management.
Revertive Mode
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The MPLS APS function supports two revertive modes, that is, revertive mode and non-revertive
mode.
In the non-revertive mode, services are not switched from the protection tunnel to the working
tunnel even when the working tunnel is restored to the normal state.
In the revertive mode, services are switched from the protection tunnel to the original working
tunnel if the working tunnel is restored to the normal state within the WTR time.
WTR Time
The WTR time refers to the period from the time the original working tunnel is restored to the
time the services are switched from the protection tunnel to the original working tunnel.
In some scenarios, the status of the working tunnel is unstable. Setting the WTR time helps to
prevent frequent switching of services between the working and protection tunnels.
The WTR time on PTN devices is 300 seconds by default. The WTR time on routers is 720
seconds by default.
Hold-off Time
The hold-off time refers to the period from the time the equipment detects a fault to the time the
switching operation is performed.
When the equipment is configured with MPLS APS protection and other protection, setting the
hold-off time can ensure that other protection switching operations are performed first.
By default, the hold-off time of the equipment is 0s.
1+1 Protection
For protection groups of the 1+1 protection type, the source end sends and receives services,
and the sink end selectively receives services. If the working tunnel fails, the protection tunnel
takes over to receive services and implement service switchover.
1:1 Protection
For protection groups of the 1:1 protection type, services are transmitted on the working tunnel.
If the working tunnel fails, the protection tunnel takes over to transmit services. The source end
sends services and the sink end receives services.
Application of the Tunnel Protection
The MPLS tunnels of the same type are created in one tunnel protection group. In this way, 1
+1 or 1:1 protection is provided to these MPLS tunnels. If the working MPLS tunnel fails, the
tunnel protection group ensures that services can still properly run.
Using the U2000, you can configure 1+1 or 1:1 protection for MPLS tunnels that carry important
services.
Figure 4-5 shows the protection principle for unicast tunnels.
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Figure 4-5 Principles of the tunnel protection
CE
CE
Ingress
node
Egress
node
Working
tunnel
Protection
tunnel
Configuration of source
protection group
Configuration of sink
protection group
Protection tunnel
Working tunnel

4.1.3.4 Application of the Tunnel
An MPLS tunnel acts as the carrier of PWs to transmit service packets. The MPLS tunnel can
carry various services, such as CES services, ATM/IMA services, Ethernet services and protocol
packets. Currently, the Hybrid MSTP equipment supports only the Ethernet service. The MPLS
tunnel is mainly used for transparent transmission of point-to-point data packets.
Transparent Transmission of Point-to-Point Data Packets
A tunnel provides a point-to-point path for services such as EPL services. In this way, PEs on a
PSN network can transparently transmit services. Figure 4-6 shows how point-to-point data
packets are transparently transmitted on a network.
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Figure 4-6 Transparent transmission of point-to-point data packets

An edge node on the network receives services from Node B and transmits the services to the
RNC connected to another PE. In this case, a point-to-point MPLS tunnel can be used.The usage
scenarios of different tunnels are as follows:
l When an IP tunnel transmits services, the services can be transparently transmitted on a
third-party IP network. Therefore, IP tunnels are used mainly when the services that the
PTN equipment transmits need to be transparently transmitted on a third-party IP network.
l When a static CR tunnel transmits services, the services can be transparently transmitted
on the entire MPLS network. Therefore, static CR tunnels are used mainly when high QoS
is not required and the routes are specified.
l When an RSVP TE tunnel transmits services, the services can be transparently transmitted
on the entire RSVP TE network. RSVP TE tunnels are used when high QoS and resource
usage are required on the network.
l When an LDP tunnel transmits services, the services can be transparently transmitted on
the entire MPLS network. LDP tunnels are widely used for MPLS VPNs. To prevent traffic
congestion on some nodes of a VPN, you can configure LDP over RSVP. That is, the LSP
of an LDP tunnel traverses the RSVP TE domain and therefore the LDP tunnel can transmit
VPN services.
When all the preceding tunnels traverse the third-party equipment, you can configure the third-
party equipment as a virtual node to ensure that the tunnels are created properly.
Currently, the Hybrid MSTP equipment supports only the static CR tunnel.the NG WDM
equipment supports only the static CR tunnel.
4.2 MPLS Protection Ring Overview
Compared with traditional linear protection solutions, the Multiprotocol Label Switching
(MPLS) protection ring solution saves tunnel resources, reduces the consumption of network
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element (NE) and link bandwidths, simplifies the configuration process, and improves service
reliability by protecting services in some scenarios where multiple NEs fail.
4.2.1 Introduction to an MPLS Protection Ring
A Multiple Label Switching (MPLS) protection ring is mainly used in the single-ring and multi-
ring networking for double-fiber bidirectional rings. When multiple nodes become faulty, the
MPLS protection ring can be used to protect services.
Advantages
Path through which packets are
transmitted in the MPLS protection ring
Node B
RNC
Base station Access layer Aggregation layer Core layer
PTN 910 PTN
1900/950/910
PTN 3900/1900
PTN 3900
An MPLS protection ring has the following advantages:
l Saves tunnel resources. Only working tunnels need to be configured for services while
protection tunnels are not required.
l Reduces the consumption of network element (NE) and link bandwidths. An NE on
an MPLS protection ring is required to use only two operation, administration and
maintenance (OAM) instances and one automatic protection switching (APS) instance. The
quantities of OAM instances and APS instances are irrelevant to the number of services.
l Simplifies the configuration process. Services are not affected as long as protection ring
data is configured on NEs added to an MPLS protection ring.
l Improves service reliability. Intersectant protection rings can be used to protect services
in some scenarios where multiple NEs fail.
4.2.2 Reference Standards and Protocols for an MPLS Protection
Ring
This topic lists the standards and protocols applicable to a Multiprotocol Label Switching
(MPLS) protection ring.
Details are as follows.
Document Description
G.8132/Y.1382 T-MPLS shared protection ring
Y.1373/G.8114 Operation & maintenance mechanism for T-
MPLS layer networks
Y.1711 Operation & Maintenance mechanism for
MPLS networks

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4.2.3 Principle Description for an MPLS Protection Ring
The Shared Protection Ring (SPRing) is a protection switchover mechanism defined in the ITU-
T G.8132 standard. A group of nodes constitute a closed loop and each node is connected to two
adjacent nodes using a bidirectional channel. Ring network protection involves two rings that
provide protection for each other and are in opposite directions. Both of the two rings provide
working and protection channels and redundant bandwidth or network devices. In this way,
services can be automatically restored after the network does not function properly or
deteriorates.
4.2.3.1 Basic Concepts
This topic describes basic concepts related to a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
protection ring. At present, the U2000supports only the wrapping mode.
Ring Node
A ring node is a logic concept defined in the G.8132 standard. An NE ID uniquely identifies an
NE in a ring protection group. Multiple ring protection groups can be configured on a tangent
or intersectant NE; therefore, an NE can be assigned different NE IDs for different ring protection
groups. The solid ring IDs range from 1 to 127 and the virtual intersecting node IDs range from
128 to 255.
East Interface/West Interface
Each node in a ring uses two interfaces to receive and send data. The two interfaces are considered
the east interface and west interface based on the role in the ring topology view. The east interface
is used to send packets transmitted in a counter-clockwise direction and receive packets
transmitted in a clockwise direction. The west interface is used to receive packets transmitted
in a counter-clockwise direction and send packets transmitted in a clockwise direction.
Ring Channel
A ring protection group consists of four logical rings: working tunnel ring in a clockwise
direction, protection tunnel ring in a clockwise direction, working tunnel ring in a counter-
clockwise direction, and protection tunnel ring in a counter-clockwise direction. Four ring labels
are provided to differentiate these tunnel rings. Each ring label has the same value on all NEs
in a ring. The eastbound protection channel protects westbound working tunnels and the
westbound protection channel protects eastbound working tunnels.
Intersecting node
Intersecting node: An intersecting node consists of two physical nodes and contains information
about the source and destination rings. As shown in the following figure, ring 1 and ring 2 are
intersected, the configured intersecting nodes are C and D. The intersecting node C has the
information about intersecting node D and the information about the source ring (ring 1) and
destination ring (ring 2). The virtual intersecting node D has the information about intersecting
node C and the information about the source ring (ring 2) and destination ring (ring 1). Every
ring uses the virtual intersecting node as a drop node to create a ring path. When two rings
intersect, only two intersecting nodes are allowed. If multiple physical intersecting nodes exist,
the two nodes that have the longest distance between each other are used as intersecting nodes.
If one ring intersects with multiple rings, multiple intersecting nodes need to be configured.
Intersecting node information must be configured for all nodes on a ring to ensure the integrity
of the ring topology.
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4.2.3.2 MPLS Protection Ring and Tunnels
An MPLS protection ring is located at the server layer but a tunnel is located at the service layer.
After service traffic on a tunnel is switched to an MPLS protection ring, a ring label needs to be
added to the packets so that the traffic is forwarded based on the ring label, without the need to
exchange the tunnel label. After the traffic leaves the ring, the ring label is removed and the
tunnel label needs to be exchanged. As shown in the following figure, the tunnel passes through
nodes A, B, C, and D. Tunnel configurations are performed only on nodes A and D instead of
B and C.
Figure1 MPLS Protection Ring and Tunnels
1. The encapsulation format of service packets before a tunnel is bound to an MPLS protection
ring is as follows.
Tunnel1 (User Label) PW PDU
Tunnel1 indicates the outer label.
2. The encapsulation format of service packets after a tunnel is bound to an MPLS protection
ring is as follows.
Ring (Ring Label) Tunnel1_D (User Label) PW PDU
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Tunnel1_D indicates the ingress label for the tunnel at the egress point. The ring label at
the egress point corresponds to the working path label in the tunnel direction.
4.2.4 Usage Scenarios of an MPLS Protection Ring
Ring protection can be mainly used in single-ring and multi-ring networking for double-fiber
bidirectional rings. If a transmission path does not function properly, ring protection can be used
to ensure service transmission.
Figure 1 Typical Usage Scenario of Ring Protection 1
Figure 2 Typical Usage Scenario of Ring Protection 2
4.3 PWE3 Overview
In a packet switched network (PSN), PWE3 is a Layer 2 service bearing technology that emulates
as faithfully as possible the basic behaviors and characteristics of ATM services, Ethernet
services, low-rate CES circuit services, and other services. Such a technology can interconnect
the traditional network and PSN to share resources and expand the network. The MSTP
equipment supports only CES and Ethernet services.
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4.3.1 Introduction to the PWE3
PWE3 is a point-to-point Layer 2 VPN (Virtual Private Network) technology. This technology
adds new signaling, reduces signaling costs, regulates the auto-negotiation mode of multiple
hops, and achieves flexible networking.
Definition
PWE3 is a Layer 2 service bearing technology that emulates as faithfully as possible the basic
behaviors and characteristics of services such as ATM, frame relay, Ethernet, low-rate CES
circuit, and synchronous optical network (SONET)/synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) on a
PSN.
Objectives
With development of the IP network, the IP network has great compatibility and capabilities for
expansion, upgrade, and interworking. The traditional communication network, which has poor
capabilities for expansion, upgrade, and interworking, is restricted by the transmission mode
and service type. In addition, newly built networks support a few services and are unsuitable for
interworking management. Hence, during the upgrade and expansion of traditional
communication networks, you should consider whether to build duplicated networks or use
existing or common network resources. PWE3 is a solution that combines traditional
communication networks with the existing packet networks.
The PWE3 protocol reduces packet exchanges, avoids repeated PW creation and deletion caused
by network instabilities.
PWE3 has some MPLS L2VPN advantages and can be used to interconnect traditional networks
with PSNs to implement resource sharing and network expansion.
4.3.2 Reference Standards and Protocols of the PWE3
This topic describes the standards compliance and protocols for various technologies used in
PWE3.
The reference documents of this feature are as follows.
Document Description Remark
s
RFC 3916 Requirements for Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge-to-
Edge (PWE3)
N/A
RFC 3985 Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3)
Architecture
N/A
RFC 4446 IANA Allocations for Pseudowire Edge to Edge
Emulation (PWE3)
N/A
draft-ietf-pwe3-
control-protocol-17
Pseudo wire Setup and Maintenance using the Label
Distribution Protocol
N/A
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Document Description Remark
s
draft-martini-pwe3-
pw-switching-03
Pseudo Wire Switching N/A
draft-ietf-pwe3-cw-00 PWE3 Control Word for use over an MPLS PSN N/A
draft-ietf-pwe3-
vccv-03
Pseudo Wire Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification
(VCCV)
N/A
draft-ietf-pwe3-
ethernet-encap-10
Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet Over
MPLS Networks
N/A
draft-ietf-pwe3-atm-
encap-11
Encapsulation Methods for Transport of ATM Over
MPLS Networks
N/A
draft-ietf-pwe3-cell-
transport-05
PWE3 ATM Transparent Cell Transport Service N/A
RFC 5085 Pseudowire Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification
(VCCV) A Control Channel for Pseudowires
VCCV of
PWs in
L2TP V3
mode is
not
supporte
d.

4.3.3 Principle
This topic describes the basic principle and various technologies used to implement PWE3.
4.3.3.1 PWE3 Basic Principle
This topic describes the implementation principle for PWE3 to carry various Layer 2 services
on the customer edge (CE) side.
Basic Concepts of PWE3
l UPE: ultimate PE. The UPE functions as an edge device on the backbone network that is
connected to the user edge devices on a VPN network. Generally, an AC directly accesses
the first or last PW on several PEs.
l SPE: switching point PE. The SPE functions as a device responsible for PW switching and
PW label forwarding inside the backbone network.
l AS: autonomous system. An AS is a collection of routers that are under the control of one
entity and have the same internal routing policy.
Basic Transmission Components of PWE3
As shown in Figure 4-7, the basic transmission components of the PWE3 network are as follows:
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l Virtual link pseudo wire (PW)
l Forwarder
l Tunnel
l PW signaling protocol
Figure 4-7 Basic transmission components of the PWE3
PE1 PE2
CE1
CE2
CE3
CE4
P
VPN1
Site1
VPN2
Site1
VPN1
Site2
VPN2
Site2
MPLS Network
AC
PW
PW Signal
Tunnel
Forwarder
Forwarder

The VPN1 packet flow from CE1 to CE3 is used as an example. The basic data flow is as follows:
l Layer 2 packets are sent to CE1 first, and the packets gain access to PE1 through the link.
l After PE1 receives the packets, the forwarder selects the PWs for forwarding packets.
l PE1 generates two MPLS labels (a private network label and a public network label)
according to the PW forwarding entries. The private network label is used to identify the
PW, and the public network label is used for a service to traverse over the tunnel to PE2.
l The Layer 2 packets reach PE2 through the public network. Then the system prompts
private network labels (on the P equipment, public network labels are prompted in the last
hop but one).
l The forwarder of PE2 selects the link for forwarding packets and forwards the Layer 2
packets to CE3.
PWE3 Network Mode
The PWE3 network can work in single-hop mode or multi-hop mode.
l Single-hop PWE3 network
Single-hop PW indicates that only one PW is available between UPEs, and the switching
of the internal label is not required.
Figure 4-8 shows the typical network topology of the single-hop PW.
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Figure 4-8 PWE3 single-hop topology
MPLS Network
PE1 PE2 P
PW
CE1 CE2

l Multi-hop PWE3 network in LDP mode
In most cases, the single-hop PW can meet requirements. In the following three scenarios,
however, the single-hop PW cannot meet requirements and the multi-hop PW needs to be
used:
Two PEs are not in the same AS domain. In addition, the signaling connection or tunnel
between the two PEs cannot be constructed.
The signaling types on the two PEs are different. For example, one end runs LDP and
the other end runs RSVP.
The access equipment can run MPLS, but it cannot construct a large number of LDP
sessions. In this case, the user facing provider equipment (UFPE) is used as the UPE
and the high-performance SPE is used as the switching node (similar to the signaling
reflector) of the LDP sessions.
The multi-hop PW indicates that multiple PWs are available between UPEs. The
forwarding mechanisms of the UPE are the same in the case of multi-hop forwarding
and single-hop forwarding. In the case of multi-hop forwarding, the switching of the
PW label must be performed on the SPE.
Figure 4-9 shows the typical network topology of the multi-hop PW using LDP as the
signaling protocol.
Figure 4-9 PWE3 multi-hop topology
MPLS Network
U-PE1 U-PE2 S-PE1
PW1
CE1 CE2
S-PE2
PW2 PW3
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Static PW
The static PW does not use the signaling protocol for parameter negotiation. The information
required by the static PW is manually specified through commands, and the data is transmitted
between PEs through the tunnel.
Dynamic PW
The dynamic PW is a PW constructed through signaling protocol. The UPE switches the PW
label through the LDP and bundles the corresponding CE through PW ID. After the tunnel that
connects two PEs is successfully constructed and the label switching and bundling are complete,
if the link of the two PEs is up, a PW is constructed.
The message packets of the dynamic PW consist of:
l Request: Requests for label allocation from the peer end.
l Mapping: Notifies the peer end of the label at the local end and determines whether to
contain the status message according to the default signaling action. (The default Martini
mode does not support the status message.)
l Notification: Notifies status to negotiate the PW status, reducing the number of packets for
interaction.
l Withdraw: Contains the relevant label and status to notify the peer end to cancel the label.
l Release: As a response to the Withdraw packet, notifies the peer end to send the Withdraw
packet to cancel the label.
Extension of the PWE3 Control Plane
l Signaling extension
The Notification mode is added to the LDP signaling. In this manner, only status is notified
and the signaling is not cleared unless the configuration is deleted or the signaling protocol
is interrupted. This mode reduces packet interaction and signaling overheads and is
compatible with the original LDP and Martini modes.
l Multi-hop extension
The multi-hop PW function is added, which extends the network mode.
The multi-hop PW lowers the requirement on the count of LDP connections of the access
equipment, that is, lowers the overheads of the LDP session of the access nodes.
Multi-hop access nodes meet the PW convergence requirement, which facilitates the
network flexibility and is applicable to different levels (access, convergence, and core).
l CES interface extension
More telecommunication low-speed CES interfaces are supported. The functions of CES
packet sequencing, and clock extraction and synchronization are added using the control
word (CW) and the forwarding plane Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP).
The advantages of the low-speed CES interfaces are as follows:
The encapsulation type is added to support the encapsulation of low-speed CESs.
The PSTN, TV, and data networks can be integrated.
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It is a mode used to substitute the traditional DDN service.
Currently, the MSTP equipment does not support this interface.
l Other extension
Other extension on the control plane is as follows:
The negotiation mechanism of the fragmentation capability is added to the control plane.
The PW continuity check, such as virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) and
PW operation administration and maintenance (OAM), is added, improving the
convergence capability and reliability of the network.
Extension on the PWE3 Data Plane
l Real-time information extension
l Clock extraction and time synchronization using the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
l Assurance of the bandwidth, jitter, and delay of telecommunication signals
l Retransmission of out-of-order packets
4.3.3.2 VCCV
Virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV) is a technology that is used to verify and
diagnose the connectivity of a PW forwarding trail.
VCCV is an end-to-end PW fault detection and diagnosis mechanism. That is, the VCCV is the
control channel in which connectivity verification messages are sent between the PW ingress
and egress nodes.
The objective of VCCV is to verify and further diagnose the connectivity of the PW forwarding
trail.
VCCV ping is a tool that helps you to manually check the connectivity of the virtual circuit.
VCCV ping is achieved based on extended LSP ping. VCCV defines a series of messages
exchanged between PEs to verify the PW connectivity. To ensure that the VCCV packets and
data packets in the PW pass through the same trail, the VCCV packets and PW packets must
have the same encapsulation mode and pass through the same tunnel.
VCCV Traceroute is a tool that helps you to manually check the connectivity of the virtual
circuit. VCCV Traceroute supports detection of transit NEs between the source and sink NEs to
obtain the packet loss ratio and delay between the source NE and each of the transit NE and
determine the fault point.
4.3.3.3 Static and Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Hop PW
This topic describes static and dynamic hybrid multi-hop PWs.
Hybrid multi-hop PW refers to a PW with one end being a static PW and the other end being a
dynamic PW (LDP). Either the static or dynamic PW can have multiple hops. The static and
dynamic PWs cannot have multiple hops in interleaved mode.
As shown in Figure 4-10, the PW between UPE1 and the SPE is a dynamic PW and that between
UPE2 and the SPE is a static PW.
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Figure 4-10 Network of the static and dynamic hybrid multi-hop PW
CE-A CE-B
UPE1 UPE2
SPE P1 P2
D
y
n
a
m
ic
P
W

S
ta
tic
P
W


4.3.3.4 PW Protection
The PW protection mechanism ensures that services are quickly switched to another PW if one
PW fails.
PW Redundancy
As shown in Figure 4-11, CE1 is connected to PE1 using a link. CE2 is connected to PE2 and
PE3 in dual-homing mode.
NOTE
PWs between PE equipment must be created using dynamic signaling.
l Create a PW, the working PW, between PE1 and PE3.
l Create a PW, the protection PW, between PE1 and PE2.
l Detect faults between the CE and PE.
l If the active trail CE2-PE3-PE1-CE1 is not functioning properly, the service traffic can be
quickly switched to the standby trail CE2-PE2-PE1-CE1.
l After the fault on the active trail CE2-PE3-PE1-CE1 is rectified, the service traffic is
switched to the original trail.
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Figure 4-11 PW redundancy protection
W
P
Working PW
PE1
PE2
PE3
CE1
CE2

CE Symmetrical Dual-Homing Protection
As shown in Figure 4-12, CE1 is connected to PE1 and PE2 in dual-homing mode, and CE2 is
connected to PE3 and PE4 in dual-homing mode.
l Connect CE1 and CE2 to PEs.
l Create PWs between PE1 and PE3 and between PE2 and PE4.
l Trail CE2-PE3-PE1-CE1 and trail CE2-PE4-PE2-CE1 are backups for each other. If a trail
does not function properly, the service traffic can be quickly switched to the other trail. By
default, use trail CE2-PE3-PE1-CE1 as the working trail.
Figure 4-12 CE symmetrical dual-homing protection
P
W
P
Working PW
Protection PW
CE1 CE2
PE1
PE2
PE3
PE4

PW Backup Protection
As shown in Figure 4-13, CE1 is connected to PE1 and CE2 is connected to PE2.
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l Create two dynamic PWs between PE1 and PE3.
l The two PWs on trail PE1-PE2 are backups for each other. If a trail does not function
properly, the service traffic can be quickly switched to the other trail.
Figure 4-13 PW backup protection
Protection PW
Working PW
CE1 CE2
PE1 PE2

PW APS Protection
As shown in Figure 4-14, CE1 is connected to PE1 and CE2 is connected to PE2 and PE3.
l Create a PW between PE1 and PE2.
l Create PWs between PE1 and PE3 and between PE2 and PE3.
l If trail CE1-PE1-PE2-CE2 is not functioning properly, the service traffic can be quickly
switched to the protection trail CE1-PE1-PE3-PE2-CE2.
Figure 4-14 PW APS protection
W
P
P
Working PW
Protection PW
CE1
CE2
PE1
PE2
PE3

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4.3.3.5 ATM Cell Transparent Transmission
This topic describes the ATM cell transparent transmission technology.
Definition
ATM cell transparent transmission is a technology that is used to bear ATM cells in the PWE3
virtual circuit.
Objective
ATM cell transparent transmission uses the PSN to connect traditional ATM network resources
and emulates traditional ATM services on the PSN. In this case, traditional ATM network
services are emulated to the maximum when traversing the PSN. Therefore, end users cannot
detect any difference and the existing investment of customers and operators are fully utilized
in network integration and construction.
Implementation of ATM cell transparent transmission
By creating P2P tunnels, bearing data packets, cells, and bit streams, the Layer 2 emulation
service on the PSN traverses the public or private PSN. The original services are emulated to
the maximum between two PEs connected by a PW.
l Port-based ATM cell transparent transmission
In this mode, the connection between two remote ATM ports is emulated.
The port-based ATM cell transparent transmission can be classified into port-based remote
ATM cell transparent transmission and port-based local ATM cell transparent transmission.
l ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1 virtual circuit connection (VCC) mode
In this mode, a PW bears an ATM VCC cell. This mode supports all ATM adaptation layer
(AAL) types. Because a PW bears only one ATM VCC cell, the tunnel packet does not
contain the virtual path identifier (VPI) or virtual channel identifier (VCI).
Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) for the PEs are mapped through the PW, that is, the
MPLS PW functions as the ATM switch to support VPI/VCI switching without the need
to configure the switching relationship on the PE. ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-
to-1 VCC mode can be classified into remote ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1
VCC mode and local ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1 VCC mode.
l ATM cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VCC mode
In this mode, a PW bears multiple ATM VCC cells. This mode supports all AAL types.
Because a PW bears multiple ATM VCC cells, the tunnel packet contains the VPI and VCI.
This encapsulation mode supports the function of mapping multiple VCs on the same ATM
subinterface to a PW, and does not support the function of mapping multiple VCs on
different ATM interfaces to a PW or the function of mapping multiple inter-board VCs to
a PW.
ATM cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VCC mode can be classified into remote ATM
cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VCC mode and local ATM cell transparent
transmission in N-to-1 VCC mode.
l ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1 virtual path connection (VPC) mode
In this mode, a PW bears an ATM VPC cell. This mode supports all AAL types. Compared
with ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1 VCC mode, the tunnel packet of this
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mode contains only the VCI. The output equipment then determines the destination CE
based on the VCI.
Because a PW bears only one ATM VPC cell, the PVCs for the PEs are mapped through
the PW, that is, the MPLS PW functions as the ATM switch to support the VPI switching
without the need to configure the switching relationship on the PE.
ATM cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1 VPC mode can be classified into remote ATM
cell transparent transmission in 1-to-1 VPC mode and local ATM cell transparent
transmission in 1-to-1 VPC mode.
l ATM cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VPC mode
In this mode, a PW bears multiple ATM VPC cells. This mode supports all AAL types.
Because a PW bears multiple ATM VPC cells, the tunnel packet contains the VPI and VCI.
The encapsulation modes of ATM cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VPC and N-to-1
VCC modes are the same.
ATM cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VPC mode can be classified into remote ATM
cell transparent transmission in N-to-1 VPC mode and local ATM cell transparent
transmission in N-to-1 VPC mode.
Encapsulation Modes of ATM cell transparent transmission
ATM cell transparent transmission covers the following transparent transmission services:
l PVC-based transparent transmission service
l Permanent virtual path (PVP)-based transparent transmission service
l Interface-based transparent transmission service
The encapsulation modes of ATM cell transparent transmission are as follows:
l 1-to-1
l N-to-1
ATM cell transparent transmission has the following transparent transmission modes:
l Cell
l Frame
Table 4-1 describes the features of ATM cell transparent transmission services of different
levels.
Table 4-1 Features of ATM cell transparent transmission services
Encapsulati
on Mode
Transpa
rent
Transmi
ssion
Mode
AAL Type Supported
Connection
Type
Encapsulation Method
N-to-1 VCC Cell All AALs VC The VPI and VCI are
contained. The control
word (CW) is optional.
VPI/VCI switching is
supported.
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Encapsulati
on Mode
Transpa
rent
Transmi
ssion
Mode
AAL Type Supported
Connection
Type
Encapsulation Method
1-to-1 VCC Cell All AALs VC The VPI or VCI is
contained. The CW is
mandatory. VPI/VCI
switching is not supported.
N-to-1 VPC Cell All AALs VP The VPI, not the VCI, is
contained. The CW is
optional.
1-to-1 VPC Cell All AALs VP The VPI, not the VCI, is
contained. The CW is
mandatory.
Interface
transparent
transmission
Cell All AALs Interface The VPI and VCI are not
contained. The CW is
optional.

Table 4-2 describes the applicable scenarios of various connection types.
Table 4-2 Applicable scenarios of various connection types
Connection Type Applicable Scenario
VCC cell transparent
transmission
Virtual channel connection, which is a basic unit on the ATM
network.
Applicable to transmission of various ATM network services.
VPC cell transparent
transmission
Virtual path connection, a group of VCCs with the same destination.
Applicable to transmission of various ATM network services,
especially when multiple services with the same destination exist.
VPC cell transparent transmission is quicker and easier for
management and configuration than VCC cell transparent
transmission.
Whole port
transparent
transmission
Applicable to the scenario that the VP and VC do not need to be
processed and the equipment functions an ATM transmission private
line.

Table 4-3 describes the comparison between 1-to-1 and N-to-1 modes.
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Table 4-3 Comparison between 1-to-1 and N-to-1 modes
Mode Description Applicable Scope Difference
1-to-1 A VCC or VPC maps one PW. All AAL types The VPI and VCI are not
contained.
N-to-1 Multiple VCCs or VPCs map
one PW. (N >= 1)
All AAL types The VPI and VCI must
be contained in the
encapsulation regardless
whether N = 1 or N > 1.

4.3.3.6 Service Demarcation Tag
This topic describes the basic information about service demarcation tags and implementation
principles.
Packet Encapsulation on an AC
The packet encapsulation mode on an AC is determined by the user access mode. User access
modes can be VLAN access and Ethernet access. Each user access mode is described as follows:
l VLAN access: In VLAN access mode, the header of each Ethernet frame sent between CEs
and PEs carries a VLAN tag. This tag is a service delimiter that is used to identify users on
an ISP network. It is called provider-tag (P-tag).
l Ethernet access: In Ethernet access mode, the header of each Ethernet frame sent between
CEs and PEs does not carry any P-tag. If the frame header carries a VLAN tag, the VLAN
tag is the internal VLAN tag of the user packet, and is called user-tag (U-tag). The U-tag
is carried in a packet before the packet is sent to a CE and is therefore not added by the CE.
The U-tag is used by the CE to identify which VLAN the packet belongs to and is
meaningless to PEs.
Packet Encapsulation on a PW
Packet encapsulation modes on a PW can be Raw mode and Tagged mod.
l Raw mode
The P-tag is not transmitted on the PW. If a PE receives the packet with a P-tag from a CE,
the PE strips the P-tag, adds double MPLS labels (outer label and inner label) to the packet,
and forwards the packet. If a PE receives the packet without a P-tag from a CE, the PE
directly adds double MPLS labels to the packet and forwards the packet. If a PE sends a
packet to a CE, the PE adds or does not add the P-tag to the packet as needed, and forwards
the packet to the CE. Note that the PE is not allowed to rewrite or remove any existing tag.
l Tagged mode
The frame sent to a PW must carry the P-tag. If a PE receives the packet with a P-tag from
a CE, the PE directly adds double MPLS labels to the packet without stripping the P-tag,
and forwards the packet; if a PE receives the packet without a P-tag from a CE, the PE adds
a null tag and double MPLS labels to the packet and forwards the packet. If a PE sends a
packet to a CE, the PE rewrites, removes, or preserves the service delimiter of the packet
as needed, and forwards the packet to the CE.
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Service Demarcation Tag
If you set the access port of an Ethernet service to the C-aware tag or S-aware tag, at least one
C-VLAN tag or S-VLAN tag is added to the user packet that is transmitted through the access
port. Then you can set a service demarcation tag to identify the access mode of the user packet
and the method of handling the outermost C-VLAN tag or S-VLAN tag of the user packet during
packet forwarding.
l User: Services gain access to the AC in Ethernet access mode. The outermost C-VLAN
tag or S-VLAN tag of a user packet functions as the user VLAN tag (U-TAG) for the
forwarding of the user packet.
l Service: Services gain access to the AC in VLAN access mode. The outermost C-VLAN
tag or S-VLAN tag of a user packet functions as the service VLAN tag (P-TAG) and is not
involved in the forwarding of the user packet.
Application of the Service Demarcation Tag: Ethernet Access Mode - Raw
Figure 4-15 Ethernet raw mode (with user VLAN tags)
PE1
AC
PW
AC
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
IP
Header
Data
User
Vlan Tag
L2
Header
VC
Label
Tunnel
Label
L2
Header
PE2
CE1
CE2
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
User
Vlan Tag
User
Vlan Tag

As shown in Figure 4-15, when you set the service demarcation tag to User, the AC uses the
Ethernet encapsulation mode and the PW uses the raw mode. Therefore, packets transmitted
from the CE to the PE contain the user VLAN tags (U-TAGs) but not service VLAN tags (P-
TAGs).
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Interaction of packets with U-TAGs in the Ethernet raw mode is described as follows:
1. CE1 transmits packets with Layer 2 encapsulation to PE1. The packets contain U-TAGs
but not P-TAGs.
2. When PE1 receives the packets that contain U-TAGs but not P-TAGs, PE1 considers the
U-TAGs as user data without processing them because the U-TAGs are useless to PE1.
3. When PE1 receives the packets that contain P-TAGs but not U-TAGs, PE1 deletes the P-
TAGs from the packets because PWs require raw encapsulation and frames transmitted in
the PWs cannot contain P-TAGs.
4. According to the routing table, PE1 selects tunnels and PWs for the packets.
5. According to the selected tunnels and PWs, PE1 directly adds two types of MPLS tags
(outer tunnel tags and inner VC tags) to the packets, performs Layer 2 encapsulation, and
forwards the packets.
6. PE2 receives the packets from PE1 and decapsulates the packets. Specifically, PE2 strips
the Layer 2 encapsulation and the two MPLS tags from the packets.
7. PE2 transmits the decapsulated Layer 2 packets from CE1 to CE2. The packets contain U-
TAGs but not P-TAGs.
Application of the Service Demarcation Tag: Ethernet Access Mode - Tagged
Figure 4-16 Ethernet tagged mode (with user VLAN tags)
PE1
AC
PW
AC
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
IP
Header
Data
User
Vlan Tag
L2
Header
VC
Label
Tunnel
Label
L2
Header
PE2
CE1
CE2
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
User
Vlan Tag
User
Vlan Tag
Service
Vlan Tag

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As shown in Figure 4-15, when you set the service demarcation tag to User, the AC uses the
Ethernet encapsulation mode and the PW uses the tagged mode. Therefore, packets transmitted
from the CE to the PE contain the user VLAN tags (U-TAGs) but not service VLAN tags (P-
TAGs).
Interaction of packets with U-TAGs in the Ethernet raw mode is described as follows:
1. CE1 transmits packets with Layer 2 encapsulation to PE1. The packets contain U-TAGs
but not P-TAGs.
2. When PE1 receives the packets that contain U-TAGs but not P-TAGs, PE1 considers the
U-TAGs as user data without processing them because the U-TAGs are useless to PE1.
3. When PE1 receives the packets that contain no P-TAGs, PE1 adds the P-TAGs in the
packets because PWs require tagged encapsulation and frames transmitted in the PWs must
contain P-TAGs.
4. According to the routing table, PE1 selects tunnels and PWs for the packets.
5. According to the selected tunnels and PWs, PE1 directly adds two types of MPLS tags
(outer tunnel tags and inner VC tags) to the packets, performs Layer 2 encapsulation, and
forwards the packets.
6. PE2 receives the packets from PE1 and decapsulates the packets. Specifically, PE2 strips
the Layer 2 encapsulation and the two MPLS tags from the packets and adds the P-TAGs
that is deleted by PE1 to the packets.
7. PE2 transmits the decapsulated Layer 2 packets from CE1 to CE2. The packets contain U-
TAGs but not P-TAGs.
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Application of the Service Demarcation Tag: VLAN Access Mode - Raw
Figure 4-17 VLAN raw mode (with service VLAN tags)
PE1
AC
PW
AC
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
VC
Label
Tunnel
Label
L2
Header
PE2
CE1
CE2
Service
Vlan Tag
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
Service
Vlan Tag

As shown in Figure 4-15, when you set the service demarcation tag to Service, the AC uses the
VLAN encapsulation mode and the PW uses the raw mode. Therefore, packets transmitted from
the CE to the PE contain the service VLAN tags (P-TAGs) but not user VLAN tags (U-TAGs).
Interaction of packets with U-TAGs in the VLAN raw mode is described as follows:
1. CE1 transmits packets with Layer 2 encapsulation to PE1. The packets contain P-TAGs
but not U-TAGs.
2. When PE1 receives the packets that contain P-TAGs but not U-TAGs, PE1 deletes the P-
TAGs from the packets because PWs require raw encapsulation and frames transmitted in
the PWs cannot contain P-TAGs.
3. According to the routing table, PE1 selects tunnels and PWs for the packets.
4. According to the selected tunnels and PWs, PE1 directly adds two types of MPLS tags
(outer tunnel tags and inner VC tags) to the packets, performs Layer 2 encapsulation, and
forwards the packets.
5. PE2 receives the packets from PE1 and decapsulates the packets. Specifically, PE2 strips
the Layer 2 encapsulation and the two MPLS tags from the packets and adds the P-TAGs
that is deleted by PE1 to the packets.
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6. PE2 transmits the decapsulated Layer 2 packets from CE1 to CE2. The packets contain P-
TAGs but not U-TAGs.
Application of the Service Demarcation Tag: VLAN Access Mode - Tagged
Figure 4-18 VLAN tagged mode (with service VLAN tags)
PE1
AC
PW
AC
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
VC
Label
Tunnel
Label
L2
Header
PE2
CE1
CE2
Service
Vlan Tag
IP
Header
Data
L2
Header
Service
Vlan Tag
Service
Vlan Tag

As shown in Figure 4-15, when you set the service demarcation tag to Service, the AC uses the
VLAN encapsulation mode and the PW uses the tagged mode. Therefore, packets transmitted
from the CE to the PE contain the service VLAN tags (P-TAGs) but not user VLAN tags (U-
TAGs).
Interaction of packets with P-TAGs in the VLAN tagged mode is described as follows:
1. CE1 transmits packets with Layer 2 encapsulation to PE1. The packets contain U-TAGs
but not P-TAGs.
2. When PE1 receives the packets that contain P-TAGs but not U-TAGs, PE1 do nothing with
the P-TAGs in the packets because PWs require tagged encapsulation and frames
transmitted in the PWs must contain P-TAGs.
3. According to the routing table, PE1 selects tunnels and PWs for the packets.
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4. According to the selected tunnels and PWs, PE1 directly adds two types of MPLS tags
(outer tunnel tags and inner VC tags) to the packets, performs Layer 2 encapsulation, and
forwards the packets.
5. PE2 receives the packets from PE1 and decapsulates the packets. Specifically, PE2 strips
the Layer 2 encapsulation and the two MPLS tags from the packets.
6. PE2 transmits the decapsulated Layer 2 packets from CE1 to CE2. The packets contain P-
TAGs but not U-TAGs.
4.3.4 Overview of IP over PW
IP over PW services are private line services provided by the PTN equipment. In the case of IP
over PW services, IP packets are encapsulated into PWs for transmission.
Feature Overview
With the growth of wireless networks, the number of base stations that support IP interfaces is
greatly increased, and therefore mobile backhaul networks need to access base station services
through IP packets.
If services are accessed through a traditional L3VPN solution, the restrictions are as follows:
l The access equipment at the edge of a backhaul network must have strong routing
capability. This increases the cost of the access equipment.
l An L3VPN network relies on dynamic routing protocols, and therefore networking is
complex and the protection mechanism cannot satisfy network requirements.
On a mobile backhaul network, the trail between a base station and an RNC is fixed. Therefore,
if you create IP over PW services between the base station and RNC, the services can fully satisfy
service bearing requirements. In the case of IP over PW services, IP packets are encapsulated
into PWs. In this manner, IP services from base station are accessed. In addition, features of
private line services such as simple networking, easy management, and complete protection are
maintained.
Networking
As shown in Figure 4-19, an IP over PW service is created between the OptiX PTN 910/950
and OptiX PTN 1900/3900/3900-8 for each base station.
The OptiX PTN 910/950 encapsulates IP packets from base stations into a PW, and sends the
PW over an IP over PW to the OptiX PTN 1900/3900/3900-8. The OptiX PTN
1900/3900/3900-8 decapsulates the packets and sends the packets to an RNC. In this manner,
UNI-NNI service transmission is implemented.
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Figure 4-19 Deployment of IP over PW services
OptiX PTN 3900/
OptiX PTN 1900
OptiX PTN 910/950
RNC
NodeB
IP over PW
IP over PW
IP over PW

NOTE
IP over PW services for PTN equipment support the DHCP relay function. That is, a base station can obtain
its IP address through DHCP.
A complete protection mechanism for IP over PW services on PTN equipment is available. For
details, see 4.3.5.2 Protection for IP over PW Services.
4.3.5 Principle of IP over PW
The PTN equipment supports UNI-NNI IP over PW services and transports the services in a
point-to-point manner. In addition, the PTN equipment supports protection for IP over PW
services.
4.3.5.1 Implementation Principle for IP over PW
The IP over PW feature is based on the MPLS technology. In the case of IP over PW, the accessed
IP packets are encapsulated into PWs, and then the packets are transported in point-to-point
manner.
The PTN equipment supports UNI-NNI IP over PW services. Figure 4-20 shows the service
encapsulation process.
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Figure 4-20 Encapsulation process of IP over PW services
A B
RNC
IP over PW
IP
MPLS Label
PW Label
Ethernet
IP
Ethernet
IP
Ethernet
NodeB
OptiX PTN
910/950
OptiX PTN
1900/3900

The encapsulation process is as follows:
l Equipment A encapsulates the packets from the base station into a PW, and then sends the
packets to equipment B.
l After terminating the PW, equipment B transmits the packets to an RNC.
4.3.5.2 Protection for IP over PW Services
MPLS APS and PW redundancy provide active/standby protection for IP over PW services.
Normal Running
As shown in Figure 4-21, nodes A and B are connected through PW1. Nodes A and C are
connected through PW2. PW1 and PW2 protect each other.
In normal cases, packets are sent to node B over PW1 and then to the RNC.
Figure 4-21 Protection for IP over PW services
OptiX PTN 3900/
OptiX PTN 1900
OptiX PTN 910/950
RNC
NodeB
PW1
PW2
Service Route
A
B
C

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Equipment Fault
Figure 4-22 shows the situation where switching occurs when node B is faulty.
Figure 4-22 Protection switching for IP over PW services in case of equipment fault
OptiX PTN 3900/
OptiX PTN 1900
OptiX PTN 910/950
RNC
NodeB
PW1
PW2
Service Route
A
B
C
PW1
PW2
A
B
C

The switching process is as follows:
l When node B is faulty, node A detects the fault through MPLS APS and PW
redundancy, and then node A switches to PW2.
l Node C detects the fault of node B through the routing protocol, and then node C updates
the route information and accepts the packets sent by node A.
l The route of services from NodeB changes to A-C-RNC.
Link Fault
Figure 4-23 shows the situation where switching occurs when the link between nodes A and B
is faulty.
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Figure 4-23 Protection switching for IP over PW services in case of a link fault
OptiX PTN 3900/
OptiX PTN 1900
OptiX PTN 910/950
RNC
NodeB
PW1
PW2
Service Route
A
B
C
PW1
PW2
A
B
C

The switching process is as follows:
l Node A detects that PW1 is faulty through MPLS APS and PW redundancy, and therefore
node A switches services to PW2.
l Through the routing protocol, node B updates route information and accepts the packets
sent by node C.
l The route of services from NodeB changes to A-C-B-RNC.
To prevent service interruption over the link between node B and the RNC or between node C
and the RNC, you can configure VRRP protection for the RNC.
4.3.6 PWE3 Service Application
This topic describes a typical application of PWE3 services.
As an end-to-end Layer 2 service transmission technology, PWE3 provides end-to-end virtual
emulation links on edges of packet switched networks (PSNs) for transmitting various services
(ATM, Ethernet, and CES) on PSNs. Such a technology can interconnect the traditional network
and PSN to share resources and expand the network.
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Figure 4-24 PWE3 service application
BTS
RNC
PE
PE
PE
Node B
CE
CE
AC
AC
PW1
PW2
PW3
CE
CE
CE
BSC
BITS
E1 interface
IMA E1
interface
FE interface
NMS
CE

Figure 4-24 shows a PWE3 single-hop mobile carrier network. On this network, the following
types of services are transmitted:
l BTS is connected to the PSN through the E1 interface and TDM signals are transmitted to
the BSC by using CES services.
l Node B is connected to the PSN through the IMA E1 interface and ATM cells are
transmitted to the RNC by using ATM services.
l Node B is connected to the PSN through the FE interface and Ethernet packets are
transmitted to the U2000 by using Ethernet services.
All the preceding services are emulated by using the PWE3 technology and transmitted on PSNs.
By using the PWE3 technology, carriers can successfully deploy original access solutions on
PSNs. This helps to reduce OPEX and repeated network construction.
4.4 VPLS Overview
When configuring VPLS services, you need to learn about the protocols relevant to the VPLS
services and the usage scenarios of these protocols.
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4.4.1 Introduction to VPLS
This topic describes basic concepts of the Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS).
Definition
The VPLS, also called Transparent LAN Service (TLS) or virtual private switched network
service, is a Layer 2 VPN (L2VPN) technology that is based on Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(MPLS) and Ethernet technologies.
Purpose
The primary goal of VPLS is to interconnect multiple Ethernet LANs using the Packet Switched
Network (PSN). In this manner, these LANs can function as one LAN. VPLS can implement
multipoint-to-multipoint VPN networking; therefore, by using the VPLS technology, service
providers (SPs) can provide Ethernet-based multipoint services on MPLS backbone networks.
In addition, using the VPLS solution in which MPLS virtual circuits (VCs) function as Ethernet
bridge links enables SPs to transparently transmit LAN services on the MPLS network.
4.4.2 Reference Standards and Protocols
This topic describes the standards compliance and protocols for various technologies used in
VPLS.
The following table lists the references of this document.
Document No. Description
draft-ietf-l2vpn-signaling-08 Provisioning, auto-discovery, and signaling in
VPLS.
draft-ietf-l2vpn-oam-req-frmk-01 VPLS requirements and framework.
RFC 4664 Framework for Layer 2 virtual private networks
(VPLS).

4.4.3 VPLS Principle
VPLS is an L2VPN technology based on MPLS and Ethernet technologies. VPLS can provide
multipoint-to-multipoint VPN services, which is better than the earlier point-to-point L2VPN
services, and L3VPN services requiring carriers to manage routing information.
VPLS Forwarding Model
Figure 4-25 shows the VPLS forwarding model. In the VPLS forwarding model, PEs use Virtual
Switch Instances (VSIs) for VPLS forwarding; PEs forward Ethernet frames using the fully-
meshed Ethernet emulation circuits or PWs.
PEs on the same VPLS network must be fully meshed. That is, PEs are interconnected to PWs.
In this manner, packets can be sent directly from the ingress provider edge (PE) to the egress
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PE, and the transit PE does not need to be passed. As a result, no loop occurs between PEs and
the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is not needed.
Figure 4-25 VPLS forwarding model
CE
VLAN2
CE
VLAN1
CE
VLAN2
CE
VLAN1
VSI 1
VSI 2
PE
VSI 1
VSI 2
PE
VSI 2 VSI 1
PE
CE
VLAN1
CE
VLAN2

Basic VPLS Transport Components
The VPLS network is similar to a switch. On the VPLS network, PWs are set up between VPN
sites of each VPN through MPLS tunnels, and Layer 2 packets are transparently transmitted
between sites; PEs learn the source MAC addresses and create MAC forwarding entries when
forwarding packets, and then map the MAC addresses to attachment circuits (ACs) and PWs.
The basic VPLS transport components include ACs, virtual circuits (VCs), forwarders, tunnels,
encapsulation, PW signaling protocol, and Quality of Service (QoS).
Figure 4-26 shows the location of each basic VPLS transport component on the VPLS network.
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Figure 4-26 Basic VPLS transport components
VPN2
Site1
MPLS
Network
CE2
AC
PW
PW Signal
Tunnel
PE1
PE2
Forwarder
PE3
VPN1
Site3
CE5
VPN1
Site2
CE3
VPN2
Site2
CE4
VPN1
Site1
CE1

The flow direction of VPN1 packets from CE1 to CE3 is used as an example to show the basic
direction of the data flow. CE1 forwards Layer 2 packets to PE1. After PE1 receives these
packets, the forwarder selects a PW to forward these packets to PE2. Then the forwarder of PE2
forwards these packets to CE3.
VPLS Loop Avoidance
On the Ethernet, STP is often enabled on Layer 2 networks to avoid loops. STP, as a private
network protocol, however, can only avoid loops between devices on the private network, but
not on the ISP network.
Therefore, on a VPLS network, full mesh and split horizon are used to avoid loops. To be specific,
in each VPLS forwarding instance, each PE must create a tree to all the other PEs; each PE must
support split horizon to avoid loops (that is, PEs cannot forward packets between PWs in the
same VSI). Usually, PEs in the same VSI are interconnected through PWs. In this sense, split-
horizon forwarding means that packets received from the PW on the public network side are
forwarded only to the private network side, but not to other PWs.
The full mesh between PEs and split horizon ensure the reachability and loop-free in VPLS
forwarding. When a customer edge (CE) is connected to multiple PEs, or CEs that are connected
to the same VPLS network are interconnected, VPLS cannot ensure that no loop occurs. In such
a situation, other methods such as STP must be used to avoid loops.
Note that STP can run in the private network of the L2VPN, and all the BPDUs of STP are
transparently transmitted on the ISP network.
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Packet Encapsulation on an AC
The packet encapsulation mode on an AC is determined by the user access mode. User access
modes can be VLAN access and Ethernet access. Each user access mode is described as follows:
l VLAN access: In VLAN access mode, the header of each Ethernet frame sent between CEs
and PEs carries a VLAN tag. This tag is a service delimiter that is used to identify users on
an ISP network. It is called provider-tag (P-tag).
l Ethernet access: In Ethernet access mode, the header of each Ethernet frame sent between
CEs and PEs does not carry any P-tag. If the frame header carries a VLAN tag, the VLAN
tag is the internal VLAN tag of the user packet, and is called user-tag (U-tag). The U-tag
is carried in a packet before the packet is sent to a CE and is therefore not added by the CE.
The U-tag is used by the CE to identify which VLAN the packet belongs to and is
meaningless to PEs.
Packet Encapsulation on a PW
Packet encapsulation modes on a PW can be Raw mode and Tagged mod.
l Raw mode
The P-tag is not transmitted on the PW. If a PE receives the packet with a P-tag from a CE,
the PE strips the P-tag, adds double MPLS labels (outer label and inner label) to the packet,
and forwards the packet. If a PE receives the packet without a P-tag from a CE, the PE
directly adds double MPLS labels to the packet and forwards the packet. If a PE sends a
packet to a CE, the PE adds or does not add the P-tag to the packet as needed, and forwards
the packet to the CE. Note that the PE is not allowed to rewrite or remove any existing tag.
l Tagged mode
The frame sent to a PW must carry the P-tag. If a PE receives the packet with a P-tag from
a CE, the PE directly adds double MPLS labels to the packet without stripping the P-tag,
and forwards the packet; if a PE receives the packet without a P-tag from a CE, the PE adds
a null tag and double MPLS labels to the packet and forwards the packet. If a PE sends a
packet to a CE, the PE rewrites, removes, or preserves the service delimiter of the packet
as needed, and forwards the packet to the CE.
VPLS Packets and Encapsulation Types
According to the preceding packet encapsulation modes on a AC and a PW, the VPLS packets
and encapsulations can be classified into eight types, as listed in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4 VPLS packets and encapsulation types
AC PW U-tag Carried Type
Ethernet Raw No Ethernet access in raw mode (without
the U-tag)
Ethernet Raw Yes Ethernet access in raw mode (with the
U-tag)
Ethernet Tagged No Ethernet access in tagged mode
(without the U-tag)
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AC PW U-tag Carried Type
Ethernet Tagged Yes Ethernet access in tagged mode (with
the U-tag)
VLAN Raw No VLAN access in raw mode (without the
U-tag)
VLAN Raw Yes VLAN access in raw mode (with the U-
tag)
VLAN Tagged No VLAN access in tagged mode (without
the U-tag)
VLAN Tagged Yes VLAN access in tagged mode (with the
U-tag)

4.4.4 VPLS Application
This topic describes a typical application of VPLS.
Typical VPLS Networking
Figure 4-27 shows the typical networking of VPLS.
VPLS-A and VPLS-B access different UPEs and communicate with each other through the ISP
network. From the following figure, it is similar that the user networks of VPLS are in the same
LAN. The interfaces used by VPLS must support the ability to broadcast, forward, and filter
Ethernet frames. The UPEs are connected using pseudo wires (PWs) and form an emulation
LAN. Each PE learns both the MAC addresses of Ethernet packets from the PWs and those from
CEs. A PW can use an MPLS tunnel or other tunnels such as GRE and L2TP. A PE is usually
a set of MPLS edge equipment and can set up tunnels with other PEs.
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Figure 4-27 Typical VPLS networking
NPE
UPE
UPE
UPE
UPE
VPLS-B
CE-4
ISP Network
VPLS-B
CE-1
CE-2
VPLS-A
VPLS-B
CE-2
VPLS-A
CE-3
VPLS-B
CE-3
VPLS-A
CE-4
VPLS-A
CE-1

4.5 L3VPN Overview
This topic describes basic L3VPN concepts.
4.5.1 Basic Concepts of L3VPN
This topic describes the basic concepts of L3VPN, such as site, VPN instance, address space
overlapping, and VPN-IPv4 address.
Site
The concept of site is frequently used in the VPN technology. The following describes a site
from different aspects:
l A site is a group of IP systems with IP connectivity. IP connectivity can be realized
independent of SP networks.
As shown in Figure 4-28, on the networks on the left, the headquarters of X company in
city A is a site; the branch of X company in city B is another site. IP devices in the two
sites can communicate without using any carrier's network.
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Figure 4-28 Schematic diagram of sites
CE Carrier's
network
CE
Two sites One site
Site A
Carrier's
network
Headquarters of
X company in City
A
Site X
Branch of
X company
in City B
Headquarters
of X company
in City A
Branch of X
company in
City B
CE
Site B
CE

l Sites are classified according to the topology relationship between devices rather than the
geographic positions of the devices although the devices in a site are geographically
adjacent to each other.
If two IP systems are geographically separated and connected using private lines, the two
systems compose a site if they can communicate without the help of carrier's networks.
As shown in Figure 4-28, on the networks on the right, if the branch network of city B is
connected with the headquarters network of city A through private lines instead of carrier's
networks, the branch network and the headquarters network compose a site.
l The devices in a site may belong to multiple VPNs. In other words, a site may belong to
multiple VPNs.
As shown in Figure 4-29, the decision-making department of X company in city A (Site
A) is allowed to communicate with the research and development (R&D) department in
city B (Site B) and the financial department in city C (Site C). Site B and Site C are not
allowed to communicate. In this case, two VPNs, namely, VPN 1 and VPN 2 can be
established. Site A and Site B belong to VPN 1; Site A and Site C belong to VPN 2. Site
A, thus, belongs to multiple VPNs.
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Figure 4-29 One site belonging to multiple VPNs
City A
Site A
X Company
Decision-
making
department
CE
Site C
VPN2
City C
CE
X Company
R&D
department
Carrier's
Network
X Company
Financial
department
CE
City B
VPN1
Site B

l A site is connected to an SP network through CEs. A site may contain more than one CE,
but a CE belongs only to one site.
According to different sites, you are recommended to use the following devices as CEs:
If the site is a host, use the host as the CE.
If the site is a subnet, use switches as CEs.
If the site comprises multiple subnets, use routers as CEs.
Sites connected to the same carrier's network can be divided into different sets based on policies.
Only sites that belong to the same set can access each other. A set of sites is a VPN.
NOTE
l If two PEs establish BGP sessions and exchange VPN routing information, one PE is called the peer
PE of the other.
l The CE that a PE accesses is called the local CE of the PE.
l The CE that the peer PE accesses is called the remote CE.
l In this chapter, IP addresses of the sites are IPv4 addresses.
VPN Instances
A VPN instance is also called a VPN Routing and Forwarding table (VRF). A PE has multiple
forwarding tables, including a public routing and forwarding table and one or more VPN
instances. That is, a PE has multiple instances, including a public instance and one or more VPN
instances.
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Figure 4-30 Schematic diagram of VPN instances
VPN2
Site2 CE
VPN1
Site1 CE
PE
VPN1
VPN-instance
VPN2
VPN-instance
Public
forwarding table
Backbone

The differences between a public routing table and a VRF are as follows:
l A public routing table contains the IPv4 routes of all the Provider Edge (PEs) and Provider
(Ps), which are generated by routing protocols or static routes of backbone networks.
l A VRF contains the routes of all sites that belong to the VPN instance. The VRF is obtained
by configuring static routes or exchanging the VPN route information between a CE and a
PE, and between two PEs.
l A public forwarding table contains the minimum forwarding information extracted from
the corresponding public routing table; a VPN forwarding table contains the minimum
forwarding information extracted from the corresponding VPN routing table according to
the route management policies.
VPN instances on a PE are independent of each other. They are also independent of the public
routing and forwarding table.
Each VPN instance can be perceived as a virtual device, which maintains an independent address
space and has one or more interfaces that connect the PE associated with the instance.
In RFC 2547 (L3VPNs), a VPN instance is called the per-site forwarding table. To be more
specific, every connection between a CE and a PE corresponds to a VPN instance (not a one-to-
one mapping). The VPN instance is bound to the PE interface that connects the CE through
manual configuration.
The independent address space of a VPN instance is realized by using router distinguishers
(RDs). A VPN instance manages VPN membership and routing principles of the directly
connected sites by using the VPN target attributes.
The following describes RDs and the VPN target in detail.
Relationship Between VPNs, Sites, and VPN Instances
The relationship between VPNs, sites, and VPN instances is as follows:
l A VPN consists of multiple sites. A site may belong to multiple VPNs.
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l A site on each PE is associated with a VPN instance. A VPN instance integrates the VPN
member relationship and routing principles of the associated sites. Multiple sites compose
a VPN based on the rule of VPN instances.
l VPN instances and VPNs do not have one-to-one mapping relationship.
Address Space Overlapping
After receiving private routes from a CE, a PE advertises them to other PEs.
As a private network, a VPN independently manages an address realm, also called address space.
Address spaces of different VPNs may overlap. For example, both VPN1 and VPN2 use
addresses on the segment 10.110.10.0/24. Address space overlapping arises.
VPNs can use overlapped address spaces in the following situations:
l The two VPNs do not have the same site.
l The two VPNs have the same site; however, the devices in the site and the devices using
overlapped address spaces in the VPNs do not access each other.
VPN-IPv4 Addresses
Traditional BGP cannot process routes of VPNs with address spaces overlapping. Suppose both
VPN1 and VPN2 use addresses on the segment 10.110.10.0/24, each of them advertises a route
to this network segment, and no load balancing is performed between routes of different VPNs.
BGP selects only one route from the two routes. The other route is thus lost.
The cause to the aforementioned problem is that BGP cannot distinguish VPNs with the same
IP address prefix. To solve this problem, BGP/MPLS IP VPN uses the VPN-IPv4 address family.
A VPN-IPv4 address consists of 12 bytes. The first 8 bytes represent the RD; the last 4 bytes
stand for IPv4 address prefix, as shown in Figure 4-31.
Figure 4-31 VPN-IPv4 address structure
Type field
(2-byte)
IPv4 address prefix
(4-byte)
Administrator
subfield
Assigned
number subfield
Router distinguisher (8-byte)

The valid values of the Type field are as follows:
l 0
The Administrator subfield occupies 2 bytes and the Assigned Number subfield occupies
4 bytes.
The Administrator subfield is a 16-bit Autonomous System (AS) number; the Assigned
Number subfield is a 32-bit user-defined number.
l 1
The Administrator subfield occupies 4 bytes and the Assigned Number subfield occupies
2 bytes.
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The Administrator subfield is a 32-bit IPv4 address; the Assigned Number subfield is a 16-
bit user-defined number.
NOTE
When configuring an RD, you only need to specify the Administrator subfield and the Assigned Number
subfield. Two types of the configuration formats of an RD are as follows:
l The RD format is "16-bit AS number:32-bit user-defined number". For example, 100:1.
l The RD format is "32-bit IPv4 address:16-bit user-defined number". For example, 172.1.1.1:1.
In this chapter, an RD value does not contain the Type field.
IPv4 addresses with RDs are called the VPN-IPv4 addresses. After receiving IPv4 routes from
a CE, a PE converts the routes into globally unique VPN-IPv4 routes and advertises the routes
in the public network.
VPN Target
The VPN target, also called route target (RT), is a 32-bit BGP extension community attribute.
BGP/MPLS IP VPN uses the VPN target to control the advertisement of VPN routing
information.
A VPN is associated with one or more VPN target attributes, which have the following types:
l Export target: After learning the IPv4 routes from directly connected sites, a local PE
converts the routes to VPN-IPv4 routes and sets the export target attribute for those routes.
As the BGP extension community attribute, the export target attribute is advertised along
with the routes.
l Import target: After receiving the VPN-IPv4 routes from other PEs, a PE checks the export
target attribute of the routes. If the export target is identical with the import target of a VPN
instance on the PE, the PE adds the route to the VPN routing table.
That is, the VPN target attribute defines the sites that can receive a VPN route, and the sites from
which the PE can receive routes.
After receiving a route from the directly connected CEs, a PE associates the route with one or
more export target attributes. The process during which VPNv4 routes match the import targets
of local VPN instances is called the private network route cross. For details, see the following
sections. BGP advertises the attributes along with the VPN-IPv4 route to related PEs. After
receiving the route, the PEs compare the export target attributes with the import target attributes
of all the VPN instances on the PEs. If the export and import attributes are matched, the route
is installed to the VPN routing tables.
Similar to RDs, a VPN target shown in Figure 4-32 has the following formats:
l 0
The Administrator subfield occupies 2 bytes and the Assigned Number subfield occupies
4 bytes.
The Administrator subfield is a 16-bit AS number; the Assigned Number subfield is a 32-
bit user-defined number.
l 1
The Administrator subfield occupies 4 bytes and the Assigned Number subfield occupies
2 bytes.
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The Administrator subfield is a 32-bit IPv4 address; the Assigned Number subfield is a 16-
bit user-defined number.
Figure 4-32 Format of a VPN target
Type field
(2-byte)
Administrator
subfield
Assigned number
subfield
VPN-Target (8-byte)

NOTE
When configuring a VPN target, you only need to specify the Administrator subfield and the Assigned
Number subfield. Two types of the configuration format of a VPN target are as follows:
l The VPN-Target format is "16-bit AS number:32-bit user-defined number". For example, 100:1.
l The VPN-Target format is "32-bit IPv4 address:16-bit user-defined number". For example, 172.1.1.1:1.
In this chapter, a VPN target value does not contain the Type field.
The reasons that using VPN target instead of RDs as the extension community attributes are as
follows:
l A VPN-IPv4 route has only one RD, but can be associated with multiple VPN targets. With
multiple extension community attributes, BGP can greatly improve the flexibility and
scalability of a network.
l VPN targets are used in controlling route advertisement between different VPNs on a PE.
That is, after being configured with the same VPN target, different VPNs on a PE can import
routes between each other.
l On a PE, different VPNs have different RDs; however, the BGP extension community
attributes are limited. Using RDs as the attributes to import routes confines the network
scalability.
In a BGP/MPLS IP VPN, VPN targets are used to control the advertisement and receipt of VPN
routing information between sites. VPN export targets are independent of import targets. An
export target and an import target can be configured with multiple values; thus, flexible VPN
access control and diversified VPN networking schemes can be implemented.
Relationship Between RD and RT
An L3VPN uses RDs to distinguish the prefixes of IPv4 IP addresses that use the same address
space, and uses RTs to control the release of VPN routing information.
RDs and RTs are similar in structure, but RDs cannot be replaced with RTs. This is because the
RT is an extended group attribute of BGP, the route cancellation packets of BGP do not carry
the extended attribute. In this case, the received packets have no RT attribute and you need to
define the RD attribute separately.
4.5.2 Basic Concepts of MP-BGP
This topic describes the concepts related to MP-BGP. The PTN equipment uses the MP-BGP
protocol to implement the L3VPN function.
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Introduction to MP-BGP
As previously mentioned, the traditional BGP-4 described in the RFC 1771 can manage only
the IPv4 routing information, but cannot manage the routes of VPNs with overlapped address
spaces.
To correctly process VPN routes, VPNs use Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 described in
RFC 2858. MP-BGP supports multiple network layer protocols. In an MP-BGP Update message,
information about the network layer protocol is described in the Network Layer Reachability
Information (NLRI) and the Next Hop fields.
MP-BGP uses the address family to differentiate network layer protocols. An address family
can be a traditional IPv4 address family or other address families such as VPN-IPv4 address
family. For the values of address families, refer to RFC 1700 (Assigned Numbers).
NOTE
The PTN supports multiple MP-BGP extension applications such as VPN extension, which are configured
in the corresponding views of the address families. By default, for an IPv4 address family, after the peer
address and the AS to which the peer belongs are specified, the local NE has the capability of setting up
sessions with its peer. For other address families, the capability of setting up sessions must be manually
enabled on the local NE.
The transmission of VPN member information and VPN-IPv4 routes between PEs is
implemented by importing extension community attributes into BGP.
The following attributes are introduced in MP-BGP:
l MP_REACH_NLRI
l MP_UNREACH_NLRI
The two attributes are optional non-transitive. BGP speakers without the multiprotocol capability
ignore the two attributes and do not pass them to peers. In a VPN, PEs with the multiprotocol
capability advertise the VPN routing information to the peer PEs or ASBR PEs supporting
multiprotocol through MP-BGP. BGP peers without the multiprotocol capability ignore the
attributes, and do not identify and store the VPN routing information.
NOTE
Optional non-transitive is a BGP attribute type. If a BGP NE does not support this attribute type, the Update
messages with the attributes of this type are ignored, and the messages are not advertised to other peers.
IBGP and EBGP
BGP has two running modes, which are shown in Figure 4-33.
l Internal BGP (IBGP)
l External BGP (EBGP)
When BGP runs in the interior of the autonomous system, it is referred to as IBGP. When BGP
runs between different autonomous systems, it is referred to as EBGP.
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Figure 4-33 BGP running mode
CE CE
Internet
EBGP
EBGP
IBGP

MP_REACH_NLRI
Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI (MP_REACH_NLRI) is used to advertise reachable routes and
information about the next hop. The attribute consists of three parts: Address Family
Information, Next Hop Network Address Information, and Network Layer Reachable
Information.
Figure 4-34 shows the format of the attribute.
Figure 4-34 Format of MP_REACH_NLRI
Address Family Information (3bytes)
Next Hop Network Address Information
(variable length)
Network Layer Reachable Information
(variable length)

l Address Family Information: consists of 2-byte Address Family Identifier (AFI) and 1-byte
Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI).
l An AFI identifies a network layer protocol. The values of network layer protocols are
described in RFC 1700 (Address Family Number). For example, 1 indicates IPv4.
l An SAFI indicates the type of the NLRI field.
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l If the AFI is 1 and the SAFI is 128, the address in the NLRI field is an MPLS-labeled VPN-
IPv4 address.
l Next Hop Network Address Information: consists of the 1-byte length of the next-hop
network address and next-hop network address of variable length. A next-hop network
address refers to the network address of the next NE on the path to the destination. In MP-
BGP, before advertising MP_REACH_NLRI to EBGP peers, BGP speakers set the next-
hop network addresses as the addresses of the interface that connects the local NE and the
remote NE. The next-hop network address remains unchanged when MP_REACH_NLRI
is advertised to IBGP peers.
l NLRI: consists of three parts: length, label, and prefix. Figure 4-35 shows the format of
the NLRI field.
Figure 4-35 Format of the NLRI field with a Label subfield
Length (1 byte)
Label (variable length)
Pref ix (variable length)

l Length: indicates the total bits of the label and prefix.
l Label: consists of one or more labels. The length of a label is 3 bytes. The label format is
the same as the MPLS label format. The highest bit indicates whether the label is at the
bottom of the label stack; the following three bits are 0; the last 20 bits are labels.
l Prefix: In a BGP/MPLS IP VPN, the prefix field consists of an RD and IPv4 address prefix.
VPNv4 update messages exchanged between PEs or ASBR PEs carry MP_REACH_NLRI. An
Update message can carry multiple reachable routes with the same routing attributes.
MP_UNREACH_NLRI
Multiprotocol Unreachable NLRI (MP_UNREACH_NLRI) is used to inform a peer to delete
unreachable routes. Figure 4-36 shows the format of the attribute.
Figure 4-36 Format of MP_UNREACH_NLRI
Address Family Identifier
(2 bytes)
Subsequent Address Family Identifier
(1 byte)
Withdrawn Routes
(variable length)

l AFI: Corresponding to the address family values defined in RFC 1700 (Address Family
Number), an AFI identifies a network layer protocol.
l SAFI: Similar to SAFI in MP_REACH_NLRI, an SAFI indicates the NLRI type.
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l Withdrawn Routes: Indicates an unreachable route list, which consists of one or more NLRI
fields. In the Withdrawn Routes field, BGP speakers can fill the NLRI field the same as
the reachable route advertised before to withdraw the route.
Update messages carrying MP_UNREACH_NLRI are sent to withdraw the VPN-IPv4 routes.
An Update message can carry information about multiple unreachable routes.
If the labels of routes to be withdrawn are specified in the messages, the routes with specified
labels are withdrawn. If the labels are not specified, only the routes without labels are withdrawn.
Update messages with MP_UNREACH_NLRI do not carry any path-attributes. A peer can
delete routes based on labels because different routes are assigned with different labels.
Negotiation of the MP-BGP Capability
A BGP NE gets to know the negotiation capability of its peer by checking the capability
parameters in the Open messages. If the BGP NE and its peer support the same function, the
BGP NE and its peer communicate through the function.
The optional parameters of negotiation capability in an Open message consist of three parts:
Capability Code, Capability Length, and Capability Value. Figure 4-37 shows the format of the
capability parameters.
Figure 4-37 Format of BGP capability parameters
Capability Code
(1 byte)
Capability Length
(1 byte)
Capability Value
(variable length)

l Capability Code: uniquely identifies the capability type. The value 1 indicates that the BGP
speaker has the MP-BGP capability.
l Capability Length: indicates the length of the capability field. For MP-BGP, the length of
the capability field is 4.
l Capability Value: indicates the value of the capability field. The length is variable and
depends on the type specified in Capability Code. Figure 4-38 shows the format of the
Capability Value field in MP-BGP.
The meanings of 2-byte AFI and 1-byte SAFI are the same as those of
MP_REACH_NLRI.
Res. is a 1-byte reserved field. A sender sets the value to 0, and the receiver ignores the
field.
Figure 4-38 Format of the Capability Value field in MP-BGP
AFI Res. SAFI

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At present, BGP does not support dynamic capability negotiation. After a BGP speaker
advertises an Open message with optional capability fields,
l If the speaker receives a Notification message from its peer, it indicates the peer does not
support the capability. Then the BGP speaker tears down the session with its peer, and
sends an Open message without optional capability field to the peer, attempting a new BGP
connection.
l If the peer supports the capability advertisement; however, the capability fields are
unknown or unsupported, negotiation fails. Then the BGP speaker tears down the session
with its peer and sends an Open message without the optional capability fields (but may
carry other optional capability fields) to the peer, attempting a new BGP connection.
After any change of BGP capability, such as enabling or disabling label-routing capability,
enabling or disabling address family capability (IPv4 and VPNv4), and enabling GR capability,
the BGP speaker tears down the session with its peer and re-negotiates the capability with its
peer.
Conditions of Exchanging BGP Routes
MP-BGP peers can exchange routes between each other only if the following conditions are
satisfied:
l The MP-BGP peers have routes to each other.
The operation of BGP is triggered by messages that are transmitted using TCP with the
port number as 179. To set up the TCP connection between the peers, the route between
the MP-BGP peers must be reachable.
A BGP peer is not necessarily a directly connected NE. After a virtual link is set up between
a local NE and a remote NE that run BGP, the remote NE becomes a BGP peer of the local
NE. To improve the stability of a BGP connection, 32-bit LSR ID interface addresses are
used to set up the connection.
Instead of discovering routes within an AS, BGP generally imports IGP routes, static routes,
or direct routes into BGP routing tables.
l MP-BGP peers set up and maintain BGP sessions.
After a TCP connection is established, an Open message is sent to the peer to attempt a
session. After receiving the Open message, the peer responds with a Keepalive message to
keep the connection valid. Then the peers begin to exchange messages of other types. MP-
BGP peers can exchange routes between each other only if the peers can set up and maintain
BGP sessions.
Update of VPN-IPv4 Routes
A PE must require its peer to re-send BGP Update messages to refresh routes in the following
situations:
l The import policy on the PE changes.
l VPN instances are added or deleted on the PE.
l The import VPN targets of the VPN instances are added or deleted on the PE.
In these situations, the PE sends Route Refresh messages carrying AFI and SAFI to the peers,
which have successfully negotiated the capability with the PE. If the peers do not support the
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Route Refresh messages, the PE resets the sessions of the peers. After receiving the messages,
the peers retransmit all the routes that satisfy AFI and SAFI.
4.5.3 Label Allocation of MP-BGP
This topic describes how an MP-BGP label is distributed.
On an L3VPN, before advertising private routes to related PEs in the backbone network through
MP-BGP, a PE must associate the private routes with MPLS labels. The packets transmitted
over a backbone network carry MPLS labels.
Before being allocated labels, a PE advertises a route that identifies itself to other PEs in the
backbone network through IGP. To reduce the number of LSPs on a network, it is recommended
to allocate labels only to 32-bit mask loopback interface and configure the LSR ID and the BGP
session to use the IP address of the same loopback interface.
Several methods of allocating labels exist. The PTN supports the following method:
l MPLS label allocation based on VPNs
A VPN instance is assigned one label. All the routes of the instance share the same label.
This helps to save a large number of labels.
4.5.4 VPN Route Selection on PEs
VPN route selection on PEs consists of two parts, which are route crossing of a private network
and tunnel iteration. In the first part, routing information between PEs are processed. In the
second part, VPN packets are forwarded.
Route Crossing of a Private Network
The routes exchanged between two PEs through MP-BGP are VPNv4 routes. After receiving
VPNv4 routes, a PE processes the routes as follows:
l The PE checks whether the next hop of a route is reachable. If the next hop is unreachable,
the route is discarded.
l The PE discards the routes that do not pass the filtering of the BGP routing policy.
Then the PE matches the remaining routes with the import targets of VPN instances on the PE.
The matching process is called route crossing of private networks.
The PE matches the VPNv4 routes with local VPN instances without selecting the optimal routes
and checking whether the tunnels exist.
For a route from the local CE of different VPNs, if the next hop is reachable or can be iterated,
the PE also matches the route with the import targets of local VPN instances. The matching
process is called local route crossing.
NOTE
To correctly forward a packet, a BGP device must find out a directly reachable address, through which the
packet can be forwarded to the next hop in the routing table. The route to the directly reachable address is
called the dependent route because BGP guides the packet forwarding based on the route. The searching
for a dependent route based on the next-hop address is called route iteration.
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Tunnel Iteration
To transmit traffic of private networks across a public network, a tunnel is required to transmit
the traffic. After the private cross-routes are generated, route iteration based on destination IPv4
prefixes is performed. The proper tunnels (except for the local crossed routes) are searched out.
Then the tunnel iteration is performed. The routes are injected into the VPN routing table only
after the tunnel iteration succeeds. The process that the routes are iterated to corresponding
tunnels is called tunnel iteration.
After the tunnel iteration succeeds, the tunnel IDs are reserved for subsequent packet forwarding.
A tunnel ID uniquely identifies a tunnel. In VPN packet forwarding, the transmission tunnel is
searched out according to the tunnel ID.
Selection Rules of Private Routes
Not all the crossed routes that are processed by tunnel iteration are installed to VPN routing
tables. Similarly, not all the routes received from the local CE and the local crossed routes are
injected into VPN routing tables.
For multiple routes to the same destination, choose one route based on the following rules if
load balancing is not carried out:
l If a route from the local CE and a crossed route to the same destination exist at the same
time, choose the route received from the local CE.
l If a local crossed route and a crossed route from other PEs to the same destination exist,
choose the local crossed route.
For multiple routes to the same destination, choose one route based on the following rules if
load balancing is carried out:
l Preferentially choose the route from the local CE. When one route from the local CE and
multiple crossed routes exist, choose the route from the local CE.
l Load balancing is performed between the routes from the local CE or between the crossed
routes instead of between the routes from the local CE and the crossed routes.
4.5.5 Route Advertisement of a Basic L3VPN
This topic describes how routes of an L3VPN are advertised by using a basic L3VPN.
NOTE
A basic L3VPN refers to a VPN on which only one carrier exists, the MPLS backbone network is located
in an AS, LSPs serve as tunnels, and PEs, Ps, and CEs do not assume multi-roles. (No device assumes the
role of both a PE and a CE.)
Introduction
On a basic BGP/MPLS VPN, advertisement of VPN routing information involves CEs and PEs.
Ps need to maintain the routes of only the backbone network, and they do not need to know VPN
routing information. Generally, PEs maintain the routing information about the VPNs that the
PEs access, and they do not need to maintain all VPN routes.
The advertisement of VPN routing information consists of the following parts:
l Route advertisement from the local CE to the ingress PE
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l Route advertisement from the ingress PE to the egress PE
l Route advertisement from the egress PE to the remote CE
After the whole process of route advertisement, the local CE and the remote CE can set up
reachable routes, and VPN routing information can be advertised on the backbone network.
The following describes the three parts of the route advertisement.
Route Advertisement from the Local CE to the Ingress PE
After the neighbor or peer relationship is set up between a CE and the directly connected PE,
the CE advertises the local routes to the PE. CEs and PEs can run the Routing Information
Protocol (RIP), the open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol, or EBGP, or use static routes. The
routes advertised by CEs to PEs are standard IPv4 routes regardless of which routing protocol
is run.
VPN routing and forwarding tables on a PE are isolated from each other and independent of
public routing and forwarding tables. After learning routes from a CE, a PE decides to which
table the routes should be installed. Static routes and routing protocols cannot enable the PE to
make the decision. The decision capability can be realized only through the configuration
described as follows.
l If static routes are used between CEs and PEs, you need to specify VPN instances when
you configure the static routes.
l Generally, static routes are used when CEs are located on a stub VPN, or when CEs are
hosts or switches. If CEs are hosts or switches, generally, static routes to the sites to which
the CEs belong are configured on the connected PEs, and routing protocols are not required.
NOTE
l If a VPN receives the routes outside the VPN or the routes advertised by non-PEs, and advertises
the routes to a PE, the VPN is called a transit VPN.
l A VPN that receives only the routes within the VPN and the routes advertised by PEs is called
a stub VPN.
Using static routes between PEs and CEs features simple configurations and can prevent
route flapping of CEs from affecting the stability of BGP VPNv4 routes of PEs on the
backbone network.
l If IGP is used between CEs and PEs, each VPN uses a process. Different VPNs use different
processes. Hence, you need specify VPN instances when you configure the IGP processes.
l If a site contains backdoor links, the configuration is complicated. For the detailed
configuration, see Extension. In addition, there are some restrictions on the usage of IGP
between CEs and PEs.
l If EBGP is run between CEs and PEs, MP-EBGP peers must be configured in the
corresponding BGP VPN instance views.
When EBGP is run between PEs and CEs, to ensure that routing information is correctly
transmitted, nodes located in different places must be assigned with different AS numbers
because BGP detects route loops based on AS numbers. However, different VPN sites may
use the same AS number because VPN sites use private AS numbers. The AS number of
a transit VPN is globally unique.
Route Advertisement from the Ingress PE to the Egress PE
Route advertisement from the ingress PE to the egress PE consists of the following parts:
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l After learning VPN routes from a CE, a PE adds RDs and VPN targets to these standard
IPv4 routes. The VPN-IPv4 routes are then generated.
l The ingress PE advertises the MP-BGP Update messages containing VPN-IPv4 routes to
the egress PE. The Update messages also contain RDs, VPN targets, and MPLS labels.
Before the next-hop PE receives the VPN-IPv4 routes, the routes are first filtered by policy-
based routing (PBR) and then by BGP routing policies.
l After receiving the routes, the egress PE performs route cross, tunnel iteration, and route
filtering; then decides whether to inject the routes into the VRF or not. For the routes that
are received from other PEs and are added to the VPN routing table, the local PE stores the
following information, which is used in subsequent packet forwarding:
Values of MPLS labels contained in MP-BGP Update messages
Tunnel IDs generated after tunnel iteration succeeds
Route Advertisement from the Egress PE to the Remote CE
A remote CE can learn routes from an egress PE through static routes, RIP, OSPF, and EBGP.
The route advertisement from the egress PE to the remote CE is the same as that from the local
CE to the ingress PE. Note that the routes advertised by the egress PE to the remote CE is common
IPv4 routes.
Example for VPN Route Advertisement
The following uses Figure 4-39 (BGP runs between CEs and PEs, and the tunnels are LSPs) as
an example to describe the advertisement of a route from CE2 to CE1.
Figure 4-39 Advertisement of a route from CE2 to CE1
IGP
routing table
Ingress PE CE1 Egress PE CE2
Import
BGP
routing table
VPN routing
table
Carrying label,RD,
and export RT
Route cross&
tunnel iteration
VPN routing
table
BGP
routing table
IGP
routing table
Import
BGP
Update
BGP
Update
BGP
Update
Routing table
Message
VPN backbone
P

1. IGP routes are imported into the BGP IPv4 unicast address family of CE2.
2. CE2 advertises an EBGP Update message containing the route to the egress PE. After
receiving the message, the egress PE converts the route to a VPN-IPv4 route and installs
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the route to the VPN routing table. If the egress PE has a VPN routing table of another VPN
instance and the import RT of the instance and the export RT of the route are the same, the
route is added to the VPN routing table of the instance.
3. At the same time, the egress PE allocates an MPLS label to the route. Then the egress PE
adds the label and VPN-IPv4 routing information to the NLRI field and the export target
to the extension community attribute field of the MP-IBGP Update message. After that,
the egress PE sends the Update message to the ingress PE.
4. After receiving the message, the ingress PE filters the route based on BGP routing policies.
If the route fails to pass the filtering, the ingress PE discards the route. If the route passes
the filtering, the ingress PE performs the route cross. After the route crossing succeeds, the
ingress PE performs tunnel iteration based on the destination IPv4 address to find the proper
tunnel. If the iteration succeeds, the ingress PE stores the tunnel ID and label and adds the
route to the VPN routing table of the VPN instance.
5. The ingress PE advertises a BGP Update message containing the route to CE2. The
advertised route is a common IPv4 route.
6. After receiving the route, CE2 installs the route to the BGP routing table. CE2 can import
the route to the IGP routing table by importing BGP routes to IGP.
The preceding process describes the advertisement of a route from CE2 to CE1. To ensure
that CE1 and CE2 can communicate, routes need also be advertised from CE1 to CE2 in
the same manner.
4.5.6 Packet Forwarding on a Basic L3VPN
This topic describes how L3VPN packets are forwarded on a basic L3VPN.
NOTE
A basic L3VPN refers to a VPN on which only one carrier exists, the MPLS backbone network is located
in an AS, LSPs serve as tunnels, and PEs, Ps, and CEs do not assume multi-roles (No device is a PE and
a CE at the same time.)
On an L3VPN backbone network, a P does not know VPN routing information because VPN
packets are transmitted between PEs through tunnels. The following uses Figure 4-40 as an
example to describe the forwarding of a packet from CE1 to CE2 on the L3VPN. As shown in
Figure 4-40, I-L indicates an inner label; O-L indicates an outer label.
Figure 4-40 Forwarding of a VPN packet from CE1 to CE2
Ingress PE CE1
Egress PE CE2
data
P
I-L
data
O-L1
I-L
data
O-L1
I-L
data
O-L2
Out-Label Switch
I-L
data
O-L2
data
data
data
Push
Pop

1. CE1 sends a VPN packet.
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2. After receiving the packet on the interface bound with a VPN instance, the ingress PE
processes the packet as follows:
l Searching for the corresponding VPN forwarding table based on the RD of the VPN
instance
l Matching the destination IPv4 prefix and searching for the corresponding tunnel ID
l Searching out the tunnel based on the tunnel ID and labeling the packet with I-L
l Sending the packet through the tunnel and labeling the packet with O-L1
Then the packet traverses the backbone network by carrying two MPLS labels.
3. Every P on the backbone network switches the outer label of the packet.
4. After receiving the packet with two labels, the egress PE processes the packet as follows:
l Processing the packet using MPLS
l Removing the outer label, O-L2 in this example, using MPLS
l Removing the inner label that resides at the bottom of the label stack
l Sending the packet, a pure IP packet now, to CE2 through the associated outbound
interface
The packet is successfully transmitted from CE1 to CE2. CE2 transmits the packet to the
destination in the way it sends other IP packets.
4.5.7 IP DSCP Overview
On a DiffServ network, the differentiated services code point (DSCP) is used to identify QoS
priority.
To perform simple flow classification on IP packets on an IP network, you can use the DSCP
labels in the ToS fields of IP packet heads, as shown in Figure 4-41.
Figure 4-41 Structure of the IPv4 packet head
Version
Length
ToS
1 Byte
Len
ID Offset TTL Proto FCS IP-DA Data IP-SA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
DSCP Not Used
RFC2474
IPV4 packet head
If you use the first six bits, that is, IP precedence, in the type of service (ToS) byte in an IP packet
head to identify the packet, you can classify all packets into 64 types. After packets are classified,
other QoS features can be used for different classes. In this way, the class-based congestion
management and flow shaping are implemented.
When packets are classified at the edge of a network, DSCP labels are properly added to the
packets. Then the packets can be classified inside the network according to the DSCP labels. On
the basis of the priority, queuing technologies, such as WFQ and CBWFQ, process the packets
in different ways. A downstream network can either use the classification of an upstream network
or re-classify data packets according to its own standards.
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After packets are classified and labeled at the edge of a network, differentiated services are
provided according to labels on the intermediate nodes of the network.
4.5.8 Advertisement of VPNv4 Routes
This topic describes the concepts related to advertisement of VPNv4 routes.
The PE uses MP-BGP to advertise the IPv4 routes received from the local CE to VPNv4 routes
of the peer PE.
The rules of advertising VPN-IPv4 routes of MP-BGP are the same as that of BGP.
l When multiple valid routes exist, a BGP speaker advertises only the best route to its peer.
l A BGP speaker advertises only the routes used by itself to its peer.
l A BGP speaker advertises the routes obtained using EBGP to all the BGP peers, both EBGP
peers and IBGP peers.
l A BGP speaker does not advertise the IBGP routes to its IBGP peers.
l A BGP speaker advertises the IBGP routes to its EBGP peers when the synchronization
between BGP and IGP is not enabled.
l After a connection is set up, a BGP speaker advertises all the BGP routes to its new peer.
4.5.9 Introduction to DHCP Relay
On an IP-oriented 3G network, after a base station (running the DHCP client) is powered on,
the IP address can be automatically obtained from the DHCP server (usually a component of the
base station controller) through the DHCP protocol. The PTN equipment on a mobile carrier
network can transmit DHCP packets between a base station and a base station controller.
Application of DHCP Relay
At the early stage, the DHCP protocol is applicable to only the situation where the DHCP client
and server are at the same network section. Hence, to perform dynamic host configuration, a
DHCP server must be configured at each network section. This costs a lot.
Through DHCP relay, DHCP client packets can be sent to DHCP servers at other network
sections, or DHCP server packets can be transparently transmitted to DHCP clients at other
network sections. Finally, DHCP clients obtain legal IP addresses. This reduces costs and is easy
for centralized management.
As shown in Figure 4-42, after being powered on, the base station must automatically obtain
the IP address through DHCP. The PTN equipment on the transmission line between the base
station and the base station controller transmits DHCP packets between the base station and the
base station controller to complete DHCP packet exchange.
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Figure 4-42 Application of DHCP relay
PTN A
PSN
PTN B
FE/GE
NodeB 1
NodeB 4
DHCP server A
NodeB 2
NodeB 3
DHCP server B
FE/GE
Carrier A
Carrier B

NOTE
As shown in Figure 4-42, carrier A and carrier B share the same bearer network, but networks of different
carriers must be isolated. The DHCP relay functions on networks of two carriers are performed
independently but the processes are the same.
Application Scenarios of DHCP Relay
As shown in Figure 4-42, the application scenarios of the DHCP relay of the PTN equipment
are as follows:
l As shown in Figure 4-43, the bearer network between the PTN equipment is a Layer 2
network.
Figure 4-43 Application scenario of DHCP relay on a Layer 2 network
PTN A
L2VPN
PTN B
FE/GE
NodeB 1
NodeB 2
DHCP Server
FE
FE
(DHCP Client)
(DHCP Client)
(DHCP Relay)

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The PTN equipment transmits DHCP packets through L2VPN services. The equipment
attaches labels to only client request packets or server reply packets and then forwards the
packets in MPLS mode, but the equipment does not identifies DHCP packets.
l As shown in Figure 4-44Figure 4-45, the bearer network between the PTN equipment is
a Layer 3 network.
Figure 4-44 Application scenario of DHCP relay on a Layer 3 network
PTN A
L3VPN
PTN B
FE/GE
NodeB 1
NodeB 2
DHCP Server
E1/FE
E1/FE
(DHCP Client)
(DHCP Client)
(DHCP Relay)

Figure 4-45 Application scenario of DHCP relay on a Layer 3 network
PTN A
L3VPN
PTN B
FE/GE
NodeB 1
NodeB 2
DHCP Server
FE
FE
(DHCP Client)
(DHCP Client)
(DHCP Relay)

In this scenario, the following DHCP relay modes are available:
DHCP relay based on VRFs: The equipment is configured and then enabled with the
DHCP relay function. In this case, the equipment identifies and processes the DHCP
request packets from all NodeBs.
DHCP relay based on interfaces: The interfaces on the equipment where NodeB services
are accessed are configured and then enabled with the DHCP relay function. In this
case, communication between each NodeB connected to the equipment through each
interface and the DHCP server can be controlled in an accurate manner.
NOTE
If a NodeB must communicate with a specific DHCP server, you can adopt the latter mode, DHCP
relay based on interfaces.
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4.5.10 Principle of DHCP Relay
This section describes how the PTN equipment implements relay of DHCP packets between a
mobile network base station (running the DHCP client) and a DHCP server (usually a component
of a base station controller) in two DHCP relay modes.
DHCP relay can implement relay of DHCP packets through an L2VPN or L3VPN network.
Before learning the two modes of DHCP relay, you must understand the DHCP packet format,
which helps you understand the DHCP relay principle.
DHCP Packet Format
DHCP is a protocol based on IP/UDP. Figure 4-46 shows the DHCP packet structure.
NOTE
As shown in Figure 4-46, numbers in the brackets indicate the length of each field. The unit is byte.
Figure 4-46 DHCP packet format

Table 4-5 lists each field in a DHCP packet.
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Table 4-5 Description of each field in a DHCP packet
Field Length Meaning
OP 1 byte Indicates the packet type:
l 1: client request packet
l 2: server response packet
Hardware Type 1 byte Indicates the hardware address type:
l 1: Ethernet
l 17: HDLC
Hardware
Length
1 byte Indicates the length of the hardware address. The unit is byte.
For Ethernet, the value of this field is 6.
Hops 1 byte Indicates the number of DHCP relays that the current DHCP
packets traverse. This field is set to 0 on the client. Each time
when the packets traverse a DHCP relay, the value of this
field is increased by 1. This field is used to restrict the number
of DHCP relays that the DHCP packets traverse.
Transaction ID 4 bytes Sets to a random value. Hence, the response packets of the
server match the request packets of the user.
Seconds 2 bytes Indicates the time that elapses after the client starts the DHCP
request. The unit is second.
Flags 2 bytes Indicates a label field in DHCP. The format is:
.
Only the most significant bit of this field is meaningful, and
other bits are set to 0. The most left bit is the broadcast
response label bit, and the values of this bit are as follows:
l 0: The client requires that the server unicast response
packets.
l 1: The client requires that the server broadcast response
packets.
Client IP
Address
(ciaddr)
4 bytes Indicates the IP address of the client. The IP address can be
an IP address assigned by the server to the client or an
existing IP address of the client. In the initialization state, the
client does not have an IP address. In this case, the value of
this field is 0.0.0.0.
Your (Client) IP
Address
(yiaddr)
4 bytes Indicates the IP address assigned by the server to the client.
When performing a DHCP response, the server fills the IP
address assigned to the client into this field.
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Field Length Meaning
Server IP
Address
(siaddr)
4 bytes Indicates the IP address of the server.
Relay Agent IP
Address
(giaddr)
4 bytes Indicates the IP address of the first DHCP relay. When the
client sends a DHCP request, if the server and client are not
on the same network, the first DHCP relay fills its IP address
into this field during forwarding of this DHCP request
packet. The server determines the network section address
according to this field, and then selects the address pool for
assigning addresses to users. The server also uses this field
to send a response packet to this DHCP relay, and forwards
the packet to the client through a DHCP relay.
NOTE
If the packet traverses more than one DHCP relay before reaching
the DHCP server, this field of a DHCP relay behind the first DHCP
relay does not change and only the number of hops is increased by
1.
Client Hardware
Address
(chaddr)
16 bytes Indicates the MAC address of the client. This field must be
consistent with the hardware type and hardware length fields.
When sending a DHCP request, the client fills its hardware
address into this field. For example, in the case of Ethernet,
if the hardware type and hardware length are 1 and 6
respectively, this field must be filled in with a 6-byte
Ethernet MAC address.
Server Host
Name
64 bytes Indicates the name of the server whose configuration
information is obtained by the client. This field is filled in
by the DHCP server and it is optional. If this field is filled
in, it must be a character string ended with 0.
File Name 128 bytes Indicates the name of the start configuration file of the client.
This field is filled in by the DHCP server and it is optional.
If this field is filled in, it must be a character string ended
with 0.
Options Variable Indicates the option field of DHCP, and it contains at least
312 bytes. This field contains the configuration information
assigned by the server to the client, such as the IP address of
a gateway NE, IP address of a DNS server, and valid leasing
period when the client can use the IP address.

Processing Flow of L2VPN DHCP Relay of the PTN Equipment
As shown in Figure 4-47, the equipment attaches labels to only client request packets or reply
packets of the server and then forwards them in MPLS mode, but the equipment does not
identifies DHCP packets.
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Through an L2VPN, the PTN equipment sends the DHCP request packets from NodeB to the
server, and sends the DHCP response packets from the server to NodeB.
Figure 4-47 L2VPN DHCP relay mode
PTN 1 PTN 2
FE/GE
NodeB
DHCP Server
FE
IP
ETH
IP
ETH
L2VPN

The processing flow of L2VPN DHCP relay is as follows:
1. The PTN equipment receives DHCP packets from the client or server through a physical
port.
2. The PTN equipment detects that the port through which the packets are received is a Layer
2 port, the PTN equipment performs Layer 2 forwarding for the DHCP packets without
identifying them.
Processing Flow of L3VPN DHCP Relay of the PTN Equipment
On an L3VPN network, the PTN equipment or an interface on the PTN must be enabled with
the DHCP relay function to relay the DHCP packets.
The first port (generally the first UNI port connected to the DHCP client) that processes the
DHCP request packets is considered as the DHCP gateway port. Only the gateway port needs
to identify and process the DHCP request packets and reply packets.
L3VPN DHCP relay has two service transmission scenarios.
Figure 4-48 IPoE service scenario
PTN 1
FE/GE
NodeB
DHCP Server
E1
IP
E1
IP
ETH
ML-PPP PTN 2
L3VPN

Figure 4-49 FE service scenario
PTN 1
FE/GE
NodeB
DHCP Server
FE
IP
ETH
PTN 2
L3VPN
IP
ETH

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The transmission scenarios shown in Figure 4-48 and Figure 4-49 are considered as examples.
The processing flows for L3VPN DHCP relay of the equipment as follows:
l The processing procedure of DHCP relay based on VPN routing and forwarding tables
(VRFs) is as follows:
1. When PTN A, which is enabled with DHCP relay, receives DHCP request packets
from a certain logical port of NodeB.
2. PTN A determines whether the number of relays that the current DHCP packets
traverse exceeds the limit. If yes, the packets are discarded. Otherwise, the number of
relays is added with 1.
3. PTN A selects the IP address of the server as the destination IP address, and sets the
IP address of the packet egress port as the source IP address.
NOTE
When the IP address of the server is selected as the destination IP address, the following modes
are available:
l Sharing mode: The server is selected according to the sharing algorithm.
l Broadcast mode: The packets are sent to each server in the VRF.
4. PTN A performs link-layer encapsulation on the packets, performs routing based on
the destination IP address, and sends the packets.
5. After receiving the request packets, the DHCP server sends response packets to the
client. These response packets carry the information about the IP address distributed
to the client.
6. PTN A receives the response packets and sends the packets to NodeB after performing
IP encapsulation on them.
l The processing procedure of DHCP relay based on interfaces is as follows:
1. On PTN A, the UNI interface through which PTN A is connected to a NodeB is enabled
with DHCP relay, and the IP address of the corresponding server is set at the interface.
2. After the DHCP request packets reach PTN A, the IP address of the server set at the
interface is considered as the destination IP address.
3. PTN A performs link-layer encapsulation (such as ETH encapsulation) and routing
based on the destination IP address. Then, PTN A sends the packets to the server.
NOTE
After the DHCP server receives the request packets, the remaining processing procedure is the same
as that in the case of DHCP relay based on VRFs.
4.5.11 Static L3VPN
Compared with dynamic BGP and MPLS L3VPN, static L3VPN does not use dynamic protocols
such as BGP, RSVP, and IS-IS. Instead, a static tunnel is deployed between two NEs to establish
service connection and services are forwarded between the two NEs based on static routes.
Purpose and Benefit
In an LTE mobile backhaul solution, it is recommended that static L3VPN be deployed at the
core layer. If dynamic protocols are deployed at the core layer, the network will become unstable.
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Principle Overview
Static Route
Static routes are manually configured.
One static route has the following elements:
l Destination IP address and mask
l Outbound interface and next-hop IP address
l Route priority
Implementation of Static L3VPN Services
Figure 4-50 shows the implementation model of static L3VPN services.
Figure 4-50 Implementation model of static L3VPN services

To exchange static L3VPN services between PTN 1 and PTN 2, the following conditions must
be met:
1. On both PTN 1 and PTN 2, VRF and static tunnel are configured, and VRF are bound to
the static tunnel.
2. PTN 1 and PTN 2 are the VPN peer for each other.
3. Static routes are configured between PTN 1 and PTN 2.
4.6 Composite Service Overview
This topic describes the functions, basic concepts, and application scenarios of the composite
service.
4.6.1 Introduction to the Composite Service
This topic describes the purpose, definition, and types of composite services.
Purpose
Integrated service management is necessary for a network on which services accessed in different
modes in various scenarios are running. The U2000 supports composite service management.
This function is applicable to a scenario where a single service does not meet requirements. With
this function, users can flexibly combine PWE3, VPLS, L3VPN, EPL, E-Line, E-AGGR,
SDH services into composite services in order to meet the requirements of various solutions
such as IP RAN and IP Core.
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The U2000 provides a service provisioning window for composite service management, and
supports visual and end-to-end service management. These features greatly reduce the
requirements on O&M engineers' skills, decrease operation difficulties, simplify network O&M
operations, and improve the core competence of carriers.
Definition
A composite service is a combination of multiple services, such as PWE3+L3VPN.
A composite service consists of service components and connection points. Figure 4-51 shows
the model of a composite service.
Figure 4-51 Topology of a composite service

l Service component: A service component is a service that needs to be added to a composite
service. For example, the service components of a PWE3+L3VPN composite service
include PWE3 and L3VPN services.
l Connection point: A connection point connects two service components in order to form a
composite service. A connection point represents the connection mode for two service
components.
Connection points are classified into the following types:
PW connection point: Service components are connected by PWs to form a composite
service.
Interface connection point: Service components are connected by service access
interfaces (interfaces connected to the user side) to form a composite service.
Composite Service Types
Composite services are classified based on the service types of the service components that form
these services. Different composite services are applicable to different NEs and impose different
requirements on service components and connection points, as shown in Table 4-6.
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Table 4-6 Composite service types
Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting This
Service Type
Requirements for
Service Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
H-VPLS
(PWE3
+VPLS)
Routers, switches, PTN,
Hybrid MSTP, and OTN NEs
The IP address for the sink
NE on the PW of the PWE3
service component must be
the same as the IP address
for the source NE on the
PW of the VPLS service
component. If the PWs are
static, the outgoing label of
one PW must be the same
as the incoming label of the
other PW.
Connection
points must
be PWs that
are associated
with each
other and
belong to the
PWE3 and
VPLS service
components.
PWE3 in
Static L3VPN
N:1
PTN l PWE3: The service
type is ETH. The
protection type is PW
APS. The service has
one source and two
destinations. The
destination service
access interfaces are
L2VE interfaces.
l L3VPN: The signaling
type is static. The
networking type is
Customized. The UPE
service access
interfaces are L3VE
interfaces (for PTN
6900s) or VLAN
aggregation
subinterfacaes (other
PTN NEs).
VLAN aggregation
subinterfaces are the
subinterfaces of L3VE
interfaces.
On each UPE, the
L3VE interface and the
L2VE interface belong
to the same VE bridge
group.
Connection
points must
be L2VE and
L3VE
interfaces (for
PTN 6900s)
or VLAN
aggregation
subinterfacae
s (other PTN
NEs) that act
as service
access
interfaces for
the PWE3 and
L3VPN
service
components
respectively.
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting This
Service Type
Requirements for
Service Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
PWE3
services in
Dynamic
L3VPN
Routers l PWE3: The service
type is ETH. The
protection type must be
PW redundancy . The
node is Single Source
and Dual Sink. The
SAI is an L2VE
interface.
l Dynamic L3VPN: The
SAI is an L3VE
interface. The IP
address of the L3VE
interface set on the
master and slave NEs
must be the same.
l The L2VE and L3VE
interfaces must reside
on the same NE and
have the same VE
group ID.
l If multiple PWE3
services and one
L3VPN service need to
be combined into a
composite service,
Connect Type for the
L3VE interface must be
VLAN Termination
and the VLAN segment
for the L3VE interface
must cover VLAN IDs
of all L2VE interfaces.
Connection
points must
be L2VE and
L3VE
interfaces that
act as service
access
interfaces for
the PWE3 and
L3VPN
service
components
respectively.
VPLS
+Dynamic
L3VPN
Routers, switches, and PTN
devices+NE40Es (PTN 1900
and PTN 3900 for the static
PWE3 service, and NE40E
for the dynamic L3VPN
service).
l The service access
interface used for the
PWE3 or VPLS service
component must be an
L2VE interface.
l The service access
interface used for the
L3VPN service
component must be an
L3VE interface.
Connection
points must
be L2VE and
L3VE
interfaces that
act as service
access
interfaces for
the PWE3/
VPLS and
L3VPN
service
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting This
Service Type
Requirements for
Service Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
PWE3
+Dynamic
L3VPN
l The L2VE and L3VE
interfaces must reside
on the same NE and
have the same VE
Group ID.
l If multiple PWE3
services and one
L3VPN service need to
be combined into a
composite service,
Connect Type for the
L3VE interface must be
VLAN Termination
and the VLAN segment
for the L3VE interface
must cover VLAN IDs
of all L2VE interfaces.
components
respectively.
Option A
VPLS
Routers and switches l The service
components must be of
the same type and
belong to different ASs.
l The ASBRs in the two
ASs must be directly
connected and use
EBGP to advertise IPv4
routes to each other.
l Each ASBR must act as
a PE in the related AS
and consider the peer
ASBR a CE.
Connection
points must
be service
access
interfaces on
the related
ASBRs.
Option A
PWE3
Option A
L3VPN
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting This
Service Type
Requirements for
Service Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
PWE3
+PWE3
Routers, switches, PTN,
Hybrid MSTP, and RTN NEs
- Connection
points must
be service
access
interfaces
used for the
PWE3 service
components.
PWE3+E-
AGGR
PTN and Hybrid MSTP NEs - Connection
points must
be service
access
interfaces
used for the
PWE3 and E-
AGGR
service
components.
PWE3+EPL PTN and Hybrid MSTP NEs l The EPL service
component must be
unterminated but its
server-layer trail can be
a terminated trunk link
whose sink is an EOD.
The EOD must also be
the source of the PWE3
service component.
PTN NEs do not
support EPL services.
l The service access
interface of the PWE3
service component and
the VC trunk interface
of the trunk link must
reside on the same EOD
and have the same
interface number.
A connection
point is
formed by a
PWE3 service
component's
service access
interface and
a trunk link's
VC trunk
interface. The
two interfaces
must reside
on the same
EOD and
have the same
number.
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting This
Service Type
Requirements for
Service Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
PWE3+E-
Line
PTN and RTN NEs The Layer 2 attributes,
such as VLAN and
encapsulation type, for the
PWE3 and E-Line service
components must be the
same.
Connection
points must
be service
access
interfaces
used for the
PWE3 and E-
Line service
components.
Terminated
EPL+L3VPN
This type of composite
services is valid only when
the terminated EPL service
uses Hybrid MSTP NEs and
L3VPN service uses routers.
- -
SDH+PWE3 This type of composite
services is valid only when
the terminated SDH service
uses Hybrid MSTP NEs and
PWE3 service uses PTN
NEs.
l For the SDH service,
Service Level is set to
VC12. For the PWE3
service, Service Type
is set to CES.
l A fiber exists between
the NEs interconnected
for the SDH and PWE3
services, and the SAIs
on both NEs have the
same high-order and
lower-order timeslots.
For example, the high-
order timeslot is 1 and
low-order timeslot is 2
for the SAIs of both the
SDH and PWE3
services.
Connection
points must
be SAIs on
NEs
interconnecte
d for the SDH
and PWE3
services.

Notes
l Usually, one composite service consists of two or more service components. One service
composite can belong to multiple composite services.
l If a composite service is modified, all the associated service components are affected.
Similarly, if a service component belonging to multiple composite services is modified, all
the associated composite services are affected.
l PW connection points are applicable only to H-VPLS composite services. Composite
services of other types use interface connection points.
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l If you delete a service component, the related connection points are also deleted.
4.6.2 Basic Functions of the Composite Service
This topic describes basic functions of composite service management.
Composite service management supports the following functions:
l Flexible combination of diversified services
VPLS, L3VPN, EPL, E-Line, E-AGGR, SDH, and PWE3 services can be flexibly
combined. Multiple types of composite services , including H-VPLS, VPLS+L3VPN,
PWE3+L3VPN, Option A VPLS, Option A PWE3, and Option A L3VPN, PWE3+PWE3,
PWE3 in Static L3VPN N:1, PWE3+EPL, PWE3+E-AGGR, PWE3+E-Line, Terminated
EPL+L3VPN, and SDH+PWE3, are supported to meet the requirements of IP RAN and IP
Core solutions.
l Automatic service discovery
Qualified services on the U2000 are identified in batches, automatically combined into a
composite service, and added to the composite service management window.
l Convenient service provisioning
The U2000 supports manual creation of composite services with little user intervention.
Automatically creates an H-VPLS service with the source being a VPLS or PWE3
service, depending on the specific network requirements.
Adds services that act as service components to composite services on the U2000 and
creates connection points between the service components.
Allows users to create or modify services during service component configuration,
preventing the interruption of service provisioning because of inappropriate planning.
Automatically calculates connection points to simplify configuration.
l End-to-end service monitoring
This function allows users to view the topology, deployment status, and alarm status of a
service, as well as implementing performance monitoring and fault diagnosis.
4.6.3 Composite Service Applications
This topic describes typical scenarios where composite services are used.
The common application scenarios of composite services are as follows.
H-VPLS Application
l Static PWE3+VPLS composite service
On a network such as a MAN access network, if a UPE does not support dynamic PWE3
services, the UPE needs to access NPEs using static PWE3 services. As shown in Figure
4-52, the PWE3 services on the UPEs use static virtual circuits (SVCs) to create PWs with
the sink being the NPE; the VSI on the NPE uses LDP as the signaling protocol for the
VPLS service.
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Figure 4-52 Networking diagram of a static PWE3+VPLS composite service
UPE2
CE1
PWE3 PW
PWE3
VPLS
CE2
PWE3
NPE
UPE1
Site1 Site2
VPLS PW

l Dual-homed static PWE3+VPLS composite service
To ensure reliable PWE3 access, the UPE accessing the NPE in dual-homed mode is
introduced. In dual-homed mode, if a PW fails, traffic is immediately switched to another
PW, as shown in Figure 4-53.
Figure 4-53 Networking diagram of a dual-homed static PWE3+VPLS composite service
NPE1
NPE2
NPE3
NPE4
UPE1 UPE2
CE1
CE2
x
LDP Message

In VPLS, the bidirectional transmission paths are consistent because the routing
information about Layer 2 forwarding is automatically learned through the MAC addresses
of the data traffic. If a fault occurs, the VPLS traffic of a UPE is switched to another LSP.
The NPE equipment belonging to the VSI deletes the MAC entries of this VSI. After the
switchover or the deletion, the MAC entries need to be learned afresh.
As shown in Figure 4-53, if a fault occurs on the LSP between UPE 1 and NPE 1, NPE 1
detects the fault and asks the other NPEs to delete the related MAC addresses by sending
LDP messages.
The UPEs detect the LSP status through MPLS OAM. If a fault is detected, the traffic
switchover is performed. After the switchover, the related VSIs on the NPEs learn the MAC
addresses afresh. Therefore, the traffic can return through the new NPEs. Before other NPEs
learn the MAC addresses, traffic must be broadcast.
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After the fault is removed, the UPE receives double PWE3 broadcast traffic: one from the
NPEs before the switchover, the other from the NPEs after the switchover. The UPE decides
which broadcast traffic to be thrown away. After the fault is rectified, the traffic of the UPE
is not switched back to the original LSP. This is because the NPE is not triggered to send
LDP packets to other NPEs to delete MAC addresses before detecting LSP failures.
PWE3+PWE3 Application
As shown in Figure 4-54, the PWE3 service from PE1 to PE4 can be divided into three sections.
PW APS protection is configured for the sections from PE1 to PE2 and from PE3 to PE4 and
LAG protection is configured for the section from PE2 to PE3. In this way, each fiber has its
protection link in each section of the service and therefore the protection capability of the PWE3
service is enhanced.
Figure 4-54 Networking diagram of a PWE3+PWE3 composite service
LAG
PWE3
Service
Protection PW
Working PW Working PW
Protection PW
PWE3
Service
PE1
PE2 PE3
PE4

L2VPN+L3VPN Application
In a traditional network environment, a PE-AGG and an NPE are generally deployed at the cross-
connection point between the access network and the bearer network so that the L2VPN can
access the public network or the L3VPN. The PE-AGG implements the termination and access
of the L2VPN; the NPE implements the termination and access of the Layer 3 service. They act
as CEs to each other.
If an NPE can implement the functions of a PE-AGG and an NPE at the same time, the
networking cost is saved and the network complexity is simplified.
NPE 1 implements the L2VPN termination and L3VPN access functions by using the VE
interface. Therefore, NPE 1 can implement the functions of both the NPE and the PE-AGG in
the traditional networking. The access of the L2VPN to the L3VPN is implemented through the
loopback between the L2VE and L3VE of the same VE group. Logically, the principle of the
loopback between the L2VE and L3VE is similar to that of connecting two physical interfaces
through fibers. One of the interfaces is bound to an L2VPN, and the other one is bound to an
L3VPN. A VE group is associated with a tag. Different VE groups are set up and bound to
different L2VPNs and L3VPNs reNPEctively. This implements multiple pairs of accesses of
L2VPNs to L3VPNs.
The common scenarios of L2VPN+L3VPN include the PWE3+L3VPN composite service and
the VPLS+L3VPN composite service.
l PWE3+L3VPN composite service
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Figure 4-55 Networking diagram of a PWE3+L3VPN composite service
CSG1
RSG6 CSG2
ASG3
ASG4
RSG5
Access Aggregation MBB Core
Last Mile


PW L3VPN
Working PW
Protection PW

In the scenario shown in Figure 4-55, the access ring uses PWE3 and the aggregation ring
uses L3VPN to carry Ethernet services. ASGs are responsible for terminating PW services
and forwarding services to the L3VPN. PWs on the access ring are configured in the master/
backup mode for protection. L3VPN on the aggregation ring uses IGP route convergence
and VPN FRR for protection. ASG3 functions as the master ASG, and ASG4 functions as
the slave ASG. RSG5 functions as the master RSG while RSG6 functions as the slave RSG.
l VPLS+L3VPN composite service
Figure 4-56 Networking diagram of a VPLS+L3VPN composite service
UPE2
CE1
NPE1
NPE2
VPLS
L3VPN
UPE1
CE2
UPE3
UPE4
CE3 CE4
VPLS VPLS
MPLS L3VPN
Bearernetwork
Access
network 2
Access
network 1
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In the scenario shown in Figure 4-56, the NPE functions as the PEs of both the access
network and the bearer network. In addition to VPLS, the NPE needs to support the gateway
function, including the configuration of IP addresses, access to L3VPNs, ARP, and packet
forwarding.
When a CE needs to access the L3VPN, the CE sends an ARP request to the gateway
interface. The NPE forwards the ARP request and response between the L2VPN and the
L3VPN. The access between original L2VPNs, however, is not affected. The NPE needs
to broadcast ARP packets locally and in the VSI.
PWE3 in Static L3VPN Application
PWE3 in static L3VPN is an LTE-oriented service deployment solution developed for PTN
series NEs. On the mobile bearer network, PWE3 services are deployed at the access/aggregation
layer, and static L3VPN services are deployed at the core layer, as shown in the following figure.
NOTE
Compared with dynamic BGP/MPLS L3VPN services, static L3VPN services do not use dynamic
protocols, such as BGP, RSVP, and IS-IS. Static tunnels are established between NEs to carry static L3VPN
services, and traffic is forwarded between NEs using static routes. Deploying static L3VPN at the core
layer is recommended because the deployment of dynamic protocols at the core layer causes the network
unstable.
Figure 4-57 Networking diagram for PWE3 in static L3VPN
MME
/SGW
RNC
e Node B
BTS
Access/Aggregation Core
BSC
Node B
PWE3 L3VPN

Inter-AS VPN Application
With the wide application of MPLS VPN solutions, different MANs of a carrier or backbone
networks of cooperating carriers frequently span multiple ASs.
Generally, an MPLS VPN architecture runs within an AS. The routing information of the VPN
is transmitted within the AS instead of outside the AS. To realize the exchange of VPN
information between different ASs, the inter-AS MPLS VPN model is introduced. The inter-AS
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MPLS VPN model is an extension of the existing protocol and MPLS VPN framework. Through
this model, the route prefix and label information can be advertised over the links between
different carriers.
The RFC 2547bis presents three inter-AS VPN solutions as follows:
l Inter-AS Option A
ASBRs manage VPN routes, through NPEcial interfaces for the VPNs that traverse
different ASs. This solution is also called VRF-to-VRF.
l Inter-AS Option B
ASBRs advertise labeled VPN-IPv4 routes to each other through MP-EBGP. This solution
is also called EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes.
l Inter-AS Option C
PEs advertise labeled VPN-IPv4 routes to each other through multi-hop MP-EBGP. This
solution is also called multi-hop EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes.
NOTE
Currently, the U2000 supports the inter-AS Option A solution.
The networking diagram of the L3VPN Option A solution is used as an example.
Figure 4-58 Networking diagram of the inter-AS Option A solution
CE1
CE2
EBGP
PE1
PE2
AS200
ASBR1
AS100
ASBR2
MP-IBGP MP-IBGP

As a basic L3VPN application in the inter-AS scenario, Option A does not need NPEcial
configurations. In this solution, the ASBRs of the two ASs are directly connected, and they act
as the PEs in the ASs, called ASBR PEs. Either of the ASBR PEs takes the peer ASBR as its
CE and advertises IPv4 routes to the peer ASBR through EBGP. The ASBRs at the two ends do
not need to run MPLS.
This solution is easy to implement because MPLS is not required between ASBR PEs and no
NPEcial configuration is required.
However, Option A has a low scalability because the ASBR PEs manage all the VPN routes and
create VPN instances for each VPN. This leads to excessive VPN-IPv4 routes on the PEs. In
addition, since common IP forwarding is performed between the ASBR PEs, each inter-AS VPN
requires different interfaces, which can be subinterfaces, physical ports, and bound logical
interfaces. Therefore, this option poses high requirements for PEs. If a VPN spans multiple ASs,
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the intermediate ASs must support the VPN services. This requires complex configurations and
greatly affects the operation of the intermediate ASs. If the number of the VPNs that cross ASs
is small, Option A can be considered.
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5 Importing Services
The U2000 allows you to import services in batches for service provisioning or modification.
Batch service import improves service deployment efficiency, reduces O&M labor costs, and
eliminates data errors.
Prerequisites
l Importing services requires that you are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" rights or
higher.
l The Excel macro can be enabled only when the Office version of the Excel file used for
importing services is Office 2007 or later. If an error message is displayed when opening
an Excel file, close the dialog box and modify the Excel file. Macro cannot be used after
an error message is displayed.
l Before importing IP services, you must enter the service data to be imported in the LLD
Service Table. The LLD Service Info Table can be obtained using Export service in the
service management window.
l If the data about tunnel protection groups needs to be imported, ensure that the related
tunnels exist, the tunnel names are unique, and the tunnels are not used by other protection
groups. If any of the preceding requirements is not met, errors are reported on the U2000.
Context
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Service
Type
Signalin
g Type
Router PTN RTN Hybrid
MSTP
Remarks
Tunnel
Service
Static l The
data
about
unterm
inated
service
s
Static CR
RSVP TE
LDP
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Service
Type
Signalin
g Type
Router PTN RTN Hybrid
MSTP
Remarks
Tunnel Protection
Group
cannot
be
import
ed.
l Importi
ng less
than
500
tunnel
service
s each
time is
recom
mende
d.
l The
Impor
t
Servic
e mode
for
modify
ing
tunnel
service
s does
not
allow a
user to
modify
BFD
config
uration
s in the
LLD
Servic
e Info
Table.
l If the
data
about
tunnel
protect
ion
groups
needs
to be

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Service
Type
Signalin
g Type
Router PTN RTN Hybrid
MSTP
Remarks
import
ed,
ensure
that the
related
tunnels
exist,
the
tunnel
names
are
unique,
and the
tunnels
are not
used by
other
protect
ion
groups.
If any
of the
precedi
ng
require
ments
is not
met,
errors
are
reporte
d on the
U2000.
PWE3
Service
CES l The
data
about
PWE3
service
s for
which
switchi
ng
nodes
are
config
ured
cannot
ATM
ETH
ATM IWF
Interworki
ng

IP over
PW

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Service
Type
Signalin
g Type
Router PTN RTN Hybrid
MSTP
Remarks
Managem
ent PW
be
import
ed.
l Importi
ng less
than
500
PWE3
service
s each
time is
recom
mende
d.
L3VPN
Service
Static Only a
single
L3VPN
service can
be
imported.
Dynamic

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Import Service > Import Packet Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Import Service > Import Packet Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Import Service dialog box, click Select File. In the dialog box that is displayed, select
the LLD Service Table for importing service data in batches. Then click Open.
NOTE
l When you import an L3VPN or a PWE3 service, the U2000 determines whether service data is imported
for creation or modification based on the existence of the service ID. The U2000 displays L3VPN or PWE3
service verification results in Error Info.
l When you import a static CR tunnel or an RSVP TE tunnel, the U2000 determines whether tunnel data is
imported for creation or modification based on the existence of the tunnel ID. The U2000 displays tunnel
verification results in Error Info.
l In the LLD Service Table, tunnel IDs and labels can be configured to be automatically assigned. You can
set OAM parameters and specify whether to enable automatic route calculation.
l During the importing of both static tunnels and tunnel protection groups, if Automatic Route
Calculation is set to Yes, you need to set Route Restriction or manually configure static routes. Automatic
route calculation may lead to the failure to separate the routes of working and protection tunnels. As a result,
the working and protection tunnels in the imported tunnel protection group share the same route. Such a
tunnel protection group causes service interruption.
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Step 3 Select Deploy and Enable.
NOTE
l If Deploy is not selected, the imported IP service data is stored on the U2000. If Deploy is selected, the
imported IP service data is deployed to NEs.
l If Enable is selected, service data can be transferred only after service channels are successfully deployed.
Step 4 Click Start.
NOTE
l When PWE3 service data is being imported, the Select an Import Policy dialog box is displayed. The rules
for importing a policy are as follows:
l Perform importing for service creation: Import the PWE3 services that do not exist on the Manage
PWE3 Service page.
l Perform importing for service modification: Import PWE3 services that already exist on the Manage
PWE3 Service page. Select the parameters to be modified in the lower part of the page.
l If you are not certain that the service to be imported exists on the U2000, select both Perform importing
for service creation and Perform importing for service modification. The U2000 automatically
determines whether the service exists. If the service exists, modify the relevant import parameters. If
the service does not exist, create the service.
l Each time the data of a service is imported successfully or unsuccessfully, the related service status, error
information, deployment status, and enabling status are updated in the importing window.
l After the service data is imported, the importing result is filled in the LLD Service Table in the importing
path.
Step 5 Select the successfully imported or partially successfully imported service, and click Service
Manage. The U2000 switches to the related service management window, and the selected
service is displayed. Check whether the imported service is correct and manage the service.
NOTE
If only some data about a service is successfully imported, you can modify and re-import the service data based
on the error information displayed on the U2000.
----End
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6 Automatically Discovering IP Services
About This Chapter
The function of automatically discovering IP services can be used to discover a single service
or composite services.
6.1 Automatically Discovering Single IP Services
A single IP service that has been deployed on the network can be restored to the U2000 for E2E
management with the assistance of the network administrator. This mechanism meets the
requirements for the scenario where IP services are provisioned before the U2000 is constructed.
This mechanism saves time for the administrator and avoids the impact of misoperation on
original services.
6.2 Automatically Discovering Composite Services
The U2000 can automatically discover services that meet specific requirements, combine these
services into composite services, and display the composite services on the Composite Service
Management tab. You can perform this operation when a network is being built or after IP
services have been configured.
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6.1 Automatically Discovering Single IP Services
A single IP service that has been deployed on the network can be restored to the U2000 for E2E
management with the assistance of the network administrator. This mechanism meets the
requirements for the scenario where IP services are provisioned before the U2000 is constructed.
This mechanism saves time for the administrator and avoids the impact of misoperation on
original services.
Prerequisites
Service information does not exist on the U2000 service management module but exists on NEs.
The desired NE has been added and the relevant NE configurations have been synchronized to
the U2000.
Context
NOTE
l Automatically searching for IP services updates IP service data on the U2000. This operation does not
affect NE configurations or services running on NEs.
l After tunnel, PWE3, or VPLS services are automatically discovered, BFD configurations associated
with the services are also discovered and synchronized to the U2000. The supported BFD types include
BFD for LSP, BFD for TE, and BFD for PW.
NOTICE
After services are deployed on NEs using commands, only NE synchronization is performed on
the U2000, and associated services cannot be synchronized to the U2000 service management
module. You must manually perform automatic service discovery.
Scheduled tasks can be created for automatic service discovery. The U2000 automatically runs
a scheduled task to discover services. Scheduled tasks are divided into one-time tasks and
periodic tasks. The navigation path to scheduled tasks is shown in Choose Administration >
Task Schedule > Task Management (traditional style) from the main menu or select System
Management in Application Center and choose Task Schedule > Task Management
(application style) from the main menu..
NOTE
Scheduled service discovery results in a high memory usage on the U2000 server and slow U2000 response.
Therefore, do not use the U2000 to perform scheduled service discovery at peak hours. Performing this
operation at night is recommended.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Search for Service (traditional style) from the main menu or select Bearer
Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service > Search for
Service (application style) from the main menu.
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Step 2 Configure a service discovery policy.
On the Discovery Policy tab, specify the NE range, service type, customer policy, discovery
policy, and naming policy for the IP services to be discovered.
Major
Parameter
Settings
All Service discovery is performed on all the NEs managed by the U2000.
Select NE Discovers IP services on the specified NE.
Customer
Policy
If this parameter is not set, the automatically discovered services are not
associated with any customer. If this parameter is set, all the discovered
services are associated with this customer.
NOTE
During customer creation, some personal data about users may be used. Therefore,
you are obligated to take considerable measures, in compliance with the laws of the
countries concerned and the user privacy policies of your company, to ensure that the
personal data about users is fully protected.
Naming Policy Naming policy for discovered services. This parameter is available only to
L3VPN, VPLS and PWE3 services.
l Automatic: The U2000 automatically generates service names based on
certain rules.
l Obtain from NE: Some NE information is used as the specific service
name.

Step 3 Perform automatic service discovery.
Click Start to automatically discover IP services.
Step 4 View the service discovery results.
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The automatically discovered IP services are displayed on the Discovery Result tab.
The following table describes the sub-tabs on the Discovery Result tab.
Sub-tab Description
Add Service A service that is added to the U2000 using automatic discovery.
Modify
Service
A service that is discovered and synchronized to the U2000 because
configurations for this service on the U2000 are different from those on the
NE.
For such a service, more service nodes are configured on the NE than the
U2000. This operation helps add service nodes for the service. For other
services, you can use the synchronization function provided by the service
management module to synchronize data on the NE to the U2000.
Discrete
Service
A service that can only exist on an NE because its configurations are
incomplete and it cannot be combined into a complete service with other
NEs.
The service configuration success rate may become lower if many discrete
services exist. You are advised to analyze and process discrete services
based on the reason displayed on the U2000. For example, delete the discrete
service, or use the NE Explorer to complete the service configuration and
discover the service again.

----End
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Follow-up Procedure
Select one or more records from the list of discovered services and click Jump Service to access
the service management window. In this window, you can perform operations, such as viewing
or modifying service data.
6.2 Automatically Discovering Composite Services
The U2000 can automatically discover services that meet specific requirements, combine these
services into composite services, and display the composite services on the Composite Service
Management tab. You can perform this operation when a network is being built or after IP
services have been configured.
Prerequisites
l Service data has been synchronized to the U2000 and service data on the U2000 is consistent
with that on NEs.
l IP services to be automatically discovered exist on the U2000.
NOTE
If service data on NEs has not been added to the U2000, perform the operations described in 6.1
Automatically Discovering Single IP Services. Otherwise, qualified composite services on the NE
side cannot be identified and added to the U2000.
Context
Automatic service discovery updates composite service data on the U2000, without affecting IP
service data on the U2000 and NEs or the running of IP services on the network.
The U2000 supports automatic discovery of the following composite services: H-VPLS, PWE3
+L3VPN, VPLS+L3VPN, inter-AS Option A (PWE3, VPLS, and L3VPN), PWE3+EPL, PWE3
+E-Line, SDH+PWE3, and terminated EPL+L3VPN.
The services forming composite services must meet different requirements, depending on the
composite service type. For details, see 4.6.1 Introduction to the Composite Service.
NOTE
Composite services can also be manually created. For details, see 12.2 Creating a Composite Service.
Scheduled tasks can be created for automatic service discovery. The U2000 automatically runs
a scheduled task to discover services. Scheduled tasks are divided into one-time tasks and
periodic tasks. The navigation path to scheduled tasks is shown in Choose Administration >
Task Schedule > Task Management (traditional style) from the main menu or select System
Management in Application Center and choose Task Schedule > Task Management
(application style) from the main menu..
NOTE
Scheduled service discovery results in a high memory usage on the U2000 server and slow U2000 response.
Therefore, do not use the U2000 to perform scheduled service discovery at peak hours. Performing this
operation at night is recommended.
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Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Composite Service > Search for Composite Service (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Composite Service > Search for Composite Service (application style) from
the main menu.
Step 2 Configure a service discovery policy.
On the Discovery Policy tab, specify the NE range, service type, and customer policy for the
services to be discovered.
Major
Parameter
Settings
All Service discovery is performed on all the NEs managed by the U2000.
Select NE Discovers composite services on the specified NE.
Customer
Name
Specifies the customer to which the services to be discovered belong. Only
the services belonging to this customer can be discovered.
VSI is Source Discovers an H-VPLS composite service that uses
an VSI as the source and consists of one or more
PWE3 services.
This method applies to the H-VPLS service that
consists of one VPLS node and multiple PWE3
nodes.
Only H-VPLS
services support this
function.
PWE3 is
Source
Discovers an H-VPLS composite service that uses
PWE3 as the source and consists of a maximum of
two VSIs.
This method applies to the H-VPLS service that
consists of one PWE3 node and multiple VPLS
nodes.
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Major
Parameter
Settings
L3VPN is
Source
Discovers an PWE3+L3VPN composite service that
uses an L3VPN service as the source and consists of
one or more PWE3 services.
Only PWE3+L3VPN
composite services
support this function.
PWE3 is
Source
Discovers an PWE3+L3VPN composite service that
uses a PWE3 service as the source and consists of
one or more L3VPN services.
Automatic
Naming
Specifies that the original naming method is used. If Restore Based on
Service Component
is selected but the first
character differs
among all service
component names,
the composite service
is named based on the
Automatic Naming
policy.
Restore
Based on
Service
Components
Specifies that a composite service is named using the
same characters in all service component names. The
comparison starts from the first character to the last.

Step 3 Perform automatic service discovery.
Click Start to automatically discover composite services.
Step 4 View the service discovery results.
After automatic service discovery is complete, the discovered services are displayed on the Add
Service tab.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Select one or more records from the list of discovered services and click Jump Service to access
the service management window. In this window, you can perform operations, such as viewing
or modifying service data.
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7 Deploying Tunnels and MPLS Protection
Rings
About This Chapter
Tunnels are used to transmit service traffic between PEs on the packet switching network. In a
VPN, a tunnel is an information transmission channel between two entities. The tunnel ensures
secure and transparent transmission of VPN information. An MPLS protection ring is located
at the server layer but a tunnel is located at the service layer. After service traffic on a tunnel is
switched to an MPLS protection ring, a ring label needs to be added to the packets so that the
traffic is forwarded based on the ring label, without the need to exchange the tunnel label. After
the traffic leaves the ring, the ring label is removed and the tunnel label needs to be exchanged.
Table 7-1 Tunnels that can be created for different NEs
NE Type Static CR
Tunnel
Static
Tunnel
RSVP TE
Tunnel
LDP
Tunnel
IP
Tunnel
MPLS
Protectio
n Ring
Router
PTN
RTN
Hybrid
MSTP

OTN

7.1 Tunnel Service Function Panorama
This topic describes tunnel service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions.
7.2 Creating Tunnels
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This topic describes how to create tunnels. Tunnels, which ensure the security of information
transmission, can bear multiple types of VPN services, such as VPLS, PWE3, and L3VPN
services.
7.3 Creating Tunnel Protection
This topic describes how to create tunnel protection. The following table lists the differences
between two tunnel protection creation methods: APS-based tunnel protection group creation
and MPLS protection ring creation. The MPLS protection ring creation function applies only to
PTN NEs.
7.4 Adjusting an MPLS Protection Ring
This topic describes how to adjust an MPLS protection ring.
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7.1 Tunnel Service Function Panorama
This topic describes tunnel service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions.
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Table 7-2 Tunnel configuration
Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
discov
ery
Disco
ver
tunne
ls.
Choose Service >
Search for Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Search for Service
(application style)
from the main menu.
Disco
ver
tunnel
protec
tion
group
s.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Search for
Protection Group
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Search for
Protection Group
(application style)
from the main menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
creatio
n
Creat
e a
tunne
l.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu.
Creat
e
tunne
ls in
batch
es.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Batch
Create Tunnel
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Batch
Create Tunnel
(application style)
from the main menu.
Creat
e
tunne
ls by
dupli
catin
g
existi
ng
tunne
ls.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Copy from the shortcut
menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
Protect
ion
Creat
e a
tunne
l
prote
ction
group
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Protection Group
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create
Protection Group
(application style)
from the main menu.
Creat
e an
MPL
S
prote
ction
ring.
Choose Service > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Protection
Subnet > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(application style)
from the main menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
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h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Add
NEs
to an
MPL
S
prote
ction
ring.
Choose Service > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Protection
Subnet > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(application style)
from the main menu. In
the MPLS protection
ring topology view on
the Topo tab, select a
link, right-click, and
choose Add Node from
the shortcut menu. In
the dialog box that is
displayed, select the
NEs to be added.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Delet
e NEs
from
an
MPL
S
prote
ction
ring.
Choose Service > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Protection
Subnet > IP
Protection Subnet >
Create MPLS
Protection Ring
(application style)
from the main menu. In
the MPLS protection
ring topology view on
the Topo tab, select the
NEs to be deleted,
right-click, and choose
Delete Node from the
shortcut menu.
Servic
e
reliabil
ity
Confi
gure
tunne
l
OAM
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
OAM > Configure
OAM from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Confi
gure
MPL
S-TP
OAM
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
MPLS-TP OAM >
Configure MPLS-TP
OAM from the
shortcut menu.
Confi
gure
BFD
for
TE.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Configure BFD from
the shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Confi
gure
BFD
for
LSP.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Configure BFD from
the shortcut menu.
Servic
e
monito
ring
View
discre
te
tunnel
s.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a discrete
tunnel and click desired
tabs to view the
associated information.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
View
a
tunnel
topolo
gy.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a tunnel
and view the tunnel
information on the
Topology tab.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
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h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Moni
tor
tunne
l
alarm
s.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Fault
Management in
Application
Center and choose
Alarm
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(application style)
from the main
menu.
l Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > Tunnel >
Manage Tunnel
(application style)
from the main
menu. Select a
service, right-click,
and choose Add to
Monitoring
Group from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
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h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Moni
tor
tunne
l
perfo
rman
ce
insta
nces.
l After a service is
created and
deployed, click
Create
Monitoring
Instance in the
dialog box.
l Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > Tunnel >
Manage Tunnel
(application style)
from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Performance >
Create
Monitoring
Instance from the
shortcut menu.
View
loopb
ack
infor
matio
n
about
a
tunnel
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Loopback from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
View
LDP
sessio
ns.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
LDP Session
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
LDP Session
(application style)
from the main menu.
View
infor
matio
n
about
the
VPN
on
which
tunnel
s are
locate
d.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
View VPN from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
diagno
sis
Detec
t
tunne
l
conne
ctivit
y.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a tunnel,
right-click, and choose
Test and Check from
the shortcut menu.
Diagn
ose
tunnel
s.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Diagnose from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Perfor
m fast
diagn
osis.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. In the topology
view on the Topology
tab, select a tunnel
between NEs, right-
click, and choose Fast
Diagnose from the
shortcut menu.
Use a
test
suite
to
diagn
ose
tunne
ls.
1. Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > Tunnel >
Manage Tunnel
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. In the PWE3
service
management
window, select the
service to be
detected, right-
click, and choose
Diagnose > Create
Test Suite from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
adjust
ment
Adjus
t
tunnel
routes
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Adjust Routes from
the shortcut menu.
Reopt
imize
tunnel
routes
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
tunnel and choose
Reoptimize from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
mainte
nance
Modif
y a
tunnel
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a tunnel
record and click
desired tabs to modify
tunnel parameters as
needed.
Unde
ploy a
tunnel
.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a tunnel
with Deployment
Status set to
Deployed or Partially
Deployed, right-click,
and choose Undeploy
from the shortcut
menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Delet
e
tunnel
s.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more tunnels with
Deployment Status
set to Undeployed,
right-click, and choose
Delete from the
shortcut menu.
Delet
e
tunnel
s from
the
netwo
rk
side.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more tunnels, right-
click, and choose
Delete from Network
Side from the shortcut
menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r/
Switc
h
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
View
the
LSP
topolo
gy.
Choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage
Tunnel (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more tunnels, right-
click, and choose View
LSP Topology from
the shortcut menu.

7.2 Creating Tunnels
This topic describes how to create tunnels. Tunnels, which ensure the security of information
transmission, can bear multiple types of VPN services, such as VPLS, PWE3, and L3VPN
services.
Quick Navigation
The following table lists three tunnel creation methods.
The following table lists two tunnel creation methods.
Method Usage Scenario
Creating a
single tunnel
This method is recommended if you want to create a single tunnel.
Creating
tunnels in
batches
This method is recommended if you want to create dynamic tunnels for
multiple NEs and the network type for the new tunnels is Hub-Spoke,
Full-Mesh, or Ring.
l Full-mesh: All NEs are fully meshed.
l Hub-spoke: Spoke sites are fully meshed to hub sites.
l Ring: NEs are bidirectionally connected in a ring.
NOTE
Only routers and PTN NEs support this function.
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Method Usage Scenario
Creating
tunnels by
duplicating
existing tunnels
Tunnel duplication applies to typical IP RAN scenarios, such as the
multipoint-to-point network, tangent ring, and intersecting ring. Using
this function, you can quickly create and deploy tunnels whose paths are
similar. Techniques, such as tunnel attribute duplication, automatic route
calculation, and label assignment, improve tunnel deployment efficiency.
Only static and static CR tunnels can be duplicated.
You can duplicate a tunnel as follows:
l Duplicate only a tunnel: The original tunnel does not belong to any
tunnel protection group. In this case, you can duplicate only the tunnel.
l Duplicate a tunnel by protection group: The original tunnel belongs
to a tunnel protection group. In this case, the U2000 automatically
duplicates a tunnel protection group that is similar to the original
tunnel protection group when you duplicate such a tunnel. Only static
CR tunnels can be duplicated in this mode.

7.2.1 Creating a Single Tunnel
This topic describes how to create a single tunnel and its reverse tunnel.
Prerequisites
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Layer 2 links or IP links must be configured between routers. For details, see the topology
management section.
l Layer 2 links must be configured between PTN, RTN, and Hybrid MSTP NEs. For details,
see the topology management section.
l ODUk paths have been discovered and Layer 2 links have been generated for OTN NEs.
Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap. The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the
specific GUI according to the device type.
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Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Tunnel > Create Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Configure basic tunnel information, such as the protocol type, signaling type, and protection
type.
Major Parameter Settings
Protocol Type Signaling Type is available only when Protocol Type is set to
MPLS.
l MPLS: If all NEs that a tunnel passes through support MPLS, set
Protocol Type to MPLS.
l IP: To implement a cross-IP ATM or CES service, set Protocol
Type to IP.
NOTE
Only PTN NEs support IP tunnels.
Signaling Type l RSVP TE: You need to specify only the source and sink nodes for
an RSVP TE tunnel. The MPLS protocol automatically calculates a
route for the tunnel. In addition, you can specify constraint nodes to
plan a specific route for the tunnel. You can configure QoS and FRR
protection for an RSVP TE tunnel. An RSVP tunnel is more flexible
and safer than an LDP tunnel.
l LDP: You need to specify only the source and sink nodes for an LDP
tunnel. The LDP protocol automatically calculates a route for the
tunnel. LDP tunnels can run on any network that supports MPLS.
l Static CR: A static Constraint-based Routing (CR) tunnel is created
with certain constraints. The mechanism for creating and managing
those constraints is called CR. Unlike a static tunnel that requires
only routing information, creating a static CR tunnel also requires
other configurations, such as the bandwidth, route, and QoS
parameters.
l Static: Every NE that a static tunnel passes through must be
manually specified.
NOTE
l Routers do not support LDP tunnels.
l PTN NEs do not support static tunnels.
l Hybrid MSTP, and OTN NEs support static CR tunnels only.
Service Direction A bidirectional tunnel has paths in both directions, and the paths use the
same port and route. A unidirectional tunnel has one path in only one
of the directions.
NOTE
l To create bidirectional tunnels, you need to create a single tunnel and select
Create Reverse Tunnel. In this way, two tunnels in opposite directions are
created.
l This parameter is available only when Signaling Type is set to Static CR.
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Major Parameter Settings
Protection Type When Signaling Type is set to Static CR and Protection Type is set
to 1+1 or 1:1, tunnel protection groups are created along with tunnels.
NOTE
l For protection groups of the 1+1 protection type, services are dually fed from
the source end and selectively received by the sink end. If the working tunnel
fails, the protection tunnel is used to receive services to implement service
switchover. A protection group of the 1+1 protection type occupies more
bandwidth but takes shorter switching time.
l For protection groups of the 1:1 protection type, services are transmitted over
the working tunnel. If the working tunnel fails, the protection tunnel is used
to transmit services. The source end sends services and the sink end receives
services. A protection group of the 1:1 protection type occupies less
bandwidth but takes longer switching time.
l During creation of a tunnel enabled with APS, ensure that the values of
Outbound Interface/Ring and Inbound Interface/Ring for the protection
tunnel are different from those for the working tunnel. If they are the same,
APS does not take effect.
Backup Type Key tunnels on the network require that backup CR-LSPs be configured
for primary CR-LSPs.
l Hot standby: A backup CR-LSP is created immediately after a
primary CR-LSP is set up. If the primary CR-LSP fails, services are
switched to the backup CR-LSP. If the primary CR-LSP recovers,
services are switched back to the primary CR-LSP.
l Cold standby: A backup CR-LSP is created after a primary CR-LSP
fails. If the primary CR-LSP fails, services are switched to the
backup CR-LSP. If the primary CR-LSP recovers, services are
switched back to the primary CR-LSP.
l Disabled: A backup CR-LSP is not configured.
NOTE
The U2000 performs route pre-calculation on RSVP TE tunnels only when
Backup Type is set to Hot standby or Cold standby.
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Major Parameter Settings
Configure BFD Configure BFD when creating a tunnel. Static BFD can be configured
only when Create Reverse Tunnel is selected.
When configuring static BFD, you can also configure BFD for TE,
BFD for Working LSP, and BFD for Protect LSP. When configuring
dynamic BFD, you can configure only BFD for Working LSP.
l BFD for TE: Millisecond-level fault detection and service protection
are achieved when the primary tunnel does not function properly.
l BFD for Working LSP: Millisecond-level fault detection and service
protection are achieved when the primary working CR-LSP does not
function properly.
l BFD for Protect LSP: Millisecond-level fault detection and service
protection are achieved when the primary protection CR-LSP does
not function properly.
NOTE
l The BFD for TE detection period must be three times longer than the BFD
for LSP detection period. Therefore, the value of MinRescSendInt for BFD
for LSP must be less than that for BFD for TE.
l This parameter is available only when Signaling Type is set to RSVP TE.
Template Using Template to configure tunnel details is recommended.
Configure As
Bypass Tunnel
When Signaling Type is set to RSVP TE and FRR protection needs to
be configured to set up a protection tunnel, Configure As Bypass
Tunnel must be set.
NOTE
The RTN equipment does not support this parameter.

Step 3 Select the source and sink NEs of the tunnel by double-clicking them in the Service
Topology. Then set the roles of the NEs in the NE Role column.
You can also use the following methods to select source and sink NEs:
l Method 1: Select the desired NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose Add from
the shortcut menu.
l Method 2:
1. Click Add and choose NE. In the Select NE dialog box, select the desired NEs.
2. Click OK.
NOTE
When adding optical NEs, select desired OTN NEs in the displayed window.
Step 4 Optional: Configure route constraints for the tunnel.
NOTE
If explicit or excluded NEs or interfaces for the tunnel to be created are required, configure route constraints.
Otherwise. select only the source and sink NEs for the tunnel.
The methods of configuring route constraints are as follows:
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l For static CR or static tunnels, right-click the desired NE in the Main Topology and choose
Set Working Explicit Route > NE/Interface from the shortcut menu. This method is
recommended because route constraints can be configured for both forward and reverse
tunnels. Configured route constraints are displayed on the Route Constraint tab.
NOTE
Route constraints for static CR or static tunnels are used for route calculation.
l For static/static CR tunnels, click Route Constraint. Then choose Add > NE/Interface in
the Set Route Constraint dialog box and configure explicit or excluded nodes.
l For RSVP TE tunnels, select the Synchronize Reverse route constraints check box in
Route Constraint. Then right-click the desired NE in the Main Topology and choose Set
Forward Primary Path Explicit Route > NE/Interface from the shortcut menu.
Configured route constraints are displayed on the Route Constraint tab.
l For RSVP TE tunnels, click Add on the right of Route Constraint. Then set Interface IP
Address and Restriction Type.
NOTE
l In consideration of tunnel scalability (adding nodes to tunnels), setting Restriction Type to Loosely
include is recommended.
l If creating an explicit path fails, modify the path information as prompted and create the path again.
l After source, sink, and route constraint NEs are configured for an RSVP TE tunnel, click Review
Route. NEs that the tunnel may pass through are highlighted in the physical topology.
Parameter Description
Loosely include A tunnel must pass through the interfaces of route restriction objects.
In addition, the actual route of the tunnel must pass through the objects
in the same sequence as the objects are listed in the explicit path table.
For this restriction type, the interface of a route restriction object can
be reached through multiple hops.
Strictly include A tunnel must pass through the interfaces of route restriction objects.
In addition, the actual route of the tunnel must pass through the objects
in the same sequence as the objects are listed in the route restriction
table. For this restriction type, the interface of a route restriction object
must be reached through one hop.

Step 5 Optional: Click Details to configure tunnel detail. For details about the parameters, see the GUI
reference.
Step 6 You are advised to configure MPLS OAM during tunnel creation. If MPLS OAM is not
configured during tunnel creation, MPLS protection ring faults may fail to be detected after the
tunnel is bound to an MPLS protection ring, which leads to the alarm generation failure. For
details about how to configure MPLS OAM, see MPLS OAM Detection.
Step 7 Optional: Click Resource Check. Before applying tunnel configurations, verify whether the
names, IDs, and labels of the tunnels to be created are valid.
Step 8 Click OK.
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Follow-up Procedure
NOTICE
Pay attention to the following items after the tunnel is configured on the port:
l Modifying the port IP address is prohibited. The modification of the port IP address leads
to an interruption of the tunnels carried over the port. if PW APS or tunnel APS protection
is not configured, base station services will be interrupted. If PW APS or tunnel APS is
configured, service switching is triggered upon a fault and the base station services are
interrupted intermittently.
l If the port IP address needs to be modified, the next hop or reverse next hop which is used
to carry all tunnels on the peer port must be set to the modified IP address in order to ensure
normal service operation. This modification will lead to a short period of service
interruption.
In the dialog box displayed after the tunnel is successfully created, click Browse Trail. In the
Manage Tunnel window, view the created tunnel. You can perform the following operations:
NOTE
The following operations apply only to the tunnels for which Protocol Type is set to MPLS.
l Perform continuity check on the tunnel.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. The qualified
tunnels are displayed.
3. Right-click a tunnel in the tunnel list and choose Test and Check from the shortcut
menu.
4. In the LSP Ping dialog box, click Run.
5. After the check is complete, click the ... button in Details. If the values of Sent
Packets and Received Packets are the same, the tunnel is functioning properly.
l View the actual tunnel route.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. The qualified
tunnels are displayed.
3. Right-click a tunnel in the tunnel list and choose View LSP Topology from the
shortcut menu. The View LSP Topology progress bar is displayed.
NOTE
For RSVP TE tunnels created on routers, this function is supported only after Record Route
Type is set on the Advanced Information tab and Running Status is set to Up. This restriction
does not apply to other types of tunnels.
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4. After the progress bar is closed, the Main Topology is automatically displayed,
showing the LSP topology. The solid line stands for an active LSP and the dashed line
stands for a backup LSP.
7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in Batches
This topic describes how to create tunnels in batches. You can perform this operation to create
dynamic tunnels for multiple NEs.
Prerequisites
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Layer 2 links or IP links must be configured between routers. For details, see the topology
management section.
l Layer 2 links must be configured between PTN, RTN, and Hybrid MSTP NEs. For details,
see the topology management section.
l ODUk paths have been discovered and Layer 2 links have been generated for OTN NEs.
Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap. The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the
specific GUI according to the device type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Tunnel > Batch Create Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or
select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Tunnel > Batch Create Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set basic parameters, such as Network Type, Protocol Type, and Signaling Type.
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Major Parameter Settings
Network Type l Full-mesh: All NEs are fully meshed.
l Hub-spoke: Spoke sites are fully meshed to hub sites.
NOTE
When you set Network Type to Hub-Spoke for a tunnel, NE Role must be
set to Hub for at least one NE on the tunnel.
l Ring: NEs are bidirectionally connected in a ring.
Protocol Type MPLS: If all NEs that a tunnel passes through support MPLS, set
Protocol Type to MPLS.
NOTE
Protocol Type can be set to MPLS only.
Signaling Type l RSVP TE: You need to specify only the source and sink nodes for
an RSVP TE tunnel. The MPLS protocol automatically calculates a
route for the tunnel. In addition, you can specify constraint nodes to
plan a specific route for the tunnel. You can configure QoS and FRR
protection for an RSVP TE tunnel. An RSVP tunnel is more flexible
and safer than an LDP tunnel.
l LDP: You need to specify only the source and sink nodes for an LDP
tunnel. The LDP protocol automatically calculates a route for the
tunnel. LDP tunnels can run on any network that supports MPLS.
l Static CR: A static Constraint-based Routing (CR) tunnel is created
with certain constraints. The mechanism for creating and managing
those constraints is called CR.
l Static: Every NE that a static tunnel passes through must be
manually specified.
NOTE
Routers do not support LDP tunnels.
Backup Type Key tunnels on the network require that backup CR-LSPs be configured
for primary CR-LSPs.
l Hot standby: A backup CR-LSP is created immediately after a
primary CR-LSP is set up. If the primary CR-LSP fails, services are
switched to the backup CR-LSP. If the primary CR-LSP recovers,
services are switched back to the primary CR-LSP.
l Cold standby: A backup CR-LSP is created after a primary CR-LSP
fails. If the primary CR-LSP fails, services are switched to the
backup CR-LSP. If the primary CR-LSP recovers, services are
switched back to the primary CR-LSP.
l Disabled: A backup CR-LSP is not configured.
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Major Parameter Settings
Configure BFD Configure BFD when creating a tunnel.
l Disabled
l Static BFD
l Dynamic BFD
When Protection Type is set to Hot standby, this parameter is
automatically set to Tunnel BFD Type STATIC. When configuring
static BFD, you can also configure BFD for TE and BFD for LSP.
When configuring dynamic BFD, you can configure only BFD for
LSP.
l BFD for TE: Millisecond-level fault detection and service protection
are achieved when the primary tunnel does not function properly.
l BFD for LSP: Millisecond-level fault detection and service
protection are achieved when the primary CR-LSP does not function
properly.
NOTE
The BFD for TE detection period must be three times longer than the BFD for
LSP detection period. Therefore, the value of MinRescSendInt for BFD for LSP
must be less than that for BFD for TE.
Template Using Template to configure tunnel details is recommended.

Step 3 Configure the tunnel list and NE list. Select the source and sink NEs of the tunnel by double-
clicking them in the physical topology. Then set the roles of the NEs in the NE Role column.
You can also use the following methods to select source and sink NEs:
l Method 1: Select the desired NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose Add from
the shortcut menu.
l Method 2:
1. Click Add and choose NE. In the Select NE dialog box, select the desired NEs.
2. Click OK.
NOTE
When you set Network Type to Ring, you can click Up or Down to adjust the position of the NE in the
NE list.
Step 4 Optional: Configure route constraints for the tunnel.
NOTE
If explicit or excluded NEs or interfaces for the tunnel to be created are required, configure route constraints.
Otherwise. select only the source and sink NEs for the tunnel.
l Click Add on the right of Route Constraint. Then select the displayed entry and click
Configure to set Interface IP Address and Restriction Type.
l If Network Type is set to Hub-Spoke, the following method can be used: Right-click the
NE in the Main Topology and choose Set Explicit Restriction > NE/Interface from the
shortcut menu. Configured route constraints are displayed on the Route Constraint tab.
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NOTE
l In consideration of tunnel scalability (adding nodes to tunnels), setting Restriction Type to Loosely
include is recommended.
l If creating an explicit path fails, modify the path information as prompted and create the path again.
Parameter Description
Loosely include A tunnel must pass through the interfaces of route restriction objects.
In addition, the actual route of the tunnel must pass through the objects
in the same sequence as the objects are listed in the explicit path table.
For this restriction type, the interface of a route restriction object can
be reached through multiple hops.
Strictly include A tunnel must pass through the interfaces of route restriction objects.
In addition, the actual route of the tunnel must pass through the objects
in the same sequence as the objects are listed in the route restriction
table. For this restriction type, the interface of a route restriction object
must be reached through one hop.
Exclude A tunnel does not pass through the interfaces of route restriction objects.

Step 5 Optional: Set advanced parameters displayed in the tree-shaped list.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
l Perform continuity check on the tunnel.
l View the actual routes for the tunnel.
7.2.3 Creating Tunnels by Duplicating Existing Tunnels
If a tunnel to be created have similar attributes to an existing tunnel, you can create the tunnel
by modifying the attributes of the existing tunnel. This topic describes how to quickly deploy
tunnels whose configurations are similar. Techniques, such as tunnel attribute duplication,
automatic route calculation, and label assignment, improve tunnel deployment efficiency.
Prerequisites
l You can duplicate only static tunnels and static CR tunnels.
l Layer 2 links or IP links must be configured between routers, PTN, RTN, and Hybrid
MSTP NEs.
l ODUk paths have been discovered and Layer 2 links have been generated for OTN NEs.
Context
l If the tunnel to be duplicated does not belong to a protection group, the U2000 automatically
generates two unidirectional tunnels or one bidirectional tunnel, whose directions are
reverse and share the same source and sink nodes with the tunnel to be duplicated. Perform
Step 3 to duplicate the tunnel.
l If the tunnel to be duplicated belongs to a protection group, the U2000 automatically
generates a tunnel who shares the same source and sink nodes with the tunnel to be
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duplicated and a new protection group that contains the two tunnels. Perform Step 4 to
duplicate the tunnels by protection group.
NOTE
If the Copy Protection Group check box is cleared, a tunnel is duplicated. In this case, you can set
Tunnel Number of Copying and other relevant parameters.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Right-click a tunnel and choose Copy from the shortcut menu. The Copy Tunnel dialog box is
displayed.
Step 3 Optional: Duplicate a tunnel.
NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
Major Parameter Description
Route Calculating Result A calculated route is represented by NEs (that
a tunnel passes through) connected by
hyphens (-).

1. Set Tunnel Number of Copying and click Refresh. The U2000 automatically generates
the specified number of tunnels that share the same source and sink nodes.
2. Select Create Reverse Tunnel as needed. By default, Create Reverse Tunnel is selected.
3. Adjust the source and sink nodes.
Select a tunnel. In the physical topology, right-click an NE and choose Set As Source or
Set As Sink from the shortcut menu.
4. Optional: In the case of a static CR tunnel, configure route calculation for the U2000 as
follows:
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NOTE
To enable the U2000 to automatically calculate the tunnel ID, label, and interfaces, perform this step
when creating a static CR tunnel. Otherwise, manually configure routes for the tunnel and ensure the
configuration correctness.
a. Optional: Select Auto-Calculate route. Then the U2000 automatically calculates the
routes for a tunnel after you finish Steps 2 and 3.
b. Set Restriction Bandwidth.
c. Specify route constraint nodes. Specifically, click Route Restriction and specify
route constraint nodes in the dialog box that is displayed. Alternatively, specify the
explicit and excluded nodes using shortcut menu options in the physical topology.
d. Optional: If you do not select Auto-Calculate route, click Calculate Route to
calculate the routes for a tunnel on the U2000.
NOTE
A Layer 2 link must be configured before route calculation. For details about how to configure a
Layer 2 link, see the topology management section.
By default, the shortest route is selected from the routes that are calculated according to Restriction
Bandwidth and route constraints.
5. Select a tunnel and click Details to set the detailed parameters of the tunnel.
Step 4 Optional: Duplicate tunnels by protection group.
NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
1. The Copy Protection Group check box is selected by default. For details about how to
duplicate a tunnel when the check box is not selected, see Step 3.
2. Select a tunnel, right-click an NE in the physical topology, and choose Set As Source or
Set As Link from the shortcut menu to adjust the source or sink node of the tunnel.
NOTE
After you change the source or sink node of a forward tunnel, the source or sink node of the reverse
tunnel changes automatically.
3. Configure automatic route calculation. For details, see Step 3.4.
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4. Click Details. In the right-hand pane, click Hops Information and Protection Group
Information to configure details about the tunnels and parameters relevant to the protection
group.
Step 5 Select Deploy and Enable. Click OK.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
l Perform continuity check on the tunnel.
l View the actual routes for the tunnel.
7.3 Creating Tunnel Protection
This topic describes how to create tunnel protection. The following table lists the differences
between two tunnel protection creation methods: APS-based tunnel protection group creation
and MPLS protection ring creation. The MPLS protection ring creation function applies only to
PTN NEs.
Quick Navigation
Item Creating an APS-Based
Tunnel Protection Group
Creating an MPLS Protection
Ring
Basic principle A tunnel protection group consists
of two tunnels that have the same
source and sink but travel along
different paths to protect each
other. The protection types of the
two tunnels are 1+1 and 1:1.
Tunnels configured with 1:1
protection support additional
services.
An MPLS protection ring is
located at the server layer but a
tunnel is located at the service
layer. After service traffic on a
tunnel enters an MPLS protection
ring, a ring label is added to the
packets so that the traffic is
forwarded based on the ring label,
without the need to exchange the
tunnel label. After the traffic
leaves the ring, the ring label is
removed and the tunnel label
needs to be exchanged.
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Item Creating an APS-Based
Tunnel Protection Group
Creating an MPLS Protection
Ring
Protection
capability
Only the single point of failure
scenario is supported. If both the
working and protection paths do
not function properly, services are
interrupted.
Intersecting protection groups
need to be configured to provide
protection for some multi-point of
failure scenarios or some scenarios
where LSP linear protection fails.
Such a ring helps to isolate faults.
If a node fails, a switching is
performed within the ring, which
does not affect other rings.
NOTE
An MPLS protection ring does not
support any tunnel configured with
1:1 protection.
Resource usage A lot of resources, even reserved
resources for the backup tunnel,
are required. OAM needs to be
enabled for all tunnels and
multiple APS state machines need
to run.
An NE on an MPLS protection
ring is required to use only two
OAM instances and one automatic
protection switching (APS)
instance. The quantities of OAM
instances and APS instances are
irrelevant to the number of
services.
Configuration
efficiency
The configuration is complex
because a protection tunnel and a
protection tunnel need to be
configured for every tunnel.
Configuring a protection tunnel
for a new tunnel is not required,
which simplifies configuration.
The configuration is simple and
protection switching can be
quickly performed because all
services are protected using a ring.
Supported tunnels Signaling type: static, static CR,
RSVP TE, and LDP
Deployment status: deployed and
undeployed
Signaling type: static CR
Deployment status: deployed

7.3.1 Creating an APS-Based Tunnel Protection Group
This topic describes how to create a tunnel protection group. When the working tunnel in a tunnel
protection group fails, the services carried over the working tunnel are switched to the protection
tunnel to ensure service reliability.
Prerequisites
l Before automatic discovery of protection groups, ensure that the tunnel protection groups
to be discovered exist on the live network and the parameter settings are correct.
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l The operation of automatically discovering protection groups can be performed only on
one client at the same time.
l Before creating a protection group, ensure that a working tunnel and a protection tunnel
have been created.
l Before creating a protection group, check whether the working and protection tunnels for
the protection group pass through the same nodes or links. Select the working and protection
tunnels in the Manage Tunnel window, right-click, and choose View LSP Topology from
the shortcut menu. In the Main Topology, select the working and protection tunnels on the
Share Link Analyze tab and check whether they pass through the same nodes or links. If
they pass through the same nodes or links, the nodes or links blink in the topology. In this
case, modifying the working or protection tunnel is recommended to ensure that the
working and protection tunnels do not pass through the same nodes or links and improve
service reliability. If the working and protection tunnels do not pass through the same nodes
or links, use the tunnels to create a protection group.
l OSN550/OSN3500/OSN7500 series NEs support creation, management, and automatic
discovery of tunnel protection groups having the same source and different sinks.
Quick Navigation
Operation Usage Scenario
Automaticall
y Discovering
Tunnel
Protection
Groups
If a tunnel protection group already exists on the NE side, perform this
operation to restore the protection group configurations to the U2000 so as
to monitor the protection group status and ensure its proper running.
NOTE
If some of the protection group parameters are set incorrectly, for example, the IP
addresses of the interfaces that the tunnel passes through are duplicate, the tunnel
protection group cannot be discovered.
Creating a
Tunnel
Protection
Group
Create a tunnel protection group on the U2000.
NOTE
l The MPLS APS protection and FRR protection are mutually exclusive and cannot
both take effect.
l MPLS APS 1+1 protection and MPLS ring protection are mutually exclusive and
cannot both take effect.
l The protection tunnel does not support PWE3, VPLS, and L3VPN services. It is
used to protect the working tunnel only.

Automatically Discovering Tunnel Protection Groups
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Search for Protection Group (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Search for Protection Group (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the dialog box that is displayed, click Add, select the desired NE, and click OK.
3. Click OK. A dialog box is displayed indicating the number of protection groups.
4. Click OK in the Prompt dialog box.
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Creating a Tunnel Protection Group
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Create Protection Group (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Create Protection Group (application style) from the main menu.
NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
l The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
2. Configure basic information, such as Protection Type and Switching Mode, about the
tunnel protection group.
NOTE
l For protection groups of the 1+1 protection type, services are dually fed from the source end and
selectively received by the sink end. If the working tunnel fails, the protection tunnel is used to
receive services to implement service switchover.
l For protection groups of the 1:1 protection type, services are transmitted over the working tunnel.
If the working tunnel fails, the protection tunnel is used to transmit services. The source end
sends services and the sink end receives services. The PTN chassis-shaped products only support
dual-end switchover. The PTN case-shaped products support single-end and dual-end
switchover.
l For protection groups of the 1:1 protection type, services are transmitted over the working tunnel.
If the working tunnel fails, the protection tunnel is used to transmit services. The source end
sends services and the sink end receives services.
l Single-ended switching refers to a scenario in which when a fault occurs at one end, protection
switching occurs only at this end, and does not occur at the remote end. Single-ended switching
is not negotiated using negotiation packets. Therefore, it is fast and reliable.
l Dual-ended switching refers to a scenario in which when a fault occurs at one end, protection
switching occurs at both this end and the remote end. In the case of dual-ended switching, the
incoming and outgoing paths of a service are the same. This facilitates service management.
3. Click Add. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the working and protection tunnels
and click OK. Set Tunnel Type for the tunnels.
4. (Optional) Select a tunnel, click Configure OAM, and configure OAM information for
the tunnel.
5. (Optional) Configure attributes for the tunnel protection group.
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NOTICE
During tunnel APS creation, WTR Time must be set to 60s. If the value of WTR Time is
less than 60s, tunnel APS switching occurs frequently and services are intermittently
alternates between the Up and Down states. In this situation, you need to change the value
of WTR Time to 60s. The modification does not affect deployed services.
Follow-up Procedure
After the tunnel protection group is successfully created, services are automatically switched to
the protection tunnel if the working tunnel fails. To perform a manual switchover. Choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Protection Group (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Tunnel > Manage Protection Group (application style) from the main menu. On the tab that
is displayed, select a protection group, right-click, and choose Switch from the shortcut menu.
7.3.2 Creating an MPLS Protection Ring
The MPLS-TP shared protection ring technology is developed for PTN NEs based on the
characteristics of ring packet networks. Compared with traditional linear protection solutions,
this technology can prevent multi-link failures. If an intersecting node is configured, this
technology can also prevent node failures. In addition, this technology can be used together with
linear protection solutions to improve protection reliability.
Prerequisites
l Only PTN and Hybrid MSTP NEs support this function.
l The configurations of the relevant NEs have been synchronized to the U2000.
l The values of OAM Mode for all NEs must be the same.
l Layer 2 links have been configured before you create an MPLS protection ring. For details
about how to configure a Layer 2 link, see Topology Management.
NOTE
In the physical topology, check whether Layer 2 links exist between NEs. Alternatively, choose
Inventory > Link Management from the main menu and check whether Layer 2 links exist between
NEs.
Context
l Information about MPLS protection ring labels is not displayed in U2000 GUIs. The
configuration and deployment of all labels are implemented using the U2000. As a great
number of ring labels need to be configured, this feature facilitates MPLS protection ring
configuration.
l Intersecting node: An intersecting node consists of two physical nodes and contains
information about the source and destination rings. As shown in the following figure, ring
1 and ring 2 are intersected, and the configured intersecting nodes are C and D. Intersecting
node C has information about intersecting node D, source ring (ring 1), and destination ring
(ring 2). Intersecting node D has information about intersecting node C, source ring (ring
2), and destination ring (ring 1). Every ring uses an intersecting node as a drop node to
create a ring path. When two rings intersect, only two intersecting nodes are allowed. If
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multiple physical intersecting nodes exist, the two nodes that have the longest distance
between each other are used as intersecting nodes. If one ring intersects with multiple rings,
multiple intersecting nodes need to be configured. Intersecting node information must be
configured for all nodes on a ring to ensure the integrity of the ring topology.
Task Sub-scenario Procedure
Create
protection
rings.
Create a single
protection ring.
Perform steps 1 through 6.
Configure
intersecting rings.
Perform steps 7 and 8.
Bind a
tunnel to
MPLS
protection
rings.
Bind a tunnel to
multiple MPLS
protection rings.
Perform step 9.

Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Create MPLS Protection Ring (traditional style)
from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
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Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Create MPLS Protection
Ring (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Optional: Determine whether to modify Ring Name or set Remark for an MPLS protection
ring as needed. You can also use the default settings displayed on the U2000.
NOTE
At present, the U2000 only supports MPLS protection rings for which the ring type is wrapping. Therefore,
Ring Type is dimmed and cannot be set. In wrapping mode, an NE that detects a failure initiates a switching,
and services are switched to the reverse protection path. On another NE, services are switched back to the
original working path and transmitted to the destination NE.
Step 3 Add NEs to the MPLS protection ring. Adding NEs clockwise or anti-clockwise is
recommended. The U2000 creates the MPLS protection ring based on the NE adding sequence.
Double-clicking NEs in the physical topology to select the NEs is recommended. You can also
use the following methods to select NEs:
l Method 1: Select the desired NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose Add from
the shortcut menu.
l Method 2: Click Add. In the Select NE dialog box, select NEs.
NOTE
l The NE that is added later is the west NE of the previously added NE on the MPLS protection ring.
l After adding NEs, select an NE record in the NE list and click Up or Down. The sequence of NEs on
the MPLS protection ring changes accordingly.
l A maximum of 4 MPLS protection rings can be created for a case-shaped PTN NE and these MPLS
protection rings all pass through the case-shaped PTN NE. A maximum of 16 MPLS protection rings
can be created for a frame-shaped PTN NE and these MPLS protection rings all pass through the frame-
shaped PTN NE.
Step 4 Optional: Click Detail to configure MPLS protection ring details, such as bandwidth, OAM,
and APS information. For details about the relevant parameters, see the GUI reference.
Step 5 Click OK to complete the creation of a single MPLS protection ring.
NOTE
If creating an MPLS protection ring fails, the U2000 automatically rolls back NE configurations.
Step 6 Optional: Check the connectivity of the new MPLS protection ring.
1. Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage
MPLS Protection Ring (application style) from the main menu.
2. Filter MPLS protection rings. Select the required ring, right-click, and choose Test and
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. Configure and select a detection mode, and click Run.
NOTE
Ring ping is used to detect the connectivity of an MPLS protection ring. Ring tracert is used to locate the
fault point on an MPLS protection ring.
Step 7 Configure intersecting rings. After creating an MPLS protection ring, repeat steps 1 through 6
to create another MPLS protection ring.
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Step 8 Configure a virtual intersecting node.
1. Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage
MPLS Protection Ring (application style) from the main menu.
2. Filter out the required MPLS protection ring. On the Intersecting MPLS Ring tab, click
Add Virtual Node.
3. Select another MPLS protection ring for configuring the virtual intersecting node.
4. Click OK.
5. If some virtual intersecting nodes can be bound to tunnels, choose whether to bind the
tunnels to the MPLS protection ring as prompted. You can choose to bind all or none of
the tunnels. After the operation is performed, an intersecting ring is created.
NOTE
The two nodes where two rings intersect are considered as a virtual intersecting node. If one intersecting
node fails, services can be transmitted to the destination NE using the other intersecting node.
Step 9 Bind a deployed static CR tunnel to an MPLS protection ring. A tunnel can be protected only
when it is bound to an MPLS protection ring.
Perform steps 1 through 8 to create a single ring or intersecting rings and create a tunnel. Then
perform the following operations:
NOTE
l A tunnel can be bound to an MPLS protection ring only when at least two intersecting nodes are
available for the ring and tunnel.
l You can select one or more tunnels and bind the tunnels to rings in batches.
1. Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Search for Ring-bindable Tunnel (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Search for
Ring-bindable Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. Filter out the required tunnels, right-click, and choose Binding MPLS Protection Ring
from the shortcut menu.
3. Use the optimal MPLS protection ring that is selected by default or click Manually
Select to specify an MPLS protection ring.
4. Click OK.
NOTE
l The default optimal ring is determined based on the following rule: Service traffic must enter the ring
from the first possible node and leaves the ring at the farthest node after traveling along an as-long-as-
possible path.
l Principles for selecting the direction in which a tunnel is bound to a ring: The direction of the
intersecting node adjacent to the upper ring node is selected. If no adjacent intersecting node exists,
either direction may be selected.
l The U2000 allows you to specify a protection ring based on the following rule: A newly bound ring
cannot overwrite or be overwritten by the ring to which the specified tunnel has been bound.
l If binding fails, the tunnel automatically rolls back to the status before the binding.
l To unbind a tunnel from an MPLS protection ring, click Unbind MPLS Protection Ring on the MPLS
Protection Ring tab. Alternatively, select a tunnel on the Binded Tunnel tab in the Manage MPLS
Protection Ring window and click Unbind MPLS Protection Ring.
----End
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FAQ
1. Q: Why is no available NE displayed after I click Add for creating an MPLS protection
ring?
A: MPLS protection rings can be created only for PTN NEs running V100R003C02 or
later. If these NEs do not exist on the U2000, no NE is available for you to create an MPLS
protection ring.
2. Q: After NEs are added one by one to create an MPLS protection ring, only some of
the eastbound and westbound interfaces between NEs are automatically displayed.
What is the reason for the problem? How do I deal with the problem?
A: The U2000 automatically calculates the eastbound and westbound interfaces between
NEs only when Layer 2 links exist between the NEs.
If some interfaces are not automatically displayed, configure Layer 2 links between the
NEs and select eastbound and westbound interfaces.
3. Q: Are OAM and APS enabled by default for an MPLS protection ring? Are there
any constraints for the OAM EXP and ring EXP values?
A: OAM and APS are enabled by default when you create an MPLS protection ring.
There are not any constraints for the OAM EXP and ring EXP values because the OAM
EXP and ring EXP are independent of each other.
4. Q: If an APS protection group has been configured for a tunnel before the tunnel is
bound to an MPLS protection ring, how do I disable APS and enable the tunnel to use
protection provided by the MPLS protection ring?
A: In the dialog box that is displayed after a tunnel is bound to an MPLS protection ring,
click Modify Protection Group. The Manage Protection Group window is displayed
and APS protection groups relevant to the tunnel are filtered out. In addition, the Modify
Protection Group dialog box is displayed. In this dialog box, set Hold-off Time to a value
greater than the value of Hold-off Time for the MPLS protection ring to which the tunnel
is bound.
5. Q: Why does alarm generation fail for some tunnels after the tunnels are bound to an
MPLS protection ring and the ingress and egress nodes on the ring are isolated nodes?
A: As OAM is not enabled during tunnel configuration, MPLS protection ring faults cannot
be detected, which leads to the alarm generation failure. You are advised to enable OAM
after tunnel creation.
7.4 Adjusting an MPLS Protection Ring
This topic describes how to adjust an MPLS protection ring.
7.4.1 Adding NEs to an MPLS Protection Ring for Capacity
Expansion
This topic describes how to add NEs to an MPLS protection ring for capacity expansion. With
the increase and development of network services, original NEs on the network may fail to meet
service requirements. In this case, you need to add NEs and switch some existing services to
these NEs to improve overall service processing capabilities.
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Usage scenario
A B
D
NodeB RNC
C
GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/4
A B
D
E
NodeB RNC
C
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2 GE 1/0/3
GE 1/0/4
Prerequisite
Before adding NEs, perform the following operations in turn:
Ope
ratio
n
Ord
er
Operation
Content
Description
1 Synchronization
and backup
1. Synchronize NE data.
l In the Manage MPLS Protection Ring window, click
Synchronization.
l In the Manage Tunnel window, click
Synchronization.
2. Back up NE data. Choose Administration > NE Software
Management > NE Data Backup/Restoration
(traditional style) from the main menu or select Fix-
Network NE Software Management in Application
Center and choose NE Software Management > NE Data
Backup/Restoration (application style) from the main
menu.
3. Enable the U2000 to automatically discover the tunnel
service and MPLS protection ring. Choose Service >
Search for Service (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Service > Search for
Service (application style) from the main menu.
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Ope
ratio
n
Ord
er
Operation
Content
Description
2 Service switching On the Topo tab, select the NE on which the port needs to be
adjusted, right-click, and choose East Maintenance/West
Maintenance > Force Switching from the shortcut menu.
Switch services on the MPLS protection ring to the counterpart
of the link through which the NE to be added will pass. In this
way, services are carried over the protection path, without
being interrupted.
NOTE
l Forcible switching is to forcibly switch services from the working
path to the protection path or from the protection path to the
working path, regardless of the MPLS protection ring status.
l In this example, NE E is to be added between NEs A and B. After
NE E is added, the physical link is A-E-B. Perform a forcible
switching on interface GE 1/0/1 on NE A or interface GE 1/0/4 on
NE B for the ring.
3 Fiber disconnection
and connection
Disconnect the original fibers and connect the fibers between
the original and new NEs.
4 IP node ID and
interface IP setting
1. Set an LSR ID for the new NE. Navigation path: In the NE
Explorer, choose Configuration > MPLS Management >
Basic Configuration from the navigation tree. Then set
LSR ID.
2. Check whether the eastbound and westbound interface IP
addresses of the new NE, westbound interface IP address
of the adjacent east NE, and eastbound interface IP address
of the adjacent west NE are configured on the same network
segment. If not, correct them to the same network segment.
NOTE
If interface IP addresses are not configured, set the eastbound and
westbound interface IP addresses of the new NE as well as the
westbound interface IP address of the adjacent east NE and the
eastbound interface IP address of the adjacent west NE to
Undefined. If you select an Ethernet interface on a PTN NE,
perform the following operations: In the NE Explorer, choose
Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface
from the navigation tree. In the Ethernet Interface window, select
an interface on the Layer 3 Attributes tab and set Specify IP
Address to Unspecified.
5 Layer 2 or IP link
configuration
Enable the U2000 to search for fibers and Layer 2 links and
automatically allocate interface IP addresses. Note that IP or
Layer 2 links must be configured before you add NEs to the
MPLS protection ring.
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Ope
ratio
n
Ord
er
Operation
Content
Description
6 Check of the
interface
bandwidth, OAM
mode, and MPLS
capability
1. Before adding an NE, ensure that the eastbound and
westbound interface bandwidth of the NE meets ring
network configuration requirements. If the bandwidth does
not meet requirements, adjust the bandwidth.
2. Check whether the value of OAM Mode for the NE to be
added is the same as that of OAM Mode for the MPLS
protection ring. If the values are different, change them to
be the same. To change the value, choose Configuration >
NE Batch Configuration > MPLS OAM Configuration
from the main menu.
3. Check whether MPLS has been enabled on the left and right
interfaces of the NE to be added. Use the Ethernet interfaces
on PTN NEs as an example. If MPLS has not been enabled
on an interface, perform the following operations to enable
it on the interface: Choose Configuration > Interface
Management > Ethernet Interface from the navigation
tree in the NE Explorer. On the Layer 3 Attributes tab,
select the interface, right-click in the Enable Tunnel
column, and choose Enabled from the shortcut menu.

Context
l This operation is potentially service-affecting. Before performing this operation, contact
Huawei engineers for guidance.
l This function applies only to the following types and versions of PTN, OSN, and Hybrid
MSTP series NEs:
PTN 910/PTN 910f/PTN950/PTN3900/PTN3900-8/PTN960: V100R003C02/
V100R005C00/V100R500C01
OSN500/OSN550: V100R005C01
Hybrid MSTP 3500/Hybrid MSTP 7500/Hybrid MSTP 7500II: V100R005C01
l When you add an NE, the NEs connected to the NE must reuse original ports.
l The function of adding NEs to an MPLS protection ring applies to only one ring at a time.
If multiple rings exist, perform NE adding operations on the rings one by one.
l Nodes can be added only when all NEs on the ring and the NE to be added are online. If
an NE on the MPLS protection ring or an NE to be added is offline, the operations cannot
be performed.
l The DCN domain where the NE to be added and the left and right NEs adjacent to the NE
reside cannot be too large. It is recommended that the number of NEs managed by the same
gateway NE be less than 128.
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NOTICE
In scenarios where ring protection is disabled, adding nodes on the MPLS protection ring will
cause disconnection of the tunnel bound to the ring and upper-layer services. The tunnel and
services automatically restore after the capacity expansion operation is complete.
Procedure
Step 1 Optional: If the desired tunnel is not bound to any ring, use the TCAT to add NEs to the tunnel
for capacity expansion. For details, see iManager U2000 V100R009C00 Huawei TCAT User
Guide. If the tunnel has been bound to a ring, go to step 2.
Step 2 Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional style)
from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection
Ring (application style) from the main menu.
Step 3 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. The Manage MPLS Protection Ring dialog
box is displayed.
Step 4 On the Topology tab, select a link in the topology view of the MPLS protection ring, right-click,
and choose Add Node from the shortcut menu.
Step 5 In the Add Node dialog box, select an NE and the eastbound and westbound interfaces on the
NE.
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NOTE
If the Layer 2 link is properly connected and IP addresses are correctly configured, the eastbound and
westbound interfaces on the new NE can be automatically associated. The eastbound interface on the new
NE is connected to the westbound interface on the adjacent east NE, and the westbound interface on the
new NE is connected to the eastbound interface on the adjacent west NE. Ensure that correct eastbound
and westbound interfaces are selected. If the interfaces are incorrect, services are interrupted and the system
fails to perform an automatic rollback. The eastbound and westbound interfaces are displayed on the
Topology tab in the Manage MPLS Protection Ring window.
Step 6 Click OK. In the Warning dialog box, click OK.
Step 7 In the Rewarning dialog box, click OK.
Step 8 If the NE is successfully added, the new ring topology is displayed on the Topology tab in the
Manage MPLS Protection Ring window. If the NE is not successfully added, the U2000
performs an automatic rollback to restore the MPLS protection ring.
NOTE
The westbound tunnel bandwidth reserved for the new NE inherits that for the adjacent east NE. The
eastbound tunnel bandwidth reserved for the new NE inherits that for the adjacent west NE.
Step 9 Clear the switching on the ring. On the Topology tab, select a record and click East
Maintenance/West Maintenance > Clear Switching.
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NOTE
In this example, clear the switching on interface a1 on NE A or interface a2 on NE B for the ring.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
If the eastbound and westbound interfaces of the NE to be added are not correctly selected in
step 5, service switching fails. In this case, refer to steps 3 to 5 in Deleting NEs from an MPLS
Protection Ring for Capacity Expansion to delete the NE and then add the NE again for
capacity expansion.
Perform connectivity detection on the MPLS protection ring.
1. Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage
MPLS Protection Ring (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter to locate the
MPLS protection ring to which the NE has been added.
3. Right-click the MPLS protection ring and choose Test and Check from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Test and Check dialog box, select the Ring Ping check box and click Run.
5. After the check is complete, click the ... button in Details. If the values of Sent Packets
and Received Packets are the same, the MPLS protection ring is functioning properly.
7.4.2 Deleting NEs from an MPLS Protection Ring for Capacity
Expansion
This topic describes how to delete NEs from an MPLS protection ring for capacity expansion.
On the live network, an NE and services accessed through the NE may need to be deleted because
of base station deletion or removal. The U2000 provides the deletion function to facilitate the
operations.
Usage scenario
A
B
C
D
E
NodeB
RNC
GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/2
Prerequisite
Before deleting NEs, perform the following operations in turn:
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Oper
ation
Order
Operation
Content
Description
1 Synchronization
and backup
1. Synchronize NE data.
l In the Manage MPLS Protection Ring window, click
Synchronization.
l In the Manage Tunnel window, click
Synchronization.
2. Back up NE data. Choose Administration > NE Software
Management > NE Data Backup/Restoration
(traditional style) from the main menu or select Fix-
Network NE Software Management in Application
Center and choose NE Software Management > NE
Data Backup/Restoration (application style) from the
main menu.
3. Enable the U2000 to automatically discover the tunnel
service and MPLS protection ring. Choose Service >
Search for Service (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Service > Search for
Service (application style) from the main menu.
2 Service switching On the Topo tab, select the NE on which the port needs to be
adjusted, right-click, and choose East Maintenance/West
Maintenance > Force Switching from the shortcut menu.
Switch services on the MPLS protection ring to the
counterpart of the link through which the NE to be deleted
passes. In this way, services are carried over the protection
path, without being interrupted.
NOTE
l Forcible switching is to forcibly switch services from the working
path to the protection path or from the protection path to the
working path, regardless of the MPLS protection ring status.
l In this example, NE E is to be added between NEs A and B. After
NE E is deleted, the physical link is A-B. Perform a forcible
switching on interface GE 1/0/1 on NE A or interface GE 1/0/4
on NE B for the ring.
3 Fiber
disconnection and
connection
Before deleting the NE, properly connect the rest two NEs on
the ring using a fiber.
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Oper
ation
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Content
Description
4 Interface IP setting Check whether the eastbound and westbound interface IP
addresses of the deleted NE, westbound interface IP address
of the adjacent east NE, and eastbound interface IP address of
the adjacent west NE are configured on the same network
segment. If not, correct them to the same network segment.
NOTE
If interface IP addresses are not configured, set the westbound
interface IP address of the adjacent east NE and the eastbound
interface IP address of the adjacent west NE to Unspecified. If you
select an Ethernet interface on a PTN NE, perform the following
operations: In the NE Explorer, choose Configuration > Interface
Management > Ethernet Interface from the navigation tree. In the
Ethernet Interface window, select an interface on the Layer 3
Attributes tab and set Specify IP Address to Unspecified.
5 Layer 2 or IP link
configuration
Enable the U2000 to search for fibers and Layer 2 links and
automatically allocate interface IP addresses. Note that IP or
Layer 2 links must be configured before you delete NEs from
the MPLS protection ring.
6 Check of Node ID
for the NE to be
deleted
Assume that Node ID for the NE to be deleted is X. Before
deleting the NE, check whether other NEs using X as an
intersecting node exist on the ring. If such NEs exist, clear
intersecting node configurations to prevent NE deletion
failures.

Context
l This operation is potentially service-affecting. Before performing this operation, contact
Huawei engineers for guidance.
l This function applies only to the following types and versions of PTN, OSN, and Hybrid
MSTP series NEs:
PTN 910/PTN 910f/PTN950/PTN3900/PTN3900-8/PTN960: V100R003C02/
V100R005C00/V100R500C01
OSN500/OSN550: V100R005C01
Hybrid MSTP 3500/Hybrid MSTP 7500/Hybrid MSTP 7500II: V100R005C01
l NEs that are configured as virtual intersecting nodes on an MPLS protection ring cannot
be deleted.
l The MPLS protection ring consisting of only two NEs does not support NE deletion.
l When you delete an NE, the NEs connected to the NE must reuse original ports.
l The function of deleting NEs from an MPLS protection ring applies to only one ring at a
time. If multiple rings exist, perform NE deletion operations on the rings one by one.
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l The DCN domain where the NE to be deleted and the left and right NEs adjacent to the NE
reside cannot be too large. It is recommended that the number of NEs managed by the same
gateway NE be less than 128.
l During the process of deleting an NE, do not upload or synchronize configurations of related
NEs on the ring.
l If one or more NEs other than the NEs to be deleted from an MPLS protection ring are
offline, the NE deletion operations cannot be performed. If all NEs on the MPLS protection
ring, except the NE to be deleted, are online, delete the NE in online mode when the NE is
online and in offline mode when the NE is offline.
l The NE deletion will delete the bound MPLS protection ring, tunnels and tunnel protection
groups that use the delete NE as the upper or lower ring node, PWE3 services carried over
the tunnels, associated PWs in the VPLS service, and bindings between the tunnels and
VRFs in the L3VPN service. Service interruption will occur, and the deleted configurations
cannot be restored.
NOTE
During the process of deleting an NE, automatic deletion of a discrete protection group is unavailable.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional style)
from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection
Ring (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. The Manage MPLS Protection Ring dialog
box is displayed.
Step 3 Optional: If the desired tunnel is not bound to any ring, use the TCAT to delete NEs from the
tunnel for capacity expansion. For details, see iManager U2000 V100R009C00 Huawei TCAT
User Guide. If the tunnel has been bound to a ring, go to step 4.
Step 4 On the Topo tab, select the NEs to be deleted in the MPLS protection ring topology view, right-
click, and choose Delete Node from the shortcut menu.
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NOTE
The differences between online NE deletion and offline NE deletion are as follows:
l Deleting online NEs: If online NEs are deleted from an MPLS protection ring, services associated with
the NEs, such as the tunnel, tunnel protection group, and VPN services are also deleted. The Reserved
Bandwidth for Tunnels on the NE is deleted.
l Deleting offline NEs: If offline NEs are deleted from an MPLS protection ring, the MPLS protection
ring configurations and services for the NEs are not deleted and the offline NEs are considered discrete
NEs. The reserved bandwidth for tunnels on the NE is not deleted, but the reserved bandwidth for
tunnels on online NEs is deleted.
Step 5 In the Delete Node dialog box, confirm the deletion of carried services. When you delete an NE,
the associated services are also deleted. If inband DCN services exist, NE deletion is not allowed.
The Delete Node dialog box displays the corresponding service types and the number of services
to be deleted, not the services that are carried on the ring but are not affected.
NOTE
Right-click the desired service and choose Details from the shortcut menu. U2000The related service
management window is displayed, displaying service details.
If discrete tunnels exist, check whether the tunnels are normal. If yes, click OK to continue the
operations. Otherwise, click Cancel and perform NE deletion until the tunnels become normal.
You are advised to save affected services so as to determine whether the services run properly
after NE deletion.
Step 6 Click OK. In the Warning dialog box, click OK.
NOTE
If affected services are deleted or modified, they cannot be automatically restored. Therefore, determine
whether you want to delete or modify the services.
Step 7 In the Rewarning dialog box, click OK.
Step 8 If the NE is successfully deleted, the new ring topology is displayed on the Topology tab in the
Manage MPLS Protection Ring window. If the NE is not successfully deleted, the U2000
performs an automatic rollback to restore the MPLS protection ring.
Step 9 Clear the switching on the ring. On the Topology tab, select a record and click East
Maintenance/West Maintenance > Clear Switching.
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NOTE
In this example, clear the switching on interface GE 1/0/1 on NE A or interface GE 1/0/2 on NE B for the
ring.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Perform connectivity detection on the MPLS protection ring.
1. Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage
MPLS Protection Ring (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter to locate the
MPLS protection ring from which the NEs have been deleted.
3. Right-click the MPLS protection ring and choose Test and Check from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Test and Check dialog box, select the Ring Ping check box and click Run.
5. After the check is complete, click the ... button in Details. If the values of Sent Packets
and Received Packets are the same, the MPLS protection ring is functioning properly.
7.4.3 Adjusting Interface Information About the MPLS Protection
Ring
This topic describes how to adjust the interface information about the MPLS protection ring.
After the MPLS protection ring is created, this function allows you to adjust the interface
information about the MPLS protection ring when the boards of the NEs that pass through the
MPLS protection ring need to be replaced.
Prerequisites
Before adjusting interfaces, perform the following operations in turn.
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Operation
Order
Operation
Content
Description
1 Synchronization
and backup
1. Synchronize NE data.
l In the Manage MPLS Protection Ring window,
click Synchronization.
l In the Manage Tunnel window, click
Synchronization.
2. Back up NE data. Choose Administration > NE
Software Management > NE Data Backup/
Restoration (traditional style) from the main menu or
select Fix-Network NE Software Management in
Application Center and choose NE Software
Management > NE Data Backup/Restoration
(application style) from the main menu.
3. Enable the U2000 to automatically discover the tunnel
service and MPLS protection ring. Choose Service >
Search for Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Search for Service (application style) from
the main menu.
2 Service
switching
On the Topo tab, select the NE on which the port needs to
be adjusted, right-click, and choose East Maintenance/
West Maintenance > Force Switching from the shortcut
menu. Perform forcible switching and then adjust the port
information about the MPLS protection ring. If port
information about the MPLS protection ring is adjusted
before forcible switching is performed, services may be
interrupted.
NOTE
Forcible switching is to forcibly switch services from the working
path to the protection path or from the protection path to the
working path, regardless of the MPLS protection ring status.
3 Fiber
disconnection
and connection
Disconnect the original fibers and connect the fibers
between the original and new NEs.
4 Configuration of
interface IP
addresses for
nodes
Configure the eastbound and westbound interface IP
addresses of the new NE after the adjustment as well as
the westbound interface IP address of the adjacent east NE
and the eastbound interface IP address of the adjacent west
NE.
5 Configuration of
the Layer 2 or IP
link
Enable the U2000 to search for fibers and Layer 2 links
and automatically allocate interface IP addresses. Note
that IP or Layer 2 links must be configured before you
adjust interface.

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Context
l This function applies only to the following types and versions of PTN series NEs.
NOTE
The PTN6900 does not support this function.
l This function is not supported when offline NEs exist on the MPLS protection ring.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional style)
from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection
Ring (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. The Manage MPLS Protection Ring dialog
box is displayed.
Step 3 In the topology view of the MPLS protection ring, right-click a link on the Topology tab and
choose Adjust from the shortcut menu.
Step 4 In the Adjust Interface dialog box, adjust the eastbound and westbound interfaces.
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NOTE
Ensure that correct eastbound and westbound interfaces are selected. If the interfaces are incorrect, services
are interrupted and the system fails to perform an automatic rollback. The eastbound and westbound
interfaces are displayed on the Topology tab in the Manage MPLS Protection Ring window.
Step 5 Click OK. In the Warning dialog box, click OK.
Step 6 In the Rewarning dialog box, click OK.
Step 7 If interface adjustment succeeds, the topology view of the ring to which the NEs are added is
displayed on the Topology tab in the Manage MPLS Protection Ring window. If interface
adjustment fails, the U2000 automatically rolls back to the original status of the MPLS protection
ring.
NOTE
l If the interface bandwidth at only one end of the link meets ring network requirements after the
adjustment, the adjustment configurations can be successfully applied at only this end. The U2000
automatically rolls back the configurations at this end. In this case, a temporary alarm is generated and
will be automatically cleared when interface adjustment is complete.
l If a large number of tunnels are bound to an MPLS protection ring, interfaces that actually exist on
NEs may fail to be displayed on the U2000 during interface adjustment. When interface adjustment is
complete, the U2000 automatically refreshes the interface list.
Step 8 Clear the switching on the ring. On the Topology tab, select a record and click East
Maintenance/West Maintenance > Clear Switching.
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----End
Follow-up Procedure
Perform connectivity detection on the MPLS protection ring.
1. Choose Service > IP Protection Subnet > Manage MPLS Protection Ring (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in
Application Center and choose Protection Subnet > IP Protection Subnet > Manage
MPLS Protection Ring (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter to locate the
MPLS protection ring to which the NE has been added.
3. Right-click the MPLS protection ring and choose Test and Check from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Test and Check dialog box, select the Ring Ping check box and click Run.
5. After the check is complete, click the ... button in Details. If the values of Sent Packets
and Received Packets are the same, the MPLS protection ring is functioning properly.
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8 Deploying L3VPN Services
About This Chapter
This topic describes how to configure an L3VPN service using the U2000.
8.1 L3VPN Service Function Panorama
This topic describes L3VPN service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 support, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions..
8.2 Creating an L3VPN Service
This topic describes how to create an L3VPN service.
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8.1 L3VPN Service Function Panorama
This topic describes L3VPN service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 support, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions..
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Table 8-1 L3VPN configuration
Scenari
o
Task Router
/
Switch
PTN RTN Navigation Path
Service
discovery
Discover
L3VPN
services.
Choose Service > Search for Service
(traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > Search for
Service (application style) from the
main menu.
Service
creation
Create a
dynamic
L3VPN
service.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Create L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Create L3VPN Service (application
style) from the main menu.
Create a
static
L3VPN
service.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Create L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Create L3VPN Service (application
style) from the main menu.
Create a
static
L3VPN
service
quickly.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Quick Create L3VPN Service
(traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Quick Create L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main menu.
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Scenari
o
Task Router
/
Switch
PTN RTN Navigation Path
Service
reliability
Configur
e BFD.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Right-click an L3VPN service
and choose Configure BFD from the
shortcut menu.
Configur
e VRRP.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Right-click an L3VPN service
and choose Configure VRRP from the
shortcut menu.
Service
monitori
ng
View
VRF
resources
.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage VRF Resource (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage VRF Resource (application
style) from the main menu. Select a
VRF resource and click desired tabs to
view the associated information.
View an
L3VPN
service
topology.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select an L3VPN service and
view the service information in the
topology view on the Topology tab.
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Scenari
o
Task Router
/
Switch
PTN RTN Navigation Path
Create an
L3VPN
service
performa
nce
monitorin
g
instance.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Right-click an L3VPN service
and choose Performance > Create
Monitoring Instance from the shortcut
menu.
View
L3VPN
service
performa
nce.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Right-click an L3VPN service
and choose Performance > View
History Data from the shortcut menu.
Service
diagnosis
Check
L3VPN
service
connectiv
ity.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select an L3VPN service, right-
click, and choose Test and Check from
the shortcut menu.
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Scenari
o
Task Router
/
Switch
PTN RTN Navigation Path
Perform
fast
diagnosis
.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. In the topology view on the
Topology tab, select a link between
NEs, right-click, and choose Fast
Diagnose from the shortcut menu.
Service
adjustme
nt
Add an
NE.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select the service to be adjusted
and click the VRF tab.
l Click Create. Add NEs as needed
and set relevant parameters. You
can add one VRF.
l If a static L3VPN service for which
Network Type is set to
Customized has been selected,
click Quick Configure to quickly
create a VRF for the service.
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Scenari
o
Task Router
/
Switch
PTN RTN Navigation Path
Add an
interface.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select the service to be adjusted
and click the SAI tab.
l Click Create and add an SAI for the
service.
l If a static L3VPN service for which
Network Type is set to
Customized has been selected,
click Quick Configure to quickly
add an SAI for the service.
Service
maintena
nce
Modify
an
L3VPN
service.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select an L3VPN service and
click desired tabs to modify the
associated information as needed.
NOTE
l To add an NE or SAI, click Create or
Fast Add on the VRF or SAI tab to
modify service settings as needed.
Compared with the modification of the
entire service, service modification in
this manner is faster.
l If a tunnel has been bound to a VPN
peer, you must unbind the tunnel before
modifying a VRF label. (The local and
peer VRFs must be in undeployed and
deployed states respectively.)
NOTICE
During modification of a static route, the
U2000 first deletes the static route and then
adds a new one, which may cause service
interruption. Therefore, exercise caution
when you perform this operation.
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Scenari
o
Task Router
/
Switch
PTN RTN Navigation Path
Undeploy
an
L3VPN
service.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu.Select L3VPN services with
Deployment Status set to Deployed or
Partially Deployed, and click the
VRF tab. Select one or more VRFs,
right-click, and choose Undeploy
VRF.
NOTICE
Services are interrupted during service
undeployment. Exercise caution when you
perform this operation.
Delete
L3VPN
services.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select one or more L3VPN
services, right-click, and choose
Delete from the shortcut menu.
Delete
L3VPN
services
from the
network
side
Choose Service > L3VPN Service >
Manage L3VPN Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > L3VPN Service
> Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main
menu. Select one or more L3VPN
services, right-click, and choose Delete
from Network Side from the shortcut
menu.

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8.2 Creating an L3VPN Service
This topic describes how to create an L3VPN service.
The U2000 allows you to create both dynamic and static L3VPN services as well as quickly
create static L3VPN services.
The differences between dynamic and static L3VPN services are as follows:
l Dynamic L3VPN services use BGP to establish peer relationships between NEs and
advertise VPN routes on the backbone networks of service providers, and use MPLS to
forward VPN packets on the backbone networks of service providers.
l Static L3VPN services establish VPN peer relationships between NEs, advertise static
routes on the backbone networks of service providers, and use static tunnels to forward
VPN packets.
Table 8-2 and Table 8-3 list the differences between static and dynamic L3VPN services.
The U2000 supports rapid creation for static L3VPN services for which the value of Network
Type is Customized. Compared with common creation, quick creation better meets
requirements in usage scenarios, and supports in-pair configuration of NPEs and UPEs. You can
click Auto Calculate to generate VPN peer, network-side static route, VPN FRR, and mixed
FRR configurations. Protection detection, such as BFD and VRRP, can be configured when a
static L3VPN is being created, and the relationship between the protection detection and L3VPN
service can also be configured.
Table 8-2 Comparison between static and dynamic L3VPN services
Static L3VPN Service Dynamic L3VPN Service
Routing protocol Static routing protocols are used,
and fault locating is simple.
Multiple routing protocols are
used, and fault locating is
complicated.
Forwarding
control
VPN services are carried over
static tunnels, and traffic or routes
can be easily restricted.
Various routing policies are used
to control routes so as to restrict
data forwarding paths.
NE adding for
expansion
NE adding for expansion of large-
scale networks is complicated.
NE adding for expansion is
flexible.

Table 8-3 Implementation mechanism comparison between static and dynamic L3VPN services
Static L3VPN Service Dynamic L3VPN Service
Signaling type Static Dynamic
Routing protocol
for SAIs
Static or direct routes All dynamic and static routes
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Static L3VPN Service Dynamic L3VPN Service
How the routes on
the local CE reach
the peer
The local user-side private routes
are advertised to the VPN peer.
The local NE coverts common
IPv4 routes to VPNv4 routes using
the RD+IP address method, and
sends the VPNv4 routes to the
remote BGP peer. The peer NE
filters the VPNv4 routes by RT.
Routes for NEs on
the public network
Static routes BGP+IGP routes (usually BGP
+OSPF or BGP+IS-IS routes)
Tunnel carrying
VPN services
Static and static CR tunnels Static and dynamic tunnels

8.2.1 Creating a Dynamic L3VPN Service
This topic describes how to create a dynamic L3VPN service. Dynamic L3VPN services use
BGP to advertise VPN routes and MPLS to forward VPN packets on the backbone networks of
service providers.
Prerequisites
l The MP-BGP protocol must be configured for the public network.
l If a dynamic tunnel is used to carry the L3VPN service, the IS-IS protocol must be enabled.
l In the case of PTN series NEs, the DCN function must be disabled on the L3VPN service
port.
Navigation path: In the NE Explorer, choose Communication > DCN Management from
the navigation tree.
l The configurations of the relevant NEs have been synchronized to the U2000.
Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
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NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Create L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > L3VPN Service > Create L3VPN Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Service Information area, set basic information about the L3VPN service.
1. Specify Network Type. Then the U2000 automatically generates a VRF for each device
according to the specified network type. By default, the network type is Full-Mesh.
NOTE
Only routers support the HVPN network type.
2. Optional: Select Service Template to quickly and conveniently create a service. Here, the
general service creation procedure that does not require any templates is described.
NOTE
A service template can be created based on service deployment requirements. For example, you can
select only the concerned parameters in the template and set default values for some of the parameters.
Then you can use the template to quickly create a service. The parameter list contains only the selected
parameters and their values.
3. Set VRF Name, RD, and RT. After you add an NE, RD and RT values are displayed in
the parameter list.
NOTE
l You can enter a VRF ID. Otherwise, the U2000 automatically allocates an ID. Only PTN NEs
allow you to enter a VRF ID.
Step 3 Add an NE for the L3VPN service.
Select the desired NE in either of the following methods:
l Method 1: Select the desired NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose Add NPE
Node to Service from the shortcut menu. This method is recommended.
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NOTE
When adding an NE to a service, you need to choose an option from the shortcut menu based on the
networking situation and the NE role.
l Method 2:
Click Add and select an NE role from the drop-down menu. The NE role varies according
to the networking condition.
In the dialog box that is displayed, select the desired NE and click OK.
l Method 3: In Physical Topology, double-click an NE to add it to the service. If Network
Type is set to Hub-Spoke, HVPN, or Customized, you can select a value from the Node
Role drop-down list to change the NE role.
Step 4 Configure service details, such as basic service attributes, service access interfaces, and routing
information. For details about the relevant parameters, see the GUI reference.
Major Parameter Settings
General Among the general attributes, the values of RD and RT are
automatically displayed as the values configured in the Service
Information area. You can change these values as needed.
The IP DSCP, VRF Description, Routing Policy, Label
Distribution Policy, Tunnel Binding, and Max. Route Count
parameters can be set.
DHCP Relay If you configure and enable DHCP relay based on VRFs, the DHCP
request packets that are transmitted from client-side interfaces can be
identified and processed.
VRF QoS Set CIR and PIR as needed. Deploy QoS configurations by using a
QoS profile.
NOTE
During service deployment, the selected Profile Name is delivered to NEs to
generate Local Profile Name.
You can perform the following operations to create a QoS profile:
l In the Select VPN QoS Profile dialog box, right-click and choose Add
Global Profile from the shortcut menu.
l Choose Configuration > IP QoS Profile > HQoS Profile (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Fix-Network NE Configuration in
Application Center and choose QoS Profile > IP QoS Profile > HQoS
Profile (application style) from the main menu. On the HQoS Profile tab,
right-click and choose Add Global Profile from the shortcut menu.
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Major Parameter Settings
SAI You can bind multiple interfaces and set the relevant parameters.
The CE Information and QoS parameters are optional.
You can also click the SAI Configuration tab to add, modify, or
delete an SAI or configure SAI QoS.
If you configure and enable DHCP relay based on ports, you can
accurately control the interaction between the NE connected to each
port and the DHCP server.
NOTICE
Do not modify specified interface IP addressee. If an interface IP address is
modified, the static route associated with the interface becomes unavailable
and a route loop may occur.
NOTE
In the IPRAN solution, if the same IP address has been configured for interfaces
on the master and slave ASGs (CX series NEs), the MAC addresses of the
associated VE interfaces must also be the same, and synchronization must be
performed in the interface management window of the NE Explorer.
Route Configuration Set basic information, such as the BGP peer. The Route
Aggregation and Route Import parameters are optional.
Select a routing protocol and set the relevant parameters as needed.
Click on the right of a static route to copy and import static routes
in batches.
NOTE
l The private BGP protocol is configured in this step.
l The ID of the BGP instance must be different from the ID of the MP BGP
instance.
l You must set Instance ID during IS-IS and RIP configuration.
l You must set Instance ID and Area No during OSPF configuration.
l On the Static Route tab, you can set Metric Priority and Import Metric
Priority To BGP. On multiple PTN NEs that are connected to the same
RNC, you can configure private static routes that have different metric
priorities and are destined for the same destination IP address and add the
metric priorities to BGP. By comparing metric priorities, the remote PTN
NEs (not directly connected to the RNC) can determine the preferred route
out of the routes. This approach can resolve the issue of uncertain paths to
the RNC in a scenario where PTN NEs are dual-homed to an RNC.
NOTICE
Changing the routing policy or IP address prefix may interrupt services.
Exercise caution when you perform this operation.

Step 5 Optional: After the preceding operations are complete, perform the following operations to
check the integrity and correctness of service configuration:
On the Service Topology tab, select a service link between NEs, right-click, and choose Check
Configuration from the shortcut menu to check the service link configurations.
If incorrect configurations exist, view the details. If all configurations are correct, proceed with
the following step.
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Step 6 Click OK.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
NOTICE
Pay attention to the following items during L3VPN service modification:
l In the L3VPN service modification window, if you select one or more nodes and click
Delete, the VRFs on the nodes corresponding to the L3VPN service are deleted from NEs,
which causes the interruption of the L3VPN service.
l During L3VPN service modification, if over 12 L3VPN nodes are available, you need to
click Add to add the VRFs to be modified to the node list. If you click Delete to delete an
unwanted VRF from the list, the VRF is also deleted from the associated NE, which causes
service interruption. Therefore, do not click Delete to delete any unwanted node. Instead,
you must directly cancel the modification, re-access the modification window, and
manually select the node to be modified.
l Do not click Delete in the L3VPN service modification window any time. To delete a VRF
in the specified L3VPN service, access the Manage L3VPN Service window and click
Delete on the VRF tab. After deleting the VRF, you also need to delete relevant peer, static
route, and VPN FRR configurations.
l After the service is created, click Browse Service in the dialog box that is displayed, and
view the service in the Manage L3VPN Service window.
l To add an NE or SAI, click Create on the VRF or SAI tab to modify service settings as
needed.
l After the service is created and deployed, click Create Monitoring Instance in the dialog
box that is displayed to rapidly create a performance monitoring instance for the service.
l Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service
(application style) from the main menu.
2. Select a configured L3VPN service and click the Service Link tab in the lower part.
3. Right-click the link and choose Fast Diagnosis from the shortcut menu.
4. In the VRF Ping dialog box, click Run.
After the test is complete, the result Success is displayed.
8.2.2 Creating a Static L3VPN Service
This topic describes how to create a static Layer 3 virtual private network (L3VPN) service.
Compared with dynamic L3VPN services, static L3VPN services are easy to maintain and
troubleshoot.
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Prerequisites
l Only PTN NEs support this function.
l The configurations of the relevant NEs have been synchronized to the U2000.
l In the case of PTN series NEs, the DCN function must be disabled on the L3VPN service
port.
Navigation path: In the NE Explorer, choose Communication > DCN Management from
the navigation tree.
Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Create L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > L3VPN Service > Create L3VPN Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Service Information area, set basic information about the L3VPN service.
Major Parameter Settings
Service name Specifies the name of a service. The service name uniquely identifies
a service on the network.
Signal Type Specifies the type of signaling. Set this parameter to Static. When
static signaling is used, you need to specify VPN peers to flood static
routes.
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Major Parameter Settings
Service Template An L3VPN service template contains all attributes required for an
L3VPN service.
You can use a default template or create a template that meets a
specified policy.
Using a service template during L3VPN service creation simplifies
parameter settings and service creation operations.
Network Type The available network types are as follows:
l Full-Mesh: Any two PEs are logically and directly connected in
full-mesh mode. The disadvantage is that a great number of peers
exist.
l User-defined network type: You can select the desired network
type based on the networking requirements.
VRF ID Use the default value Auto-Assign.

Step 3 Add an NE for the L3VPN service.
Select the desired NE in either of the following methods:
l Method 1: Select the desired NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose Add NPE
Node to Service from the shortcut menu. This method is recommended.
NOTE
When adding an NE to a service, you need to choose an option from the shortcut menu based on the
networking situation and the NE role.
l Method 2:
Click Add and select an NE role from the drop-down menu. The NE role varies according
to the networking condition.
In the dialog box that is displayed, select the desired NE and click OK.
l Method 3: In Physical Topology, double-click an NE to add it to the service. If Network
Type is set to Customized, you can select a value from the Node Role drop-down list to
change the NE role.
Step 4 Configure the routing policy.
1. On the VRF Configuration tab, choose Routing Policy > Routing Policy Object >
Routing Policy.
2. Double-click the blank area of NE columns and click ....
3. In the Select Routing Policy dialog box, click Create to configure the trigger actions for
the routing policy.
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NOTICE
During L3VPN creation, you must set Policy Type to IP FRRand Maximum Length
Matchingto Yes and select a correct routing policy with Object Behavior set to Trigger
Action, Configuration Type set to Backup Next Hop, and Object Value set to Automatic.
Otherwise, the hybrid FRR of L3VPN fails to take effect. Do not modify these parameters after
the L3VPN service is deployed. If these parameters need to be modified after the L3VPN service
is deployed, strictly comply with the modification requirements. The modification does not affect
deployed services.
Step 5 Configure a service access interface (SAI).
1. Click the SAI List tab under SAI Configuration.
2. Click Create.
3. Set SAI parameters. For details about the parameters, see the GUI reference.
NOTE
l In the LTE solution, if the same IP address has been configured for interfaces on the master and slave
L2/L3 nodes (PTN6900 series NEs), the MAC addresses of the associated VE interfaces must also be
the same, and synchronization must be performed in the interface management window of the NE
Explorer.
l In the line-free static L3VPN service interworking scenario, the UNI for the L3VPN must be a VLAN
aggregation sub-interface. The UNI for the L2VPN must be an L2VE interface. The L2VE interface
and the L3VE interface to which the VLAN aggregation sub-interface belongs are bound in a bridge
group for direct service interconnection.
Step 6 Configure a VPN peer relationship.
1. Click the VPN Peer Configuration tab.
2. Click Auto-Create. A full-mesh VPN peer relationship is established.
3. Optional: If a full-mesh VPN peer relationship does not need to be established for all nodes
or automatic label allocation by the U2000 is not required, you can manually adjust the
automatically calculated VPN peers. For example, right-click a VPN peer and choose the
deletion option from the shortcut menu to delete the VPN peer, or change a label to the
planned value. For details, see the GUI reference.
Step 7 Optional: Bind the static L3VPN services to a tunnel.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward/Reverse Tunnel Binding Type is set to Static Binding or Auto Policy by
TE, a forward or reverse tunnel is created along with a static L3VPN service based on the VPN
Peer.
l Fully Fill: Bulk create the tunnels for which Forward Tunnel Binding Type or Reverse
Tunnel Binding Type is set to Static Binding or Auto Policy by TE.
l Incrementally Fill: Bulk create the tunnels for which Forward Tunnel Binding Type or
Reverse Tunnel Binding Type is set to Static Binding or Auto Policy by TE and that are
not manually specified.
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NOTICE
l For the PTN69 series NEs, you must set Forward Tunnel Binding Type/Reverse Tunnel
Binding Type to Auto policy by NE during creation of the L3VPN peer. The tunnel selected
for Forward Tunnel Policy/Reverse Tunnel Policy must be correct and work properly.
l As the tunnel policy used for different binding types varies, if Forward Tunnel Binding
Type/Reverse Tunnel Binding Type is modified for the L3VPN peer, the value of Forward
Tunnel Policy/Reverse Tunnel Policy will be cleaned on the U2000 GUI. Operators need
to configure a new policy. If the new policy is directly deployed before it is configured, the
static routes carried over the L3VPN peer fails to be iterated to the tunnel; as a result, the
base station service carried on the L3VPN peer is interrupted.
Major Parameter Settings
Forward Tunnel
Binding Type/Reverse
Tunnel Binding Type
The available options are as follows:
l Static Binding: Only PTN NEs and transport NEs support this
option.
l Select policy: Only routers support this option.
l Auto policy by sequence: Only routers support this option.
l Auto policy by NE: Only routers support this option.
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
This parameter is available only when the binding type is set to
Static Binding or Auto policy by NE.
Configure the forward and reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel
window. If a bidirectional tunnel is selected as the forward tunnel,
the bidirectional tunnel is selected as the reverse tunnel by default.
NOTE
A static L3VPN service can be carried only on a static tunnel. Therefore, only
tunnels for which Signaling Type is set to Static CR or Static can be
selected.
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
A tunnel policy is used to select tunnels for VPN services. Two
modes of tunnel policies are available: Bind Application to
Tunnel and Tunnel Selection Sequence. The two modes are
mutually exclusive.
l Bind Application to Tunnel: indicates that the bound tunnel can
carry only the specified L3VPN service; therefore, the QoS for
the L3VPN service can be guaranteed.
l Tunnel Selection Sequence: indicates that tunnels to the same
destination are selected by sequence.

1. Choose Create and Fill Tunnel > Fully Fill or Create and Fill Tunnel > Incrementally
Fill.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch dialog box, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel
and set other parameters.
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For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
The created tunnel is added to In Tunnel or Out Tunnel.
Step 8 Configure static routes.
NOTICE
You need to configure VPN peer relationships and user-side routes before the calculation of
network-side static routes.
1. Click the Static Route Configuration tab.
2. Configure both user-side and network-side static routes.
l User-side configuration: Static or direct routes are usually used for the user side. If direct
routes are used, no parameter needs to be set on this tab. If static routes are used, you
need to set parameters such as the destination address and next-hop IP address. User-
side static or direct routes are flooded to the peer node based on the VPN peer
relationship.
l Network-side configuration: Configure static routes used for the network side. After
you click Auto-Create, the U2000 automatically generates the network-side routes
based on the VPN peer relationship and user-side routes (direct and static routes). You
can manually add or modify the static routes.
3. Optional: Adjust static routes by modifying parameters or deleting some static routes using
the shortcut menu option.
To display only newly added or modified static routes, select the Display Changed check
box. To display all static routes, clear the Display Changed check box. This check box is
mainly used to query the changed static routes after a static L3VPN service is modified.
NOTICE
To prevent mis-modification, you must lock every newly added static route.
NOTE
The U2000 calculates network-side static routes based on the bidirectional VPN peer relationship and the
configurations of user-side static and direct routes. For example:
l If a user-side static or direct route is configured for node A and a bidirectional VPN peer relationship
is established between node A and node B, the U2000 calculates a network-side static route from node
B to node A.
l If user-side static and direct routes are configured for node A and a bidirectional VPN peer relationship
is established between node A and node B, the U2000 calculates two network-side static routes from
node B to node A.
l If user-side static and direct routes are configured for node A and bidirectional VPN peer relationships
are established between node A and node B and between node A and node C, the U2000 calculates
two network-side static routes from node B to node A and two network-side static routes from node C
to node A.
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Step 9 Configure VPN FRR.
Major
Parameter
Usage Scenario Settings
VPN FRR FRR, short for fast reroute, ensures
service reliability between PEs.
VPN FRR uses protection tunnels as
the backup of working tunnels and
works with fast detection
technologies, such as BFD, to detect
the connectivity of the working
tunnels.
When a working tunnel is faulty, the
VPN FRR-enabled PE can switch
VPN traffic to the protection tunnel
before the VPN routes are
converged. This mechanism
improves the data forwarding
reliability on the public network.
Manual configuration and
automatic calculation are
available for VPN FRR and
Mixed FRR.
Compared with automatic
calculation, manual
configuration can specify the
backup next hop more
accurately.
NOTE
The source and sink NEs for which
VPN FRR/Mixed FRR needs to be
configured must be VPN peers for
each other, and a network-side
route to the peer node must be
available. Therefore, you need to
configure VPN peer relationships
and network-side static routes
before VPN FRR/Mixed FRR
configuration.
IP FRR IP FRR can specify a sink protection
next hop and a sink protection DAI
and set backup forwarding
information for IPv4 routes. When
the active link becomes faulty, the
system can switch the traffic
immediately to the backup link. This
process is irrelevant to route
convergence.
Mixed FRR Mixed FRR is the combination of IP
FRR and VPN FRR.
Mixed FRR ensures high reliability
of traffic transmission between the
CE and PEs. If a link between the CE
and a PE fails, the PE can use Mixed
FRR to switch traffic bound for the
CE to the other PE for transmission.

Step 10 Optional: After the preceding operations are complete, perform the following operations to
check the integrity and correctness of service configuration:
l On the Service Topology tab, select an NE, right-click, and choose Check VRF from the
shortcut menu to check the VRF configurations of the NE.
l On the Service Topology tab, select a service link between NEs, right-click, and choose
Check Configuration from the shortcut menu to check the service link configurations.
If incorrect configurations exist, view the details. If all configurations are correct, proceed with
the following step.
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Step 11 Click OK.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
NOTICE
l A tunnel policy can be shared by multiple L3VPN services. Deleting the tunnel binding
relationship in a tunnel policy may affect multiple services. Therefore, before deleting the
tunnel binding relationship in a tunnel policy, ensure that the tunnel to be unbound is not
referenced by other services.
l Pay attention to the following items during L3VPN service modification:
l In the L3VPN service modification window, if you select one or more nodes and click
Delete, the VRFs on the nodes corresponding to the L3VPN service are deleted from
NEs, which causes the interruption of the L3VPN service.
l During L3VPN service modification, if over 12 L3VPN nodes are available, you need to
click Add to add the VRFs to be modified to the node list. If you click Delete to delete
an unwanted VRF from the list, the VRF is also deleted from the associated NE, which
causes service interruption. Therefore, do not click Delete to delete any unwanted node.
Instead, you must directly cancel the modification, re-access the modification window,
and manually select the node to be modified.
l Do not click Delete in the L3VPN service modification window any time. To delete a
VRF in the specified L3VPN service, access the Manage L3VPN Service window and
click Delete on the VRF tab. After deleting the VRF, you also need to delete relevant
peer, static route, and VPN FRR configurations.
To add an NE or SAI, click Create or Fast Add on the VRF or SAI tab to modify service settings
as needed.
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured L3VPN service and click the VPN Peer Configuration tab in the lower
part.
3. Select the desired VPN peer, right-click, and choose Fast Diagnose from the shortcut menu.
4. In the VRF Ping dialog box, click Run.
5. After the detection is complete, the Detail tab in the VRF Ping dialog box displays VRF
packet loss ratio and delay for you to check VRF connectivity.
8.2.3 Creating a Static L3VPN Service Quickly
This topic describes how to rapidly create a static Layer 3 virtual private network (L3VPN)
service. The U2000 supports rapid creation for static L3VPN services for which the value of
Network Type is Customized. Compared with common creation, quick creation better meets
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requirements in usage scenarios, and supports in-pair configuration of NPEs and UPEs. You can
click Auto Calculate to generate VPN peer, network-side static route, VPN FRR, and mixed
FRR configurations. Protection detection, such as BFD and VRRP, can be configured when a
static L3VPN is being created, and the relationship between the protection detection and L3VPN
service can also be configured.
Prerequisites
l The DCN must be disabled on the L3VPN service port.
l The configurations of the relevant NEs have been synchronized to the U2000.
l Only PTN NEs support this function.
l The U2000 supports the quick creation of an L3VPN service only when the networking
type is set to Customized.
Context
This function applies to two networking scenarios: two pairs of NPEs, and one pair of NEPs
+multiple pairs of UPEs.
Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Quick Create L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Quick Create L3VPN Service (application style) from
the main menu.
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Step 2 In the Service Information area, set basic information about the L3VPN service.
Major Parameter Settings
Service name Specifies the name of a service. The service name uniquely identifies
a service on the network.
Signal Type Specifies the type of signaling. Set this parameter to Static. When
static signaling is used, you need to specify VPN peers to flood static
routes.
Service Template A static L3VPN service template contains all attributes required for
a static L3VPN service.
You can use a default template or create a template that meets a
specified policy.
Using a service template during L3VPN service creation simplifies
parameter settings and service creation operations.
Network Type A static L3VPN service can be quickly created only when the
networking type is set to Customized.
VRF ID Use the default value Auto-Assign.

Step 3 Add an NE for the L3VPN service.
Select the desired NE in either of the following methods:
l Method 1: In the physical topology, select a desired NE, right-click, and choose Add NPE
Node to Service, Add Slave NPE Node to Service, Add UPE Node to Service, or Add
Slave UPE Node to Service from the shortcut menu. This method is recommended.
NOTE
l When adding an NE to a service, you need to choose an option from the shortcut menu based on
the networking situation and the NE role.
l The quick creation function supports two networking scenarios. You can add two pairs of NPEs
or add one pair of NPEs and then multiple pairs of UPEs. If you attempt to create other networking
scenarios or the NEs are not added in the specified sequence, the shortcut menu options displayed
after you right-click a UPE are grayed out.
l If the NEs to be operated do not exist in the topology view, you can press Ctrl+F and enter NE
names to search for desired NEs.
l Method 2:
1. On the Quick Create tab, click Add.
2. Click the Master Node text box for the NPE and click the ... button. In the dialog box
that is displayed, select the NE to be added, set Slave Node, and click ... to add a slave
node.
3. Click Add to add the master and slave nodes for the UPE. The method of adding nodes
for the UPE is similar to that for the NPE.
4. Repeat the preceding operations to add multiple NPEs and UPEs.
Step 4 Configure a service access interface (SAI).
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1. Click the Service Topology tab. Select the NE to be operated, right-click, and choose Add
SAI from the shortcut menu.
2. In Physical Topology, double-click an NE and select the VRF to be operated. In the right
pane, select desired interfaces.
3. Click the SAI Configuration tab in the lower-right corner. Then set the subinterface ID
and the VLAN ID for the SAI.
Generally, subinterfaces are used as SAIs.
NOTE
The VLAN ID is automatically configured for the virtual interface, VLAN interface, and VLAN
aggregation subinterface on PTN NEs (with PTN6900 excluded).
NOTICE
Do not modify specified interface IP addressee. If an interface IP address is modified, the
static route associated with the interface becomes unavailable and a route loop may occur.
4. Click the IP Address tab and configure the IP addresses and subnet masks of SAIs.
5. Optional: Click the QoS tab and configure the QoS attributes.
NOTE
l If a PWE3 service which supports the primary and secondary PWs accesses an L3VPN, the IP addresses
and MAC addresses of L3VE interfaces (for PTN 6900s) or VLAN aggregation subinterfaces (for other
PTN NEs) on the primary and secondary PWs must be the same. In other situations, the IP addresses
of SAIs on all PE nodes on the L3VPN must be different.
l In the line-free static L3VPN service interworking scenario, the UNI for the L3VPN must be a VLAN
aggregation subinterface. The UNI for the L2VPN must be an L2VE interface. The L2VE interface
and the L3VE interface to which the VLAN aggregation subinterface belongs are bound in a bridge
group for direct service interconnection.
Step 5 Configure a user-side static route.
Static or direct routes are usually used for the user side. If direct routes are used, no parameter
needs to be set on this tab. If static routes are used, you need to set parameters such as the
destination address and next-hop IP address. User-side static or direct routes are flooded to the
peer node based on the VPN peer relationship.
Step 6 Click ... next to Auto Calculate to configure auto-calculation rules. Then click Auto
Calculate. The VPN peer, network-side static route, VPN FRR, and miex FRR can be
automatically generated on the U2000. You can also set the relevant parameters as needed.
NOTE
l The prerequisite for auto-calculation on the VPN peer is that Layer 2 links exist between NEs and the
links interwork properly.
l The BFD indexes traced by the network-side static route must be multi-hop BFD indexes.
l PTN 6900 series NEs support only VPN FRR, not IP FRR or hybrid FRR.
Step 7 Optional: After the preceding operations are complete, perform the following operations to
check the integrity and correctness of service configuration:
l On the Service Topology tab, select an NE, right-click, and choose Check VRF from the
shortcut menu to check the VRF configurations of the NE.
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l On the Service Topology tab, select a service link between NEs, right-click, and choose
Check Configuration from the shortcut menu to check the service link configurations.
If incorrect configurations exist, view the details. If BFD/VRRP needs to be configured, click
Next. Otherwise, go to Step 8.
Step 8 Click Finish.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
NOTICE
l A tunnel policy can be shared by multiple L3VPN services. Deleting the tunnel binding
relationship in a tunnel policy may affect multiple services. Therefore, before deleting the
tunnel binding relationship in a tunnel policy, ensure that the tunnel to be unbound is not
referenced by other services.
l Pay attention to the following items during L3VPN service modification:
l In the L3VPN service modification window, if you select one or more nodes and click
Delete, the VRFs on the nodes corresponding to the L3VPN service are deleted from
NEs, which causes the interruption of the L3VPN service.
l During L3VPN service modification, if over 12 L3VPN nodes are available, you need to
click Add to add the VRFs to be modified to the node list. If you click Delete to delete
an unwanted VRF from the list, the VRF is also deleted from the associated NE, which
causes service interruption. Therefore, do not click Delete to delete any unwanted node.
Instead, you must directly cancel the modification, re-access the modification window,
and manually select the node to be modified.
l Do not click Delete in the L3VPN service modification window any time. To delete a
VRF in the specified L3VPN service, access the Manage L3VPN Service window and
click Delete on the VRF tab. After deleting the VRF, you also need to delete relevant
peer, static route, and VPN FRR configurations.
l In Step 8, you can click Next to configure protection detection, such as BFD or VRRP, for
L3VPN services.
l To add an NE or SAI, perform the following operations:
Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application
style) from the main menu.. Select the static L3VPN service to be modified and click
the VRF tab. On the VRF tab, click Quick Configure to quickly create a VRF for the
L3VPN service.
Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application
style) from the main menu.. Select the static L3VPN service to be modified and click
the SAI tab. On the SAI tab, click Quick Configure to quickly bind an SAI to the VRF.
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9 Deploying VPLS Services
About This Chapter
This topic describes how to use the U2000 to deploy VPLS services.
9.1 VPLS Service Function Panorama
This topic describes VPLS service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions.
9.2 Creating a VPLS Service
The Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) is also called Transparent LAN Service (TLS) or
Virtual Private Switched Network Service (VPSNS). It is a Layer 2 Virtual Private Network
(VPN) technology over the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) or Ethernet. VPLS is mainly
used to connect multiple Ethernet LAN segments through the Packet Switch Network (PSN)
and make them operate as a LAN. VPLS can be used to implement multipoint-to-multipoint
VPN networking.
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9.1 VPLS Service Function Panorama
This topic describes VPLS service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions.
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Table 9-1 VPLS configuration
Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
discov
ery
Disco
ver
VPL
S
servi
ces.
Choose Service >
Search for Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or
select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Search for Service
(application style)
from the main menu.
Servic
e
creatio
n
Crea
te a
VPL
S
servi
ce.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Create VPLS Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or
select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Create VPLS Service
(application style)
from the main menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
reliabil
ity
Confi
gure
BFD
for
VSI
PW.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
VPLS service and
choose Configure
BFD from the shortcut
menu.
Confi
gure
VRR
P.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
VPLS service and
choose Configure
VRRP from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Confi
gure
Ethe
rnet
OA
M.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
VPLS service and
choose Ethernet
OAM > Start CC
from the shortcut
menu.
Servic
e
monito
ring
View
a
VPL
S
servic
e
topol
ogy.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a VPLS
service and view the
service information in
the topology view on
the Topology tab.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Moni
tor
VPL
S
servi
ce
alar
ms.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring >
Faulty Service
Monitoring
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fault
Management in
Application
Center and choose
Alarm
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring
(application style)
from the main
menu.
l Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the
main menu or
select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > VPLS
Service > Manage
VPLS Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Select a
VPLS service,
right-click, and
choose Add to
Monitoring
Group from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Moni
tor
VPL
S
servi
ce
perfo
rman
ce
moni
torin
g
insta
nces.
l After a service is
created and
deployed, click
Create
Monitoring
Instance in the
dialog box that is
displayed.
l Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the
main menu or
select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > VPLS
Service > Manage
VPLS Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Right-click a
VPLS service and
choose
Performance >
Create
Monitoring
Instance from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
diagno
sis
Detec
t
VPL
S
servi
ce
conn
ectivi
ty.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a VPLS
service, right-click,
and choose Diagnose
> Test and Check
from the shortcut
menu.
Diag
nose
VPL
S
servic
es.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a VPLS
service, right-click,
and choose Diagnose
from the shortcut
menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Perfo
rm
fast
diagn
osis
for
VPL
S
servic
es.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. On the
Topology tab, select a
PW between NEs,
right-click, and choose
Fast Diagnosis from
the shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Use a
test
suite
to
locat
e
faults
.
- 1. Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the
main menu or
select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > VPLS
Service > Manage
VPLS Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. In the VPLS
service
management
window, select the
service to be
detected, right-
click, and choose
Diagnose > Create
Test Suite from the
shortcut menu.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Servic
e
mainte
nance
Modi
fy a
VPL
S
servic
e.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a VPLS
service and click
desired tabs to modify
the relevant
parameters as needed.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Delet
e
VPL
S
servic
es.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more VPLS services
with Deployment
Status set to
Undeployed or
Partially Deployed,
right-click, and choose
Delete > Delete from
the shortcut menu.
NOTE
A VPLS service can be
deleted only after VSIs
are in the undeployed
state.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service Configuration
in Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS Service
(application style) from
the main menu. Select
VPLS services with
Deployment Status set
to Deployed or
Partially Deployed,
and click the VSI tab.
Select one or more VSIs,
right-click, and choose
Undeploy.
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Scena
rio
Task Route
r
\Swit
ch
PTN RTN Hybri
d
MSTP
OTN Navigation Path
Delet
e
VPL
S
servic
es
from
the
netw
ork
side.
Choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
VPLS Service >
Manage VPLS
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more VPLS services,
right-click, and choose
Delete from Network
Side from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
The service deleted
from the network side is
saved in discrete
services.

9.2 Creating a VPLS Service
The Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) is also called Transparent LAN Service (TLS) or
Virtual Private Switched Network Service (VPSNS). It is a Layer 2 Virtual Private Network
(VPN) technology over the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) or Ethernet. VPLS is mainly
used to connect multiple Ethernet LAN segments through the Packet Switch Network (PSN)
and make them operate as a LAN. VPLS can be used to implement multipoint-to-multipoint
VPN networking.
Prerequisites
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l A tunnel for carrying services must be created.
l The DCN function of a port carrying services must be disabled if the port needs to be
exclusively used.
l A QoS policy must be created for configuring QoS if necessary.
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Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap. The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the
specific GUI according to the device type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service
> VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Configure service attributes.
VPLS allows you to use BGP or LDP to implement control plane functions.
l Create a VPLS service of which Signaling Type is set to LDP/Static.
When the signaling type is LDP, PE peers must be manually specified. As the PEs are fully
meshed in a VPLS, you must modify the configurations on all the related PEs when adding
a new PE. PWs are point-to-point links; therefore, using LDP to establish, maintain, or
remove PWs is more efficient.
1. Enter a service name in the Service Name field.
2. Set Signaling Type to LDP/Static.
3. Select a service template.
4. Set Networking Mode.
Full-Mesh VPLS: All NEs are fully meshed. The U2000 automatically creates
PWs between NEs and selects an existing tunnel.
H-VPLS: All the spoke sites are fully meshed to hub sites and the hub sites are
fully meshed to each other. The U2000 does not automatically create any PW
between NEs. You must manually create PWs between NEs.
Daisy Chain: NEs are bidirectionally connected in a chain. The U2000
automatically creates PWs between the NEs.
Hub-Spoke: The UPE and NPE are connected using a multi-hop PW.
Ring: Bidirectional connections are created between PWs based on the ring.
Customized: The U2000 does not automatically create PWs between NEs. You
must manually create PWs between NEs.
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5. Select a service type, such as Service VPLS, Management VPLS, or E-Tree.
6. Enter the VSI name.
The VSI name and VSI ID need to be set only once during the creation of a VPLS
service, which is convenient for configuration deployment and can reduce the
repetitive setting of parameters.
7. Enter the brief VSI description in the VSI Description text box.
8. Select the name of the customer related to the service from the Customer Name drop-
down list. If no related customer is available in the drop-down list, click the ... button
next to the Search text box. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the desired
customer. If the desired customer is still unavailable, click New to create a customer.
NOTE
During customer creation, some personal data about users may be used. Therefore, you are
obligated to take considerable measures, in compliance with the laws of the countries concerned
and the user privacy policies of your company, to ensure that the personal data about users is
fully protected.
9. Enter the brief service description in the Remarks text box.
l Create a VPLS service of which Signaling Type is set to BGP.
When the signaling type is BGP, automatic VPLS member discovery is implemented by
configuring VSI RTs. If you want to add or delete a PE, operations need to be performed
only on one of its peer PEs. Kompella VPLS has better expansibility.
NOTE
Only routers support the VPLS of which Signaling Type is set to BGP.
1. Enter a service name in the Service Name field.
2. Set Signaling Type to BGP.
3. Enter the VSI name, VSI RD, and VSI RT, which are used to set common VSI
parameters of NEs. This frees you from setting parameters repeatedly.
4. Enter the brief VSI description in the VSI Description text box.
5. Select the name of the customer related to the service from the Customer Name drop-
down list. If no related customer is available in the drop-down list, click the ... button
next to the Search text box. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the desired
customer. If the desired customer is still unavailable, click New to create a customer.
NOTE
During customer creation, some personal data about users may be used. Therefore, you are
obligated to take considerable measures, in compliance with the laws of the countries concerned
and the user privacy policies of your company, to ensure that the personal data about users is
fully protected.
6. Enter the brief service description in the Remarks text box.
Step 3 Select the source and sink NEs of the VPLS service. You can also double-click the desired NEs
in the physical topology or click Add in the NE list and select the desired NEs. Set the positions
of the NEs by selecting values from the Node Role drop-down list. The selected NEs are
displayed in the right-hand topology view.
l If a predefined typical scenario is selected, click Add to select the PE type that meets the
scenario requirements.
l If a user-defined scenario is selected, click Add to directly select the desired PE type. PEs
are not classified for this type of scenario.
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NOTE
l When adding optical NEs, select desired OTN NEs in the displayed window.
l Deploy: Select the Deploy check box. The created VPLS service is deployed to the specified NE.
l Enable: After the Deploy check box is selected, you can select the Enable check box. In this case, the
created service is deployed to the specified NE and enabled at the same time.
Step 4 Configure service details.
NOTE
After the VPLS service template is applied during VPLS service creation, the PW and SAI parameters
entered in PW Configuration and SAI Configuration cannot be the parameters defined in the VPLS
service template.
l Configure routers under the following procedure.
1. Select one or more NEs in the NE list and click the VSI Configuration tab to set relevant
VSI parameters. All NEs in the NE list need to be configured.
Major
Parameter
Settings
VSI Type After the mVSI receives a gratuitous ARP packet, MAC addresses
of the related service VSIs must be cleared. The mVSI clears the
MAC addresses based on the following conditions:
l If the number of the related service VSIs reaches the threshold,
all the MAC addresses of the service VSIs are cleared and this
event is logged.
l If the number of the related service VSIs does not reach the
threshold, the MAC address of a single service VSI is cleared
and this event is logged.
l If Service Type is set to Service VPLS, VSI Type can be set
only to Service VSI.
l If Service Type is set to Management VPLS, VSI Type can
be set to Management VSI or Service VSI.
l If Service Type is set to E-Tree, VSI Type can be set only to
Service VSI.
On the metro Ethernet, VRRP instances are used to perform
detection and switchover control between the primary and
secondary NPEs. The mVSI created on the UPE is dedicated to
transmitting detection packets between the NPEs.
Encapsulation
Type
l Ethernet: indicates that the encapsulation type is Ethernet. In
Ethernet access, the Ethernet frame headers between CEs and
PEs do not carry VLAN tags.
l VLAN: indicates that the encapsulation type is VLAN that
meets the 802.1Q standard. In VLAN access, the Ethernet frame
headers between CEs and PEs carry one VLAN tag.
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Major
Parameter
Settings
Tunnel Policy Specifies a tunnel policy for the tunnel that carries a VPLS service.
The tunnel policy determines the tunnel preferred for forwarding
traffic between PEs and whether to perform load balancing. You
can create a tunnel policy when selecting the VPLS service or use
the NE Explorer to create one.
Before the tunnel policy is created, the tunnel selection sequence
must be specified. If no tunnel policy is created, the LSP tunnel is
used by default and load balancing is not performed.
Bound to
mVSI
Specifies whether to bind a service VSI to an mVSI. By default, a
service VSI is not bound to any mVSI. This parameter is available
only to service VSIs. One service VSI can be bound to only one
mVSI.

2. Select an NE in the NE list and click the PW Configuration tab to set relevant PW
parameters.
NOTE
Skip this step if Signal Type is set to BGP.
Major
Parameter
Settings
PW Type Specifies the encapsulation type of PW data frames.
l Ethernet: indicates that data frames do not carry VLAN tags.
l Ethernet Tagged Mode: indicates that data frames carry
VLAN tags.
l Ethernet Dummy: In some Ethernet multicast service
scenarios, you need to configure asymmetric PW APS to
protect services against link or multiple-node faults. Ethernet
Dummy PWs cooperate with the protection PWs in
asymmetric PW APS to protect services and prevent loops
and broadcast storms that possibly occur during multicast.
Ethernet Dummy PWs carry only OAM packets, not service
data.
NOTE
Routers do not support this parameter.
PW ID Specifies the ID of a PW. The PW ID is automatically allocated
by the U2000. You can also enter a PW ID as planned. It must
be unique on an NE.
Signaling Type l Dynamic: indicates that the forward and reverse labels of a
PW are automatically allocated by the protocol.
l Static: indicates that the forward and reverse labels of a PW
are manually configured.
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Major
Parameter
Settings
Forward Split
Horizon
l Mesh: indicates that the source NE on a PW does not forward
the packet that is sent from the sink NE.
l Spoke: indicates that the source NE on a PW forwards the
packet that is sent from the sink NE.
Reverse Split
Horizon
Incoming Label Specifies the labels carried by the packet that is sent from the
sink NE to the source NE on a PW. This parameter is available
only when Signaling Type of the PW is set to Static.
Outgoing Label
Forward Tunnel
Binding Type
Only Select policy is available to routers and switches.
Reverse Tunnel
Binding Type
Forward tunnel You can specify a tunnel interface for carrying services, the
priority of the tunnel carrying services, and the number of tunnels
that participate in load balancing.
NOTE
Routers do not support this parameter.
Reverse Tunnel
Forward PW
Control Word
A control word is a four-byte packet header that can identify the
packet sequence or serve as a filling bit.
l Use preferred: indicates that both ends of a PW use control
words.
l Not in use: indicates that neither end of a PW uses control
words.
l Must use: indicates that both ends of a PW must use control
words.
l Inconsistent: indicates that only one end of a PW uses control
words.
The control word function is enabled in the following scenarios:
l Carrying the sequence number of the forwarded packet is
required. If the control word function is supported at the
forwarding layer, a 32-bit control word is prefixed to the data
packet, indicating the packet sequence. If load balancing is
supported, packets may be out of sequence. The control word
can be used to number the packets so that the peer can
reassemble the packets.
l Packets need to be filled to prevent short packets. For
example, when an Ethernet exists between PEs or PPP
connections are established between PEs and CEs, PPP
negotiation may fail because the size of the PPP control
packet does not reach the minimum MTU supported by the
Ethernet. In this case, adding the control word to the packet
can tackle this problem.
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Major
Parameter
Settings
Reverse PW
Control Word
l Carrying control information about the Layer 2 frame header
is required. In some cases, the entire Layer 2 frame does not
need to be transmitted when L2VPN packets are transmitted
on the network. Instead, the Layer 2 frame header can be
removed on the ingress node and then added on the egress
node. However, this method is not applicable if some
information carried in the Layer 2 frame header is required.
Using the control word can tackle this problem because the
control word can carry the information that has been
negotiated between the ingress and egress nodes.

3. Select an NE in the NE list and click the SAI Configuration tab to set relevant SAI
parameters.
Major
Paramete
r
Settings
1 Click Create.
2 In the interface list, select the interface to be bound.
NOTE
You can click Configure to modify interface parameters or click Create to
create a virtual interface.
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Major
Paramete
r
Settings
3 In the SAI Configuration area, select a subinterface.
NOTE
Alternatively, enter a subinterface ID to create a subinterface.
4 Set the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the VSI.
NOTE
If two PEs have the same VSI with have different MTUs, information cannot be
properly exchanged and no connection can be established between the PEs.
5 Set BPDU attributes of the SAI.
Specify whether the SAI transparently transmits BPDU packets.
NOTE
In an L2VPN scenario, if the user networks on the two sides both need to run
MSTP, the SAIs on PEs must be capable of transparently transmitting BPDU
packets from the user side. In this way, BPDU packets from the user side can be
used as service packets and transmitted to the user network across the L2VPN.
If transparent transmission of BPDU packets is disabled, the SAIs discard BPDU
packets from the user side. As a result, MSTP between users is unavailable and
the spanning tree cannot be calculated.
6 Click OK.

4. Click the PW Protection Group Configuration tab and set relevant PW protection
group parameters.
M
aj
or
Pa
ra
m
ete
r
Settings
1st
P
W
You can configure PW protection groups to protect PW pairs of a VSI. 1st
PW specifies one PW in a PW protection group.
Configure a PW protection group for 1st PW and 2nd PW.
2n
d
P
W
You can configure PW protection groups to protect PW pairs of a VSI. 2nd
PW specifies the other PW in a PW protection group.
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M
aj
or
Pa
ra
m
ete
r
Settings
Re
du
nd
an
cy
M
od
e
You can create multiple PW protection groups for a VSI. After you add two
PWs to a PW protection group, the two PWs will work in backup mode. After
creating a PW protection group, specify the PW redundancy mode of the group.
Master/Slave mode: PE1 determines whether a local PW is in the primary or
secondary state based on preset forwarding priorities.
Re
rou
te
Pol
icy
Specifies the policy used to switch services back to the primary PW after the
fault in the primary PW is rectified.
l Delayed switchback: Services are switched back to the primary PW after
the specified Delay Time. After the switchback, the PE immediately
notifies the peer PE on the secondary PW of the fault. In addition, after the
specified Delay Time, the PE notifies the peer PE on the secondary PW of
fault recovery.
l Immediate switchback: Traffic is immediately switched back to the primary
PW. This revertive switching policy applies to scenarios in which users
hope traffic to be restored as soon as possible.
l Non-revertive: Traffic will not be switched back to the primary PW even
after the primary PW recovers. Traffic will be switched back to the primary
PW only when the secondary PW fails. If you do not want traffic to be
frequently switched between the primary and secondary PWs, you can use
the Non-revertive.
De
lay
Ti
me
Specifies the period after which a switchover is performed when Reroute
Policy is set to Delay Reroute and a fault in the primary PW is detected.

l Configure PTN, Hybrid MSTP, and OTN NEs under the following procedure.
Step Operation
1 Select an NE in the NE list and click Details. On the VSI Configuration tab, set
the relevant VSI parameters.
NOTE
l You need to configure all the NEs in the NE list.
l It is recommended that you set Split Horizon Group parameters to prevent multicast
storms. Specifically, add the PWs of NEs to split horizon groups.
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Step Operation
2 Configure a PW for carrying services.
l After Networking Mode is set to Full-Mesh VPLS, the U2000 automatically
creates a PW between the NEs and selects an existing tunnel.
l After you set Networking Mode to Hub-Spoke VPLS and select the UPE
and NPE, the U2000 automatically calculates a multi-hop PW based on the
tunnel between the NEs. If you select a PW, all the segments of the PW are
automatically displayed in the right-hand PW table.
Click the PW Configuration tab. Set In/Out Tunnel binding type and relevant
parameters.
NOTE
l When Binding Type is set to Select Policy, the U2000 automatically selects a tunnel
according to the policy.
l By default, the U2000 automatically allocates PW IDs.
3 Configure an SAI.
1. Select an NE in the NE list and click the SAI Configuration tab.
2. Click Create. In the dialog box that is displayed, set the relevant parameters
for the SAI and click OK.
3. Click the SAI QoS tab, select an SAI, click Configure, and choose Global
QoS Policy Template or QoS Car Template. In the dialog box that is
displayed, set the relevant parameters for the SAI QoS.
4 Configure a PW protection group.
1. Click Create. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a node, set relevant
parameters, and click OK.
2. Click Details, modify PW protection group parameters, and click OK.

Step 5 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a VPLS service based on the PW source and sink.
l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch dialog box, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel
and set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
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3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
Step 6 Click OK.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > VPLS Service > Manage VPLS Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > VPLS Service > Manage VPLS Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured VPLS service and click the VSI tab in the lower part.
3. Right-click the link and choose Fast Diagnosis from the shortcut menu.
4. In the MAC Ping dialog box, click Run.
After the test is complete, the result Success is displayed.
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10 Deploying PWE3 Services
About This Chapter
This topic describes how to use the U2000 to deploy PWE3 services.
10.1 PWE3 Service Function Panorama
This topic describes PWE3 service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions.
10.2 Creating PWE3 Services
The Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3) technology is used to carry Layer 2 services.
PWE3 simulates the basic behaviors and characteristics of services, such as Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay (FR), Ethernet, low-speed Time Division Multiplex (TDM)
circuit, and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH),
in a Packet Switched Network (PSN).
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10.1 PWE3 Service Function Panorama
This topic describes PWE3 service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports, as
well as the navigation paths to these functions.
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Table 10-1 PWE3 service configuration
Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
switc
h
PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
Servi
ce
disco
very
Automaticall
y discover
PWE3
services.
Choose Service >
Search for Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Search for Service
(application style) from
the main menu.
Servi
ce
creati
on
Create a CES
service or
create CES
services in
batches.
- Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Create PWE3 Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Create PWE3 Service
(application style) from
the main menu. Select a
desired service type in
the basic information
area.
Create an
ETH service.

Create an
ATM service.
- -
Create an IP
over PW
service.
- - - - -
Creating an
ATM IWF
service.
- - - - -
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
switc
h
PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
Create a
heterogeneou
s
interworking
ATM service
- - - - -
Create a
management
PW.
- - - - -
Servi
ce
reliab
ility
Configure
BFD.
- - - - - Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
PWE3 service and
choose Configure
BFD from the shortcut
menu.
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
switc
h
PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
Configure
MPLS-TP
OAM.
- l Perform the
following
operations to
configure MPLS-
TP OAM for a
created PWE3
service:
Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Select a
PWE3 service,
right-click, and
choose PW OAM >
Enable MPLS-TP
OAM from the
shortcut menu to
automatically
enable MPLS-TP
OAM.
l Perform the
following
operations to
configure MPLS-
TP OAM for a
PWE3 service that
is being created:
Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Create PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
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h
PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Create
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Choose
Detail > Advanced
PW Attribute.
Select a record and
click Configure
MPLS-TP OAM
(Y.1731).
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
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PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
Configure
Ethernet
OAM.
- l Choose Service >
Service Ethernet
OAM (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > Service
Ethernet OAM
(application style)
from the main
menu.
l Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Right-click a
PWE3 service and
choose Ethernet
OAM > Start CC
from the shortcut
menu.
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
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h
PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
Configure
VRRP.
- - - - - Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Right-click a
PWE3 service and
choose Configure
VRRP from the
shortcut menu.
Servi
ce
monit
oring
View a
discrete PWE3
service.
Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Discrete Service
(traditional style) from
the main menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Discrete Service
(application style) from
the main menu.
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
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PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
View a PWE3
service
topology.
Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a PWE3
service and view the
service information in
the topology view on
the Topology tab.
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Scen
ario
Task Rout
er/
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PT
N
R
T
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
O
T
N
OL
T
Navigation Path
Monitor
PWE3 service
alarms.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Fault
Management in
Application
Center and choose
Alarm Monitoring
> Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(application style)
from the main
menu.
l Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Select a
PWE3 service,
right-click, and
choose Add to
Monitoring Group
from the shortcut
menu.
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Monitor
PWE3 service
performance
instances.
l After a service is
created and
deployed, click
Create Monitoring
Instance in the
dialog box that is
displayed.
l Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Right-click a
PWE3 service and
choose
Performance >
Create Monitoring
Instance from the
shortcut menu.
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Servi
ce
diagn
osis
Detect PWE3
service
connectivity.
- Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a PWE3
service, right-click, and
choose Diagnose >
Test and Check from
the shortcut menu.
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Task Rout
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N
R
T
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N
OL
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Navigation Path
Perform fast
diagnosis.
- - 1. Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. Select the service to
be viewed from the
service list and click
the Topology tab.
3. In the service
topology, select a
PW between NEs,
right-click, and
choose Fast
Diagnose from the
shortcut menu.
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OL
T
Navigation Path
Use a test
suite to
diagnose
PWE3
services.
- - 1. Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. In the PWE3 service
management
window, select a
service, right-click,
and choose
Diagnose > Create
Test Suite from the
shortcut menu.
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Servi
ce
adjust
ment
Adjust
discrete PWE3
services.
1. Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Discrete Service
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Discrete
Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. Select one or more
discrete PWE3
services and click
Convert to
Unterminated.
Alternatively, right-
click one or more
discrete PWE3
services and choose
Convert to
Unterminated
from the shortcut
menu.
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Servi
ce
maint
enanc
e
Modify a
PWE3 service.
1. Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. Select a PWE3
service and click
desired tabs to
modify the
associated
information as
needed.
NOTE
To modify an
undeployed service,
select the service, right-
click, and choose
Modify from the
shortcut menu.
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Navigation Path
Undeploy a
PWE3 service.
1. Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. Select a PWE3
service with
Deployment
Status set to
Deployed or
Partially
Deployed, right-
click, and choose
Deploy and
Enable >
Undeploy from the
shortcut menu.
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Delete PWE3
services.
1. Choose Service >
PWE3 Service >
Manage PWE3
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and choose
Service > PWE3
Service > Manage
PWE3 Service
(application style)
from the main
menu.
2. Select one or more
undeployed
services, right-
click, and choose
the follow option
from the shortcut
menu.
l Delete Service >
Delete from
Network Side
l Delete Service >
Delete
l Delete Service >
Completely
Delete
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NOTE
The deletion options
include Delete from
Network Side,
Delete and
Completely Delete.
l Delete from
Network Side:
Deletes the
selected service
in the
Undeployed
state, that is,
deletes the
service from the
U2000.
l Delete: Deletes
the selected
service from the
U2000 and NEs,
but
automatically
backs up the
service data to
the recycle bin.
l Completely
Delete: Deletes
the selected
service
completely from
the U2000
database and
NEs. You cannot
restore the
service from the
recycle bin.

10.2 Creating PWE3 Services
The Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3) technology is used to carry Layer 2 services.
PWE3 simulates the basic behaviors and characteristics of services, such as Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay (FR), Ethernet, low-speed Time Division Multiplex (TDM)
circuit, and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH),
in a Packet Switched Network (PSN).
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10.2.1 Creating CES Services One by One or in Batches
This topic describes how to create CES services one by one or in batches to transmit TDM
signals. The trail configuration method allows you to configure the source and sink nodes of
CES services and the PW attributes in the GUI of the U2000, achieving fast service creation.
Prerequisites
l DCN is disabled on the port that carries CES services. For details, see the relevant
descriptions of the NE Explorer.
l CES service (E1/T1 level): A CES service interface is configured, the interface mode is set
to Layer 1, and the frame format and frame mode of the interface are configured.
l CES service (VC4/VC4(3*VC3) level): A CES service interface is configured. The SDH/
SONET mode and VC3/VC4 channel level of the STM-1(VC3/VC4) boards (TND1CQ1)
are configured.
l A tunnel for carrying the services is created.
l For PTN series NEs, when creating a dynamic PW to carry the services, you must set IGP-
ISIS and MPLS-LDP protocol parameters.
CES Service (E1/T1 Level)
A frame format must be set for the interface that is used to carry a CES service, and the frame
format must be the same as the service encapsulation format. If the emulation mode of the CES
service is CESoPSN, you can set the frame format of an E1 interface to CRC-4 multiframe
(recommended value) or Double frame. The frame format of a T1 interface can be SF, ESF-
NOCRC, ESF, or ESF-JAPAN. If the emulation mode of a CES service is SATop, the frame
format of the interface must be non-framing.
A frame format must be set for the interface that is used to carry a CES service. A PDH interface
on the OptiX PTN 3900, OptiX PTN 1900, OptiX PTN 3900-8, OptiX PTN 950, or OptiX PTN
910 OptiX PTN 960 supports the 30-timeslot or 31-timeslot frame format. The PTN 905 supports
only the 24-timeslot frame format. The OptiX PTN 912 supports only the 30-timeslot frame
format. In hybrid networking, the frame formats of the local and peer ports must be the same.
l 30: In the E1 frame format, timeslots 1 to 15 and 17 to 31 are used to transmit service data.
l 31: In the E1 frame format, timeslots 1 to 31 are used to transmit service data.
CES Service (VC4/VC4(3*VC3) Level)
STM-1(VC3/VC4) boards (TND1CQ1) are used to receive CES services, in compliance with
SDH and SONET. STM-1(VC3/VC4) boards support VC4/VC4(3*VC3)-level CES services.
Context
If multiple CES services need to be created on the same source and sink NEs, create these services
in the same GUI. The usage scenarios and restrictions are as follows:
l If the SAIs of the source and sink NEs for a PW are E1 interfaces, multiple SAIs can be
selected.
PWs are generated based on the sequence of selecting E1 interfaces. You must ensure the
mappings when selecting E1 interfaces.
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l If the SAI at one end of the PW between the source and sink NEs is an E1 interface and
the SAI at the other end is a CPOS interface, select multiple E1 interfaces at one end and
configure multiple lower-order timeslots at the other end.
PWs are generated based on the sequence of selecting E1 interfaces and configuring CPOS
lower-order timeslots. You must ensure the mappings when selecting E1 interfaces and
configuring CPOS lower-order timeslots.
For example, if Low TimeSlot for the selected CPOS interfaces is set to 13,25 (values
separated by a comma), and the sink interfaces are E1 7/1/10 and E1 7/1/13, PWs are
generated in the sequence shown in the following figure.
l If the SAIs of the PW source and sink NEs are both CPOS interfaces, multiple lower-order
timeslots can be configured at both ends.
The lower-order timeslot settings at both ends must be consistent.
NOTE
When CES services are created in batches, the protection type can be only Protection-Free or PW
Redundancy. Only the ATN 910, ATN 950, and CX600 series NEs support PW Redundancy.
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Configuration Principle
NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device
type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set parameters on the General Attributes tab.
Major Parameter Settings
Service Template You can select a template from the Service Template text box and
use the template to configure a service.
Service Type Set this parameter to CES.
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Major Parameter Settings
Protection Type l If Protection Type is set to Protection-Free, you must
configure the source and sink nodes.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Redundancy or PW APS
Protection, select Single Source and Dual Sink or Dual
Source and Single Sink in Node List. You must configure one
source node and two sink nodes for Single Source and Dual
Sink, and two source nodes and one sink node for Dual Source
and Single Sink.
The PWs for PW Redundancy serve as the working,
protection and DNI paths.
The three PWs for PW APS Protection serve as the working
path, protection path, and DNI. PW APS Protection can also
be set to Single Source and Single Sink.
l If Protection Type is set to CE Dual-homing Protection for
CEs of Symmetric Access, you must configure two source
nodes and two sink nodes. The corresponding two PWs protect
each other.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, two
dynamic PWs are automatically created between the source and
sink nodes. The two PWs protect each other.
NOTE
For OLT series NEs, Protect Type can be set only to Protection-Free, PW
Redundancy, or PW Backup Protection.
Service ID By default, Service ID is set to Auto-Assign. Service ID can also
be assigned according to service planning.

Step 3 Select the source and sink nodes. The number of timeslots of the selected interfaces on the source
and sink nodes must be the same. Otherwise, service deployment may fail.
The methods of configuring the source and sink nodes are the same. Therefore, the following
describes only the method of configuring the source node.
1. Right-click an NE in the Physical Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
l According to the protection types, NEs can be configured as different roles through the shortcut
menu. Set As Switching Node indicates that the NE is configured as a hop of the multi-hop PW.
For services without protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working only. For services
with protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working, Protection or DNI.
l If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you
sure to continue? is displayed.
2. Configure an interface.
l For routers and OLT series NEs: In the dialog box that is displayed, set the filter criteria
and click Search. Then the interfaces that meet the filter criteria are displayed.
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If no interface meets the filter criteria, you can create an interface or modify the attributes
of an existing interface.
l For PTN, RTN, and MSTP+ series NEs: In the right-hand portion of the NE Panel, all
slots and available boards of the NE are displayed. Select a board based on the type of
the service to be created.
NOTE
For PTN series NEs, if you place the pointer at an available interface shown in the preceding
figure, the interface rate is displayed.
3. Select an interface.
4. On the SAI Configuration tab, set the SAI attributes of the service interface.
When CES services are created in batches, select multiple E1 interfaces or configure the
CPOS lower-order timeslot. For details about the usage scenarios and restrictions, see
Background Information.
5. Click OK. Configure the sink or protection node using the same method according to the
protection type. The configured roles are displayed in the node list.
6. Optional: Click Configure Source And Sink, select Unterminated on the left, specify
the LSR ID of an unterminated node, and click Add Node. In the lower portion of the
window, the unterminated source and sink nodes are displayed. Click OK.
NOTE
On a network, if NEs only at one end of a service can be managed by the U2000, select
Unterminated and set the LSR ID for the peer end of the service.
Currently, PTN NEs in the same management domain can be configured as unterminated nodes.
If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection or PW APS protection, no unterminated node
can be set.
7. Use the same method to configure the sink, protection, and transit nodes based on the
protection type.
Step 4 Optional: Click Configure PW Switch Node to add working and protection transit NEs
between the source and sink NEs.
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NOTE
Protection switching nodes cannot be configured on services that are not protected.
Step 5 Optional: Double-click parameters in Node or SAI Parameter to modify the settings of the
source and sink NEs displayed in Node List. To view the topology of a configured service, click
the Service Topology tab in the upper right area.
Step 6 Set basic PW attributes in the PW pane.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered.
Signaling Type You can set Signaling Type to Dynamic or Static. If you set Signaling
Type to Dynamic, Forward Label and Reverse Label are assigned
automatically. If you set Signaling Type to Static, Forward Label
and Reverse Label can be assigned automatically or manually.
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Major Parameter Settings
Forward Type/
Reverse Type
Forward Type and Reverse Type can be set to Static Binding, Select
policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or AutoCreate TE Policy.
l If the source NE is a PTN NE, Forward Type can be set to Static
Binding or Select policy. If the source NE is a router, Forward
Type can be set to Select policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or
AutoCreate TE Policy. If the source NE is a transport NE,
Forward Type can be set to Static Binding. If the source NE is an
OLT NE, Forward Type can be set to Select policy.
l If the sink NE is a PTN NE, Reverse Type can be set to Static
Binding or Select policy. If the sink NE is a router, Reverse
Type can be set to Select policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or
AutoCreate TE Policy. If the sink NE is a transport NE, Reverse
Type can be set to Static Binding. If the sink NE is an OLT NE,
Reverse Type can be set to Select policy.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
If you select Static Binding for a tunnel, you can set the forward and
reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel window. If a bidirectional tunnel
is selected as the forward tunnel, the reverse tunnel automatically
selects the bidirectional tunnel.
You can also configure the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the
Service Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between
the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward
Tunnel or Select Reverse Tunnel from the shortcut menu. In the
dialog box that is displayed, select the tunnel for static binding.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
You can set the forward and reverse policies by clicking the Service
Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between the source
and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward Policy or Select
Reverse Policy. In the dialog box that is displayed, adjust the tunnel
priority.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.

Step 7 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
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l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 8 Click Detail and check the configurations in the pane that is displayed in the lower right area.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
Step 9 Optional: Click the Advanced PW Attribute tab to set parameters for a PW and set the clock
mode for the source and sink NEs.
Major Parameter Settings
Jitter Compensation Buffering Time The value of Jitter Compensation
Buffering Time must be greater than the
value of Packet Loading Time at the peer
end.
RTP Head The value of RTP Head can be changed
online after a CES service is created.

NOTE
The emulation level of CES services can be E1, T1, VC4, and VC4(3*VC3).
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-
TP OAM parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.
1731 for the source and sink NEs
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the
source and sink NEs
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NOTICE
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a
PWE3 service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet
Sending Priority set on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node
of the PW.
Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box, set MPLS-TP OAM parameters.
Step 10 Optional: If the service protection type is PW Redundancy, PW Backup Protection, or PW
APS protection, click Protection Parameter to set protection parameters.
l If the service protection type is PW Redundancy or PW Backup Protection, set Protection
Mode to 1:1 or 1+1.
l If the service protection type is PW APS protection, set parameters as follows.
NOTE
Currently, PTN NEs support only 1:1 protection for dual-end protection switching, and the revertive
and non-revertive modes.
Protection Type can be set to Slave protection pair. If the working PWs, protection PWs, and DNI-
PWs of multiple MC-PW APS protection groups to be created share the same source and sink with the
working PW, protection PW, and DNI-PW of an existing MC-PW APS protection group, you can bind
these MC-PW APS protection groups to the existing MC-PW APS protection group (master MC-PW
APS protection group). Then these PWs are considered as being in one MC-PW APS protection group
to implement synchronous detection and switching. This mechanism reduces the switching time and
saves OAM and APS resources. The entire MC-PW APS protection group determines whether to
perform protection switching based on the status of the PWs in the master MC-PW APS protection
group. Protection Group ID of the slave protection pair must be set to the ID of the protection group
that serves as the master PW APS protection group.
Step 11 Optional: Configure the Connection Admission Control (CAC) function.
NOTE
Only PTN NEs support this function.
When CAC is selected, the system checks whether the available bandwidth of a tunnel is
sufficient for a PWE3 service if the tunnel bound to the PWE3 service is a static CR tunnel and
the CIR and PIR are set for the tunnel when the PWE3 service is created. If the available
bandwidth is sufficient, the CIR and PIR of the tunnel remain unchanged. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient, the CIR of the tunnel increases. After the increase, if the PIR of the
tunnel is greater than the CIR, the PIR remains unchanged; if the PIR is smaller than the CIR,
the PIR increases until it equals the CIR.
Step 12 Select the Deploy check box and click OK.
NOTE
l If the Deploy check box is not selected, the configuration data is stored only on the U2000. If the
Deploy check box is selected, the configuration data is stored on the U2000 and applied to NEs. By
default, the Deploy check box is selected.
l If the Deploy and Enable check boxes are selected, services on NEs are available only when the services
are enabled.
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Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
The result Success is displayed.
10.2.2 Creating an ETH Service
This topic describes how to create an ETH service in trail configuration mode. Transparent
transmission of user data is implemented by transmitting the service accessed on the user side
to one PW on the network side. In this manner, user data can be transparently transmitted in a
point-to-point manner. The trail configuration mode allows you to configure the source and sink
nodes of an ETH service and the PW attributes in the GUI of the U2000.
Prerequisites
l DCN is disabled on the UNI.
l A tunnel for carrying the service is created.
l When creating a dynamic PW to carry the service, you must set IGP-ISIS and MPLS-LDP
protocol parameters.
Configuration Principle
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NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device
type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set parameters on the Basic Attributes tab.
Major Parameter Settings
Service Template You can select a template from the Service Template text box
and use the template to configure a service.
Service Type Set this parameter to ETH.
Protection Type l If Protection Type is set to Protection-Free, you must
configure the source and sink nodes.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Redundancy or PW APS
protection or PW FPS protection, select Single Source and
Dual Sink or Dual Source and Single Sink in Node List. You
must configure one source node and two sink nodes for Single
Source and Dual Sink, and two source nodes and one sink
node for Dual Source and Single Sink.
The PWs for PW Redundancy serve as the working,
protection and DNI paths.
The three PWs for PW APS protection or PW FPS
protection serve as the working path, protection path, and
DNI. PW APS protection or PW FPS protection can also
be set to Single Source and Single Sink.
l If Protection Type is set to CE Dual-homing Protection for
CEs of Symmetric Access, you must configure two source
nodes and two sink nodes. The corresponding two PWs protect
each other.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, two
dynamic PWs are automatically created between the source
and sink nodes. The two PWs protect each other.
NOTE
For OLT series NEs, Protect Type can be set only to Protection-Free,
PW Redundancy, or PW Backup Protection.
Service ID By default, Service ID is set to Auto-Assign. Service ID can also
be assigned according to service planning.

Step 3 Select the source and sink NEs.
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NOTE
If a VLAN ID conflict occurs during source or sink NE configuration, information (for example, service
name) about services to which the conflicting VLAN IDs belong is displayed during the conflict check
process.
The methods of configuring the source and sink nodes are the same. Therefore, the following
describes only the method of configuring the source node.
1. Right-click an NE in the Physical Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
l According to the protection types, NEs can be configured as different roles through the shortcut
menu. Set As Switching Node indicates that the NE is configured as a hop of the multi-hop PW.
For services without protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working only. For services
with protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working, Protection or DNI.
l If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you
sure to continue? is displayed.
2. Configure an interface.
l For routers and OLT series NEs: In the dialog box that is displayed, set the filter criteria
and click Search. Then the interfaces that meet the filter criteria are displayed.
If no interface meets the filter criteria, you can create an interface or modify the attributes
of an existing interface.
l For PTN, RTN, and MSTP+ series NEs: In the right-hand portion of the NE Panel, all
slots and available boards of the NE are displayed. Select a board based on the type of
the service to be created.
NOTE
For PTN series NEs, if you place the pointer at an available interface shown in the preceding
figure, the interface rate is displayed.
3. Select an interface.
4. On the SAI Configuration tab, set the SAI attributes of the service interface.
5. Click OK. Configure the sink or protection node using the same method according to the
protection type. The configured roles are displayed in the node list.
6. Click Configure Source And Sink, select Unterminated on the left, specify the LSR ID
of an unterminated node, and click Add Node. In the lower portion of the window, the
unterminated source and sink nodes are displayed. Click OK.
NOTE
On a network, if NEs only at one end of a service can be managed by the U2000, select
Unterminated and set the LSR ID for the peer end of the service.
Currently, PTN NEs in the same management domain can be used to configure unterminated trails.
If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, PW APS protection, or PW FPS
protection, no unterminated node can be set.
7. Use the same method to configure the sink, protection, and transit nodes based on the
protection type.
Step 4 Optional: Click Configure PW Switch Node to add working and protection transit NEs
between the source and sink NEs.
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NOTE
Protection switching nodes cannot be configured on services that are not protected.
Step 5 Optional: Double-click parameters in Node or SAI Parameter to modify the settings of the
source and sink NEs displayed in Node List. To view the topology of a configured service, click
the Service Topology tab in the upper right area.
Step 6 Set basic PW attributes in the PW pane.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered.
Signaling Type You can set Signaling Type to Dynamic or Static. If you set Signaling
Type to Dynamic, Forward Label and Reverse Label are assigned
automatically. If you set Signaling Type to Static, Forward Label
and Reverse Label can be assigned automatically or manually.
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Major Parameter Settings
Forward Type/
Reverse Type
Forward Type and Reverse Type can be set to Static Binding, Select
policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or AutoCreate TE Policy.
l If the source NE is a PTN NE, Forward Type can be set to Static
Binding or Select policy. If the source NE is a router, Forward
Type can be set to Select policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or
AutoCreate TE Policy. If the source NE is a transport NE,
Forward Type can be set to Static Binding. If the source NE is an
OLT NE, Forward Type can be set to Select policy.
l If the sink NE is a PTN NE, Reverse Type can be set to Static
Binding or Select policy. If the sink NE is a router, Reverse
Type can be set to Select policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or
AutoCreate TE Policy. If the sink NE is a transport NE, Reverse
Type can be set to Static Binding. If the sink NE is an OLT NE,
Reverse Type can be set to Select policy.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
If you select Static Binding for a tunnel, you can set the forward and
reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel window. If a bidirectional tunnel
is selected as the forward tunnel, the reverse tunnel automatically
selects the bidirectional tunnel.
You can also configure the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the
Service Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between
the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward
Tunnel or Select Reverse Tunnel from the shortcut menu. In the
dialog box that is displayed, select the tunnel for static binding.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
You can set the forward and reverse policies by clicking the Service
Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between the source
and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward Policy or Select
Reverse Policy. In the dialog box that is displayed, adjust the tunnel
priority.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.

Step 7 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
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l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 8 Click Detail and check the configurations in the pane that is displayed in the lower right area.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
Step 9 Optional: Click the SAI QoS tab to view Global Template or configure the global template
and service bandwidth for the SAI. Alternatively, select one of the configured policies in the
Global Template text box. If you set Bandwidth Limit to Enabled, CIR,PIR,CBS and
PBS can be set.
Step 10 Optional: Click the Service Parameter tab to set service parameters. If you set BPDU Private
Service to Yes, MTU and VLAN ID cannot be set for the Router Series NE. If multiple source
and sink nodes are configured for the service, configuring different service tags on the source
and sink nodes is supported.
Step 11 Optional: Click the PW QoS tab to configure the global template and service bandwidth for a
PW. Alternatively, click Global Template and select a global QoS template from the drop-
down list. Then set parameters. After you set Bandwidth Limit of a PW to Enabled, CIR and
PIR can be set.
Step 12 Optional: Click the Advanced PW Attribute tab to set advanced PW parameters. TPID and
Request VLAN are available only when PW Type is set to Ethernet Tagged Mode.
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-
TP OAM parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.
1731 for the source and sink NEs
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the
source and sink NEs
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NOTICE
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a
PWE3 service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet
Sending Priority set on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node
of the PW.
Step 13 Optional: If the service protection type is PW Redundancy, PW Backup Protection, or PW
APS protection or PW FPS protection, click Protection Parameter to set protection
parameters.
l If the service protection type is PW Redundancy or PW Backup Protection, set Protection
Mode to 1:1 or 1+1.
l If the service protection type is PW APS protection, set parameters as follows.
NOTE
Currently, PTN NEs support only 1:1 protection for dual-end protection switching, and the revertive
and non-revertive modes.
Protection Type can be set to Slave protection pair. If the working PWs, protection PWs, and DNI-
PWs of multiple MC-PW APS protection groups to be created share the same source and sink with the
working PW, protection PW, and DNI-PW of an existing MC-PW APS protection group, you can bind
these MC-PW APS protection groups to the existing MC-PW APS protection group (master MC-PW
APS protection group). Then these PWs are considered as being in one MC-PW APS protection group
to implement synchronous detection and switching. This mechanism reduces the switching time and
saves OAM and APS resources. The entire MC-PW APS protection group determines whether to
perform protection switching based on the status of the PWs in the master MC-PW APS protection
group. Protection Group ID of the slave protection pair must be set to the ID of the protection group
that serves as the master PW APS protection group.
Step 14 Optional: Configure the Connection Admission Control (CAC) function.
NOTE
Only PTN NEs support this function.
When CAC is selected, the system checks whether the available bandwidth of a tunnel is
sufficient for a PWE3 service if the tunnel bound to the PWE3 service is a static CR tunnel and
the CIR and PIR are set for the tunnel when the PWE3 service is created. If the available
bandwidth is sufficient, the CIR and PIR of the tunnel remain unchanged. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient, the CIR of the tunnel increases. After the increase, if the PIR of the
tunnel is greater than the CIR, the PIR remains unchanged; if the PIR is smaller than the CIR,
the PIR increases until it equals the CIR.
Step 15 Select the Deploy check box and click OK.
NOTE
l If the Deploy check box is not selected, the configuration data is stored only on the U2000. If the
Deploy check box is selected, the configuration data is stored on the U2000 and applied to NEs. By
default, the Deploy check box is selected.
l If the Deploy and Enable check boxes are selected, services on NEs are available only when the services
are enabled.
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Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
The result Success is displayed.
10.2.3 Creating an ATM Service
This topic describes how to create an ATM service in trail configuration mode. The trail
configuration mode allows you to configure the source and sink nodes of an ATM service and
the PW attributes in the GUI of the U2000.
Prerequisites
l ATM service interfaces are configured.
l If IMA interfaces are used, IMA groups must be formed.
l PTN NEs can access ATM services by using ATM STM-1 boards.
l An ATM policy is configured.
l A tunnel for carrying the service is created.
l When creating a dynamic PW to carry the service, you must set IGP-ISIS and MPLS-LDP
protocol parameters.
Configuration Principle
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NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device
type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set parameters on the Basic Attributes tab.
Major Parameter Settings
Service Template You can select a template from the Service Template text box and
use the template to configure a service.
Service Type Set this parameter to ATM.
Protection Type l If Protection Type is set to PW Redundancy or PW APS
Protection, select Single Source and Dual Sink or Dual
Source and Single Sink in Node List. You must configure one
source node and two sink nodes for Single Source and Dual
Sink, and two source nodes and one sink node for Dual Source
and Single Sink.
The PWs for PW Redundancy serve as the working,
protection and DNI paths.
The three PWs for PW APS Protection serve as the working
path, protection path, and DNI. PW APS Protection can
also be set to Single Source and Single Sink.
l If Protection Type is set to CE Dual-homing Protection for
CEs of Symmetric Access, you must configure two source
nodes and two sink nodes. The corresponding two PWs protect
each other.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, two
dynamic PWs are automatically created between the source and
sink nodes. The two PWs protect each other.
Service ID By default, Service ID is set to Auto-Assign. Service ID can also
be assigned according to service planning.
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Major Parameter Settings
Link Type Select a link type from the drop-down list according to the service
requirements.
l ATM transparent cell transport
l ATM N-to-1 VPC cell transport
l ATM 1-to-1 VPC cell transport
l ATM N-to-1 VCC cell transport
l ATM 1-to-1 VCC cell transport
l ATM AAL5 SDU VCC transport
l ATM AAL5 PDU VCC transport

Step 3 Select the source and sink NEs.
The methods of configuring the source and sink nodes are the same. Therefore, the following
describes only the method of configuring the source node.
1. Right-click an NE in the Physical Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
l According to the protection types, NEs can be configured as different roles through the shortcut
menu. Set As Switching Node indicates that the NE is configured as a hop of the multi-hop PW.
For services without protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working only. For services
with protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working, Protection or DNI.
l If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you
sure to continue? is displayed.
2. Configure an interface.
l For routers and OLT series NEs: In the dialog box that is displayed, set the filter criteria
and click Search. Then the interfaces that meet the filter criteria are displayed.
If no interface meets the filter criteria, you can create an interface or modify the attributes
of an existing interface.
l For PTN, RTN, and MSTP+ series NEs: In the right-hand portion of the NE Panel, all
slots and available boards of the NE are displayed. Select a board based on the type of
the service to be created.
NOTE
For PTN series NEs, if you place the pointer at an available interface shown in the preceding
figure, the interface rate is displayed.
3. Select an interface.
4. On the SAI Configuration tab, set the SAI attributes of the service interface.
5. Click OK. Configure the sink or protection node using the same method according to the
protection type. The configured roles are displayed in the node list.
6. Click Configure Source And Sink, select Unterminated on the left, specify the LSR ID
of an unterminated node, and click Add Node. In the lower portion of the window, the
unterminated source and sink nodes are displayed. Click OK.
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NOTE
On a network, if NEs only at one end of a service can be managed by the U2000, select
Unterminated and set the LSR ID for the peer end of the service.
Currently, PTN NEs in the same management domain can be used to configure unterminated trails.
If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, PW APS protection, no unterminated node
can be set.
7. Use the same method to configure the sink, protection, and transit nodes based on the
protection type.
Step 4 Optional: Click Configure PW Switch Node to add working and protection transit NEs
between the source, sink and DNI NEs.
Step 5 Optional: Double-click parameters in Node or SAI Parameter to modify the settings of the
source and sink NEs displayed in Node List. To view the topology of a configured service, click
the Service Topology tab in the upper right area.
Step 6 Set basic PW attributes in the PW pane.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered.
Signaling Type You can set Signaling Type to Dynamic or Static. If you set Signaling
Type to Dynamic, Forward Label and Reverse Label are assigned
automatically. If you set Signaling Type to Static, Forward Label
and Reverse Label can be assigned automatically or manually.
Forward Type/
Reverse Type
Forward Type and Reverse Type can be set to Static Binding, Select
policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or AutoCreate TE Policy.
l If the source NE is a PTN NE, Forward Type can be set to Static
Binding or Select policy. If the source NE is a router, Forward
Type can be set to Select policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or
AutoCreate TE Policy. If the source NE is a transport NE,
Forward Type can be set to Static Binding. If the source NE is an
OLT NE, Forward Type can be set to Select policy.
l If the sink NE is a PTN NE, Reverse Type can be set to Static
Binding or Select policy. If the sink NE is a router, Reverse
Type can be set to Select policy, AutoCreate Order Policy, or
AutoCreate TE Policy. If the sink NE is a transport NE, Reverse
Type can be set to Static Binding. If the sink NE is an OLT NE,
Reverse Type can be set to Select policy.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
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Major Parameter Settings
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
If you select Static Binding for a tunnel, you can set the forward and
reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel window. If a bidirectional tunnel
is selected as the forward tunnel, the reverse tunnel automatically
selects the bidirectional tunnel.
You can also configure the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the
Service Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between
the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward
Tunnel or Select Reverse Tunnel from the shortcut menu. In the
dialog box that is displayed, select the tunnel for static binding.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
You can set the forward and reverse policies by clicking the Service
Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between the source
and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward Policy or Select
Reverse Policy. In the dialog box that is displayed, adjust the tunnel
priority.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.

Step 7 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 8 Click ATM Link. In the dialog box that is displayed, add multiple ATM connections and set
the relevant parameters.
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NOTE
l An ATM connection requires a PVC.
l After you configure a source VPI/VCI, the sink VPI/VCI and transit VPI/VCI are automatically
displayed on the U2000. On a network consisting of PTN/ATN NEs, the transit VPI/VCI can be
configured to be different from the source or sink VPI/VCI.
l If a configured VPI/VCI has been used by another service, the related message is displayed.
l For PTN series NEs, after you configure a source ATM policy, the sink ATM policy is automatically
displayed on the U2000.
Step 9 Click Detail and check the configurations in the pane that is displayed in the lower right area.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
Step 10 Optional: Click the PW QoS tab to configure a global PW template. Alternatively, select one
of the configured templates in the Global Template text box and set the relevant parameters.
Step 11 Optional: Click the Advanced PW Attribute tab to set PW parameters.
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-
TP OAM parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.
1731 for the source and sink NEs
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the
source and sink NEs
NOTICE
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a
PWE3 service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet
Sending Priority set on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node
of the PW.
The PW control word can be changed online. In other words, Control Word can be changed
online after an ATM service is created.
Step 12 Optional: Click CE, set parameters of CE.
Step 13 Optional: Click SAI QoS, set parameters of QoS.
Step 14 Optional: If the service protection type is PW Redundancy, PW Backup Protection, or PW
APS protection, click Protection Parameter to set protection parameters.
l If the service protection type is PW Redundancy or PW Backup Protection, set Protection
Mode to 1:1 or 1+1.
l If the service protection type is PW APS protection, set parameters as follows.
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NOTE
Currently, PTN NEs support only 1:1 protection for dual-end protection switching, and the revertive
and non-revertive modes.
Protection Type can be set to Slave protection pair. If the working PWs, protection PWs, and DNI-
PWs of multiple MC-PW APS protection groups to be created share the same source and sink with the
working PW, protection PW, and DNI-PW of an existing MC-PW APS protection group, you can bind
these MC-PW APS protection groups to the existing MC-PW APS protection group (master MC-PW
APS protection group). Then these PWs are considered as being in one MC-PW APS protection group
to implement synchronous detection and switching. This mechanism reduces the switching time and
saves OAM and APS resources. The entire MC-PW APS protection group determines whether to
perform protection switching based on the status of the PWs in the master MC-PW APS protection
group. Protection Group ID of the slave protection pair must be set to the ID of the protection group
that serves as the master PW APS protection group.
Step 15 Optional: Configure the Connection Admission Control (CAC) function.
NOTE
Only PTN NEs support this function.
When CAC is selected, the system checks whether the available bandwidth of a tunnel is
sufficient for a PWE3 service if the tunnel bound to the PWE3 service is a static CR tunnel and
the CIR and PIR are set for the tunnel when the PWE3 service is created. If the available
bandwidth is sufficient, the CIR and PIR of the tunnel remain unchanged. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient, the CIR of the tunnel increases. After the increase, if the PIR of the
tunnel is greater than the CIR, the PIR remains unchanged; if the PIR is smaller than the CIR,
the PIR increases until it equals the CIR.
Step 16 Select the Deploy check box and click OK.
NOTE
l If the Deploy check box is not selected, the configuration data is stored only on the U2000. If the
Deploy check box is selected, the configuration data is stored on the U2000 and applied to NEs. By
default, the Deploy check box is selected.
l If the Deploy and Enable check boxes are selected, services on NEs are available only when the services
are enabled.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
The result Success is displayed.
10.2.4 Creating an IP over PW Service
This topic describes how to use the end-to-end service management function to create an IP over
PW service.
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Prerequisites
If you need to use a UNI exclusively, the DCN function must be disabled on the UNI.
An MPLS tunnel must be created if the tunnel is required for carrying services.
For PTN series NEs: An IP/GRE tunnel must be created if the tunnel is required for carrying
services.
NOTE
A VRF UNI must be configured before you configure a UNI for an IP over PW service on the RNC side.
You do not need to configure the MP-BGP protocol before creating an IP over PW service.
Configuration Principle
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 On the Basic Attributes tab, set the relevant parameters.
Major Parameter Settings
Service Type Set this parameter to IP over PW.
Protection Type For configuration principles of Protection Type, see 4.3.3.4
PW Protection.
By default, Protection Type is set to Protection-Free. If you
need to configure PW protection for the IP over PW service,
select PW Redundancy.
Service ID By default, Service ID is set to Auto-Assign. Service ID can
also be assigned according to service planning.
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Step 3 Configure the source and sink nodes for the service.
1. Click Configure Source And Sink. The Configure Node dialog box is displayed.
2. Choose an NE from the navigation tree and select a port from the pane on the right. Then
click Add Node. Set Location to Source or Sink. After the setting is complete, click
OK.
NOTE
l The requirements for the source and sink nodes of an IP over PW service are as follows:
l The source node must be a Layer 3 interface whose IP address is not configured and port
tunnel status is disabled. In addition, the source NE is not configured with L3VPN.
l The sink node must be a Layer 3 virtual interface that serves as a VRF UNI of the sink NE.
l If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you
sure to continue? is displayed.
Step 4 Optional: Configure a PW switching node. Click Configure PW Switch Node and select a PW
switching node between the source and sink NEs. Then click OK.
NOTE
A PW switching node cannot be the source or sink NE.
Step 5 Configure a PW. Click the PW tab and configure basic attributes for the PW.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered. The
PW ID must be unique on the network. That is, one PW ID
specifies only one PW.
Forward Type/Reverse Type Set Forward Type and Reverse Type to Static.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter
settings after provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel/Reverse
Tunnel
Select a created forward tunnel for Forward Tunnel or
Reverse Tunnel.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter
settings after provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Signaling Type Set Signaling Type to Static.
NOTE
In the case of an IP over PW service, only Static signaling is
supported.
Encapsulation Set MPLS to Encapsulation.

Step 6 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
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l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 7 Click Deploy to deploy the service to NEs. If you click Enable, the service is available.
Otherwise, the service is saved only on the U2000 but not deployed to NEs. By default, the
U2000 deploys and enables the service.
Step 8 Click Detail and check the configurations in the pane that is displayed in the lower right area.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
Step 9 Optional: Click the SAI QoS tab. Set Bandwidth Enabled to Enabled. Then you can set
parameters, such as CIR and PIR. You can also select a configured QoS template by clicking
in QoS Template.
Step 10 Optional: Set PW QoS. Click the PW QoS tab and configure a PW QoS policy. Set Bandwidth
Enabled to Enabled. Then you can set parameters, such as CIR and PIR. You can also select a
configured QoS template by clicking in QoS Template.
Step 11 Optional: Configure the Connection Admission Control (CAC) function.
NOTE
Only PTN NEs support this function.
When CAC is selected, the system checks whether the available bandwidth of a tunnel is
sufficient for a PWE3 service if the tunnel bound to the PWE3 service is a static CR tunnel and
the CIR and PIR are set for the tunnel when the PWE3 service is created. If the available
bandwidth is sufficient, the CIR and PIR of the tunnel remain unchanged. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient, the CIR of the tunnel increases. After the increase, if the PIR of the
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tunnel is greater than the CIR, the PIR remains unchanged; if the PIR is smaller than the CIR,
the PIR increases until it equals the CIR.
Step 12 Optional: Click Advanced PW Attributes.
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-
TP OAM parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.
1731 for the source and sink NEs
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the
source and sink NEs
NOTICE
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a
PWE3 service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet
Sending Priority set on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node
of the PW.
Step 13 Click OK.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
The result Success is displayed.
10.2.5 Creating an ATM IWF Emulation Service
This topic describes how to create an ATM IWF service. The ATM IWF service on the service
side accesses the PW on the network side to implement transparent transmission of the ATM
IWF service on the IP network.
Prerequisites
Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
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Configuration Principle
NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device
type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set basic parameters.
Major Parameter Settings
Service Template You can select a template from the Service Template text box and use
the template to configure a service.
Service Type Set this parameter to ATM IWF.
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Major Parameter Settings
Protection Type l If Protection Type is set to Protection-Free, you must configure
the source and sink nodes.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Redundancy or PW APS
Protection, select Single Source and Dual Sink or Dual Source
and Single Sink in Node List. You must configure one source node
and two sink nodes for Single Source and Dual Sink, and two
source nodes and one sink node for Dual Source and Single
Sink.
The PWs for PW Redundancy serve as the working, protection
and DNI paths.
The three PWs for PW APS Protection serve as the working
path, protection path, and DNI. PW APS Protection can also
be set to Single Source and Single Sink.
l If Protection Type is set to CE Dual-homing Protection for CEs
of Symmetric Access, you must configure two source nodes and
two sink nodes. The corresponding two PWs protect each other.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, two dynamic
PWs are automatically created between the source and sink nodes.
The two PWs protect each other.
Service ID By default, Service ID is set to Auto-Assign. Service ID can also be
assigned according to service planning.

Step 3 Select the source and sink NEs of the service.
The interfaces at both ends must be Eth and ATM interfaces when ATM IWF services are
configured.
The methods of configuring the source and sink nodes are the same. Therefore, the following
describes only the method of configuring the source node.
1. Right-click an NE in the Physical Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
l According to the protection types, NEs can be configured as different roles through the shortcut
menu. Set As Switching Node indicates that the NE is configured as a hop of the multi-hop PW.
For services without protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working only. For services
with protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working, Protection or DNI.
l If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you
sure to continue? is displayed.
2. Configure an interface.
In the dialog box that is displayed, set the filter criteria and click Search. Then the interfaces
that meet the filter criteria are displayed.
If no interface meets the filter criteria, you can create an interface or modify the attributes
of an existing interface.
3. Select an interface.
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4. On the SAI Configuration tab, set the SAI attributes of the service interface.
5. Click OK. Configure the sink or protection node using the same method according to the
protection type. The configured roles are displayed in the node list.
6. Click Configure Source And Sink, select Unterminated on the left, specify the LSR ID
of an unterminated node, and click Add Node. In the lower portion of the window, the
unterminated source and sink nodes are displayed. Click OK.
NOTE
On a network, if NEs only at one end of a service can be managed by the U2000, select
Unterminated and set the LSR ID for the peer end of the service.
If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection or PW APS protection, no unterminated node
can be set.
7. Use the same method to configure the sink, protection, and transit nodes based on the
protection type.
Step 4 In the PW area, set basic PW attributes.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered.
Signaling Type Specify a signaling type.
l If Signaling Type is set to Static, you need to manually assign
Forward Label and Reverse Label.
l If Signaling Type is set to Dynamic, you do not need to manually
assign Forward Label and Reverse Label. When the protection
type is set to PW Redundancy or PW Backup Protection, the
signaling type can be set only to Dynamic and cannot be modified.
Forward Type/
Reverse Type
For routers, Forward Type and Reverse Type are set to Select
policy by default.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
If you select Static Binding for a tunnel, you can set the forward and
reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel window. If a bidirectional tunnel
is selected as the forward tunnel, the reverse tunnel automatically selects
the bidirectional tunnel.
You can also configure the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the
Service Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between
the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward
Tunnel or Select Reverse Tunnel from the shortcut menu. In the dialog
box that is displayed, select the tunnel for static binding.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
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Major Parameter Settings
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
You can set the forward and reverse policies by clicking the Service
Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between the source
and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward Policy or Select
Reverse Policy. In the dialog box that is displayed, adjust the tunnel
priority.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.

Step 5 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 6 Configure an ATM link.
1. Click ATM Link.
2. Click Add Link and set parameters to create a new link.
3. Click OK.
Step 7 Optional: Click Detail and set the advanced service attributes.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
1. Click the CE tab and set the CE information about source and sink NEs.
2. Click the SAI QoS tab and configure a QoS policy for the SAI. You can select an existing
policy from Global QoS Policy Template.
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3. Click PW QoS and configure a QoS template for the PW. You can select an existing
template from Global QoS Policy Template and set the related parameters.
4. Click Advanced PW Attribute and set the parameters related to the advanced attributes
of the PW.
NOTE
l Click the ... button on the Management PW tab. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a
management PW to bind it to service PWs.
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-TP
OAM parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1731 for
the source and sink NEs.
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the
source and sink NEs
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a PWE3
service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet Sending
Priority set on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node of the PW.
Step 8 Select the Deploy check box and click OK.
NOTE
l If the Deploy check box is not selected, the configuration data is stored only on the U2000. If the
Deploy check box is selected, the configuration data is stored on the U2000 and applied to NEs. By
default, the Deploy check box is selected.
l If the Deploy and Enable check boxes are selected, services on NEs are available only when the services
are enabled.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
The result Success is displayed.
10.2.6 Creating an Interworking Emulation Service
This topic describes how to create an interworking emulation service. Two different services on
the service side access the PW on the network side to implement transparent transmission of the
services on the IP network.
Prerequisites
Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
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Configuration Principle
NOTE
l The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
l The following figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device
type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set basic parameters.
Major Parameter Settings
Service Template You can select a template from the Service Template text box and use
the template to configure a service.
Service Type Set this parameter to Interworking.
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Major Parameter Settings
Protection Type l If Protection Type is set to Protection-Free, you must configure
the source and sink nodes.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Redundancy or PW APS
Protection, select Single Source and Dual Sink or Dual Source
and Single Sink in Node List. You must configure one source node
and two sink nodes for Single Source and Dual Sink, and two
source nodes and one sink node for Dual Source and Single Sink.
The PWs for PW Redundancy serve as the working, protection
and DNI paths.
The three PWs for PW APS Protection serve as the working
path, protection path, and DNI. PW APS Protection can also be
set to Single Source and Single Sink.
l If Protection Type is set to CE Dual-homing Protection for CEs
of Symmetric Access, you must configure two source nodes and
two sink nodes. The corresponding two PWs protect each other.
l If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection, two dynamic
PWs are automatically created between the source and sink nodes.
The two PWs protect each other.
Service ID By default, Service ID is set to Auto-Assign. Service ID can also be
assigned according to service planning.

Step 3 Select the source and sink NEs of the service.
The methods of configuring the source and sink nodes are the same. Therefore, the following
describes only the method of configuring the source node.
1. Right-click an NE in the Physical Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
l According to the protection types, NEs can be configured as different roles through the shortcut
menu. Set As Switching Node indicates that the NE is configured as a hop of the multi-hop PW.
For services without protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working only. For services
with protection, Set As Switching Node can be set to Working, Protection or DNI.
l If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you
sure to continue? is displayed.
2. Configure an interface.
In the dialog box that is displayed, set the filter criteria and click Search. Then the interfaces
that meet the filter criteria are displayed.
If no interface meets the filter criteria, you can create an interface or modify the attributes
of an existing interface.
3. Select an interface.
4. On the SAI Configuration tab, set the SAI attributes of the service interface.
5. Click OK. Configure the sink or protection node using the same method according to the
protection type. The configured roles are displayed in the node list.
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6. Click Configure Source And Sink, select Unterminated on the left, specify the LSR ID
of an unterminated node, and click Add Node. In the lower portion of the window, the
unterminated source and sink nodes are displayed. Click OK.
NOTE
On a network, if NEs only at one end of a service can be managed by the U2000, select
Unterminated and set the LSR ID for the peer end of the service.
If Protection Type is set to PW Backup Protection or PW APS protection, no unterminated node
can be set.
7. Use the same method to configure the sink, protection, and transit nodes based on the
protection type.
Step 4 In the PW area, set basic PW attributes.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered.
Signaling Type Specify a signaling type.
l If Signaling Type is set to Static, you need to manually assign
Forward Label and Reverse Label.
l If Signaling Type is set to Dynamic, you do not need to manually
assign Forward Label and Reverse Label. When the protection
type is set to PW Redundancy or PW Backup Protection, the
signaling type can be set only to Dynamic and cannot be modified.
Forward Type/
Reverse Type
For routers, Forward Type and Reverse Type are set to Select
policy by default.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
If you select Static Binding for a tunnel, you can set the forward and
reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel window. If a bidirectional tunnel
is selected as the forward tunnel, the reverse tunnel automatically selects
the bidirectional tunnel.
You can also configure the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the
Service Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between
the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward
Tunnel or Select Reverse Tunnel from the shortcut menu. In the dialog
box that is displayed, select the tunnel for static binding.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
You can set the forward and reverse policies by clicking the Service
Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between the source
and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward Policy or Select
Reverse Policy. In the dialog box that is displayed, adjust the tunnel
priority.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
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Step 5 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 6 Optional: Click Detail and set the advanced service attributes.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
1. Click the CE tab and set the CE information about source and sink NEs.
2. Click the SAI QoS tab and configure a QoS policy for the SAI. You can select an existing
policy from Global QoS Policy Template.
3. Click PW QoS and configure a QoS template for the PW. You can select an existing
template from Global QoS Policy Template and set the related parameters.
4. Click Advanced PW Attribute and set the parameters related to the advanced attributes
of the PW.
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NOTE
l Click the ... button on the Management PW tab. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a
management PW to bind it to service PWs.
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-TP
OAM parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1731 for
the source and sink NEs.
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the
source and sink NEs
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a PWE3
service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet Sending
Priority set on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node of the PW.
Step 7 Select the Deploy check box and click OK.
NOTE
l If the Deploy check box is not selected, the configuration data is stored only on the U2000. If the
Deploy check box is selected, the configuration data is stored on the U2000 and applied to NEs. By
default, the Deploy check box is selected.
l If the Deploy and Enable check boxes are selected, services on NEs are available only when the services
are enabled.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
The result Success is displayed.
10.2.7 Creating a Management PW
This topic describes how to create a management PW. The management PW is used to transmit
packets and helps to perform active/standby switchover as well as link detection through BFD.
Prerequisites
Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
Context
Management PWs are created on loopback interfaces. When a large number of service PWs
exist, you can bind the service PWs to a management PW and configure BFD so that the status
of the management PW can be associated with the status of the service PWs. This helps to reduce
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the quantities of BFD sessions and BFD packets and save system resources and public link
bandwidths.
Configuration Principle
NOTE
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations comply
with the roadmap.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Set basic parameters.
l Set Service Type to Management PW.
l Set Service Name.
Step 3 Set service nodes.
The methods of configuring the source and sink nodes are the same. Therefore, the following
describes only the method of configuring the source node.
1. Right-click an NE in the Physical Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut
menu.
NOTE
If the selected NE is abnormal, the message Some of the selected NEs are abnormal. Are you sure
to continue? is displayed.
2. Configure an interface.
In the dialog box that is displayed, set the filter criteria and click Search. Then the interfaces
that meet the filter criteria are displayed.
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If no interface meets the filter criteria, you can create an interface or modify the attributes
of an existing interface.
3. Select an interface.
4. On the SAI Configuration tab, set the SAI attributes of the service interface.
5. Click OK. Configure the sink or protection node using the same method according to the
protection type. The configured roles are displayed in the node list.
Step 4 In the PW area, set basic PW attributes.
Set basic PW attributes as needed.
Major Parameter Settings
PW ID PW ID can be set to Auto-Assign or manually entered.
Signaling Type Set this parameter to Dynamic.
Forward Tunnel/
Reverse Tunnel
If you select Static Binding for a tunnel, you can set the forward and
reverse tunnels in the Select Tunnel window. If a bidirectional tunnel
is selected as the forward tunnel, the reverse tunnel automatically
selects the bidirectional tunnel.
You can also configure the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the
Service Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between
the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward
Tunnel or Select Reverse Tunnel from the shortcut menu. In the
dialog box that is displayed, select the tunnel for static binding.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.
Forward Tunnel
Policy/Reverse
Tunnel Policy
You can set the forward and reverse policies by clicking the Service
Topology tab in the upper right area. Select a tunnel between the source
and sink NEs, right-click, and choose Select Forward Policy or Select
Reverse Policy. In the dialog box that is displayed, adjust the tunnel
priority.
NOTICE
Ensure that parameters are set correctly. If you modify parameter settings after
provisioning a service, the service will be interrupted.

Step 5 Optional: Create tunnels in batches.
The usage scenarios are as follows:
When Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy, a
forward or reverse tunnel can be created along a PWE3 service based on the PW source and
sink.
l Full Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy are created in batches using Full Create.
l Incremental Create: All the tunnels for which Forward Type/Reverse Type is set to Static
Binding or AutoCreate TE Policy and that are not manually specified are created in batches
using Incremental Create.
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1. Choose Create Tunnels in Batch > Full Create or Create Tunnels in Batch >
Incremental Create.
2. In the Create Tunnels in Batch window, check the source and sink NEs of the tunnel and
set other parameters.
For details about how to create tunnels in batches, see 7.2.2 Creating Tunnels in
Batches.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Close.
The tunnels created in batches are displayed in the Create PWE3 Service window.
Step 6 Optional: Click Detail and set the parameters related to the advanced attributes of the PW.
NOTE
If you change the source NE, sink NE, or switching node after setting detailed parameters, you must check
and re-set the parameters after the adjustment is complete.
NOTE
On the Advanced PW Attribute tab.
l Click Configure MPLS-TP OAM(Y.1731). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS-TP OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1731 for the source
and sink NEs
l Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711). In the dialog box that is displayed, set MPLS OAM
parameters. This button is available when the OAM protocol version is set to Y.1711 for the source
and sink NEs
l Ensure that MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameters are set correctly.
l If you need to modify MPLS OAM/MPLS-TP OAM parameter settings after deploying a PWE3
service, ensure that the values of CC Packet Sending Interval and CC Packet Sending Priority set
on the source node of the PW are the same as those set on the sink node of the PW.
Step 7 Select Deploy and click OK.
NOTE
l If you select Deploy, services are delivered to the NEs. If you do not select Deploy, services are saved
only on the U2000 without being delivered to the NEs.
l By default, Deploy is selected.
l Management PWs cannot be enabled or disabled.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify the configuration.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select a configured PWE3 service, right-click the link, and choose Diagnose > Test And
Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Test And Check dialog box, click Run.
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The result Success is displayed.
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11 Deploying E-AGGR Services
About This Chapter
This topic describes how to use the U2000 to deploy E-AGGR services.
11.1 Service Function Panorama
This topic describes the panorama of the functions that the U2000 supports for E2E services,
the navigation paths to these functions, and the reference chapters.
11.2 Creating an E-AGGR Service
By using the U2000, you can create an E-AGGR service in the same user interface. The
equipment supports multipoint-to-point service aggregation, as well as service aggregation from
the NNI carried by multiple PWs to one UNI.
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11.1 Service Function Panorama
This topic describes the panorama of the functions that the U2000 supports for E2E services,
the navigation paths to these functions, and the reference chapters.
NOTE
Tasks that are not involved in this service scenario are displayed as "-".
Table 11-1 Aggregation service configuration
Service
Scenario
Task Hybrid
MSTP
Navigation Path
Service
discovery
Discover
aggregation
services.
Choose Service > Search for Service
(traditional style) from the main menu or
select Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > Search for
Service (application style) from the main
menu.
Service
creation
Create an
aggregation
service.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Create E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Create E-
AGGR Service (application style) from
the main menu.
Service
monitoring
View
discrete
aggregation
services.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Discrete Service
(traditional style) from the main menu or
select Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > E-AGGR Service
> Manage E-AGGR Discrete Service
(application style) from the main menu.
Select a discrete aggregation service and
click desired tabs to view the associated
information.
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Service
Scenario
Task Hybrid
MSTP
Navigation Path
View an
aggregation
service
topology.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Select an
aggregation service and view the service
information on the Topology tab page.
Monitor
aggregation
service
alarms.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Select a service,
right-click, and choose Alarm > Current
Alarms from the shortcut menu.
View
performance
data about an
aggregation
service.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Right-click an
aggregation service and choose
Performance > View History Data from
the shortcut menu.
Service
adjustment
Adjust
discrete
aggregation
services.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Discrete Service
(traditional style) from the main menu or
select Bearer Network Service
Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > E-AGGR Service
> Manage E-AGGR Discrete Service
(application style) from the main menu.
Right-click an aggregation service and
choose Convert to Unterminated from
the shortcut menu.
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Service
Scenario
Task Hybrid
MSTP
Navigation Path
Service
maintenance
Modify an
aggregation
service.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Select an
aggregation service and click desired tabs
to modify the associated parameters.
Undeploy an
aggregation
service.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Select an
aggregation service with Deployment
Status set to Deployed or Partially
Deployed, right-click, and choose
Undeploy from the shortcut menu.
Delete
aggregation
services.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Select one or more
aggregation services with Deployment
Status set to Undeployed, right-click, and
choose Delete from the shortcut menu.
Delete
aggregation
services from
the network
side.
Choose Service > E-AGGR Service >
Manage E-AGGR Service (traditional
style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration
in Application Center and choose
Service > E-AGGR Service > Manage
E-AGGR Service (application style)
from the main menu. Select one or more
aggregation services, right-click, and
choose Delete from Network Side from
the shortcut menu.

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11.2 Creating an E-AGGR Service
By using the U2000, you can create an E-AGGR service in the same user interface. The
equipment supports multipoint-to-point service aggregation, as well as service aggregation from
the NNI carried by multiple PWs to one UNI.
Prerequisite
l You must complete the correct configuration of port attributes.
l If the service needs to be carried by an MPLS Tunnel, you must configure a tunnel first.
l If a port needs to be exclusively used, disable the DCN function of the port that carries the
service.
Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
Procedure
1. Choose Service > E-AGGR Service > Create E-AGGR Service (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application
Center and choose Service > E-AGGR Service > Create E-AGGR Service (application
style) from the main menu.
2. Set basic parameters such as Service Name.
3. Right-click NEs in the topology view to configure source and sink NEs for the service to
be created.
NOTE
You can set multiple source ports and only one sink port for an E-AGGR service. If a sink port has
been set already, set another sink port will replace the existing one.
4. (Optional) Click Add and select Unterminated > Source or Unterminated > Sink from
the drop-down list. Specify the LSR ID of the unterminated node and click OK.
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NOTE
If the equipment at one end of a service can be managed by the U2000, and the equipment at the
other end of the service is from another vendor and cannot be managed by the U2000, select
Unterminated to set the LSR ID of the peer end of the service.
Currently, the Hybrid MSTP equipment in the same management domain can be used to configure
unterminated trails.
5. In the case of the E-AGGR service whose source and sink nodes are not located on the
same NE, click the PW tab to configure the basic attributes of the PW.
NOTE
l The PW ID can be automatically allocated.
l Currently you can only set the Signaling Type to Static. The Forward Label and Reverse
Label can be assigned automatically or manually.
l Currently you can only set the Forward Type and Reverse Type to Static Binding. You need
to manually specify a tunnel.
l You can also set the forward and reverse tunnels by clicking the Service Topology tab in the
upper right area. Select a green service between the source and sink NEs, right-click, and choose
Select Uplink Tunnel or Select Downlink Tunnel. In the dialog box that is displayed, select
the tunnel for static binding.
6. Click the VLAN Forwarding Table tab. Then click Add and set the forwarding attributes.
NOTE
The service is forwarded based on VLAN, and therefore the forwarding attributes must be set in
VLAN Forwarding Table Item from each source interface to sink interface.
7. Set parameters in the Service Bandwidth area in the lower left area. If you set Bandwidth
Limited to Enabled, the CIR and PIR can be set.
NOTE
The configuration data of the service bandwidth will be deployed to the QoS configurations of the
PW and service access port.
8. (Optional) Click Advanced. A pane is displayed in the lower right area.
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12 Deploying Composite Services
About This Chapter
A composite service is a combination of multiple services (for example, PWE3+PWE3) or
multiple types of services (for example, PWE3+L3VPN) on the U2000. You can configure
composite services in order to create and monitor services that constitute the composite services
in a unified manner and to manage a network in E2E mode.
12.1 Composite Service Function Panorama
This topic describes composite service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports,
as well as the navigation paths to these functions.
12.2 Creating a Composite Service
You can create a composite service if IP services on the U2000 cannot be automatically
discovered as composite services or no qualified composite service exists on the U2000.
12.3 Modifying a Composite Service
A base station may be added to or deleted from the live network for network adjustment. In this
case, such a base station can be regarded as a service node for composite services, and the
network can be quickly adjusted by adding or deleting the service node.
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12.1 Composite Service Function Panorama
This topic describes composite service functions and associated NEs that the U2000 supports,
as well as the navigation paths to these functions.
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Table 12-1 Composite service configuration
Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Service
discovery
6.2
Automat
ically
Discoveri
ng
Composi
te
Services
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Search for
Composite Service
(traditional style)
from the main menu
or select Bearer
Network Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Search for
Composite Service
(application style)
from the main menu.
Service
creation
12.2.2
Creating
a
Customi
zed
Composi
te Service
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
12.2.1
Creating
an H-
VPLS
Composi
te Service
- Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu.
12.2.3
Creating
a PWE3
in Static
L3VPN
Service
(N:1)
- - - - Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Then set
Creation Type to
PWE3 in Static
L3VPN N:1.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
12.2.4
Creating
a PWE3
in
Dynamic
L3VPN
Service
- - - - Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Create Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Then set
Creation Type to
PWE3 in Dynamic
L3VPN.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Service
reliability
Configur
e BFD.
- - - Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select an H-
VPLS composite
service. On the
Topology tab, select
a PW, right-click, and
choose Configure
BFD from the
shortcut menu.
NOTE
BFD can be configured
only after you set
Configure BFD to
Enabled in the
General area of the
Create Composite
Service or Modify
Composite Service
window.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Service
monitorin
g
View a
composit
e service
topology.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a
composite service
and view the service
information in the
topology view on the
Topology tab.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Monitor
composit
e service
alarms.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring >
Faulty Service
Monitoring
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fault
Management in
Application
Center and
choose Alarm
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring
(application style)
from the main
menu.
l Choose Fault >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Fault
Management in
Application
Center and
choose Alarm
Monitoring >
Service
Monitoring > IP
Service
Monitoring
Template
(application style)
from the main
menu.
l Choose Service >
Composite
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Service >
Manage
Composite
Service
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose Service >
Composite
Service >
Manage
Composite
Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Select a
composite
service, right-
click, and choose
Current Alarms
from the shortcut
menu.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
View
composit
e service
performa
nce.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a
composite service,
right-click, and
choose Performance
> View History
Instance from the
shortcut menu.
Service
diagnosis
Configur
e
Ethernet
OAM.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a
composite service,
right-click, and
choose Ethernet
OAM > Start CC
from the shortcut
menu.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Configur
e MPLS-
TP
OAM.
- - - -
NOTE
This function applies
only to H-VPLS
composite services.
l Perform the
following
operations to
configure MPLS-
TP OAM for a
created H-VPLS
composite
service:
Choose Service >
Composite
Service >
Manage
Composite
Service
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose Service >
Composite
Service >
Manage
Composite
Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. Select an
H-VPLS
composite
service, right-
click, and choose
PW OAM >
Enable MPLS-
TP OAM from
the shortcut menu.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
NOTE
Alternatively,
right-click an H-
VPLS composite
service and choose
PW OAM >
Configure
MPLS-TP OAM
from the shortcut
menu to set
MPLS-TP OAM
parameters as
needed.
l Perform the
following
operations to
configure MPLS-
TP OAM for an H-
VPLS composite
service that is
being created:
Choose Service >
Composite
Service > Create
Composite
Service
(traditional style)
from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application
Center and
choose Service >
Composite
Service > Create
Composite
Service
(application style)
from the main
menu. In the
service topology,
select a PW, right-
click, and choose
TP OAM
Configuration or
PW OAM
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Configuration
from the shortcut
menu.
Perform
fast
diagnosis.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select an H-
VPLS composite
service. On the
Topology tab, select
a PW between NEs,
right-click, and
choose Fast
Diagnose from the
shortcut menu.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Perform
inter-
service
detection.
- - - - Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select
composite services of
the PWE3 in Static
L3VPN N:1 type,
right-click, and
choose Inter-service
Detection from the
shortcut menu.
Service
maintenan
ce
Modify a
composit
e service.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select a
composite service,
right-click, and
choose Modify from
the shortcut menu.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Delete
composit
e
services.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more composite
services, right-click,
and choose Delete
from the shortcut
menu. In the
confirmation dialog
box that is displayed,
select Delete
Composite Services
Only.
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Scenario Task Router/
Switch
PT
N
RT
N
Hybri
d
MSTP
OT
N
Navigation Path
Delete
services
in
cascading
mode.
Choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (traditional
style) from the main
menu or select
Bearer Network
Service
Configuration in
Application Center
and choose Service >
Composite Service >
Manage Composite
Service (application
style) from the main
menu. Select one or
more composite
services, right-click,
and choose Delete
from the shortcut
menu. In the
confirmation dialog
box that is displayed,
click the Delete
Cascaded Service
option button.
NOTE
If a service component
used by multiple
composite services is
deleted, the service
component is deleted
from all these
composite services.

12.2 Creating a Composite Service
You can create a composite service if IP services on the U2000 cannot be automatically
discovered as composite services or no qualified composite service exists on the U2000.
Composite services can be created in user-defined, H-VPLS, PWE3 services in static L3VPN
N:1, and PWE3 services in dynamic L3VPN modes. H-VPLS and PWE3 services in static
L3VPN 1:1 are provided to quickly create composite services in specific networking scenarios.
When using the quick creation function, you need to enter only basic attributes and implement
simple configuration to efficiently complete the creation of composite services.
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Composite services are classified based on the types of the service components that form these
services, as listed in Table 12-2. Different composite services apply to different NEs and impose
different requirements on service components and connection points.
Table 12-2 Composite service types
Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
H-VPLS
(PWE3
+VPLS)
Routers, switches,
PTN, Hybrid MSTP,
and OTN NEs
The PWs of the
PWE3 and VPLS
service components
must be
unterminated ones
and have the same
ID. The IP address
of the sink NE on
one PW must be the
same as the IP
address of the
source NE on the
other PW. If the
PWs are static, the
outgoing label of
one PW must be the
same as the
incoming label of
the other PW.
Connection
points must
be
unterminated
PWs that are
associated
with each
other and
belong to the
PWE3 and
VPLS service
components.
12.2.1
Creating
an H-
VPLS
Composite
Service
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
PWE3 in
static L3VPN
N:1
PTN l PWE3: The
service type
must be ETH.
The protection
type must be PW
APS. The
service must
have one source
and two sinks.
The sink SAIs
must be L2VE
interfaces.
l L3VPN: The
signaling type
must be static.
The networking
type must be
Customized.
UPE SAIs must
be L3VE
interfaces (for
PTN 6900s) or
VLAN
aggregation
subinterfaces
(for other PTN
NEs).
VLAN
aggregation
subinterfaces
must be the
subinterfaces of
L3VE
interfaces.
The L3VE and
L2VE interfaces
on the same UPE
must belong to
the same VE
bridge group.
Connection
points must
be L2VE and
L3VE
interfaces
(for PTN
6900s) or
VLAN
aggregation
subinterfaces
(for other
PTN NEs)
that act as
SAIs for the
PWE3 and
L3VPN
service
components.
12.2.3
Creating a
PWE3 in
Static
L3VPN
Service
(N:1)
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
PWE3
services in
dynamic
L3VPN
Routers l PWE3: The
service type
must be ETH.
The protection
type must be PW
Redundancy.
The service must
have one source
and two sinks.
SAIs must be
L2VE
interfaces.
l Dynamic
L3VPN: SAIs
must be L3VE
interfaces. The
IP addresses of
L3VE interfaces
on the master
and slave NEs
must be the
same.
l The L2VE and
L3VE interfaces
must reside on
the same NE and
have the same
VE group ID.
l If multiple
PWE3 services
and one L3VPN
service need to
be combined
into a composite
service,
Connect Type
for L3VE
interfaces must
be VLAN
Termination
and the VLAN
segment for the
L3VE interfaces
must cover the
VLAN IDs of all
Connection
points must
be L2VE and
L3VE
interfaces
that act as
SAIs for the
PWE3 and
L3VPN
service
component.
12.2.4
Creating a
PWE3 in
Dynamic
L3VPN
Service
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
L2VE
interfaces.
VPLS
+dynamic
L3VPN
Routers, switches, and
PTN NEs+NE40Es
(PTN 1900 and PTN
3900 for the static
PWE3 service, and
NE40E for the
dynamic L3VPN
service)
l The SAI used for
the PWE3 or
VPLS service
component must
be an L2VE
interface.
l The SAI used for
the L3VPN
service
component must
be an L3VE
interface.
l The L2VE and
L3VE interfaces
must reside on
the same NE and
have the same
VE group ID.
l If multiple
PWE3 services
and one L3VPN
service need to
be combined
into a composite
service,
Connect Type
for the L3VE
interface must
be VLAN
Termination
and the VLAN
segment for the
L3VE interface
must cover
VLAN IDs of all
L2VE
interfaces.
Connection
points must
be L2VE and
L3VE
interfaces
that act as
SAIs for the
PWE3/VPLS
and L3VPN
service
components.
12.2.2
Creating a
Customize
d
Composite
Service
PWE3
+dynamic
L3VPN
Option A
VPLS
Routers and switches l The service
components
must be of the
same type and
Connection
points must
be SAIs on
the related
ASBRs.
Option A
PWE3
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
Option A
L3VPN
belong to
different ASs.
l The ASBRs in
the two ASs
must be directly
connected and
use EBGP to
advertise IPv4
routes to each
other.
l Each ASBR
must act as a PE
in the related AS
and consider the
peer ASBR a
CE.
PWE3
+PWE3
Routers, switches,
PTN, Hybrid MSTP,
and RTN NEs
- Connection
points must
be SAIs used
for the PWE3
service
components.
PWE3+E-
AGGR
PTN and Hybrid
MSTP NEs
- Connection
points must
be SAIs used
for the PWE3
and E-AGGR
service
components.
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
PWE3+EPL PTN and Hybrid
MSTP NEs
l The EPL service
component must
be unterminated
but its server-
layer trail can be
a terminated
trunk link whose
sink is an EOD.
The EOD must
also be the
source of the
PWE3 service
component.
PTN NEs do not
support EPL
services.
l The SAI of the
PWE3 service
component and
the VC trunk
interface of the
trunk link must
reside on the
same EOD and
have the same
interface
number.
A connection
point is
formed by a
PWE3 SAI
and a trunk
link's VC
trunk
interface. The
two
interfaces
must reside
on the same
EOD and
have the same
interface
number.
PWE3+E-
Line
PTN and RTN NEs The Layer 2
attributes, such as
VLAN and
encapsulation type,
for the PWE3 and E-
Line service
components must be
the same.
Connection
points must
be SAIs used
for the PWE3
and E-Line
service
components.
Terminated
EPL+L3VPN
This type of composite
service is available
only when Hybrid
MSTP series NEs are
used for terminated
EPL services and
routers are used for
L3VPN services.
- -
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Composite
Service
Type
NEs Supporting
This Service Type
Requirements for
Service
Components
Requireme
nts for
Connection
Points
Reference
Chapter
SDH+PWE3 This type of composite
service is available
only when Hybrid
MSTP series NEs are
used for SDH services
and PTN NEs are used
for PWE3 services.
l Level for SDH
services must be
set to VC12, and
Service Type
for PWE3
services must be
set to CES.
l Interworking
NEs for SDH
and PWE3
services are
connected using
optical fibers or
cables. The SAIs
on these NEs
must have the
same high-order
and lower-order
timeslots. For
example, if the
high-order
timeslot is 1 and
low-order
timeslot is 2 for
the SAIs of the
SDH service, the
high-order and
lower-order
timeslots must
be set to 1 and 2
respectively for
the SAIs of the
PWE3 service.
Connection
points must
be SAIs on
NEs
interconnecte
d for the SDH
and PWE3
services.

12.2.1 Creating an H-VPLS Composite Service
This topic describes how to quickly create an H-VPLS composite service. The PWE3 and VPLS
service components can be quickly created by adding only service nodes, and connection points
can then be automatically calculated.
Prerequisites
RTN NEs do not support this function.
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Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (application style) from the
main menu.
Step 2 In the General area, set basic attributes for the composite service.
1. Creation Type must be set to H-VPLS.
2. Configure BFD.
BFD for PW rapidly checks PW connectivity to detect PW faults in real time. Real-time
PW fault detection helps trigger PW switching in a timely manner to achieve carrier-class
network reliability. The procedure for enabling BFD for PW is as follows:
l Select a value from the drop-down list to enable BFD for PW.
l Click ... to the right of Configure BFD to set BFD parameters.
By default, only the working PW is selected on the U2000. BFD attributes are not
associated with PWE3 service protection types.
NOTE
This function applies only to routers.
Generally, BFD is configured only for the working PW to ensure network reliability under most
conditions and save bandwidth and device resources.
Step 3 Add service nodes.
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To add a service node, click the corresponding button in the window for creating a composite
service. Alternatively, select an NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose the
corresponding option from the shortcut menu.
The following tables lists the related buttons and provides instructions on how to use these
buttons. The methods for using shortcut menu options are similar to those for using these buttons
and are not described in details in this topic.
Button Settings
Add VPLS Node Click Add VPLS Node. In the dialog box that is displayed, select
VPLS service nodes. The selection methods are as follows:
l Selecting existing service nodes: Use existing NEs as service
nodes to form an H-VPLS composite service. Existing services
can be managed by the composite service in a unified manner. To
adjust or expand existing services, use this method.
On the Add Service tab, click Filter Criteria and set filter criteria.
Then select one or more VPLS services.
l Adding new service nodes: If existing services do not meet
requirements, use this method to configure new services and add
them to an H-VPLS composite service.
Click the Add Device tab. Select one or more NEs from the
physical topology tree and click . Click OK.
Add VPLS Node-
SAI
Unlike Add VPLS Node, Add VPLS Node-SAI allows you to
configure VPLS SAIs on the Add Service tab. Perform the following
operations to configure an SAI:
1. Select an NE from the physical topology tree.
2. Select an interface from the interface list.
You can click Configure to modify attributes of the selected
interface, or click Create to create an interface.
3. On the SAI Configuration tab, set attributes of the interface. See
Figure 12-1.
NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI
according to the device type.
The SAI is usually a subinterface. Perform the following operations to
configure a subinterface: select an subinterface from the Subinterface
drop-down list, or enter the subinterface ID in ID to create a subinterface.
Then set a VLAN ID for the subinterface. This VLAN ID is usually the
same as the subinterface ID. You can set other attributes as needed.
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Button Settings
Add PWE3 Node Click Add PWE3 Node. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a
PWE3 service node. The selection methods are the same for Add
VPLS Node-SAI.
Repeat this operation to add more PWE3 service nodes.
After you add one PWE3 service node and multiple VPLS service
nodes, the U2000 determines the VPLS service node with which the
PWE3 service node is associated based on the Layer 2 links between
NEs. The U2000 always associates NEs between which the path is
the shortest. If multiple shortest paths exist, the U2000 randomly
associates two VPLS service nodes with the PWE3 service node. A
PWE3 service node can be associated with a maximum of two VPLS
service nodes.
Add Switching Node Click Add Switching Node. In the dialog box, select the required NE
and click to configure this NE as a PW switching point.
A PW switching point is one hop on a multi-hop PW.

NOTE
The same NE can be added repeatedly in either of the following scenarios:
l The NE is added as a PWE3 service node. A PWE3 service is created every time the NE is added. In
this way, multiple PWE3 services are created to access multiple user-side service data.
l The NE is added as both a PW switching node and PWE3 service node. This enables the NE acting as
a PW switching node supports PWE3 creation at the same time.
Since the user side has numerous access nodes, adding the same NE repeatedly can reduce the number of
NEs on an access ring and NE costs.
Figure 12-1 Configuring an SAI

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NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
Step 4 After selecting service nodes, you can modify their attributes as needed.
Major Parameter Settings
VSI In the service topology or service node list, select the VPLS service
node. On the VSI Configuration tab, modify VSI attributes as
needed.
NOTE
Generally, the default value provided by the U2000 is used. If the default
value is different from the value planned for the live network, change the
value as needed.
PW The U2000 automatically creates PWs between VPLS and PWE3
service nodes based on the following rules:
l A VPLS service node can be associated with multiple PWE3
service nodes, but a PWE3 service node can be associated with
at most two VPLS service nodes.
l If more than two VPLS service nodes are added at the same time,
the U2000 selects two VPLS service nodes with the shortest path
to the PWE3 service node.
l If the PWE3 service node has been associated with two VPLS
service nodes, the U2000 no longer calculates the shortest path
when more VPLS service nodes are added later.
l If the automatically created PW does not meet service planning
requirements, perform the following operations to manually
change the PW:
On the PW Configuration tab, delete, add, or modify a PW.
If a composite service consists of one PWE3 service node and
two VPLS service nodes, change the PW role using one of
the following methods:
On the PW Configuration tab, click the General tab and
select a value from the Role drop-down list.
In the service topology, select a VPLS service node, right-
click, and choose Set to Working PW or Set to
Protection PW from the shortcut menu.
In the service node list area, right-click the desired VPLS
service node to change the PW role.
NOTE
If the PW switching node is a router, set Control Word to -- in the dialog
box that is displayed after you select a PW from the PW list and click
Detail.
SAI On the SAI Configuration tab, you can modify, add, and delete an
SAI, and set QoS attributes for the SAI.
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Major Parameter Settings
PWE3 Service
Parameter
On the PWE3 Service Parameter tab, you can set BPDU, MTU,
Service Tag, Redundancy Mode, Receive the traffic through
both primary and secondary PWs, and Reversion Delay Time.
PWE3 Protection
Parameter
On the PWE3 Protection Parameter tab, you can set Protection
Type for a PWE3 service.
NOTE
If an H-VPLS service consists of two VPLS service nodes and one PWE3
service node, Protection Type can be set to PW APS Protection or PW
FPS Protection. After the protection type is set, the U2000 enables MPLS-
TP OAM and PW OAM at the same time to ensure timely service switching
E-Trunk In the service topology, select two service nodes of the same type
(such as two VPLS nodes), right-click, and choose E-Trunk from
the shortcut menu. In the dialog box, set E-Trunk parameters and
click OK.
E-Trunk is an extension to the Link Aggregation Control Protocol
(LACP). It controls and implements inter-device link aggregation.
E-Trunk protects PEs and links between a CE and the PEs when the
CE is dual-homed to a VPLS or PWE3 network.
NOTE
The local IP address of one node must be the peer IP address of the other
node, and Layer 3 routes must be reachable. Loopback interface addresses
are recommended.
Network Protocol In the service topology, select a service node, right-click, and choose
Network Protocol Configuration from the shortcut menu to set
network protocol parameters for the service node. The parameters
include BGP VPN4 Peer, Dynamic Route, Static Route,
Equipment MPLS/MPLS TE, and Interface MPLS/MPLS TE.
In general, network protocol parameters are set at the network
deployment stage. This configuration method is usually used to view
or adjust some parameter settings.
LDP Peer In the service topology, right-click in the blank area and choose
Configure LDP Peer from the shortcut menu.
Remote LDP peers need to be configured only for the source and
sink NEs of a PW. If a remote LDP peer has been configured for an
NE, you can only view the LDP peer configurations.

Step 5 Select the Deploy and Enable check boxes.
l Deploy: specifies whether to deploy service component attributes to the specified NE during
composite service creation.
l Enable: specifies whether to enable service components after their attributes have been
deployed to the related NE. A composite service can work properly only after its service
components are enabled.
After you select the Deploy check box, the Enable check box is selected by default.
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l If the Deploy and Enable check boxes are not selected during composite service creation,
right-click the created composite service on the Composite Service Management tab and
choose Deploy and Enable from the shortcut menu.
Step 6 Click OK.
After the service is successfully created, click Browse Service to switch to the Composite
Service Management tab.
If service creation fails, modify service attributes based on the displayed error message and click
OK to create the service again.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
The status and configurations of composite services are displayed on the Composite Service
Management tab. You can use different navigation paths on this tab to perform end-to-end
service management.
For PTN and Hybrid MSTP NEs, if a PWE3 node configured with protection is dual-homed to
two VPLS nodes for forming an H-VPLS composite service, the U2000 automatically applies
MPLS-TP OAM and PW OAM configurations with default values to NEs to ensure timely
protection switching. If the configurations applied by the U2000 do not meet requirements,
perform the following operations to change the values:
1. Right-click the desired NE in the Main Topology and choose NE Explorer from the
shortcut menu.
2. Choose Configuration > MPLS Management > PW Management from the navigation
tree.
3. Click the PW OAM Parameters tab. On the PW OAM Parameters tab, find the PW to
be configured and change the OAM parameter values as needed. Then click the MPLS-
TP OAM tab. On the MPLS-TP OAM tab, change the MPLS-TP OAM parameter values
as needed.
4. Click Apply.
12.2.2 Creating a Customized Composite Service
All types of composite services supported by the U2000 can be customized by setting basic
attributes and selecting service components and connection points.
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Configuration Principle
The operation information in the figure summarizes the task roadmap. The following operations
comply with the roadmap.
NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (application style) from the
main menu.
Step 2 In the General area, set basic attributes for the composite service.
NOTE
Creation Type must be set to Customize.
Step 3 In the Service Component area, click Select to select the desired service type. In the dialog box
that is displayed, select one or more services and click OK. The selected services are displayed
in both the service component list and the service topology.
The selected services must meet specified requirements. For details, see 4.6.1 Introduction to
the Composite Service.
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NOTE
l The changes of Deployment Status, Enabling Status, and Running Status of services added to the
Service Component list area are not monitored on the Create Composite Service tab. Therefore, the
service status displayed in the list area is not refreshed in real-time according to actual service changes.
l If no qualified services are displayed, click Create to create a service.
l Parameter Linkage: This check box is available only when the composite service type is PWE3+EPL.
To create an EPL or PWE3 service, select the Parameter Linkage check box to simplify the creation
process.
Step 4 In the Connection Point area, configure a connection point for the composite service. The
configured connection point is displayed in both the connection point list area and the service
topology.
l Click Auto-Calculate to obtain the connection points automatically calculated by the
U2000 for the composite service.
l For a PWE3+L3VPN composite service, click Interface. The U2000 automatically checks
whether the L3VPN service has an SAI for interconnecting to the PWE3 service.
1. If such an SAI exists, a connection point between the PWE3 and L3VPN services is
generated and displayed in the Connection Point list.
2. If such an SAI does not exist, the U2000 continues to check whether the NE has an
L3VE interface for interconnecting to the PWE3 service.
a. If such an L3VE interface exists, an interconnection SAI for the L3VPN service
is automatically generated based on the PWE3 SAI information.
b. If such an L3VE interface does not exist, connection point information is
generated but the L3VPN service has no connection point generated. You need
to configure a connection point for the L3VPN service.
l You can also perform the following operations to create the required connection points:
1. Click Create and select a connection point type.
The PW connection point is used for the H-VPLS composite service. Select interface
connection points for composite services except for H-VPLS composite services.
2. In the dialog box for creating a connection point, set Name or select the Auto-
Name check box.
3. Set Type for the composite service.
The service type corresponds to the service component in the Step 3. For example, if
the service components are VPLS and L3VPN, set Type to VPLS+L3VPN.
4. In the information list, click to select the PW or interface.
NOTE
l Interface connection point: Select SAIs associated with the involved service components.
For example, if the VPLS and L3VPN service components are used to create a composite
service, select an L2VE interface associated with the VPLS service component and an
L3VE interface associated with the L3VPN service component.
l PW connection point: Select the PWs connected to the PWE3 and VPLS service
components.
5. Click OK.
Step 5 Click OK.
After the service is successfully created, click Browse Service to switch to the Composite
Service Management tab.
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If service creation fails, modify service attributes based on the displayed error message and click
OK to create the service again.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
The status and configurations of composite services are displayed on the Composite Service
Management tab. You can use different navigation paths on this tab to perform end-to-end
service management.
12.2.3 Creating a PWE3 in Static L3VPN Service (N:1)
This topic describes how to quickly create a PWE3 in static L3VPN service.
Prerequisites
This function applies only to PTN NEs.
Tunnels carrying services have been deployed.
Static L3VPN services meeting specified requirements have been deployed.
Context
The PWE3 in static L3VPN composite service must meet the following conditions:
l PWE3: The service type is ETH. The protection type is PW APS. The service has one
source and two sinks. The sink SAIs are L2VE interfaces.
l L3VPN: The signaling type is static. The networking type is Customized. UPE SAIs are
L3VE interfaces (for PTN 6900s) or VLAN aggregation subinterfaces (for other PTN NEs).
l VLAN aggregation subinterfaces are the subinterfaces of L3VE interfaces.
l The L3VE and L2VE interfaces on the same UPE belong to the same VE bridge group.
NOTE
l For a PWE3 in static L3VPN service that is created in N:1 mode, multiple PWE3 services access an
L3VPN service. These PWE3 services are configured using the same method. The configuration of
one PWE3 service is used as an example.
l It is recommended that PWE3 services accessing base stations on the same network segment be planned
in the same composite service.
Use the networking diagram in the following figure as an example. The roadmap of configuring
a PWE3 in L3VPN service is as follows:
1. PWE3 services are configured on NE1, NE2, and NE5. MC-PW APS is configured on NE1
for protection. NE1 is dual-homed to NE2 and NE5. DNI-PW is configured between NE2
and NE5 for PW traffic bypass.
2. A VE bridge group is configured on NE2 and NE5. The L2VE interface is specified as the
UNI of the PWE3 service.
3. An L3VPN service is created on NE2, NE3, NE5, and NE6. The VRFs on NE2 and NE5
are bound to L3VE interfaces (for PTN 6900s) or VLAN aggregation subinterfaces (for
other PTN NEs). The VRFs on NE3 and NE6 are bound to the UNIs connected to the MME/
SGW.
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Figure 12-2 Typical networking diagram for PWE3 in static L3VPN
NE3
NE5 NE6
SGW
NE1
eNodeB 2
NE4
eNodeB 1

NE2
PWE3 Static L3VPN
PW APS
D
N
I
-
P
W

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (application style) from the
main menu.
Step 2 In the General area, set basic attributes for the composite service.
Major Parameter Configuration Method
Creation Type Set the creation type to PWE3 in Static L3VPN N:1.
GateWay IP Set the gateway IP address to be the same as the IP address of the
L3VE interface (for PTN 6900s) or VLAN aggregation
subinterface (for other PTN NEs) for the static L3VPN service.
Static L3VPN Set Deployment Status for the static L3VPN to Deployed.

Step 3 In the Service Component area, add a PWE3 service.
1. Choose Add PWE3 > Create PWE3 to quickly create a qualified PWE3 service.
NOTE
You can also choose Add PWE3 > Select PWE3 to select a qualified PWE3 service.
2. In the VE Interface Configuration window, specify VE interfaces for the PWE3 in static
L3VPN service. Then click Next.
Major Parameter Configuration Method
Node Name Set the source, sink working, and sink protection NEs for the
PWE3 service.
The sink working and protection NEs must be selected from
UPEs for the static L3VPN service.
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Major Parameter Configuration Method
L2 Interface Name Set a PWE3 SAI.
The SAI on a PWE3 sink NE must be an L2VE interface.
The L2VE interface terminates PWE3 services in the line-free
static L3VPN service interworking scenario.
The U2000 automatically displays the L2VE interface that
resides in the same bridge group as the L3VE interface on a
specified NE.
L2 VLAN Set the VLAN to which an L2VE interface belongs.
l The VLAN ID must be within the L3 VLAN range.
l The source and sink NEs must have the same VLAN ID.
Otherwise, services are unavailable.
L3VE Name Set the name of the L3VE interface.
The L3VE and the L2VE interfaces must be in the same bridge
group.
SAI Name Configure L3VE interfaces (for PTN 6900s) or VLAN
aggregation subinterfaces (for other PTN NEs) on L3VPN
UPEs as SAIs.
The U2000 searches for the L3VE interfaces or VLAN
aggregation subinterfaces based on the gateway IP address. If
the interface IP address is the same as the gateway IP address,
SAIs, VLAN IDs of the SAIs, IP addresses of the SAIs, and
corresponding L3VE interfaces are automatically displayed.
L3 VLAN Set the aggregation VLAN for VLAN aggregation
subinterfaces.
SAI IP Address Set the IP address of the L3VE interface (for PTN 6900s) or
VLAN aggregation subinterface (for other PTN NEs).

3. Configure a link aggregation group on the PWE3 sink node. If no link aggregation group
has been configured, the dialog box for creating a link aggregation group is displayed. In
the dialog box, click the Protocol Channel ID text box and select Select from the drop-
down list to select a protocol channel. Click OK. In the Inter-Device Link Aggregation
Group dialog box, set parameters as planned.
Table 12-3 Example of parameter settings for an inter-device link aggregation group
Parameter Example (Left NE) Example (Right NE)
NE NE2 NE5
Protocol Channel ID 2 5
Loading Type No load balancing No load balancing
Recovery Mode Revertive Revertive
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Parameter Example (Left NE) Example (Right NE)
WTR 10 10

4. Click Next. The U2000 automatically generates a qualified PWE3 service based on the
preceding configuration and adds the service to the Create PWE3 Service window.
The service configurations can be adjusted as needed. Click OK to deliver the PWE3
configurations to the NEs.
NOTE
The protection type of the PWE3 service is PW APS Protection. The node type is Single Source
and Dual Sink, which indicates that NE1 is dual-homed to NE2 and NE5. In normal situations, NE2
receives and sends services while NE5 backs up NE2.
5. In the Quick Configuration window, query or modify the L3VPN service. Click Finish
to deliver modified configurations to the NEs.
Step 4 Click OK.
After the service is successfully created, click Browse Service to switch to the Composite
Service Management tab.
If service creation fails, modify service attributes based on the displayed error message and click
OK to create the service again.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
The status and configurations of composite services are displayed on the Composite Service
Management tab. You can use different navigation paths on this tab to perform end-to-end
service management.
12.2.4 Creating a PWE3 in Dynamic L3VPN Service
This topic describes how to quickly create a PWE3 in dynamic L3VPN service.
Prerequisites
This function applies only to routers.
Tunnels carrying services have been deployed.
Dynamic L3VPN services meeting specified requirements have been deployed.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Composite Service > Create Composite Service (application style) from the
main menu.
Step 2 In the General area, set basic attributes for the composite service.
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Major Parameter Configuration Method
Creation Type Set the creation type to PWE3 in Dynamic L3VPN.
GateWay IP The gateway IP address must be the same as the L3VE interface
address of the L3VPN service.
L3VPN The L3VPN service must meet the following conditions:
l Deployment Status is Deployed.
l Signal Type is Dynamic.
l RTs are configured for route filtering and match. An NE adds
a VPN route to its private routing table only when the import
RT is the same as the export RT of the VPN route.

Step 3 In the Service Component area, add a PWE3 service.
Choose Add PWE3 > Create PWE3 to quickly create a qualified PWE3 service.
NOTE
You can also choose Add PWE3 > Select PWE3 to select a qualified PWE3 service.
1. In the VE Interface Configuration window, configure a VE interface for PWE3 service
access in the dynamic L3VPN service.
Major Parameter Configuration Method
Node Name Set the source, sink working, and sink protection NEs for the
PWE3 service.
The sink working and protection NEs must be selected from
UPEs for the dynamic L3VPN service.
L2 Interface Name Set a PWE3 SAI.
The SAI on a PWE3 sink NE must be an L2VE interface.
The U2000 automatically displays the L2VE interface that
resides in the same VE group as the L3VE interface on a
specified NE.
L2 VLAN Set the VLAN to which an L2VE interface belongs.
l The VLAN ID must be within the L3 VLAN range.
l The source and sink NEs must have the same VLAN ID.
Otherwise, services are unavailable.
L3VE Name Set the name of the L3VE interface.
The L3VE and the L2VE interfaces must be in the same VE
group.
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Major Parameter Configuration Method
SAI Name Configure L3VE interfaces as SAIs.
The U2000 searches for the L3VE interfaces based on the
gateway IP address. If the interface IP address is the same as
the gateway IP address, SAIs, VLAN IDs of the SAIs, IP
addresses of the SAIs, and corresponding L3VE interfaces are
automatically displayed.
L3 VLAN Set the aggregation VLAN to which an L3VE interface
belongs.
SAI IP Address Set the IP address of the L3VE interface.
The IP address of the L3VE interface and the interface IP
address of the connected base station must be on the same
network segment.
The IP address of the L3VE interface set on the master and
slave NEs must be the same.
The MAC addresses of the L3VE interfaces on the master and
slave NEs must be the same.

2. Click Next. The U2000 automatically generates a qualified PWE3 service based on the
preceding configuration and adds the service to the Create PWE3 Service window.
The service type of the PWE3 service is ETH, and the protection type is PW
Redundancy. The node type is Single Source and Dual Sink, which indicates that NE1
is dual-homed to NE2 and NE5. In normal situations, NE2 receives and sends services
while NE5 backs up NE2.
The service configurations can be adjusted as needed. Click OK to deliver the PWE3
configurations to the NEs.
3. In the Quick Configuration window, query or modify the L3VPN service. Click Finish
to deliver modified configurations to the NEs.
Step 4 Click OK.
After the service is successfully created, click Browse Service to switch to the Composite
Service Management tab.
If service creation fails, modify service attributes based on the displayed error message and click
OK to create the service again.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
The status and configurations of composite services are displayed on the Composite Service
Management tab. You can use different navigation paths on this tab to perform end-to-end
service management.
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12.3 Modifying a Composite Service
A base station may be added to or deleted from the live network for network adjustment. In this
case, such a base station can be regarded as a service node for composite services, and the
network can be quickly adjusted by adding or deleting the service node.
Prerequisites
The composite service to be modified exists.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Composite Service > Manage Composite Service (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Composite Service > Manage Composite Service (application style) from
the main menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified
composite services are displayed in the query result area.
Step 3 Select a composite service and click Modify.
Step 4 Modify the parameters of the composite service as needed.
The windows for modifying and creating a composite service are similar. The only difference
is that only some of the parameters can be set in the window for modifying the composite service.
l The modifiable parameters for an H-VPLS composite service include:
Service Name
Creation Type
Add/Delete Service Node
Create PW
l Except for Creation Type, other parameters can be modified for a customized composite
service. For details, see 12.2.2 Creating a Customized Composite Service.
Step 5 Click OK.
----End
Result
Information about the modified composite service is displayed in the list area of the Composite
Service Management window. You can click the Topology, Service Component, and
Connection Point tabs to view details about the composite service.
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13 Deploying Network Reliability
About This Chapter
This topic describes how to deploy IP network reliability using the U2000. As the network and
the relevant applications develop, various value-added services are widely deployed on the
network and the network bandwidth dramatically increases. If the network is interrupted for a
short period, a lot of services running on the network are affected, resulting in serious service
loss. Demands for network infrastructure reliability are increasing.
13.1 Configuring BFD
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a universal mechanism used to detect
communication faults between forwarding engines. To be specific, BFD detects the connectivity
of a data protocol on the same path between two systems. The path can be a physical or logical
link, such as a tunnel. BFD can be regarded as a service provided by the system. The upper-layer
application provides BFD parameters, such as the detection address and detection time. BFD
creates, deletes, or modifies BFD sessions based on these information and informs the upper-
layer application of the session status. The upper-layer application then determines whether to
take measures accordingly.
13.2 Configuring VRRP
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is a fault-tolerant protocol. In VRRP, multiple
routers are regarded as a virtual router. If the next-hop NE of a host fails, VRRP rapidly switches
services to another NE to ensure communication continuity and reliability. The advantage of
VRRP is that a default route with higher reliability can be obtained without changing the
networking. In addition, no dynamic routing protocols or routing discovery protocols need to
be configured on the host.
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13.1 Configuring BFD
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a universal mechanism used to detect
communication faults between forwarding engines. To be specific, BFD detects the connectivity
of a data protocol on the same path between two systems. The path can be a physical or logical
link, such as a tunnel. BFD can be regarded as a service provided by the system. The upper-layer
application provides BFD parameters, such as the detection address and detection time. BFD
creates, deletes, or modifies BFD sessions based on these information and informs the upper-
layer application of the session status. The upper-layer application then determines whether to
take measures accordingly.
Prerequisites
Deployment Status of the service for which BFD needs to be configured is Deployed.
Context
Table 13-1 Common BFD Scenarios
Service Usage
Scenario
Description
Tunnel BFD for LSP BFD detects data plane faults that occur in MPLS LSPs.
BFD for TE BFD for TE is an end-to-end rapid detection mechanism
supported by MPLS TE. BFD for TE rapidly detects faults
in links on an MPLS TE tunnel.
NOTE
In BFD for TE, BFD notifies applications (such as VPN) of faults
and triggers traffic switchover between different tunnel
interfaces. In BFD for LSP, BFD notifies TE tunnels of faults and
triggers traffic switchover between different CR-LSPs in the
same TE tunnel. If a service fault occurs, generally, the active/
standby LSP switchover is performed before the tunnel
switchover to ensure service stability. Therefore, configuring
both MPLS TE detection and TE LSP detection is recommended
and the TE LSP detection period must be shorter than the MPLS
TE detection period.
L3VPN BFD for VRF BFD sessions are bound to VRFs so as to transmit BFD
control packets between specified VRFs and to detect the
link faults between VRFs. This mechanism reduces the
impact of link faults on services.
NOTE
VRFs do not provide the switchover function. After BFD
detection is configured for a VRF, BFD must be bound to a VRRP
to implement a VRF switchover through VRRP.
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Service Usage
Scenario
Description
PWE3, H-
VPLS
BFD for PW BFD rapidly detects faults on the PW links between local
and remote PEs to support VLL FRR and reduce the
impact of link faults on services.
The U2000 supports the creation of BFD for PW sessions
in static mode, that is, by manually configuring identifiers.
BFD and VCCV Ping can also be used together to
dynamically detect PW connectivity and achieve rapid
switchover of upper-layer services.
VPLS, H-
VPLS
BFD for VSI
PW
A BFD session can be bound to a management VSI PW to
monitor the status of the management VSI PW so as to
monitor service VSIs.

NOTE
BFD detection is usually used in the following scenarios:
l BFD for VRRP: In VRRP-based reliability networking, BFD provides rapid detection for links
between the primary and secondary routers. If a link fault occurs, BFD notifies the VRRP module
of the fault to achieve rapid switchover between the primary and secondary routers.
l BFD for FRR:
l BFD for LDP FRR: BFD detects protected interfaces and triggers an LDP FRR switchover for
MPLS-based products.
l BFD for IP FRR and BFD for VPN FRR: BFD detects NE faults and triggers IP FRR and VPN
FRR. BFD provides reliability for MPLS-based applications, such as VPN FRR, TE FRR, and
VLL FRR, to achieve service protection.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application style) from the main menu.
L3VPN services are used as an example. The procedures for configuring BFD for tunnels, VPLS
services, PWE3 services, and H-VPLS composite services are similar to that for L3VPN
services.
Step 2 Filter services.
In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified services
are displayed in the query result area.
Step 3 Access the BFD creation window.
1. Select an L3VPN service from the service list, right-click, and choose Configure BFD
from the shortcut menu.
2. In the BFD Session Configuration Management window, click Create.
Step 4 Set BFD parameters.
1. In the Batch Configure BFD Session dialog box, select a detection path.
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The detection path is between the NEs to which the L3VPN service belongs. Generally, a
detection path can be formed between any two NEs. You can click + to create multiple
detection paths for the L3VPN service as needed.

2. Set BFD session parameters.
Click Configure on the right of Detection Object. In the dialog box that is displayed, set
BFD parameters and click OK.

NOTICE
The BFD configurations Min. Sending Interval/Min. Receiving Interval must be set to
10ms on both sides to ensure normal service operation. If they are not the same, the
receiving end considers the value exceeds the detection multiplier whereas packets are sent
properly. A BFD detection abnormality occurs, which makes the management VRRP used
to trace BFD or E-trunk switching failed. If such a configuration error is detected during
routine maintenance, change the value of Min. Sending Interval/Min. Receiving
Interval to 10ms. This operation will not lead to the interruption of deployed services.
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The parameter settings for the detection object vary according to the type of the bound
service. The parameters except those described in the following table can use the default
values provided by the U2000 or be manually adjusted.
NOTE
The supported detection objects and parameter setting requirements vary according to the type of the
bound service.
Service Type of Bound
Service
Setting Requirements
L3VPN VRF VRF: VRF to be detected
Remote IP Address: IP address of the NE where
the sink VRF to be detected resides
Out Interface: a route that uses this interface as
the outbound interface and the peer IP address as
the next hop is detected
Local IP Address:
l If this parameter is not set, the U2000 searches
the local routing table for an outbound
interface matching the peer IP address and
uses the IP address of this interface as the
source IP address from which BFD packets
are sent.
l When both BFD and URPF are enabled, you
need to set the source IP address of BFD
packets because URPF checks the source IP
address of every received packet. The system
only checks whether the source IP address is
valid (for example, the source IP address
cannot be a multicast or broadcast address),
without carrying out any correctness check.
Therefore, you must ensure the correctness of
the source IP address.
PWE3 VLL PW The parameters can use the default values
provided by the U2000 or be manually adjusted.
VPLS Service VSI PW The parameters can use the default values
provided by the U2000 or be manually adjusted.
Tunnel TE Tunnel Interface: Select the tunnel that carries
services.
TE LSP Tunnel Interface: Select the tunnel that carries
services.
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Service Type of Bound
Service
Setting Requirements
Bind LSP Type: In general, BFD is configured to
detect the primary LSP. If a fault occurs, traffic
is switched to the backup LSP. If services have
high requirements for fault detection, BFD can
be configured for both the primary and backup
LSPs to speed up fault detection and switchover.
IP link IP link IP Bind Type:
l Specified IP Address: To check the
connectivity of a single-hop or multi-hop link,
select this value.
l Default Multicast Address: To check the
connectivity of a link between Layer 2 or 3
interfaces without IP addresses, select this
value. BFD control packets are then sent to
the multicast address to check the physical
status of the link.
Remote IP Address: IP address of the sink NE to
be detected
Out Interface: If this parameter is not set, a multi-
hop route can be detected. If this parameter is set,
a single-hop route, that is, a route that uses this
interface as the outbound interface and the peer
IP address as the next hop is detected.
Local IP Address:
l If this parameter is not set, the U2000 searches
the local routing table for an outbound
interface matching the peer IP address and
uses the IP address of this interface as the
source IP address from which BFD packets
are sent.
l When both BFD and URPF are enabled, you
need to set the source IP address of BFD
packets because URPF checks the source IP
address of every received packet. The system
only checks whether the source IP address is
valid (for example, the source IP address
cannot be a multicast or broadcast address),
without carrying out any correctness check.
Therefore, you must ensure the correctness of
the source IP address.

Step 5 Deploy the configurations to NEs.
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Click OK to deploy the configurations to NEs. The newly configured BFD session is displayed
in the list of the BFD Session Configuration Management window.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
l After the preceding operations are complete, you can learn about BFD running conditions
by checking the BFD session status. Before checking the BFD session status, perform
synchronization in the NE Explorer.
Double-click an NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer. In the NE Explorer,
choose BFD Management > Service Detection Configuration > VRF Detection
Configuration from the navigation tree. In the VRF Detection Configuration window,
right-click in the blank area and choose Synchronize from the shortcut menu.
l As previously described, the upper-layer application determines whether to take measures
against the change of BFD session status. The upper-layer application is usually VRRP.
For details about VRRP, see 13.2 Configuring VRRP.
13.2 Configuring VRRP
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is a fault-tolerant protocol. In VRRP, multiple
routers are regarded as a virtual router. If the next-hop NE of a host fails, VRRP rapidly switches
services to another NE to ensure communication continuity and reliability. The advantage of
VRRP is that a default route with higher reliability can be obtained without changing the
networking. In addition, no dynamic routing protocols or routing discovery protocols need to
be configured on the host.
Prerequisites
Deployment Status of the service for which VRRP needs to be configured is Deployed.
NOTE
"" indicates that the device supports this service on the U2000. "-" indicates that the device does not
support this service on the U2000.
Feature Router/Switch PTN RTN
PWE3
VPLS
L3VPN

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
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PWE3 services are used as an example. The procedures for configuring VRRP for VPLS and
L3VPN services are similar to that for PWE3 services.
Step 2 Filter services.
In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified services
are displayed in the query result area.
Step 3 Access the VRRP creation window.
1. Select a PWE3 service from the service list, right-click, and choose Configure VRRP from
the shortcut menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the VRRPs
meeting the filter criteria are displayed in the query result area.
3. In the VRRP-Based Detection Configuration Management window, click Create.
Step 4 Set VRRP detection parameters.
In the Create VRRP dialog box, set the relevant parameters.
1. In the VR Configuration area, set VR parameters.
The parameters can use the default values provided by the U2000 or be manually adjusted.

Type of Bound
Service
Setting Requirements
VR IP Specifies the virtual IP address of a VR. The virtual IP address
of the VR must be on the same network segment as the IP address
of the specified interface. Otherwise, the configuration fails.
For users who have the same VRRP reliability requirements, a
backup group can be configured with multiple virtual IP
addresses to provide services for different user groups. This
facilitates management and prevents the default gateway address
on the user side from being changed with VRRP configurations.
When both VRRP and static ARP are configured on an NE and
VRRP is configured on a Dot1q/QinQ termination subinterface
or a VLAN interface, do not use the mapping IP address
corresponding to the static ARP table entries related to these
interfaces as the VRRP virtual address. Otherwise, the related
NEs fail to forward packets between each other.
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Type of Bound
Service
Setting Requirements
Flowdown If the flowdown function is configured and the mVRRP backup
group is in the non-Master state, the interface where the service
VRRP backup group bound to the mVRRP backup group is
configured goes Down, and the status of the service VRRP
backup group changes to Initialize.
l flowdown: This mode is used on a network where the
upstream and downstream traffic forwarding paths must be
the same. On a network configured with a firewall and a
VRRP backup group, upstream traffic flows through the
master device and the downstream traffic flows through
either the master or backup device. If downstream traffic
flows through the backup device and the firewall detects the
inconsistency between the upstream and downstream traffic
forwarding paths, the backup device has to discard
downstream traffic. The flowdown mode allows the
downstream traffic to be forwarded through the master
device so that all traffic is properly forwarded.
l unflowdown: This mode is used on a network where the
upstream and downstream traffic forwarding paths do not
need to be the same. In this mode, the status of the mVRRP
backup group is the same as the status of the bound VRRP
backup group. Upstream traffic flows through the master
device and reaches the upper-layer network, and downstream
traffic flows through either the master or backup device and
reaches the user side.
NOTE
This parameter is valid only in the following conditions:
l A service VRRP backup group is bound to an mVRRP group, and
this parameter is set for the service VRRP backup group.
l This parameter applies only to L3VPN services and routers.

2. Configure objects to be tracked by VRs.
The objects that can be tracked are classified into three types. You can determine whether
to track all of them as needed.
l Peer BFD
Select the Tracked Peer BFD check box and click .... In the Import BFD Session
dialog box, select the peer BFD to be tracked.
l Link BFD
Configure the link BFD to be tracked.
a. Using the drop-down list, select the remote working device, local working
interface, remote protection device, and local protection interface for the link BFD
to be tracked.
b. Click Advanced. Set Remote BFD ID and Detection Object. Use the default
values for other parameters, or set these parameters as needed. Click OK.
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l BFD sessions or interfaces
Select the Tracked more BFD sessions or interface check box, click Create Row,
and add the monitoring objects for the working and protection VRs.
NOTE
On the Metro Ethernet, VRRP runs between NPEs. BFD between NPEs is called peer BFD, and BFD
between the NPE and UPE is called link BFD. Peer BFD and link BFD are used to detect the link and
NE faults between NPEs and between the NPE and UPE respectively. Peer BFD and link BFD directly
affect the status of a backup group without changing the priority of the backup group. As a result, in
non-preemption mode, the priority of a backup router may be higher than that of a master router after
peer BFD and link BFD are configured.
Step 5 Deploy the configurations to NEs.
Click Finish to deploy the configurations to NEs. The newly configured VRRP is displayed in
the list of the VRRP-Based Detection Configuration Management window.
----End
Result
After the preceding operations are complete, view the following information in the VRRP-
Based Detection Configuration Management window:
l Working NE, Working State, Protection NE, and Protection State: All VRRP backup
groups configured for the PWE3 service and the master and backup states of NEs in a VRRP
backup group are displayed.
l Service Component Associated with VR tab: Service components for tracking VRs are
displayed. These service components determine their own active/standby states by tracking
the VR status.
l VR Tracking Object tab: All objects (usually interfaces, BFD sessions, and OAM)
monitored by the VRRP backup group and priority adjustment values (for example, 10) are
displayed. The VRRP backup group adjusts priorities based on the status of monitored
objects and determines whether to perform a master/backup switchover based on the
adjusted priorities.
ARP dual-NE hot backup can be configured for L3VPN services to back up ARP information
between two NEs running VRRP and maintain ARP information synchronization between the
master and backup NEs. After a VRRP active/standby switchover is performed, downstream
traffic is properly transmitted without MAC address learning in ARP entries. This mechanism
effectively resolves the packet loss problem that occurs because ARP information is not obtained
in time after a switchover is complete.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Select an L3VPN service and click the SAI.
3. Click Create.
4. Select the desired NE and L3VE subinterface from the physical topology tree and
click ... on the right of Remote Backup Policy.
5. Optional: Select ARP Proxy if the PTN 6900 requires that base stations on the same
network segment but in different VLANs communicate properly.
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6. Click OK.
7. Perform Steps 3 through 6 on the peer NE.
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14 Service Monitoring
About This Chapter
14.1 Monitoring Service Alarms
This topic describes how to monitor the alarms and running status of different types of services.
You can also monitor the alarms and running status of IP alarms in a centralized manner.
14.2 Monitoring Service Performance
This topic describes how to use the U2000 to monitor service performance.
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14.1 Monitoring Service Alarms
This topic describes how to monitor the alarms and running status of different types of services.
You can also monitor the alarms and running status of IP alarms in a centralized manner.
Prerequisites
A services has been created.
Context
Service alarms directly affect service running. The U2000 provides two functions of monitoring
service alarms:
l Faulty Service Monitoring: This function allows you to monitor faulty services based on
the service type and view details about services and alarms.
l IP Service Monitoring Template: This function allows you to view the alarms and running
status of all types of services. You can also configure a monitoring template to monitor the
alarms and running status of concerned services.
You can also right-click a service in the service management window to view alarm information
about the service.
NOTE
This function is available for tunnels and L3VPN, VPLS, PWE3, and composite services.
Procedure
Step 1 Perform the following operations to monitor faulty services:
1. Choose Fault > Service Monitoring > Faulty Service Monitoring (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Fault Management in Application Center and choose Alarm
Monitoring > Service Monitoring > Service Monitoring (application style) from the
main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the type of the service to be monitored. The service
type can be tunnel, L3VPN, VPLS, composite, or PWE3.
3. Click Filter.
4. In the Monitor Faulty Service window, view the alarm status of the monitored service.
5. View alarm details and the associated services.
Select a service, right-click, and choose any of the following options from the shortcut
menu to perform the desired operation:
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l Detail: View details about the service.
l Alarm: Switch to the Current Alarm window to view alarm details.
l Acknowledged: Acknowledge the alarm of the selected service.
NOTE
Composite services do not support the Acknowledged operation.
Step 2 Monitor IP services in a centralized manner.
1. Choose Fault > Service Monitoring > IP Service Monitoring Template (traditional
style) from the main menu or select Fault Management in Application Center and choose
Alarm Monitoring > Service Monitoring > IP Service Monitoring Template
(application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Service Monitoring dialog box, expand nodes under All Service.
3. View the quantities of services that correspond to different alarms or running status based
on the service type.
4. Double-click a cell that corresponds to the alarm or running status of the selected service.
Alternatively, right-click the cell and choose Jump to Service to view the service details.
5. Optional: Add a monitoring group.
Add concerned services to the monitoring group so that you can monitor the alarms and
running status of the services in a centralized manner.
a. In the Service Monitoring dialog box, click Select Monitoring Group. Alternatively,
right-click in the blank area and choose Select Monitoring Group from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the Select Monitoring Group dialog box, click Add.
c. Set Monitoring Group Name and click OK.
d. Click OK.
e. In the Service Monitoring dialog box, select the created monitoring group, right-
click, and choose Add Monitoring Service from the shortcut menu.
f. In the Add Monitoring Service dialog box, select all services to be added and click
Add.
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----End
Follow-up Procedure
Perform service troubleshooting. For details, see 15 Detecting Service Faults.
14.2 Monitoring Service Performance
This topic describes how to use the U2000 to monitor service performance.
Procedure
Step 1 Create a performance monitoring instance.
L3VPN services are used as an example. The procedures for creating performance monitoring
instances for tunnels, VPLS services, PWE3 services and H-VPLS services are similar to that
for L3VPN services.
1. After a service is created and deployed, click Create Monitoring Instance in the dialog
box that is displayed.
2. In the service management window, select a service, right-click, and choose
Performance > Create Monitoring Instance from the shortcut menu to create a
performance monitoring instance.
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Step 2 View historical performance monitoring data. Check whether alarms are continuously generated
and take measures as needed.
1. Select a performance monitoring record, right-click, and choose View Historical Data
from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Browse Historical Performance Data dialog box, view historical data about
performance indicators. The following figure shows the historical data about a performance
indicator.
NOTE
l If the performance indicator exceeds the threshold only at a specific time point, the cause of the
fault may be that the NE or network becomes abnormal occasionally and no measure needs to
be taken.
l If the performance indicator remains exceeding the threshold for a long period of time, refer to
the alarm cause to adjust the relevant hardware or services. For example, if the bandwidth remains
exceeding the threshold, increase the link bandwidth.
Step 3 View real-time performance monitoring data. Real-time performance data about one or more
resources can be displayed in one graph.
1. Choose Performance > Performance Monitoring Management (traditional style) from
the main menu or select Fix-Network Performance in Application Center and choose
Performance Monitoring > Performance Monitoring Management (application style)
from the main menu.
2. On the Performance Monitor Management tab, select a resource type from the resource
tree.
3. In the instance list area, right-click a performance monitoring instance and choose Real
Time Monitoring from the shortcut menu.
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The following figure shows the real-time CPU/memory usage of an NE.
----End
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15 Detecting Service Faults
About This Chapter
15.1 Locating Faults Using the Test and Check Function
The U2000 provides the test and check function for IP services, such as tunnels and PWE3,
L3VPN, and VPLS services.
15.2 Performing Cross-Service Check for Fault Locating
Cross-service check is used for continuity check and fault locating in a scenario where a PWE3
service or an H-VPLS composite service accesses a static L3VPN service.
15.3 Using a Test Suite to Locate Faults
This topic describes how to create a test suite to diagnose IP services on a daily, weekly, or
monthly basis.
15.4 Intelligent Service Fault Diagnosis
Packet services and native Ethernet services are widely applied on live networks. If a service
fails, it is hard and time-consuming to diagnose and troubleshoot the fault due to network
complexity. To address this issue, the U2000 provides an intelligent service fault diagnosis
function that can quickly locate and diagnose faults on various types of services.
15.5 Ethernet OAM Detection
Ethernet OAM improves Ethernet management and maintenance capabilities and guarantees
network stability. This feature applies to the Ethernet to implement link-level Ethernet OAM
detection and enhance network reliability.
15.6 MPLS OAM Detection
This topic describes how to configure MPLS OAM. OAM provides a sound fault detection and
location mechanism and a powerful network performance monitoring function for tunnels on
the MPLS network. The fault detection and location mechanism provides unidirectional and
bidirectional tunnel continuity check and fault location. If a fault occurs in a tunnel, this
mechanism rapidly triggers protection switching. The network performance monitoring function
is used to detect and report performance events, such as packet loss, jitter, and delay for MPLS
tunnels, thereby ensuring carrier-class service quality on the packet switched network.
15.7 Detecting MPLS-TP OAM
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The TP OAM function supports continuity check for IP services, achieving rapid service fault
location and isolation.
15.8 Configuration Example--Fault Diagnosis (RTN+CX)
When a fault occurs on the network or network quality deteriorates, O&M engineers can use the
U2000 fault diagnosis (RTN+CX) function to quickly locate the fault point. Then they can
forward the fault information to the related O&M engineers to rectify the fault.
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15.1 Locating Faults Using the Test and Check Function
The U2000 provides the test and check function for IP services, such as tunnels and PWE3,
L3VPN, and VPLS services.
Prerequisites
IP service faults occur.
NOTE
IP service alarms are the alarms reported by IP services to the U2000. You can view the values in the Trail
Domain column of the Browse Current Alarm window to determine the specific services that report
alarms. For example, if the value is VPLS, the alarm is a VPLS service alarm.
Context
The test and check function supports one-click fault locating. The U2000 automatically checks
services based on the predefined check items and check order. The Check Steps for fault locating
are logically ordered, which can be used as a reference for troubleshooting.
In addition, the test and check function supports the selection of one or more check items, such
as Query LSP Information and LSP Ping. The check items cover the MAC address, LSP,
VCCV, PW, VSI, and VRF. The following functions are supported:
l Ping tests for all IP service layers to detect connectivity at each layer
l Traceroute tests for all IP service layers to locate fault points
l Collection of key service information, such as LDP sessions, helping learn about the actual
service situation.
NOTE
If you have determined that the fault point is a VSI (for VPLS services), PW (for VPLS or PWE3 services),
or VRF (for L3VPN services), select the desired service in the service management window, click the
Topology tab, select a diagnosis object (such as a VSI, PW, or VRF), right-click, and choose Fast
Diagnose from the shortcut menu. Then fault diagnosis starts.
VPLS services are used as an example to describe the fault locating procedure. The procedures
for locating tunnel, PWE3, or L3VPN service faults are similar.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > VPLS Service > Manage VPLS Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > VPLS Service > Manage VPLS Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified services
are displayed in the query result area.
Step 3 Select a service in the VPLS service management window, right-click, and choose Diagnose >
Test and Check from the shortcut menu.
Step 4 On the Configuration tab, select a test path. On the Diagnosis Option tab, select Fault
Check.
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Step 5 Click Run to test one or more paths.
Step 6 After fault locating is complete, view the result on the Result tab.
On the Result tab, you can check whether the test operations succeed. Click ... under Details to
view detailed test results.
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Step 7 View the topology of the test path in the topology view on the Check Result tab. Select the
faulty NE in the topology view, right-click, and choose OAM Tools or Collect Information
from the shortcut menu to further locate the NE fault.
NOTE
l The topology is displayed on the Check Result tab only when the check item is set to Fault Check.
l The check items displayed when you right-click in the topology view are the same as those described
in Step 4. The navigation path is provided in this step to facilitate single-NE fault diagnosis.
----End
15.2 Performing Cross-Service Check for Fault Locating
Cross-service check is used for continuity check and fault locating in a scenario where a PWE3
service or an H-VPLS composite service accesses a static L3VPN service.
Prerequisites
The function applies only to PTN NEs.
A PWE3 service or an H-VPLS composite service accesses a static L3VPN service.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
The shortcut menu in the composite service management window also supports cross-service
check. The operation method is similar and therefore is not detailed here.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified services
are displayed in the query result area.
Step 3 Select a service in the PWE3 service management window, right-click, and choose Cross-
Service Detection from the shortcut menu.
Step 4 Select a test type from the Test Type drop-down list.
l Cross-Service Connectivity Check: used for continuity check in a scenario where a PWE3
service or an H-VPLS composite service accesses a static L3VPN service.
l Cross-Service Fault Detection: used for fault locating in a scenario where a PWE3 service
or an H-VPLS composite service accesses a static L3VPN service.
Step 5 Click Add Test Path. In the dialog box that is displayed, set Source Service, Sink Service,
Source NE, Destination NE, Source Interface, and Destination Interface, and click OK.
Step 6 Optional: Click Advanced. Set cross-service check parameters.
Step 7 Click Run to start the cross-service check.
Click the Details and Statistics tabs to view check results and service fault information.
----End
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15.3 Using a Test Suite to Locate Faults
This topic describes how to create a test suite to diagnose IP services on a daily, weekly, or
monthly basis.
Prerequisites
The IP service to be detected exists.
Context
PWE3 services are used as an example. The procedures for using a test suite to locate faults for
tunnels, VPLS services, and L3VPN services are similar to that for PWE3 services.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified services
are displayed in the query result area.
Step 3 In the PWE3 service management window, select a service, right-click, and choose Diagnose
> Create Test Suite from the shortcut menu.
Step 4 On the Select Trail Resource page, select a test path and click Next.
Step 5 Select desired test cases and set Period Type and Server Run Time.

Step 6 Click Finish.
----End
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Follow-up Procedure
After configuring the test suite, perform the following operations:
l View the diagnosis result. In the PWE3 service management window, select a service, right-
click, and choose Diagnose > View Test Result from the shortcut menu. You can check
whether the test is successful and view the diagnosis details. The diagnosis result helps you
determine the root cause of a fault.
l View test strategies. In the PWE3 service management window, select a service, right-
click, and choose Diagnose > View Test Strategy from the shortcut menu to view the test
strategies used for the service.
15.4 Intelligent Service Fault Diagnosis
Packet services and native Ethernet services are widely applied on live networks. If a service
fails, it is hard and time-consuming to diagnose and troubleshoot the fault due to network
complexity. To address this issue, the U2000 provides an intelligent service fault diagnosis
function that can quickly locate and diagnose faults on various types of services.
15.4.1 Service Fault Diagnosis
The U2000 provides intelligent service fault diagnosis and troubleshooting suggestions for
various types of services to diagnose service faults more quickly and accurately.
Context
A large variety of services are applied on live networks. If a service fails, it is time-consuming
to diagnose and troubleshoot the fault due to network complexity.
With the development of packet switching technologies, more and more transport devices
support the packet feature. Compared with a traditional connection-based SDH network, a
packet-based network is more flexible and has more complex service configurations. In addition,
the packet-based network does not have overhead fields to indicate its physical status. This makes
fault troubleshooting difficult. The networking diversity and technology complexity impose
higher requirements on O&M capabilities.
The intelligent service fault diagnosis function of the U2000 can automatically diagnose faults
on various types of services in a layered manner. It provides abundant alarms and can locate
fault points accurately and provide accurate suggestions to guide users through troubleshooting.
It simplifies network O&M and improves the O&M efficiency.
Table 15-1 shows that the intelligent U2000 analysis method replaces the traditional service
fault diagnosis method which heavily relies on O&M engineers and improves the fault locating
efficiency.
Table 15-1 Comparison between traditional service fault troubleshooting and intelligent service
fault diagnosis
Domain Traditional Service Fault
Troubleshooting
Intelligent Service Fault
Diagnosis
End users 1. Report a fault. 1. Report a fault.
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Domain Traditional Service Fault
Troubleshooting
Intelligent Service Fault
Diagnosis
Wireless network engineers 2. Determine the base
transceiver station (BTS) that
encounters the fault.
2. Determine the BTS that
encounters the fault.
Transport network engineers 3. Report the faulty BTS to
the U2000.
3. Report the faulty BTS to
the U2000.
4. Determine suspicious
services or ports based on the
service planning sheets.
4. Determine suspicious
services or ports based on the
service planning sheets.
5. Perform a network
connectivity test on the
U2000 to locate the faulty
services.
5. Perform one-click service
fault diagnosis on the
U2000.
6. Analyze alarms and
performance indicators to
determine the fault location
and possible causes.
7. Analyze and determine the
service-layer fault location
and possible causes.
8. Analyze and determine the
PW-layer fault location and
possible causes.
9. Analyze and determine the
LSP-layer fault location and
possible causes.
10. Find the root cause and
troubleshoot the fault.
6. Find the root cause and
troubleshoot the fault.

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Table 15-2 NE types that support service type
Service Type Supported NE Type
PTN MSTP WDM RTN
Tunnel
PWE3 ETH
VPLS
VPLS+PWE3
OptiX PTN 910
OptiX PTN 910-
F
OptiX PTN 950
OptiX PTN 960
OptiX PTN
1900
OptiX PTN
3900
OptiX PTN
3900-8
OptiX OSN 500
OptiX OSN 550
OptiX OSN
3500
OptiX OSN
3580
OptiX OSN
7500
OptiX OSN
7500II
OptiX OSN
1800
OptiX OSN
1800V
OptiX OSN
1832
OptiX OSN
9800
OptiX OSN
9600
OptiX OSN
8800 Series
OptiX RTN 905
OptiX RTN 910
OptiX RTN 950
OptiX RTN
950A
OptiX RTN 980
PWE3 CES OptiX PTN 910
OptiX PTN 910-
F
OptiX PTN 950
OptiX PTN 960
OptiX PTN
1900
OptiX PTN
3900
OptiX PTN
3900-8
OptiX PTN
905A
OptiX PTN
905B
- - -

NOTE
l The U2000 supports one-click service fault diagnosis only for typical networking scenarios, for
example, VPLS service, PWE3 service and VPLS+PWE3 composite service scenario.
l The U2000 supports one-click service fault diagnosis for tunnel APS scenario. You can perform fault
diagnosis on the protection tunnel.
General Service Model
Figure 15-1 shows the general service model of services. Users can perform service fault
diagnosis at different layers based on the service model.
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Figure 15-1 service model
BTS NE A NE D
NE C
NE B
PW 1
Tunnel 1
PW 2
Tunnel 2
RNC
Service 1 (ATM, CES, E-Line, or L2VPN)
Data link 2
Physical link 2
FE
E1
cSTM-1
IMA Physical link 1
Data link 1
E1
cSTM-1
IMA
FE
BTS NE A RNC NE D NE C NE B

The fault diagnosis involves items for the service, PW, tunnel, and link layer. If any faults are
found, related NEs or links will be color-coded in red in the topology. Users then can perform
troubleshooting for the NEs or links quickly.
Table 15-3 Service Topology Color-Coding Rules
Diagnosed Layer Item Color-Coding Rule
Service layer l OAM consistency check
l NE alarms (part)
l 0 TX/RX traffic on ports
l LB test failure
NEs are color-coded in red.
PW layer l Failure to ping PWs
l 0 TX/RX traffic in PW
performance data
l PW configurations
inconsistent with
hardware
l LB test failure
l Traceroute test failure
NEs or links are color-coded
in red.
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Diagnosed Layer Item Color-Coding Rule
Tunnel layer l Overflow of ARP entries
l ARP entry of the next-hop
IP address unlearned
l 0 TX/RX traffic in tunnels
l Inconsistent
configurations between
the two ends of tunnels
l Chip configuration error
on tunnel nodes
l Failure to obtain OAM
information of tunnels
l LB test failure
l Traceroute test failure
l Link exceptions detected
in traceroute tests
NEs or links are color-coded
in red.
Link layer l 0 TX traffic on source and
0 RX traffic on sink
l NE alarms
NEs are color-coded in red.

15.4.1.1 PWE3 Service Fault Diagnosis
This topic describes how to diagnose faults for PWE3 services in typical scenarios.
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PWE3 Scenario
Figure 15-2 PWE3 E2E services
NodeB
RNC
NE
PW
Working Tunnel
PWE3 Service
Protection Tunnel
NE1
NE6
NE5
NE4
NE3
NE2
NOTE
Currently, the PWE3 services that support the fault diagnosis include E-Line services and CES services.
Only the PTN supports the fault diagnosis of CES services.

Diagnosis Procedure
PWE3 services contain four layers, including the service layer, PW layer, tunnel layer, and link
layer. The fault of service-layer diagnosis automatically triggers PW-layer fault diagnosis while
the fault of tunnel-layer diagnosis automatically triggers link-layer fault diagnosis. Figure
15-3 shows the fault diagnosis procedure for PWE3 services. The process are automatically
performed on the U2000.
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Figure 15-3 Flowchart for PWE3 service fault diagnosis
Start
Diagnose PW-layer
faults.
Diagnose tunnel-layer
faults.
Diagnose link-layer
faults.
1. Check whether E2E PW OAM configurations are consistent.
2. Perform a PW connectivity test.
3. Perform PW traceroute detection for MS PWs.
4. Check receive and transmit traffics at the source and sink ends of a PW.
5. The fault of PW-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger tunnel-layer fault diagnosis.
1. Check whether E2E tunnel OAM configurations are consistent.
2. Perform a tunnel connectivity test.
3. Perform tunnel traceroute detection.
4. Check receive and transmit traffics on tunnels.
5. The fault of tunnel-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger link-layer fault diagnosis.
1. Check alarms on services, ports, boards, and NEs.
2. Check receive and transmit traffics on the two ports of a
link and collect packet error statistics.
3. Query and obtain UNI port parameters.
Diagnose service-layer
faults.
1. Check NEs that services traverse.
2. Check receive and transmit traffics and FCS counts on the source and sink UNI ports.
3. Check the consistency of service OAM configurations and diagnose packet loss.
4. The fault of service-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger PW-layer fault diagnosis.
End
Obtain the diagnosis results and
troubleshooting suggestions.

15.4.1.2 VPLS Service Fault Diagnosis
This topic describes how to diagnose faults for VPLS services in typical scenarios.
VPLS Scenario
As shown in Figure 15-4, tunnels are established between any two NEs on the VPLS network,
where PWs are used to forward Ethernet frames. User networks where CEs 1, 5, and 6 reside
are interconnected through the VPLS network, forming a larger Ethernet (VPN 1). The three
user networks are assigned the same VLAN ID and communicate with each other through VPN
1. Similarly, VPN 2 is established by interconnecting user networks where CEs 2, 3, and 4 reside.
Data streams from CE 1 to CE 5 and from CE 1 to CE 6 traverse VPN 1. When Layer 2 packets
from CE 1 reach NE 1, NE 1 selects a PW and transparently forwards these packets to NEs 2
and 4. Then, NEs 2 and 4 forward them to destination CEs.
When you start fault diagnosis for VPLS services on VPN 1, VPLS services from nodes to nodes
are split into multiple node-to-node E-Line services. In this case, the services are diagnosed
possibly from the following paths: NE 1->NE 2 and NE 1->NE 4.
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Figure 15-4 VPLS services
CE1
CE2
CE3
CE4
CE5
CE6
VPN1
VPN1
VPN1
VPN2
VPN2
VPN2
PW
Tunnel
NE1 NE2
NE3
NE4
MPLS Network

Diagnosis Procedure
1. Learn the broadcast scope of VPLS services by VLAN. 2. Specify source and sink nodes to
diagnose faults for node-to-node E-Line services in the service, PW, tunnel, and link layers. The
fault of service-layer diagnosis automatically triggers PW-layer fault diagnosis while the fault
of tunnel-layer diagnosis automatically triggers link-layer fault diagnosis. Figure 15-5 shows
the flowchart for VPLS service fault diagnosis. The process from service-layer fault diagnosis
to link-layer fault diagnosis are automatically performed on the U2000.
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Figure 15-5 Flowchart for VPLS service fault diagnosis
Start
Diagnose PW-layer
faults.
Diagnose tunnel-layer
faults.
Diagnose link-layer
faults.
1. Check whether E2E PW OAM configurations are consistent.
2. Perform a PW connectivity test.
3. Perform PW traceroute detection for MS PWs.
4. Check receive and transmit traffics at the source and sink ends of a PW.
5. The fault of PW-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger tunnel-layer fault diagnosis.
1. Check whether E2E tunnel OAM configurations are consistent.
2. Perform a tunnel connectivity test.
3. Perform tunnel traceroute detection.
4. Check receive and transmit traffics on tunnels.
5. The fault of tunnel-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger link-layer fault diagnosis.
1. Check alarms on services, ports, boards, and NEs.
2. Check receive and transmit traffics on the two ports of a link and
collect packet error statistics.
3. Query and obtain UNI port parameters.
Diagnose service-layer
faults.
1. Check NEs that services traverse.
2. Check receive and transmit traffics and FCS counts on the source and sink UNI ports.
3. Check the consistency of service OAM configurations and diagnose packet loss.
4. The fault of service-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger PW-layer fault diagnosis.
End Obtain the diagnosis results and troubleshooting suggestions.
Determine service
VLANs and paths.
1. Determine all NEs in the VLANs based on ports and VLAN IDs.
2. Select source and sink nodes for the OSS to automatically calculates service paths
and start node-to-node E-line service fault diagnosis.

15.4.1.3 Composite Service Fault Diagnosis
This topic describes how to diagnose faults for composite services in typical scenarios.
VPLS+PWE3 Scenario
As shown in Figure 15-6, PWE3s access VPLS services in a dual-homed manner. In this
scenario, NE 1 originates primary and backup PWs to transmit PWE3 services to NEs 2 and 3.
When the PW between NEs 1 and 2 malfunctions, traffic is immediately switched to that between
NEs 1 and 3. This ensures the stability of PWE3 services transmitted from NE 1. On the VPLS
network, NEs establish tunnel-based PWs destined to VPNs 1 and 2, and transmit and receive
Layer 2 packets transparently over the PWs. When forwarding packets, NEs learn source MAC
addresses and establish MAC forwarding entries. This maps MAC addresses to ACs and PWs.
When you start fault diagnosis in the VPLS+PWE3 scenario, VPLS services from nodes to nodes
are split into multiple node-to-node E-Line services. In this case, the services are diagnosed from
the following paths: NE 1->NE 2->NE 4 and NE 1->NE 2->NE 5.
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Figure 15-6 VPLS+PWE3 composite services
CE1
CE2
CE3
NE1
NE2
NE3
NE4
NE5
VPN1
VPN2
PWE3 VPLS

Diagnosis Procedure
1. Learn the broadcast scope of VPLS services by VLAN. 2. Specify source and sink nodes to
diagnose faults for node-to-node E-Line services in the service, PW, tunnel, and link layers. The
fault of service-layer diagnosis automatically triggers PW-layer fault diagnosis while the fault
of tunnel-layer diagnosis automatically triggers link-layer fault diagnosis. Figure 15-7 shows
the fault diagnosis flowchart for VPLS+PWE3 composite services. The process from service-
layer fault diagnosis to link-layer fault diagnosis are automatically performed on the U2000.
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Figure 15-7 Fault diagnosis flowchart for VPLS+PWE3 composite services
Start
Diagnose PW-layer
faults.
Diagnose tunnel-layer
faults.
Diagnose link-layer
faults.
1. Check whether E2E PW OAM configurations are consistent.
2. Perform a PW connectivity test.
3. Perform PW traceroute detection for MS PWs.
4. Check receive and transmit traffics at the source and sink ends of a PW.
5. The fault of PW-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger tunnel-layer fault diagnosis.
1. Check whether E2E tunnel OAM configurations are consistent.
2. Perform a tunnel connectivity test.
3. Perform tunnel traceroute detection.
4. Check receive and transmit traffics on tunnels.
5. The fault of tunnel-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger link-layer fault diagnosis.
1. Check alarms on services, ports, boards, and NEs.
2. Check receive and transmit traffics on the two ports of a link and
collect packet error statistics.
3. Query and obtain UNI port parameters.
Diagnose service-layer
faults.
1. Check NEs that services traverse.
2. Check receive and transmit traffics and FCS counts on the source and sink UNI ports.
3. Check the consistency of service OAM configurations and diagnose packet loss.
4. The fault of service-layer diagnosis will automatically trigger PW-layer fault diagnosis.
End Obtain the diagnosis results and troubleshooting suggestions.
Determine service
VLANs and paths.
1. Determine all NEs in the VLANs based on ports and VLAN IDs.
2. Select source and sink nodes for the OSS to automatically calculates service paths
and start node-to-node E-line service fault diagnosis.

15.4.2 Diagnosing Faults for PWE3 Services
This topic describes how to perform one-click service fault diagnosis for different services,
display diagnosis items and results, and export the diagnosis results to a report through the
U2000.
Prerequisites
l E2E PWE3 services are deployed.
l Data has been synchronized between the U2000 and NEs.
l For an all-PTN NE network, the license must be within the grace period.
l For a PTN and transport NEs hybrid network, diagnosing faults is not supported.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the main menu.
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In the Manage PWE3 Service window, right-click a desired PWE3 service and choose
Diagnose > Service Fault Diagnosis from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
l The attributes in the left pane of the Manage PWE3 Service window vary accordingly when you click
the link at the service layer, PW layer, and tunnel layer in turn.
l You can perform service fault diagnosis at the tunnel layer alone. The navigation path is: Choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network
Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel
(application style) from the main menu. right-click a desired tunnel and choose Diagnose > Service
Fault Diagnosis from the shortcut menu.
l During the fault diagnosis, the Diagnosis Name area automatically displays the name and diagnosis
result of a layer at which fault diagnosis is being performed.
Step 2 In the Service Fault Diagnosis window, click Start Diagnosis. When you click Diagnosis
Result, the service fault diagnosis results are displayed in the lower right corner of the window.
.
NOTE
If you click Diagnosis Name, the lower right corner of the window displays the fault details and
troubleshooting suggestions for the corresponding layer.
Step 3 After the fault diagnosis is completed, click Export Result. A web page-type diagnosis report
is generated.
----End
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15.4.3 Diagnosing Faults for VPLS and Composite Services
This topic describes how to perform one-click service fault diagnosis for VPLS services and
VPLS+PWE3 services, display diagnosis items and results, and export the diagnosis results to
a report through the U2000.
Prerequisites
l E2E VPLS services and VPLS+PWE3 services are deployed.
l Data has been synchronized between the U2000 and NEs.
l For an all-PTN NE network, the license must be within the grace period.
l For a PTN and transport NEs hybrid network, diagnosing faults is not supported.
Context
NOTE
The screenshots in steps take VPLS service as an example. Fault diagnosis interfaces for other types of
service are similar.
Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Service Path View (traditional style) from the main menu or select Bearer
Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service > Service Path
View (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Click Select. In the Select Port window, choose an NE from the navigation tree, select a service
port in the right pane, and click OK.
Step 3 Set VLAN ID and click Search. The U2000 automatically searches the services based on the
VLAN ID, and displays the service topologies in the topology view.
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Step 4 On the Broken Diagnose tab, specify the source and sink ports of the desired service in the
VLAN. The U2000 automatically calculates the node-to-node service path to be diagnosed.
Step 5 Click Detect to open the window for service fault diagnosis.
NOTE
l The attributes in the left pane of the Manage PWE3 Service window vary accordingly when you click
the link at the service layer, PW layer, and tunnel layer in turn.
l You can perform service fault diagnosis at the tunnel layer alone. The navigation path is: Choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or select Bearer Network
Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel
(application style) from the main menu. right-click a desired tunnel and choose Diagnose > Service
Fault Diagnosis from the shortcut menu.
l During the fault diagnosis, the Diagnosis Name area automatically displays the name diagnosis result
of a layer at which fault diagnosis is being performed.
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Step 6 In the Service Fault Diagnosis window, click Start Diagnosis. When you click Diagnosis
Result, the service fault diagnosis results are displayed in the lower right corner of the window.
.
NOTE
If you click Diagnosis Name, the lower right corner of the window displays the fault details and
troubleshooting suggestions for the corresponding layer.
Step 7 After the fault diagnosis is completed, click Export Result. A web page-type diagnosis report
is generated.
----End
15.5 Ethernet OAM Detection
Ethernet OAM improves Ethernet management and maintenance capabilities and guarantees
network stability. This feature applies to the Ethernet to implement link-level Ethernet OAM
detection and enhance network reliability.
Prerequisites
The configurations of the relevant NEs are synchronized to the U2000.
The supported services include PWE3, VPLS, and composite services.
VPLS services configured on the management interfaces of RTN 950As and RTN 950Ns do not
support Ethernet OAM.
Context
The U2000 supports Ethernet OAM configuration on CEs and PEs as well as link detection
between CEs and PEs or between PEs. Ethernet OAM supports the following tests.
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Test Type Function Remarks
LB Checks whether the local NE is properly
connected to the peer NE by sending test
packets and receiving response packets.
The LB test is similar to the Ping test. In
an LB test, LB packets are unicasted from
an MEP to another MEP in the same MA.
The receiving node checks the destination
MAC address of the LB packets. If the
destination MAC address is the MAC
address of the receiving node, the
receiving node sends a loopback reply
(LBR) message to the source node. The
transit nodes only implement Layer 2
forwarding.
The services and NEs that
support the LM and DM tests
are as follows:
l VPLS: NE40E
l PWE3: NE40E, OSN3500,
OSN7500, OSN7500II,
OSN500, OSN550, and
OTN.
l Composite service: NE40E
LT Checks the path from the local NE to the
peer NE or locates faults by sending test
packets and receiving response packets.
The LT test is similar to the traceroute
test.
LM Measures the number of packets lost
between a pair of MEPs.
DM Measures the delay and jitter between a
pair of MEPs.
Test Implements on-demand diagnostic
testing. When the test packet function is
configured, the MEP inserts the TEST
frame with the specified flux, frame
length, and transmission code type. The
common and loopback test modes are
supported.
This parameter applies only to
PWE3 services on PTN NEs.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service > Service
Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the filter criterion to View Name and click Filter. All
the qualified Ethernet OAM views are displayed in the query result area.
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NOTE
l By default, the U2000 displays only the ETH OAM configuration view. You can click to display
the ETH OAM topology view.
l Alternatively, click Cancel to prevent the U2000 from displaying any Ethernet OAM view. In this
situation, you need to create an Ethernet OAM view and set Ethernet OAM parameters.
Step 3 Click Create and filter out the services requiring Ethernet OAM based on the service type and
service name. Click to add the services to Selected Service List. Then click OK.
Step 4 Click Configure Automatically. In the Confirm dialog box, click Yes. The U2000
automatically calculates Ethernet OAM configurations in the current view and creates the MD,
MA, MEP, RMEP, and MIP on NEs.
Step 5 In the Service Ethernet OAM window, click Detail and set Ethernet OAM parameters.
NOTE
Parameter settings can be modified only when Deployment Status is set to Undeployed.
Tab Name Description
MD Configuration An MD is a network or a part of a network for which Ethernet
CFM is implemented. An MD is managed by a unified Internet
service provider (ISP). An important attribute of the MD is level,
which restricts the range of OAM operations. The MD can be
embedded but not overlapped. Maintenance points process OAM
packets according to the following rule: blocking OAM packets
of lower levels, transparently transmitting OAM packets of
higher levels, and processing OAM packets of the same level.
MA Configuration An MA is a part of an MD. An MD can be divided into one or
more MAs. The MA can be considered as a service-related
domain, which consists of many MEPs.
MEP Configuration An MEP is an edge node of an MA. The MEP, which is relevant
to services, is the transmission and termination points of all OAM
packets. The MEP has a unique MEP ID in the MA. On a network,
the MA and MEP ID can uniquely identify an MEP.
RMEP Configuration On a network where Ethernet CFM is running, the MEP on an
NE is regarded as the local MEP, and the MEPs on the rest NEs
in the same MA are regarded as RMEPs.
MIP Configuration An MIP is an internal node of an MA.
An MIP is created automatically and resides on an NE interface.
MIPs are relevant to an MD, not an MA. MIPs cannot initiate
OAM packets. Instead, they can respond to and forward LB/LT
packets. They can forward CC packets only.

Step 6 Click OK to apply Ethernet OAM settings.
Step 7 Start real-time service continuity check. Right-click in the blank area of the Ethernet OAM
configuration view and choose Start CC from the shortcut menu.
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Ethernet OAM periodically sends CC packets to detect the service connectivity in real time. The
source MEP constructs and sends CC frames periodically. After receiving the CC frames, the
destination MEP enables the CC function. If the destination MEP does not receive the CC frames
from the source MEP in a certain period of time (for example, 3.5 times the period for sending
CC frames), a CCLOS alarm is generated.
Step 8 Start the Ethernet OAM test. An Ethernet OAM test can be an LB, LT, LM, or DM test. These
tests apply to links between CEs and PEs or between PEs.
1. Right-click in the blank area of the Ethernet OAM configuration view and choose ETH
OAM Test from the shortcut menu.
2. In the window that is displayed, set Measurement Type.
3. Click Add Test Path Manually, add a test path, and set path attributes.
4. Click Run.
l The U2000 automatically enables the CC function during the running of LB, LT, LM,
DM, and Test, and disables the CC function after the test is complete.
l The U2000 allows you to select both the source and sink interfaces, right-click, and choose
LB Test, LT Test, LM Test, or DM Test in ETH OAM Configuration View.
l After you set filter criteria by specifying the source and sink interfaces, the U2000 determines
whether an existing test path is available. If yes, you can start the LB/LT/LM/DM test directly.
If no existing test path is available and the source and sink interfaces have been specified as
filter criteria, a message is displayed asking you whether to allow the U2000 to automatically
generate a test path. In addition to a test path, the U2000 also generates OAM configurations
for the source and sink interfaces and starts the LB test.
l You can select a PE or an LTE device as the sink NE. That is, the PE-CE LB/LT/LM/DM
test is supported. An LTE device can act as a sink NE only. To carry out an LB test, you need
to enter the OAM configurations of the LTE device, such as the sink NE, sink interface MAC
address, and sink MEP ID.
----End
15.6 MPLS OAM Detection
This topic describes how to configure MPLS OAM. OAM provides a sound fault detection and
location mechanism and a powerful network performance monitoring function for tunnels on
the MPLS network. The fault detection and location mechanism provides unidirectional and
bidirectional tunnel continuity check and fault location. If a fault occurs in a tunnel, this
mechanism rapidly triggers protection switching. The network performance monitoring function
is used to detect and report performance events, such as packet loss, jitter, and delay for MPLS
tunnels, thereby ensuring carrier-class service quality on the packet switched network.
Prerequisites
IP tunnels and LDP tunnels do not support OAM configuration.
Context
The process of MPLS OAM detection is as follows:
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1. The ingress node sends CV or FFD packets. The packets reach the egress node along the
LSP that is to be detected.
2. The egress node compares the type, frequency, TTSI, and other information in the received
packets with the expected values locally recorded to determine whether the packets are
correct. In addition, the egress node counts the number of correct and incorrect packets
received in the specified measurement period to check the LSP connectivity.
3. When detecting a defect in the LSP, the egress node analyzes the defect type and sends a
BDI packet that carries the defect information to the ingress node using the reverse tunnel.
The ingress node then learns the defect status in time. In this case, protection switching is
triggered if a protection group has been properly configured.
Procedure
Step 1 Use any of the following methods to configure OAM:
l Configure OAM on the Manage Tunnel tab.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or
select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria as needed. Then click Filter. The
services meeting the filter criteria are displayed in the query result area.
3. Select one or more tunnels, right-click, and choose MPLS OAM > Configure Y.1711
OAM from the shortcut menu.
l Configure OAM in the Manage Protection Group window.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Protection Group (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center
and choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Protection Group (application style) from
the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria as needed. Then click Filter. The
services meeting the filter criteria are displayed in the query result area.
3. Select a protection group and click the Tunnel Information tab. On the Tunnel
Information tab, right-click a tunnel and choose Configure OAM from the shortcut
menu.
l Configure OAM in the Create Tunnel window.
NOTE
Routers do not support this function.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Create Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or
select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Create Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. Set Signaling Type to Static CR and Protection Type to 1+1 or 1:1.
3. Select the source, transit, and sink NEs.
4. Click Configure MPLS OAM(Y.1711).
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l Configure OAM in the Create Protection Group window.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Create Protection Group (traditional style) from the main
menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > Tunnel > Create Protection Group (application style) from the main
menu.
2. Configure basic information about a tunnel protection group.
3. Click Add. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the working and protection tunnels
and click OK.
4. Select a tunnel and click Configure OAM.
Step 2 In the dialog box that is displayed, set the relevant MPLS OAM parameters.
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Table 15-4 Parameters for configuring OAM
Major Parameter Settings
Detection Mode Detection Packet Type and Detection Packet Period are available
only when Detection Mode is set to Manual for the sink NE.
l Auto-Sensing: The tunnel connectivity is tested using a user-
defined frequency.
l Manual: The tunnel connectivity is tested using the frequency of
receiving packets.
Over Time Indicates the OAM timeout period, namely, the period of waiting for
the first detection packet after OAM configurations take effect. If the
egress node does not receive any detection packet before the period
expires, a defect is detected and BDI packets are triggered to alarm the
ingress node.
Detection Packet
Type
Indicates the type of OAM detection packets. MPLS OAM is
implemented by periodically sending CV or FFD packets over the
detected LSP.
l FFD: short for fast failure detection. The detection frequency can
be set.
l CV: short for connectivity verification. The detection frequency is
fixed and cannot be set.
Example:
Setting Detection Packet Type to FFD is recommended to ensure that
the protection switching time is less than 50 ms.
SF Threshold The SF threshold must be equal to or greater than the SD threshold.
BDI Frequency BDI: short for backward defect indication. The frequency of sending
BDI packets is the same as the frequency of sending OAM detection
packets.
The sink LSR of the downstream LSP uses a BDI packet to inform the
source LSR of the upstream LSP of a defect along the reverse tunnel.
This parameter indicates the frequency of sending BDI packets.
Example:
Setting this parameter to 10 is recommended.

Step 3 Click OK.
Step 4 Optional: Select one or more tunnels, right-click, and choose OAM > Enable OAM from the
shortcut menu to enable MPLS OAM.
NOTE
Manually enabling OAM is not required because the U2000 enables OAM by default when you configure
a tunnel protection group.
Step 5 Optional: Select one or more tunnels, right-click, and choose OAM > Clear OAM from the
shortcut menu to clear MPLS OAM configurations.
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NOTE
l Clearing OAM configurations is potentially service-affecting. Exercise caution when you perform this
operation.
l After OAM configurations are cleared, the switching function for static and static CR tunnel protection
groups is unavailable. Because no OAM mechanism is available, the switching cannot be triggered
even if the working tunnel is Down.
l After OAM configurations are cleared, the protection switching speed of RSVP TE tunnels is slowed
down. As a dynamic protocol-based detection mechanism is available for RSVP TE tunnels, the
switching can still be performed in a speed lower than that in OAM detection.
----End
15.7 Detecting MPLS-TP OAM
The TP OAM function supports continuity check for IP services, achieving rapid service fault
location and isolation.
Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" rights or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
Background
The U2000 automatically configures the PW switching point as an MIP for a multi-hop PWE3
service. You can view related configurations in the NE Explorer.
TP OAM supports the following test methods:
l Loopback (LB): This method is used to test the connectivity between the local maintenance
association end point (MEP) and the peer maintenance association intermediate point (MIP)
or MEP.
l Linktrace (LT): This method is used to test the connectivity between the local MEP and
the peer MIP or MEP.
l Loss measurement (LM): This method falls into near-end packet loss measurement that
counts the packet loss ratio of the source node in the receiving direction and far-end packet
loss measurement that counts the packet loss ratio of the source node in the sending
direction.
l Delay measurement (DM): This method is used to measure the delay of packets. Two types
of DM methods are available:
One-way: The source node periodically sends OAM packets that carry timestamps. The
sink node receives the packets, compares the receiving time with the timestamps, and
works out the packet delay.
Two-way: The source node periodically sends DM request packets that carry
timestamps. The sink node receives the packets and sends response packets that carry
timestamps. The source node calculates the packet delay based on the timestamps.
l Test: This method is used for one-way on-demand diagnostic testing. When the test packet
function is configured for testing, the MEP inserts the TEST frame with specified flux,
frame length, and transmission code type. The following test types are available based on
whether services are interrupted:
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Offline test (services interrupted): In this test, data service traffic is interrupted by the
diagnosis entity. Generally, data services are moved to the backup path and an offline
test is performed on the path.
Online test (services not interrupted): In this test, data service traffic is not interrupted
by the diagnosis entity and frames with the TEST information are sent by using limited
bandwidth. To perform an online test, ensure that data service traffic is not affected and
the maximum transmission rate for frames with TEST information is restricted.
Feature Constraint
Tunnel For PTN 6900s, when the signaling type is Static CR, only the
tunnels whose Service Direction is Bidirectional support this
function. For other NEs, this constraint does not apply.
PWE3 All NEs support this function.
H-VPLS Composite
Service
Only PTN NEs support this function.

Procedure
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
NOTE
The supported services include PWE3, VPLS, and composite services. PWE3 services are used as
an example.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter. All the qualified
services are displayed in the query result area.
3. Optional: The OAM protocol version must be Y.1731 based on TP OAM requirements.
To switch from Y.1711 to Y.1731, right-click the desired PWE3 service in the service list
and choose PW OAM > Switch to Y.1731 from the shortcut menu.
NOTE
The OAM protocol version on an NE can be viewed by performing the following operations:
1. In the Manage PWE3 Service window, select the desired NE on the Topology tab, right-click,
and choose NE Explorer from the shortcut menu.
2. Choose Configuration > MPLS Management > Basic Configuration from the Function Tree.
3. Click the Global OAM Parameters tab and view information about Default OAM
Recommendation to learn about the OAM protocol version on the NE.
4. Set TP OAM parameters.
Two methods are available:
l Select the PWE3 service, right-click, and choose PW OAM > Enable MPLS-TP
OAM from the shortcut menu to complete the automatic configuration of TP OAM
parameters.
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NOTE
l When services are created for PTN NEs, the U2000 already configures related parameters
for nodes. You need only to enable TP OAM.
l For PWE3 services running on PTN, hybrid MSTP, or RTN series NEs, you can enable
MPLS-TP OAM only after generic associated channel header label (GAL) is enabled or PW
control words are configured. When a user attempts to enable MPLS-TP OAM, the U2000
automatically checks whether PW control words are configured for the PWE3 services. If
control words are not configured, the U2000 automatically enables GAL.
l Alternatively, select a PWE3 service, right-click, and then choose PW OAM >
Configure MPLS-TP OAM from the shortcut menu. In the dialog box that is displayed,
set TP OAM check paths and parameters.
NOTE
If the Enable MPLS-TP OAM or Configure MPLS-TP OAM operation has been performed,
the dialog box that is displayed shows existing configurations.
NOTE
The figure takes the router GUI as an example. See the specific GUI according to the device type.
5. Click OK.
Postrequisite
Fault locating and performance testing can be implemented by the following operations:
1. Select the service to be tested, right-click, and choose PW OAM > MPLS-TP OAM
Test from the shortcut menu.
2. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the desired test type from the drop-down list, click
Parameter, and set parameters.
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3. Select the path to be tested and click Run to view the test result on the related statistics tab
page.
15.8 Configuration Example--Fault Diagnosis (RTN+CX)
When a fault occurs on the network or network quality deteriorates, O&M engineers can use the
U2000 fault diagnosis (RTN+CX) function to quickly locate the fault point. Then they can
forward the fault information to the related O&M engineers to rectify the fault.
RTN+CX Scenario Description
International carriers deploy CX NEs only at the core layer to achieve Layer 3 forwarding during
the evolution to LTE. By doing this, they can use the existing RTN NEs instead of replacing
them, reducing network construction costs.
The RTN+CX solution has either of the following networking scenarios:
l Back-to-back networking
In a back-to-back networking scenario, native Ethernet services are created between RTN
NEs and L3VPN services are created between CX NEs.
l Integrated networking
In an integrated networking scenario, PWE3 services are created between RTN and CX
NEs.
Benefits
The preceding networking scenarios cover the wireless, transport, and IP domains. O&M
engineers are hard-pressed to understand all the related technologies. When a fault occurs on a
cross-domain network, quickly locating the fault to determine the domain of the associated NE
is the most important step in fault diagnosis.
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The fault diagnosis (RTN+CX) function applies to only the RTN+CX networking scenario. This
function enables the O&M engineers to rapidly locate the fault on an inter- and intra-domain
basis and restore the network as soon as possible.
For... Benefits
Carrier l OPEX is lowered because knowledge and
skill requirements for locating faults are
reduced.
l Customer complaints are reduced and
brand value is increased because fast fault
locating makes the network more reliable.
User Network services are more stable.

15.8.1 Back-to-Back Networking Scenario
This topic describes the procedure for locating a fault in a back-to-back networking scenario.
Prerequisites
l Native Ethernet services have been created between RTN NEs.
l L3VPN services have been created between CX NEs.
Context
The following figure shows the method used to diagnose a fault on an RTN+CX back-to-back
networking scenario.
The following figure shows the procedure for diagnosing a fault on an RTN+CX back-to-back
networking scenario.
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Procedure
Step 1 Perform an LB test between the RTN NE and LTE node. The interface on the RTN NE connected
to the LTE node is used for the LB test.
1. Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Service Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. All the matched services are displayed
in the query result area.
3. Click Create. Query the created native Ethernet services and add them to Selected Service
List.
4. Right-click in a blank area in the Ethernet OAM configuration view and choose Add Node
Beyond Domain from the shortcut menu. In the dialog box that is displayed, set Node
Name and Node MAC Address for the LTE node.
5. In the Ethernet OAM configuration view, select the native Ethernet SAI and the LTE node
to be added at the same time, right-click, and choose LB Test from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Select Interface dialog box, click OK.
7. In the Parameter Information dialog box, click OK.
8. In the LB Test dialog box, click Run.
9. On the LB Statistic Information tab, check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
10. If no fault occurs on the tested segment, perform the following operations. If a fault occurs
on the tested segment, go to Step 5 to locate the fault.
Step 2 Perform an LB test between the source RTN NE interface connected to the base station and sink
RTN NE interface connected to the CX NE.
1. Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Service Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. All the matched services are displayed
in the query result area.
3. Click Create. Query the created native Ethernet services and add them to Selected Service
List.
4. In the Ethernet OAM configuration view, select the source RTN NE interface connected
to the base station and sink RTN NE interface connected to the CX NE at the same time,
right-click, and choose LB Test from the shortcut menu.
5. In the Select Interface dialog box, click OK.
6. In the Parameter Information dialog box, click OK.
7. In the LB Test dialog box, click Run.
8. On the LB Statistic Information tab, check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
9. If no fault occurs on the tested segment, perform the following operations. If a fault occurs
on the tested segment, go to Step 5 to locate the fault.
Step 3 Perform an LB test between the CX NE interface connected to the RTN NE and RTN NE
interface connected to the CX NE.
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1. Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Service Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. All the matched services are displayed
in the query result area.
3. Click Create. Query the created native Ethernet services and add them to Selected Service
List.
4. In the Ethernet OAM configuration view, select the CX NE interface connected to the RTN
NE and RTN NE interface connected to the CX NE, right-click, and choose LB Test from
the shortcut menu.
5. In the Select Interface dialog box, click OK.
6. In the Parameter Information dialog box, click OK.
7. In the LB Test dialog box, click Run.
8. On the LB Statistic Information tab, check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
9. If no fault occurs on the tested segment, perform the following operations. If a fault occurs
on the tested segment, go to Step 5 to locate the fault.
Step 4 Test and check L3VPN services between CX NEs.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Query the created L3VPN services. Right-click the desired L3VPN service and choose
Test and Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Diagnosis Option dialog box, select VRF Ping. Click Run.
4. Check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
5. If a fault occurs on the tested segment, go to Step 5 to locate the fault.
Step 5 Perform an LT test on the segment where the fault occurs to locate the faulty board.
1. Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Service Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. All the matched services are displayed
in the query result area.
3. In the Ethernet OAM configuration view, select the source and sink interfaces on the
segment where the fault occurs, right-click, and choose LT Test from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Select Interface dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Parameter Information dialog box, click OK.
6. In the LT Test dialog box, click Run.
7. On the LT Check Information tab, view details about the fault.
----End
15.8.2 Integrated Networking Scenario
This topic describes the procedure for diagnosing a fault in an integrated networking scenario.
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Prerequisites
l PWE3 services have been created between RTN and CX NEs.
l L3VPN services have been created between CX NEs.
Context
The following figure shows the method used to diagnose a fault on an RTN+CX integrated
networking scenario.
The following figure shows the procedure for diagnosing a fault on an RTN+CX integrated
networking scenario.
Procedure
Step 1 Perform an LB test between the RTN NE and LTE node. The interface on the RTN NE connected
to the LTE node is used for the LB test.
1. Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Service Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. All the matched services are displayed
in the query result area.
3. Click Create. Query the created PWE3 services and add them to Selected Service List.
4. Right-click in a blank area in the Ethernet OAM configuration view and choose Add Node
Beyond Domain from the shortcut menu. In the dialog box that is displayed, set Node
Name and Node MAC Address for the LTE node.
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5. In the Ethernet OAM configuration view, select the PWE3 SAI and the LTE node to be
added at the same time, right-click, and choose LB Test from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Select Interface dialog box, click OK.
7. In the Parameter Information dialog box, click OK.
8. In the LB Test dialog box, click Run.
9. On the LB Statistic Information tab, check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
10. If no fault occurs on the tested segment, perform the following operations. If a fault occurs
on the tested segment, go to Step 4 to locate the fault.
Step 2 Perform an MPLS TP OAM test between the source RTN NE interface connected to the LTE
node and sink RTN NE interface connected to the CX NE.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Manage PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Query the created PWE3 services. Right-click the desired PWE3 service and choose PW
OAM > TP OAM Test from the shortcut menu.
3. Click Run.
4. Check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
5. If no fault occurs on the tested segment, perform the following operations. If a fault occurs
on the tested segment, go to Step 4 to locate the fault.
Step 3 Test and check L3VPN services between CX NEs.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Query the created L3VPN services. Right-click the desired L3VPN service and choose
Test and Check from the shortcut menu.
3. In the Diagnosis Option dialog box, select VRF Ping. Click Run.
4. Check whether the packet loss ratio is 0.
5. If a fault occurs on the tested segment, go to Step 4 to locate the fault.
Step 4 Perform an LT test on the segment where the fault occurs to locate the faulty board.
1. Choose Service > Service Ethernet OAM (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Service Ethernet OAM (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, click Filter. All the matched services are displayed
in the query result area.
3. In the Ethernet OAM configuration view, select the source and sink interfaces on the
segment where the fault occurs, right-click, and choose LT Test from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Select Interface dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Parameter Information dialog box, click OK.
6. In the LT Test dialog box, click Run.
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7. On the LT Check Information tab, view details about the fault.
----End
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16 Configuration Examples-Routing
About This Chapter
The configuration example helps to better understand VPN application and configuration on
networks that contain routers and switches.
16.1 Examples for Configuring Tunnels
This topic provides examples for configuring tunnels in end-to-end mode. The examples describe
the processes of creating tunnels in different scenarios.
16.2 Examples for Configuring a PWE3 Service
This topic provides several examples for configuring a PWE3 service in typical networking
modes.
16.3 Example for Configuring a VPLS Service
This topic provides an example for configuring a VPLS service.
16.4 Examples for Configuring L3VPN Services
This topic provides examples for configuring L3VPN services, including intranet VPN and
Hub&Spoke VPN services.
16.5 Example for Configuring Composite Services
This topic describes the networking modes and configuration methods for composite services
with examples.
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16.1 Examples for Configuring Tunnels
This topic provides examples for configuring tunnels in end-to-end mode. The examples describe
the processes of creating tunnels in different scenarios.
16.1.1 Example for Configuring the Static CR Tunnel
This topic provides an example for configuring the Static CR Tunnel.
16.1.1.1 Networking Configuration
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
As shown in the following figure, the services between Node B and RNC are carried by a Static
CR tunnel. The services sent from Node B access the network at NE1. Then, these services are
transmitted to the 10GE ring at the aggregation layer through the GE ring at the access layer.
Finally, these services are aggregated to the RNC at NE3. The tunnel is formed by NE1, NE2,
and NE3, among which NE2 is the transit node.
Figure 16-1 Networking diagram of the Static CR Tunnel application
Working tunnel
Bypass tunnel
NodeB
RNC
NE1
NE2
NE3
NE4
NE5
NE6
Access layer
GE ring
Aggregation layer
10GE ring
NE40E
GE 1/0/0.1
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2 GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/0.1

16.1.1.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
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Data Planning
Table 16-1 NE parameters
NE Lookback0 Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
NE1 1.1.1.9/32 GE 1/0/1 192.168.0.1/24 -
GE 1/0/0.1 - The Loopback0
interface is
connected to the
access network,
generally on
Layer 2. In this
example, Layer
2 access is taken
as an example.
Thus, the IP
address does not
need to be set.
NE2 2.2.2.9/32 GE 1/0/1 192.168.0.2/24 -
GE 1/0/2 192.168.1.2/24 -
NE3 3.3.3.9/32 GE 1/0/1 192.168.1.1/24 -
GE 1/0/0.1 - The Loopback0
interface is
connected to the
access network,
generally on
Layer 2. In this
example, Layer
2 access is taken
as an example.
Thus, the IP
address does not
need to be set.

Table 16-2 Planning of tunnel parameters
Parameter Value
Tunnel Name Working Tunnel
Protocol Type MPLS
Signaling Type Static
Create Reverse Tunnel Selected
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Parameter Value
Tunnel ID Auto-Assign
Tunnel Interface Auto-Assign
Ingress NE1
Transit NE2
Egress NE3
Advanced attributes of the ingress node NE1
l Outbound interface: GE 1/0/1
l Outgoing label: Auto-Assign Label
Advanced attributes of the transmit node NE2
l Inbound interface: GE 1/0/1
l Incoming label: Auto-Assign Label
l Outbound interface: GE 1/0/2
l Outgoing label: Auto-Assign Label
Advanced attributes of the egress node NE3
l Inbound interface: GE 1/0/1
l Incoming label: Auto-Assign Label

16.1.1.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes how to configure a static MPLS tunnel.
Prerequisites
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS on PE1 and the related interfaces.
Perform the following configurations on NE1, NE2, and NE3.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS and Enable MPLS TE check
boxes and set LSR ID.
b. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
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c. Click Apply.
Parameter NE1 NE2 NE3
Enable MPLS Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 2.2.2.9 3.3.3.9
Enable MPLS TE Enable Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE check box.
e. Click OK.
Parameter NE1 NE2 NE3
Interface
Name
GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
GE 1/0/1
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Parameter NE1 NE2 NE3
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable
MPLS TE
Enable Enable Enable

Step 2 Create the Static CR tunnel.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Create Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. Configure the basic information about the Static CR tunnel.
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Parameter Example Value Principle for Value
Selection
Tunnel Name Working Tunnel Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Protocol Type MPLS Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Signaling Type Static Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Create Reverse Tunnel Unselected Select this check box when
you need to create a reverse
tunnel.
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Parameter Example Value Principle for Value
Selection
Auto-Calculate route Selected If you select Auto-
Calculate route and
choose source and sink
NEs, the U2000
automatically calculates
the inbound and outbound
interfaces for the tunnel.
You do not need to
manually select inbound
and outbound interfaces.
NOTE
If Auto-Calculate route is
not selected before source and
sink NEs, click Calculate
Route below the NE list to
manually start tunnel
calculation.

3. Configure the Working Tab. Click Add and select NE1, NE2, and NE3.
Parameter Example Value Principle for Value
Selection
NE Role NE1: Ingress
NE2: Transit
NE3: Egress
In this example, NE1 is the
ingress node, NE2 is the
transit node, and NE3 is the
egress node.
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Parameter Example Value Principle for Value
Selection
Deploy Selected Select this check box when
you need to save the tunnel
on the NMS and meanwhile
deploy the tunnel on the
NE.

4. Click Details to set the advanced parameters of the positive and reverse tunnels, and then
click OK.
Parameter Example Value Principle for Value
Selection
Tunnel ID Auto-Asign Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Tunnel Interface Auto-Asign Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Bandwidth Type CT0 Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
CIR 10000 Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Outbound Interface/Ring l NE1: GE 1/0/1
l NE2: GE 1/0/2
The outbound interface
needs to be set for only the
ingress and transit nodes.
Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Outgoing Label Auto-Asign Label Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
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Parameter Example Value Principle for Value
Selection
Inbound Interface/Ring l NE2: GE 1/0/1
l NE3: GE 1/0/1
The inbound interface
needs to be set for only the
egress and transit nodes.
Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Incoming Label Auto-Asign Label Set this parameter
according to service
planning.
Next Hop l NE1: 192.168.0.2
l NE2: 192.168.1.1
The next hop needs to be set
for only the ingress and
transit nodes. Set this
parameter according to
service planning.

5. Click OK.
6. In the Operation Result dialog box, click Browse Service to view tunnel configuration
results. The tunnel running status should be Up.
----End
Follow-up Procedure
Verify configurations.
l View the LSP Topology.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter. The
qualified tunnels are displayed.
3. Select a tunnel and click Synchronization. After the synchronization is complete,
right-click the tunnel and choose View LSP Topology from the shortcut menu. The
View LSP Topology progress bar is displayed.
4. View the LSP topology after the progress bar is automatically closed. The solid line
stands for an active LSP and the dashed line stands for a backup LSP.
5. View the LSP topologies of other tunnels in the same manner.
l LSP Ping.
1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter. The
qualified tunnels are displayed.
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3. Select a tunnel. In the tunnel topology displayed in the lower area, right-click the
tunnel and choose Fast Diagnose from the shortcut menu.
4. In the LSP Ping dialog box, click Run.
5. View the test results in the Detail area.
16.1.2 Example for Configuring the RSVP TE Tunnel
This topic provides an example for configuring the RSVP TE tunnel.
Feature Summary
l During creation of an RSVP TE tunnel on the U2000, only the source and sink NEs must
be selected. The U2000 obtains the working and protection paths from NEs and displays
the paths on the topology view. After services are deployed, the working and protection
paths are consistent with the previewed constraint paths.
l If paths must be specifically planned, specify one or more NEs or ports to configure route
constraint after the source and sink NEs are selected. The U2000 automatically recalculates
available paths according to route constraint conditions and displays the available paths on
the topology view. After services are deployed, the available paths are consistent with the
previewed constraint paths.
l The U2000 obtains path information from available NE paths. If the operations are correct,
RSVP TE tunnels can be successfully deployed.
Tunnel deployment process
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16.1.2.1 Configuration Guidelines
This topic describes the guidelines for deploying multiprotocol label switching (MPLS).
As shown in Figure 16-2, an MPLS TE tunnel (MPLS VPN) is established between the CSG
and RSG to transmit wireless services.
Figure 16-2 MPLS TE tunnel topology
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
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1. Configure LSR-IDs and enable MPLS and MPLS TE globally on each device and interfaces
along the TE tunnel. In addition, enable OSPF on the ingress.
2. Create the tunnel for the Ethernet service.
a. Create master VPN tunnels.
l Establish the master VPN tunnel TE1 between CSG1 and AGG3. Enable hot-
standby protection for TE1, with the primary explicit path and secondary explicit
path established.
l Establish the master VPN tunnel TE2 between AGG3 and RSG5. Enable hot-
standby protection for TE2, with the primary explicit path and secondary explicit
path established.
b. Create the slave VPN tunnel.
l Establish the slave VPN tunnels TE3 and TE4 for TE1.
l Establish the slave VPN tunnel TE5 for TE2.
l Create a tunnel policy to bind the tunnel to the destination IP address. This allows
this tunnel only to transmit VPN services.
c. Configure BFD for TE-LSP.
Configure BFD for TE-LSP on the master VPN tunnels TE1 and TE2, which speeds
up the switchover between the primary LSP and the hot-standby LSP.
d. Configuring BFD for TE.
Configure BFD for TE on the master VPN tunnels TE1 and TE2, which speeds up the
switchover between the master tunnel and the slave tunnel in L3VPN FRR.
3. Create the ATM/TDM service tunnel.
a. Enable MPLS L2VPN on each node along the TE tunnel, and configure LDP remote
peers on these nodes.
b. Create the master VPN tunnel.
l Establish the master VPN tunnel TE1 between CSG1 and AGG3. Enable hot-
standby protection for TE1, with the primary explicit path and secondary explicit
path established.
l Establish the master VPN tunnel TE2 between AGG3 and RSG5. Enable hot-
standby protection for TE2, with the primary explicit path and secondary explicit
path established.
c. Create the slave VPN tunnel.
l Establish the slave VPN tunnels TE3 and TE6 for TE1 or TE2.
l Establish TE7 between RSGs to facilitate the traffic to be diverted to the spoke
PW when a link fault occurs on the RSG side.
NOTE
If the Ethernet service shares the same tunnel with the ATM/TDM service, the same tunnel policy
can be configured for these services. Otherwise, different tunnel policies need to be configured.
4. Create a tunnel policy.
Configure the tunnel policy as selecting CR-LSP first.
16.1.2.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the data plan required for the multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
deployment.
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Table 16-3 MPLS LSR ID planning
NE Role LSR ID Remarks
CSG1 1.1.1.1 The LSR ID must be the same
as the IP address of interface
Loopback0.
CSG2 2.2.2.2
ASG3 3.3.3.3
ASG4 4.4.4.4
RSG5 5.5.5.5
RSG6 6.6.6.6

Table 16-4 MPLS TE tunnel list
Tunnel Tunnel
Interface
Tunnel ID Active LSP Hot Standby
LSP
TE1 CSG1:
Tunnel0/0/13
ASG3:
Tunnel0/0/31
Forward: 113
Reverse: 131
Forward: csg1-
asg3
Reverse: asg3-
csg1
Forward: csg1-
csg2-asg4-asg3
Reverse: asg3-
asg4-csg2-csg1
TE2 ASG3:
Tunnel0/0/35
RSG5:
Tunnel0/0/53
Forward: 135
Reverse: 153
Forward: asg3-
rsg5
Reverse: rsg5-
asg3
Forward: asg3-
asg4-rsg6-rsg5
Reverse: rsg5-
rsg6-asg4-asg3
TE3 CSG1:
Tunnel0/0/14
ASG4:
Tunnel0/0/41
Forward: 214
Reverse: 241
Forward: csg1-
csg2-asg4
Reverse: asg4-
csg2-csg1
N/A
TE4 ASG4:
Tunnel0/0/45
RSG5:
Tunnel0/0/54
Forward: 245
Reverse: 254
Forward: asg4-
rsg6-rsg5
Reverse: rsg5-
rsg6-asg4
N/A
TE5 ASG3:
Tunnel0/0/36
RSG6:
Tunnel0/0/63
Forward: 236
Reverse: 263
Forward: asg3-
asg4-rsg6
Reverse: rsg6-
asg4-asg3
N/A
TE6 ASG4:
Tunnel0/0/46
RSG6:
Tunnel0/0/64
Forward: 246
Reverse: 264
Forward: asg4-
rsg6
Reverse: rsg6-
asg4
N/A
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Tunnel Tunnel
Interface
Tunnel ID Active LSP Hot Standby
LSP
TE7 RSG5:
Tunnel0/0/56
RSG6:
Tunnel0/0/65
Forward: 256
Reverse: 265
Forward: rsg5-
rsg6
Reverse: rsg6-
rsg5
N/A

Table 16-5 Routing policy planning
NE Role Routing Policy
CSG1 IPRAN
CSG2 IPRAN
ASG3 IPRAN
ASG4 IPRAN
RSG5 IPRAN
RSG6 IPRAN

Table 16-6 Static BFD for TE planning
Parameter Value Remarks
BFD Configuration Item
Name
CC_EE_W_1 N/A
Local Discriminator 60 The local Discriminator of
the local NE must be the same
as the remote Discriminator
of the peer NE.
Remote Discriminator 60
Min. Receiving Interval 50 The BFD for TE detection
period must be three times
longer than the BFD for LSP
detection period.
Min. Sending Interval 50

Table 16-7 Static BFD for LSP planning
Parameter Value Remarks
BFD Configuration Item
Name
CC_EE_W_2
AA_CC_W_1
N/A
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Parameter Value Remarks
Local ID CC_EE_W_2:40
AA_CC_W_1:50
The local ID of the local NE
must be the same as the
remote ID of the peer NE.
Remote ID CC_EE_W_2:40
AA_CC_W_1:50
Min. Receiving Interval Default value: 10 N/A
Min. Sending Interval Default value: 10

16.1.2.3 Configuring Global MPLS and MPLS TE Tunnels
Specific Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) functions can be configured only after global
MPLS is configured.
Configuration Objects
Global MPLS needs to be configured for all NEs on the bearer network.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure Global MPLS.
1. Right-click an NE on the Main Topology and choose NE Explorer from the shortcut menu.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
3. Click the General tab and set the relevant parameters.
a. Select Enable MPLS and Enable MPLS TE.
NOTE
CX equipment enabled with MPLS supports penultimate hop popping of implicit-null labels.
Therefore, set the MPLS lable attribution mode to Implicit-null for ATN equipment.
b. (Optional) If TDM and ATM services need to be deployed, enable the LDP function
to create remote LDP peers and allocate labels to PWs.
c. Set the NE LSR ID according to the planning.
d. If the Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (L2VPN) needs to be used to deploy Time
Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services,
select Enable MPLS L2VPN on the General tab page. Then set other parameters.
You can use the default values for some of the parameters. Click Apply.
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4. Click the MPLS TE tab and set the relevant parameters.
a. Select Enable RSVP-TE.
b. Select Enable RSVP-TE Hello, RSVP-TE GR, and Enable CSPF. Then set other
parameters. You can use the default values for some of the parameters.
c. Select Enable Summary Refreshing.
Step 2 Configure MPLS Interfaces.
1. Right-click an NE on the Main Topology and choose NE Explorer from the shortcut menu.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
3. Right-click in the list area and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut menu.
4. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the desired interface and click OK.
5. Select the desired interface in the list area and click Configure.
6. Click the MPLS TE tab.
7. Select Enable MPLS TE, Enable RSVP-TE, and Enable RSVP-TE Hello. Then set other
parameters. You can use the default values for some of the parameters.
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8. Click OK.
----End
16.1.2.4 Configuring MPLS TE Tunnels
Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (MPLS TE) can be used to set up an active
Constraint-based Routed Label Switched Path (CR-LSP) and a hot standby CR-LSP in order to
carry Virtual Private Network (VPN) services.
Configuration Objects
Seven MPLS TE tunnels need to be configured on the bearer network in order to carry and protect
services.
Procedure
Step 1 Create a tunnel.
Choose Service > Tunnel > Create Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu or select
Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service >
Tunnel > Create Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
Step 2 Configure basic tunnel information.
NOTE
Signaling Type must be set before Tunnel Name. Otherwise, Tunnel Name will be reset after you set
Signaling Type.
Parameter Settings
Tunnel Name Set this parameter according to the planning.
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Parameter Settings
Reverse Tunnel
Name
If Create Reverse Tunnel is set to Yes, the U2000 automatically sets
Tunnel Name to Tunnel Name+_RVS for reverse tunnels.
NOTE
Create Reverse Tunnel is set to Yes by default.
Signaling Type Set this parameter to RSVP TE.
Protocol Set this parameter to MPLS.
Backup Type Set this parameter to Hot standby.
NOTE
Hot standby needs to be configured only for the primary tunnel from the CSG
to RSG.
Configure BFD Set this parameter to Static BFD and click the ... button. In the
Configure BFD dialog box, set BFD For TE to Tunnel.BFD.min-
ReceSendInterval and use the default value of BFD For LSP.


NOTE
Hot standby and static BFD needs to configured only for a tunnel from the CSG to the master RSG.
Step 3 Configure an NE list by adding the desired source, or sink NE according to the service planning.
Select the desired source or sink NE and click Review Route or select the Auto Review
Route check box on the left of the source and sink NE.The U2000 precalculates the primary and
secondary paths on the tunnel. The NEs that pass through the primary and secondary paths are
highlighted in the topology view. Set the role of the selected NE in the NE Role column.
NOTE
Use any of the following methods to select an NE:
l Method 1: Select the desired NE in the physical topology, right-click, and choose Add from the shortcut
menu.
l Method 2: Double-click the desired NE in the physical topology.
l Method 3:
Click Add and choose NE.
In the Select NE dialog box, select the desired NE and click OK.
Step 4 Configure route constraint for the tunnel.
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NOTE
l If the forward tunnel is from NE A to NE B and the next hop is on the network-side interface on NE
B, select NE B and configure route constraint for the forward tunnel and select NE A and configure
route constraint for the reverse tunnel.
l If the Auto Review Route check box is selected before route constraint, the U2000 recalculates the
active and standby tunnels and highlights transit NEs on the active and standby NEs in the physical
topology after you reselect the source and sink NEs or update route constraint NEs.
l If the Auto Review Route check box is not selected, U2000 recalculates the active and standby tunnels
and highlights transit NEs on the active and standby tunnels in the physical topology after you configure
route constraint and click Review Route.
1. Under Route Constraint, select the Synchronize reverse route constraints and Auto-
Calculate NE sequence check boxes.
2. In the upper-right physical topology, select NEs that the forward primary path passes
through, right-click, and choose Set Forward Primary Path Explicit Route >
Interface from the shortcut menu.
3. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interfaces on which the forward active path
passes through and click OK.
NOTE
Click Show all Interface and select required interfaces.
4. At the bottom of Route Constraint, set Restriction Type. The default value is Loosely
include.
5. Configure explicit constraint for the reverse active path and configure explicit constraint
for both the forward and reverse standby paths.
6. Complete route constraint configuration for all tunnels based on data planning.
NOTE
The explicit constraint needs to be configured for both the active and backup paths because hot standby
has been configured for the tunnel from the CSG to the primary RSG.
Step 5 Click Details. Tunnel configurations are displayed in the lower right pane. Use the default values
for parameters displayed on the General, TE Information, Trail Information, and QoS
Information tab pages.
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Step 6 Optional: If a tunnel is established from an ASG to an RSG, a loopback interface must be used
as the tunnel interface. Choose GeneralTunnel Interface InfoTunnel Interface. Click the ...
button and select the required loopback interface.
Step 7 Optional: If a tunnel is configured with hot standby, choose Protection AttributeBackup
Attribute. Set the backup type to hot standby and the switchover period to 60s.
NOTE
Set the parameters as required for a tunnel that is configured with hot standby.
Step 8 In the Tunnel Information column, choose Advanced > Setup Attribute. Then set Record
Route Type to Record route and label.
Step 9 Optional: Enable route reoptimization for the primary tunnel on the network. Choose
AdvancedReoptimization. Enable route reoptimization and set the reoptimization period to
3600s.
Step 10 Configure IGP attributes on the master ASG to enable BGP packets to be sent through TE
tunnels. When a fault occurs on the active link, only TE tunnels are switched to quicken the
traffic switchover.
1. Choose Advanced > IGP Attribute.
2. Set IGP Shortcut to IS-IS.
3. Set IGP Metric Type to Absolute.
4. Set Metric to 80.
Step 11 Click OK.
Step 12 In the Operation Result dialog box, click Browse Tunnel to view tunnel configuration results.
The tunnel running status should be Up.
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Step 13 Create other tunnels in the same manner.
Step 14 Verify configurations.
1. View the LSP Topology.
a. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
b. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter. The
qualified tunnels are displayed.
c. Select a tunnel and click Synchronization. After the synchronization is complete,
right-click the tunnel and choose View LSP Topology from the shortcut menu. The
View LSP Topology progress bar is displayed.
d. View the LSP topology after the progress bar is automatically closed. The solid line
stands for an active LSP and the dashed line stands for a backup LSP.
e. View the LSP topologies of other tunnels in the same manner.
2. LSP Ping.
a. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage Tunnel (application style) from the main menu.
b. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set the search criteria and click Filter. The
qualified tunnels are displayed.
c. Select a tunnel. In the tunnel topology displayed in the lower area, right-click the
tunnel and choose Fast Diagnose from the shortcut menu.
d. In the LSP Ping dialog box, click Run.
e. View the test results in the Detail area.
f. Repeat the preceding steps to check whether LSP Ping can be successfully performed
for the rest of the tunnels.
----End
16.2 Examples for Configuring a PWE3 Service
This topic provides several examples for configuring a PWE3 service in typical networking
modes.
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16.2.1 Examples for Configuring the ATM Service
This topic provides an example for configuring the ATM emulation service. ATM transparent
cell transport connects the traditional ATM network resources through a PSN, emulates the
original service to the maximum on the PSN so that the end user does not realize the difference.
In this way, it protects the settled investment of users and operators in the network consolidation
and establishment.
16.2.1.1 Networking Configuration Diagram
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
On the existing access networks of carriers, the upstream equipment and downstream equipment
of some earlier-deployed access equipment such as DSLAMs run ATM services. With the
development of IP networks, the expandability, upgradeability, and compatibility of IP networks
are greatly enhanced. Nevertheless, the flexibility of the upgrade, expansion, and interworking
of traditional ATM networks is relatively poor. In addition, confined by transmission modes and
service types, the sharing between traditional ATM networks and newly established networks
is poor, leading to the difficulty in interworking management. Therefore, the traditional ATM
networks need to be upgraded and expanded by fully utilizing the existing resources so that the
traditional ATM networks can be combined with the current PSNs.
ATM transparent cell transport can transmit services of an earlier ATM network over a PSN
without adding new ATM equipment or changing the configuration of CEs on the ATM network.
ATM transparent cell transport emulates ATM services on the PSN, which keeps end users from
feeling the difference. In this manner, the investment of users and carriers can be protected in
network consolidation and construction.
Figure 16-3 Networking diagram for interface-based remote ATM transparent cell transport

Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
PE1 PE2
ATM
Network
CE1
ATM
Network
CE2
ATM2/0/0
ATM2/0/0
ATM1/0/0.1
PVC1:1/100
ATM1/0/0.1
PVC1:1/100
100.1.2.2/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.1/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.2/24
PW100
100.1.2.1/24

As shown in Figure 16-3, CE1 and CE2 bear ATM services, and are connected to the MPLS
network through PE1 and PE2 respectively. It is required that a PW should be set up between
PE1 and PE2 to implement ATM transparent cell transport between CE1 and CE2.
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The implementation on the NMS is as follow:
l A PWE3 service with Service Type being ATM is configured on PE1 and PE2 to emulate
the ATM service between CE1 and CE2.
l The ATM interfaces of the two CEs are connected through a PW to implement ATM
transparent cell transport. Thus, all ATM cells of one interface are transparently transmitted
to the other interface through the ISP network without being processed or switched at the
VPC or VCC layer.
16.2.1.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. On the backbone network, enable MPLS and LDP on PE1, P, PE2 and the related interfaces.
2. Configure ATM interfaces and IPoA mappings on CEs.
3. Establish a PW that uses the ATM transparent transport mode.
Data Planning
Table 16-8 NE parameters
NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
PE1 1.1.1.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.1/24 -
ATM 2/0/0 - Interface
connected to
CE1
PE2 3.3.3.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.2/24 -
ATM 2/0/0 - Interface
connected to
CE2
CE1 - ATM 1/0/0.1 100.1.2.1 Interface
connected to
PE1
CE2 - ATM 1/0/0.1 100.1.2.2 Interface
connected to
PE2

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Table 16-9 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

Table 16-10 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
Interface Name POS 1/0/0 POS 1/0/0
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable

Table 16-11 Planning of parameters for configuring the ATM emulation service
Service Attribute PE1 PE2
Source Interface ATM 2/0/0 -
Sink Interface - ATM 2/0/0
PW ID 100 100
CE Interface IP Address ATM 1/0/0.1
100.1.2.1/24
ATM 1/0/0.1
100.1.2.2/24

16.2.1.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process of the ATM emulation service.
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Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
To set PE1 and PE2 as follow.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
b. Optional: On the LDP tab page, click the Peer Information tab. Then click
Create in the LDP Remote Peer area to create a remote peer.
NOTE
You do not need to set Remote LDP Peer if the status of the source device and sink device is
direct.
c. Click Apply.
Table 16-12 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
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a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-13 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
Interface Name POS 1/0/0 POS 1/0/0
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable

Step 2 Configure the ATM interfaces and IPoA mapping on CEs.
1. Double-click CE1 in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose Interface Management > Interface Information from the service tree.
3. Select the interface of ATM 1/0/0, click Configure. Set the IPv4 address of CE1.
a. Click the IPv4 Address tab, and then click Add.
b. In the Add IPv4 Address dialog box, set the parameters as follows.
Table 16-14 IPv4 parameter settings
Parameter Settings
IPv4 Address 10.1.1.1
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0

4. Configure the PVC information and IPoA mapping.
a. Click the PVC tab, and then click Add.
b. In the Create PVC dialog box, set the basic PVC parameters as follows.
Table 16-15 Basic PVC parameter settings
Parameter Settings
PVC Name PVC1
VPI 1
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Parameter Settings
VCI 100

c. In the Create PVC dialog box, click the IPoA Mapping option button, and then click
Add.
d. In the Add IPv4 Address dialog box, set IPv4 Address to 10.1.1.2.
The IPv4 address set here is the IP address of CE2.
e. Click OK.
f. Click OK.
g. Click OK.
5. Repeat Step 2.1 to Step 2.4 to configure the IPoA mapping on CE2.
Step 3 Create an ATM service that is destined for the network from the user.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Set the basic attributes.
Table 16-16 Parameter settings of basic attributes
Parameter Settings
Service Type ATM
Service ID Auto-Assign
Service Name PWE3-ATM-001
Protection Type Protection-free
Link Type ATM Transparent Cell Transport

3. Right-click PE1 in the Main Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Create SAI dialog box, select ATM 2/0/0, and then click OK.
5. Right-click PE2 in the Main Topology and choose Select Sink from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Create SAI dialog box, select ATM 2/0/0, and then click OK.
7. In the PW area, set the basic PW attributes.
Parameter Settings
PW ID 100
Signaling Type Dynamic
Forward Type Select Policy
Reverse Type Select Policy
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8. Click Detail. Set the parameters on the CE, SAI QoS, PW QoS, and Advanced PW
Attribute tab pages.
9. Click OK.
Step 4 Verify the configurations.
1. After the preceding configurations are complete, in the Manage PWE3 Service service
list, select the created VPLS services, right-click the selected services, and then choose
Test And Check from the shortcut menu.
2. On the Configuration tab page, select the diagnosis items, and then click Run.
3. On the Result tab page, view the established VPLS services. You can find that the result
of the ping operation is Normal.
----End
16.2.2 Example for Configuring the CES Emulation Service
This topic provides an example for configuring the CES emulation service.
16.2.2.1 Networking Configuration Diagram
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
The CES technology is used to transmit data in E1/T1 timeslots on an ATM network. The data
is packed into ATM cells on the transmitting end, and then transmitted to the receiving end
through the ATM network. On the receiving end, the data in the ATM cells are redistributed to
E1/T1 timeslots. The CES technology guarantees that the data in E1/T1 timeslots can be restored
to the original sequence on the receiving end.
Multiple CESs such as PSTN services are run on the existing access networks of carriers. Those
CESs need to be transmitted over ATM networks. With the development of IP networks, the
expandability, upgradeability, and compatibility of IP networks are greatly enhanced.
Nevertheless, the flexibility of the upgrade, expansion, and interworking of traditional ATM
networks is relatively poor. In addition, confined by transmission modes and service types, the
sharing between traditional ATM networks and newly established networks is poor, leading to
the difficulty in interworking management. Therefore, the following solution is adopted to run
the CES over PSNs.
PWE3 is adopted to emulate the CES by carrying the frame format, alarm, signaling, and
synchronous timing of TDM service data in the PWE3 packet header. After being encapsulated,
the PWE3 packet is transmitted over the PSN. On the egress of the PW, the PWE3 packet is
decapsulated, and the TDM circuit switching service flows are formed again.
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Figure 16-4 Example for Configuring the CES Emulation Service-Networking Configuration
Diagram
PE1
PE2
PW100
CE1
CE2
E1 1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
E1 2/1/0
E1 1/1/0
100.1.2.2/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.1/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.2/24
MPLS
Backbone
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
E1 2/1/0
Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32

As shown in Figure 16-4, CE1 and CE2 bear the CES, and are connected to PE1 and PE2
respectively on the backbone network. It is required that PWE3 should be configured to
transparently transmit service data between CE1 and CE2.
The implementation method on the NMS is as follow:
A PWE3 service with Service Type being CES is configured on PE1 and PE2 to emulate the
CES between CE1 and CE2.
16.2.2.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. On the backbone network, enable MPLS and LDP on PE1, PE2, and the related interfaces.
2. Configure the tunnel policy on PE1 and PE2.
3. Establish a PW that uses the ETH transparent transport mode.
Data planning
Table 16-17 NE parameters
NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
PE1 1.1.1.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.1/24 -
E1 2/1/0 - Interface
connected to
CE1
PE2 3.3.3.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.2/24 -
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NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
E1 2/1/0 - Interface
connected to
CE2
CE1 - E1 1/0/0 100.1.2.1/24 Interface
connected to
PE1
CE2 - E1 1/0/0 100.1.2.2/24 Interface
connected to
PE2

Table 16-18 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

Table 16-19 Planning of parameters for configuring the CES emulation service
Service
Attribute
PE1 PE2
Source Interface E1 2/1/0 -
Sink Interface - E1 2/1/0
PW ID 100 100
CE Interface IP
Address
E1 1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
E1 1/1/0
100.1.2.2/24

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16.2.2.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process of the CES emulation service.
Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
To set PE1 and PE2 as follow.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
b. Optional: On the LDP tab page, click the Peer Information tab. Then click
Create in the LDP Remote Peer area to create a remote peer.
NOTE
You do not need to set Remote LDP Peer if the status of the source device and sink device is
direct.
c. Click Apply.
Table 16-20 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
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Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-21 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
Interface Name POS 1/0/0 POS 1/0/0
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable

Step 2 Create the PWE3 service in CES emulation mode.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Set the basic attribute parameters.
Table 16-22 Parameter settings of basic attributes
Parameter Settings
Service Type CES
Service ID Auto-Assign
Service Name PWE3-CES-001
Protection Type Protection-free

3. Right-click PE1 in the Main Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Create SAI dialog box, click Query. Select E1 2/1/0, and then click OK.
5. Right-click PE2 in the Main Topology and choose Select Sink from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Create SAI dialog box, click Query. Select E1 2/1/0, and then click OK.
7. In the PW area, set the basic attributes of the PW.
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Parameter Settings
PW ID 100
Signaling Type Dynamic
Forward Type Select Policy
Reverse Type Select Policy

8. Click Detail. Set the parameters on the CE, SAI QoS, PW QoS, and Advanced PW
Attribute tab pages.
9. Click OK.
Step 3 Verify the configurations.
1. After the preceding configurations are complete, in the Manage PWE3 Service service
list, select the created VPLS services, right-click the selected services, and then choose
Test And Check from the shortcut menu.
2. On the Configuration tab page, select the diagnosis items, and then click Run.
3. On the Result tab page, view the established VPLS services. You can find that the result
of the ping operation is Normal.
----End
16.2.3 Example for Configuring the ETH Service
This topic provides an example for configuring the ETH emulation service.
16.2.3.1 Networking Configuration Diagram
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
With the development of IP networks, Ethernet is widely used. Generally, Ethernet networks
are used as intranets. If an enterprise and its branches are in two places, related solutions need
to be adopted to enable the branches of the enterprise to communicate and isolate the services
of the enterprise from the services of other enterprises by using the resources of the public
network.
The PWE3 technology is used to set up L2VPNs and emulate Ethernet services to the utmost
on a PSN. Thus, the Ethernet networks in the two places can be interconnected.
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Figure 16-5 Example for Configuring the ETH Emulation Service-Networking Configuration
Diagram
PE1
PE2
PW10
0
CE1
CE2
GE1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
GE2/0/0
GE1/0/0
100.1.2.2/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.1/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.2/24
MPLS
Backbone
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
GE2/0/0
Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32

As shown in Figure 16-5, CE1 and CE2 are connected to the PE1 and PE2 respectively on the
backbone network through GE interfaces. It is required that PWE3 should be configured to
transparently transmit service data between CE1 and CE2.
The implementation on the NMS is as follow:
A PWE3 service with Service Type being ETH is configured on PE1 and PE2 to emulate the
Ethernet service between CE1 and CE2.
16.2.3.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. On the backbone network, enable MPLS and LDP on PE1, PE2, and the related interfaces.
2. Configure the tunnel policy on PE1 and PE2.
3. Establish a PW that uses the ETH transparent transport mode.
Data Planning
Table 16-23 NE parameters
NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
PE1 1.1.1.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.1/24 -
GE 2/0/0 - Interface
connected to
CE1
PE2 3.3.3.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.2/24 -
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NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
GE 2/0/0 - Interface
connected to
CE2
CE1 - GE 1/0/0 100.1.2.1/24 Interface
connected to
PE1
CE2 - GE 1/0/0 100.1.2.2/24 Interface
connected to
PE2

Table 16-24 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

Table 16-25 Planning of parameters for configuring the ETH emulation service
Service
Attribute
PE1 PE2
Source Interface GE 2/0/0 -
Sink Interface - GE 2/0/0
PW ID 100 100
CE Interface IP
Address
GE 1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
GE 1/0/0
100.1.2.2/24

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16.2.3.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process of the ETH emulation service.
Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
To set PE1 and PE2 as follow.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
b. Optional: On the LDP tab page, click the Peer Information tab. Then click
Create in the LDP Remote Peer area to create a remote peer.
NOTE
You do not need to set Remote LDP Peer if the status of the source device and sink device is
direct.
c. Click Apply.
Table 16-26 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
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Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-27 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
Interface Name POS 1/0/0 POS 1/0/0
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable

Step 2 Create the PWE3 service in ETH emulation mode.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Set the basic attribute parameters.
Table 16-28 Parameter settings of basic attributes
Parameter Settings
Service Type ETH
Service ID Auto-Assign
Service Name PWE3-ETH-001
Protection Type Protection-free

3. Right-click PE1 in the Main Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Create SAI dialog box, select GE 2/0/0, and then click OK.
5. Right-click PE2 in the Main Topology and choose Select Sink from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Create SAI dialog box, select GE 2/0/0, and then click OK.
7. In the PW area, set the basic attributes of the PW.
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Parameter Settings
PW ID 100
Signaling Type Dynamic
Forward Type Select Policy
Reverse Type Select Policy

8. Click Detail. Set the parameters on the CE, SAI QoS, PW QoS, Advanced PW
Attribute and Service Parameters tab pages.
9. Click OK.
----End
16.2.4 Example for Configuring the ATM IWF Service
This topic provides an example for configuring the ATM IWF emulation service.
16.2.4.1 Networking Configuration Diagram
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
On the existing access networks of carriers, the upstream equipment and downstream equipment
of some earlier-deployed access equipment such as DSLAMs run ATM interfaces. With the
development of IP networks, Ethernet is widely used and more and more Ethernet links are used
at the core layer and the aggregation layer of the WAN. Therefore, the services of the ATM
network need to be smoothly transferred to the Ethernet at the aggregation layer. The equipment
on the ATM network needs to be interconnected with the BRAS on the Ethernet. In addition,
the investment in the original ATM access equipment needs to be protected during the transfer.
In the case that the original ATM access equipment is reserved, the ATM IWF technology is
used to transparently transmit ATM cells to Ethernet links by adding certain intermediate
equipment such as the NE40E. ATM IWF translates the VPIs and VCIs used to identify users
on ATM links into VLAN IDs in the double VLAN tags of packets used on the Ethernet. That
is, the VPI of the ATM traffic is mapped to the outer VLAN ID and the VCI is mapped to the
inner VLAN ID. The BRAS identifies users according to VLAN IDs in the double tags of
packets.
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Figure 16-6 Networking diagram of configuring ATM IWF
PE1
PE2
PW100
CE1
CE2
ATM1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
GE1/0/0
100.1.2.2/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.1/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.2/24
MPLS Backbone
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32
GE2/0/0.1
ATM1/0/0
PVC1:1/100

As shown in Figure 16-6, CE1 is connected to PE1 on the backbone network through ATM
interfaces, and CE2 is connected to PE2 on the backbone network through GE interfaces. It is
required that ATM IWF should be configured to transparently transmit service data between
CE1 and CE2.
The implementation method on the NMS is as follow:
l A PWE3 service with Service Type being ATM IWF is configured on PE1 and PE2 to
implement interworking between Ethernet equipment and ATM equipment.
l The VPIs and VCIs used to identify users on ATM links need to be translated into the
VLAN IDs in double VLAN tags of packets used on the Ethernet. Therefore, the mapping
between VPIs/VCIs and VLAN IDs in double VLAN tags needs to be configured on ATM
1/0/0 of PE1.
16.2.4.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. On the backbone network, enable MPLS and LDP on PE1, PE2, and the related interfaces.
2. Configure the tunnel policy on PE1 and PE2.
3. Configure VLAN information on PE1, PE2, and CE2.
4. Establish a PW in ATM IWF emulation mode.
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Data Planning
Table 16-29 NE parameters
NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
PE1 1.1.1.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.1/24 -
ATM 1/0/0.1 - Interface
connected to
CE1
PE2 3.3.3.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.2/24 -
GE 2/0/0.1 - Interface
connected to
CE2
CE1 - ATM 1/0/0 100.1.2.1/24 Interface
connected to
PE1
CE2 - GE 1/0/0 100.1.2.2/24 Interface
connected to
PE2

Table 16-30 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

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Table 16-31 Planning of parameters for configuring the ATM IWF emulation service
Service
Attribute
PE1 PE2
Source Interface ATM 1/0/0 -
Sink Interface - GE 2/0/0.1
PW ID 100 100
CE Interface IP
Address
ATM 1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
GE 1/0/0
100.1.2.2/24

16.2.4.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process of the ATM IWF emulation service.
Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
To set PE1 and PE2 as follow.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
b. Optional: On the LDP tab page, click the Peer Information tab. Then click
Create in the LDP Remote Peer area to create a remote peer.
NOTE
You do not need to set Remote LDP Peer if the status of the source device and sink device is
direct.
c. Click Apply.
Table 16-32 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
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Parameter PE1 PE2
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-33 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
Interface Name POS 1/0/0 POS 1/0/0
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable

Step 2 Create the ATM IWF emulation service.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. Set the basic attribute parameters.
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Table 16-34 Parameter settings of basic attributes
Parameter Settings
Service Type ATM IWF
Service ID Auto-Assign
Service Name PWE3-ATM IWF-001
Protection Type Protection-free

3. Right-click PE1 in the Main Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Create SAI dialog box, select ATM 1/0/0, and then click OK.
5. Right-click PE2 in the Main Topology and choose Select Sink from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Create SAI dialog box, select GE 2/0/0, and then click OK.
7. In the PW area, set the basic attributes of the PW.
Parameter Settings
PW ID 100
Signaling Type Dynamic
Forward Type Select Policy
Reverse Type Select Policy

8. Click ATM Link.
9. In the Configure Link dialog box, click Add Link. Set the parameters as follows.
NOTE
If any parameter in the following table has been configured on the U2000, an error message will be
displayed during configuration.
Parameter VPI Start VCI End VCI PE-VLAN
ID
Start CE-
VLAN ID
Setting 1 100 100 1 100

10. Click OK.
11. Click Detail. Set the parameters on the CE, SAI QoS, PW QoS, and Advanced PW
Attribute tab pages.
12. Click OK.
Step 3 Verify the configurations.
1. After the preceding configurations are complete, in the Manage PWE3 Service service
list, select the created VPLS services, right-click the selected services, and then choose
Test And Check from the shortcut menu.
2. On the Configuration tab page, select the diagnosis items, and then click Run.
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3. On the Result tab page, view the established VPLS services. You can find that the result
of the ping operation is Normal.
----End
16.2.5 Example for Configuring the Heterogeneous Service
This topic provides an example for configuring the heterogeneous emulation service.
16.2.5.1 Networking Configuration Diagram
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
A large number of Layer 2 services such as Ethernet, ATM, and CES services exist on the existing
access networks of carriers. With the development of IP networks, the expandability,
upgradeability, and compatibility of IP networks are greatly enhanced. Nevertheless, the
flexibility of the upgrade, expansion, and interworking of traditional Layer 2 networks is
relatively poor. In addition, confined by transmission modes and service types, the sharing
between traditional Layer 2 networks and newly established networks is poor, leading to the
difficulty in interworking management.
In this case, you can configure PWE3 of heterogeneous media internetworking to implement
interworking between Ethernet equipment and ATM equipment.
NOTE
Currently, the U2000 supports the interworking only between Ethernet equipment and ATM equipment.
Figure 16-7 Networking diagram of configuring heterogeneous media internetworking
PE1 PE2
PW100
CE1
ATM1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
ATM1/0/0
GE1/0/0
100.1.2.2/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.1/24
POS1/0/0
10.1.1.2/24
MPLS Backbone
Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
GE2/0/0
CE2

As shown in Figure 16-7, CE1 is connected to PE1 on the backbone network through ATM
interfaces, and CE2 is connected to PE2 on the backbone network through GE interfaces. It is
required that heterogeneous media internetworking should be configured to transparently
transmit service data between CE1 and CE2.
The implementation on the NMS is as follow:
l A PWE3 service with Service Type being Interworking is configured on PE1 and PE2 to
implement interworking between Ethernet equipment and ATM equipment.
l PVCs need to be created on the AC interfaces of the ATM type, and the IPoA mappings
need to be configured on the PVCs.
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16.2.5.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Configuration Roadmap
The configuration roadmap is as follows:
1. On the backbone network, enable MPLS and LDP on PE1, PE2, and the related interfaces.
2. Configure the tunnel policy on PE1 and PE2.
3. Configure the ATM interface and IPoA mapping on CE1.
4. Establish a PW that uses the heterogeneous transparent transport mode.
Data Planning
Table 16-35 NE parameters
NE Lookback Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
PE1 1.1.1.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.1/24 -
ATM 1/0/0 - Interface
connected to
CE1
PE2 3.3.3.9/32 POS 1/0/0 10.1.1.2/24 -
GE 2/0/0 - Interface
connected to
CE2
CE1 - ATM 1/0/0 100.1.2.1/24 Interface
connected to
PE1
CE2 - GE 1/0/0 100.1.2.2/24 Interface
connected to
PE2

Table 16-36 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
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Parameter PE1 PE2
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

Table 16-37 Planning of parameters for configuring the heterogeneous emulation service
Service
Attribute
PE1 PE2
Source Interface ATM 1/0/0 -
Sink Interface - GE 2/0/0
PW ID 100 100
CE Interface IP
Address
ATM 1/0/0
100.1.2.1/24
GE 1/0/0
100.1.2.2/24

16.2.5.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process of the heterogeneous emulation service.
Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
To set PE1 and PE2 as follow.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
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b. Optional: On the LDP tab page, click the Peer Information tab. Then click
Create in the LDP Remote Peer area to create a remote peer.
NOTE
You do not need to set Remote LDP Peer if the status of the source device and sink device is
direct.
c. Click Apply.
Table 16-38 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
MPLS
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable
Peer Name PE2 PE1
LSR ID 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9
MPLS L2VPN
Enable MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-39 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2
Interface Name POS 1/0/0 POS 1/0/0
Enable MPLS Enable Enable
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Parameter PE1 PE2
Enable LDP Enable Enable

Step 2 Configure the ATM interface on CE1 and configure the IPoA mapping.
1. Double-click CE1 in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose Interface Management > Interface Information from the service tree.
3. Select the interface of ATM 1/0/0, click Configure. Set the IPv4 address of CE1.
a. Click the IPv4 Address tab, and then click Add.
b. In the Add IPv4 Address dialog box, set the parameters as follows.
Table 16-40 IPv4 parameter settings
Parameter Settings
IPv4 Address 100.1.1.1
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0

4. Configure the PVC information and IPoA mapping.
a. Click the PVC tab, and then click Add.
b. In the Create PVC dialog box, set the basic PVC parameters as follows.
Table 16-41 Basic PVC parameter settings
Parameter Settings
PVC Name PVC1
VPI 1
VCI 100

c. In the Create PVC dialog box, click the IPoA Mapping option button, and then click
Add.
d. In the Add IPv4 Address dialog box, set IPv4 Address to 100.1.1.2.
The IPv4 address set here is the IP address of CE2.
e. Click OK.
f. Click OK.
g. Click OK.
Step 3 Create the heterogeneous emulation service from the ATM to ETH.
1. Choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > PWE3 Service > Create PWE3 Service (application style) from the
main menu.
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2. Set the basic attribute parameters.
Table 16-42 Parameter settings of basic attributes
Parameter Settings
Service Type Interworking
Service ID Auto-Assign
Service Name PWE3-Interworking-001
Protection Type Protection-free

3. Right-click PE1 in the Main Topology and choose Select Source from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Create SAI dialog box, select ATM 1/0/0, and then click OK.
5. Right-click PE2 in the Main Topology and choose Select Sink from the shortcut menu.
6. In the Create SAI dialog box, select GE 2/0/0, and then click OK.
7. In the PW area, set the basic attributes of the PW.
Parameter Settings
PW ID 100
Signaling Type Dynamic
Forward Type Select Policy
Reverse Type Select Policy

8. Click Detail. Set the parameters on the CE, SAI QoS, PW QoS, and Advanced PW
Attribute tab pages.
9. Click OK.
----End
16.3 Example for Configuring a VPLS Service
This topic provides an example for configuring a VPLS service.
16.3.1 Example for Configuring the Full-Mesh Networking
This topic describes how to configure a VPLS service in full-mesh networking mode.
16.3.1.1 Configuration Networking
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
As shown in Figure 16-8, an ISP has a countrywide backbone network. A customer has the
enterprise networks of three branches in city A, city B, and city C and expects to rent the
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bandwidth of the ISP to interconnect the enterprise networks of the three branches. The ISP uses
the VPLS technology to interconnect the enterprise networks of the branches through the MPLS
backbone network. In this manner, an interconnected enterprise network is formed.
Figure 16-8 Full-mesh VPLS networking application
ISP MPLS
Backbone Network
PE1
CE2
CE3
CE1
PE2
PE3
Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32
Loopback1
2.2.2.9/32
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
GE1/0/0
GE1/0/0
GE1/0/0
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/1
GE1/0/1 GE1/0/2
GE1/0/2
GE1/0/2
City A
City C
City B

16.3.1.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Data Planning
Table 16-43 NE parameters
NE Loopback1 Interface Name Remarks
PE1 1.1.1.9/32 GE 1/0/1 -
GE 1/0/2 -
GE 1/0/0 The interface is connected
to the access network,
generally on Layer 2. In this
example, Layer 2 access is
taken as an example. Thus,
the IP address does not need
to be set.
PE2 2.2.2.9/32 GE 1/0/1 -
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NE Loopback1 Interface Name Remarks
GE 1/0/2 -
GE 1/0/0 The interface is connected
to the access network,
generally on Layer 2. In this
example, Layer 2 access is
taken as an example. Thus,
the IP address does not need
to be set.
PE3 3.3.3.9/32 GE 1/0/1 -
GE 1/0/2 -
GE 1/0/0 The interface is connected
to the access network,
generally on Layer 2. In this
example, Layer 2 access is
taken as an example. Thus,
the IP address does not need
to be set.

Table 16-44 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 2.2.2.9 3.3.3.9
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-45 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Interface
Name
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

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Table 16-46 Planning of VPLS service information
Attribute Value
Service
Name
vpls
Networking
Mode
Full-Mesh VPLS
Service Type Service VPLS
VSI Name fm
VSI ID 100
Customer
Name
hw

Table 16-47 PW planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
PW Type Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic
PW Split
Horizon
Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh
Sink
Equipment
IP Address
2.2.2.9 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9 1.1.1.9 2.2.2.9
PW ID 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 16-48 Interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Interface
Name
GE1/0/0 GE1/0/0 GE1/0/0
ID 10 10 10
Connect Type VLAN VLAN VLAN
VLAN ID 10 10 10

16.3.1.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process.
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Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure the basic MPLS capability and LDP.
Perform the following configurations on the NPE1, NPE2, and NPE3.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. In the MPLS area, select the Enable MPLS and Enable LDP check boxes and set
LSR ID.
b. Click Apply.
Table 16-49 MPLS planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 2.2.2.9 3.3.3.9
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
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Table 16-50 MPLS interface planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Interface
Name
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

Step 2 Choose Service > VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service
> VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (application style) from the main menu.
Create a service VPLS on the NMS and set its general parameters. Set the parameters as follows:
Table 16-51 VPLS parameter planning
Parameter Settings
Service
Name
vpls
Networking
Mode
Full-Mesh VPLS
Service
Type
Service VPLS
VSI Name fm
VSI ID 100
Customer
Name
hw

Step 3 Add the PE1, PE2, and PE3.
NOTE
After the NEs are added, PWs are automatically created. To add, modify, or delete a PW, perform operations
on the PW Configuration tab page.
Step 4 Configure the service access interface of the VPLS.
Table 16-52 SAI parameter planning
Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Interface GE1/0/0 GE1/0/0 GE1/0/0
ID 10 10 10
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Parameter PE1 PE2 PE3
Connect Type VLAN VLAN VLAN
VLAN ID 10 10 10

Step 5 In SAI List, select CEs connected to each PE.
Step 6 Configure a PW protection group.
1. Click Create. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a node.
2. Set Protection Group Name and select 1st PW and 2nd PW.
3. Set other parameters and click OK.
Step 7 Click OK.
----End
Result
On the Management VPLS Service tab page, the created VPLS service is displayed and its
parameter settings are consistent with the planned ones.
16.3.2 Example for Configuring H-VPLS Networking
This topic describes how to configure a VPLS service in H-VPLS networking mode.
16.3.2.1 Configuration Networking Diagram
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
As shown in Figure 16-9, site 1 and site 2 belong to the same VPLS. CE 1 and CE 2 access the
basic VPLS full-mesh network through the UPE.
Figure 16-9 H-VPLS networking application
POS1/0/0
100.2.1.2/24
POS2/0/0
100.2.1.1/24
POS1/0/0
100.1.1.2/24
Loopback1
2.2.2.9/32
Loopback1
3.3.3.9/32
NPE 2
NPE 1
POS3/0/0
100.1.1.1/24
Loopback1
1.1.1.9/32
UPE
GE2/0/0
Site1
CE1
Site2
CE2
GE1/0/0
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16.3.2.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Data Planning
Table 16-53 NE parameters
NE Loopback1 Interface Interface IP Address
UPE 1.1.1.9/32 POS 3/0/0 100.1.1.1/24
NPE1 2.2.2.9/32 POS 1/0/0 100.1.1.2/24
POS 2/0/0 100.2.1.1/24
NPE2 3.3.3.9/32 POS 1/0/0 100.2.1.2/24

Table 16-54 MPLS planning
Parameter UPE NPE1 NPE2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 2.2.2.9 3.3.3.9
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-55 MPLS interface planning
Parameter UPE NPE1 NPE2
Interface
Name
POS 3/0/0 POS 1/0/0
POS 2/0/0
POS 1/0/0
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

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Table 16-56 Planning of VPLS service information
Attribute Value
Service
Name
hvpls
Networking
Mode
H-VPLS
Service Type Service VPLS
VSI Name hvpls
VSI ID 100
Customer
Name
Project

Table 16-57 PW planning
Parameter UPE NPE1 NPE2
PW Type Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic
PW Split
Horizon
Spoke Spoke Mesh Mesh
Sink
Equipment
IP Address
2.2.2.9 1.1.1.9 3.3.3.9 2.2.2.9
PW ID 100 100 100 100

Table 16-58 Access Interface planning
Parameter UPE
Interface
Name
GigabitEthernet1/0/0 GigabitEthernet2/0/0
ID 10 10
Connect
Type
VLAN VLAN
VLAN ID 10 10

16.3.2.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process.
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Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure the basic MPLS capability and LDP.
Perform the following configurations on the UPE, NPE 1, and NPE 2.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. In the MPLS area, select the Enable MPLS and Enable LDP check boxes and set
LSR ID.
b. Click Apply.
Table 16-59 MPLS planning
Parameter UPE NPE1 NPE2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.9 2.2.2.9 3.3.3.9
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
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Table 16-60 MPLS interface planning
Parameter UPE NPE1 NPE2
Interface
Name
POS 3/0/0 POS 1/0/0
POS 2/0/0
POS 1/0/0
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

Step 2 Choose Service > VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service
> VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (application style) from the main menu.
Create a service VPLS on the NMS and set its general parameters. Set the parameters as follows:
Table 16-61 VPLS parameter planning
Parameter Settings
Service Name hvpls
Networking Mode H-VPLS
Service Type Service VPLS
VSI Name hvpls
VSI ID 100
Customer Name Project

Step 3 Add the UPE, NPE 1, and NPE 2.
NOTE
After the NEs are added, PWs are automatically created. To add, modify, or delete a PW, perform operations
on the PW Configuration tab page.
Step 4 Create a bidirectional PW from the UPE to NPE 1.
Set the parameters as follows:
1. PW type: Dynamic
2. PW Split Horizon: Mesh
Step 5 Configure the access interface of the service VPLS on the NMS.
Specify access interfaces for the UPE. Set the parameters as follows:
Table 16-62 SAI parameter planning
Parameter UPE
Interface GigabitEthernet1/0/0 GigabitEthernet2/0/0
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Parameter UPE
ID 10 10
Connect Type VLAN VLAN
VLAN ID 10 10

Step 6 In SAI List, select CEs connected to each PE.
Step 7 Configure a PW protection group.
1. Click Create. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a node.
2. Set Protection Group Name and select 1st PW and 2nd PW.
3. Set other parameters and click OK.
Step 8 Click OK.
----End
Result
On the Management VPLS Service tab page, the created VPLS service is displayed and its
parameter settings are consistent with the planned ones.
16.3.3 Example for Configuring Daisy Chain Networking
This topic describes how to configure a VPLS service in daisy chain networking mode.
16.3.3.1 Configuration Networking
This topic describes the operation and maintenance scenario and provides the related networking
diagram.
The daisy chain networking is a type of networking used for BTV multicast services in the
Huawei solution. In daisy chain networking, a dynamic spoke PW is established between UPEs,
a dynamic mesh PW is established between a PE-AGG or PE on the upper-layer network and
the UPE that is connected to the PE-AGG or PE, but no PW is established between PE-AGGs
or PEs. In this manner, the equipment on the border between the Metro Ethernet and the upper-
layer network is linked by PWs like a chain. Thus, this networking is called the daisy chain.
The common deployment mode is to deploy the VPLS of the daisy chain type to the position
shown in the following figure.
Note that the access network can consist different types of equipment. The PE-AGGs or PEs on
the upper-layer network connect to UPEs. Generally, the interface that connects a PE-AGG to
the Metro Ethernet runs IGMP and PIM. Two PE-AAGs or PEs exchange PIM Hello packets
over the daisy chain on the Metro Ethernet.
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Figure 16-10 Daisy chain networking application
UPE 1 UPE 2
M
e
t
r
o

E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t
Upper-layer network
UPE 3
Access network
LDR ID: 1.1.1.1
LDR ID: 3.3.3.3
LDR ID: 2.2.2.2
GE 1/0/0.1 GE 1/0/0.1
GE 1/0/1
192.168.0.1/24
GE 1/0/1
192.168.0.3/24
GE 1/0/2
192.168.1.4/24
GE 1/0/1
192.168.1.2/24

This example shows only the equipment used to create the daisy-chain VPLS service on the
Metro Ethernet.
16.3.3.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
Data Planning
Table 16-63 NE parameters
NE Loopback1 Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
UPE1 1.1.1.1/32 GE 1/0/1 192.168.0.1/24 -
GE 1/0/0.1 - The interface is
connected to the
access network.
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NE Loopback1 Interface Interface IP
Address
Remarks
UPE2 2.2.2.2/32 GE 1/0/1 192.168.1.2/24 -
GE 1/0/0.1 - The interface is
connected to the
access network.
UPE3 3.3.3.3/32 GE 1/0/1 192.168.0.3/24 -
GE 1/0/2 192.168.1.4/24 -

Table 16-64 MPLS planning
Parameter UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
MPLS
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.1 2.2.2.2 3.3.3.3
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
Peer Name UPE2 UPE1 -
LSR ID 2.2.2.2 1.1.1.1 -
MPLS L2VPN
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-65 MPLS interface planning
Parameter UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
Interface
Name
GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

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Table 16-66 Planning of VPLS service information
Attribute Value
Service
Name
hw-dc
Networking
Mode
Daisy Chain
Service Type Service VPLS
VSI Name dc
VSI ID 100
Customer
Name
hw

Table 16-67 PW planning
Parameter UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
PW Type Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic
PW Split
Horizon
2.2.2.2 3.3.3.3 1.1.1.1 3.3.3.3 1.1.1.1 2.2.2.2
Sink
Equipment IP
Address
Spoke Spoke Mesh Mesh Spoke Spoke
PW ID 100 100 100

Table 16-68 Access Interface planning
Parame
ter
UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
Interfac
e Name
GigabitEthernet1/0/0 GigabitEthernet2/0/0 GigabitEthernet3/0/0
ID 10 10 10
Connect
Type
VLAN VLAN VLAN
VLAN
ID
10 10 10

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16.3.3.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the configuration process.
Prerequisites
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
Procedure
Step 1 Configure the basic MPLS capability and LDP.
Perform the following configurations on UPE 1, UPE 2, and UPE 3.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. In the MPLS area, select the Enable MPLS and Enable LDP check boxes and set
LSR ID.
b. Optional: In the LDP area, select the Enable LDP check box and click Create to
create a remote peer.
NOTE
You do not need to set Remote LDP Peer if the status of the source device and sink device is
direct.
c. In the MPLS L2VPN area, select the Enable MPLS L2VPN check box.
d. Click Apply.
Table 16-69 MPLS planning
Parameter UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
MPLS
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.1 2.2.2.2 3.3.3.3
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
Peer Name UPE2 UPE1 -
LSR ID 2.2.2.2 1.1.1.1 -
MPLS L2VPN
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Parameter UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-70 MPLS interface planning
Parameter UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
Interface
Name
GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/1 GE 1/0/1
GE 1/0/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

1. Choose Service > Tunnel > Manage LDP Session (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose
Service > Tunnel > Manage LDP Session (application style) from the main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, choose UPE1, UPE2, and UPE3 from the physical
topology tree on the left and add them to the physical topology tree on the right.
3. If the LDP session status of UPE1, UPE2, and UPE3 is the same as that shown in the
following table,
l Peer relationships have been set up between UPE1, UPE2, and UPE3.
l The remote peer relationship has been set up between UPE1 and UPE2.
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Table 16-71 Peer planning
Parameter Peer LSR ID Status
UPE1 2.2.2.2
3.3.3.3
OPERATIONAL
UPE2 1.1.1.1
3.3.3.3
OPERATIONAL
UPE3 1.1.1.1
2.2.2.2
OPERATIONAL

Step 2 Choose Service > VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (traditional style) from the main menu
or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and choose Service
> VPLS Service > Create VPLS Service (application style) from the main menu.
Create a service VPLS on the NMS and set its general parameters. Set the parameters as follows:
Table 16-72 VPLS parameter planning
Parameter Settings
Service Name hw-dc
Networking
Mode
Daisy Chain
Service Type Service VPLS
VSI Name dc
VSI ID 100
Customer Name hw

Step 3 Add UPE 1, UPE 2, and UPE 3.
NOTE
After the NEs are added, PWs are automatically created. To add, modify, or delete a PW, perform operations
on the PW Configuration tab page.
Step 4 Configure the access interface of the service VPLS on the NMS.
Specify access interfaces for the UPE. Set the parameters as follows:
Table 16-73 SAI parameter planning
Parame
ter
UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
Interfac
e
GigabitEthernet1/0/0 GigabitEthernet2/0/0 GigabitEthernet3/0/0
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Parame
ter
UPE1 UPE2 UPE3
ID 10 10 10
Connect
Type
VLAN VLAN VLAN
VLAN
ID
10 10 10

Step 5 Configure a PW protection group.
1. Click Create. In the dialog box that is displayed, select a node.
2. Set Protection Group Name and select 1st PW and 2nd PW.
3. Set other parameters and click OK.
Step 6 Click OK.
----End
Result
On the Management VPLS Service tab page, the created VPLS service is displayed and its
parameter settings are consistent with the planned ones.
16.4 Examples for Configuring L3VPN Services
This topic provides examples for configuring L3VPN services, including intranet VPN and
Hub&Spoke VPN services.
16.4.1 Example for Configuring a Full-Mesh VPN Service
This topic describes the configuration of a full-mesh VPN service with an example.
16.4.1.1 Network Configuration
This topic describes the network requirements and network diagram.
Networking Requirements and Networking Diagram
Figure 16-11 shows the full-mesh networking. A service provider provides different L3VPN
services for two enterprise users. Three sets of NPE equipment exist on this network. Each set
of the NPE equipment is connected to two sites of different users. The following shows the
connectivity between any two sites.
l The equipment at Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 can communicate with each other on VPN 1.
l The equipment at Site 4, Site 5, and Site 6 can communicate with each other on VPN 2.
l The equipment at Site 1, Site 2, or Site 3 cannot communicate with the equipment at Site
4, Site 5, or Site 6.
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Figure 16-11 Full-mesh networking application

Figure 16-12 shows the NE planning diagram.
Figure 16-12 NE planning diagram
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16.4.1.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
In the case of a full-mesh network, all CE sites in the same VPN can communicate with each
other. Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 belong to VPN 1, and Site 4, Site 5, and Site 6 belong to VPN 2.
Therefore, you need to create two BPG/MPLS VPN services.
Table 16-74 MPLS Planning
Parameter NPE1 NPE2 NPE3
MPLS
LSR ID 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
MPLS L2VPN
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-75 MPLS Planning
Parameter NPE1 NPE2 NPE3
Interface
Name
GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-76 VPN parameter planning
Service Attribute VPN 1 VPN 2
Service
Information
Service Name L3VPN-0001 L3VPN-0002
Network type Full-Mesh Full-Mesh
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Service Attribute VPN 1 VPN 2
VRF ID Auto-Assign Auto-Assign
VRF name vrf1 vrf1
RD 100:1 200:1
RT 100:1 200:1
Node List Node Name NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3
NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3
Node LSR ID NPE1: 1.1.1.1
NPE2: 1.1.1.2
NPE3: 1.1.1.3
NPE1: 1.1.1.1
NPE2: 1.1.1.2
NPE3: 1.1.1.3
SAI Interface Name NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3: GE 1/1/1
NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3: GE 1/1/2
IP Address/Mask NPE1: 192.168.0.1/24
NPE2: 192.168.1.1/24
NPE3: 192.168.2.1/24
NPE1: 192.168.1.1/24
NPE2: 192.168.2.1/24
NPE3: 192.168.0.1/24
BGP AS No. 100 100
Route
Import
Route Type Direct Direct
Peer Destination IP Address NPE1: 192.168.0.2
NPE2: 192.168.1.2
NPE3: 192.168.2.2
NPE1: 192.168.1.2
NPE2: 192.168.2.2
NPE3: 192.168.0.2
Peer AS No. NPE1: 65410
NPE2: 65420
NPE3: 65430
NPE1: 65410
NPE2: 65420
NPE3: 65430

Table 16-77 MP-IBGP
Service
Attribute
NPE1 NPE2 NPE3
IP Address 1.1.1.2
1.1.1.3
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.3
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.2
AS No. 100 100 100

16.4.1.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes the process of configuring the L3VPN service in the Full-Mesh networking.
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Prerequisites
l You must have known the networking, requirements, and service planning of the example.
l Data synchronization must be performed for the related NE.
l Routes must be configured to ensure the IP connectivity of the backbone network.
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
NPE1, NPE2, and NPE3 must be configured according to the data planning.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
b. Click Apply.
Table 16-78 MPLS Planning
Parameter NPE1 NPE2 NPE3
MPLS
LSR ID 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
MPLS L2VPN
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
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d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-79 MPLS Planning
Parameter NPE1 NPE2 NPE3
Interface
Name
GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

Step 2 Configure MP-IBGP peer relationships between PEs to exchange VPN routing information.
Configure NPE1, NPE2, and NPE3 according to the data planning.
Table 16-80 MP-IBGP
Service
Attribute
NPE1 NPE2 NPE3
IP Address 1.1.1.2
1.1.1.3
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.3
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.2
AS No. 100 100 100

1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose Route Management > BGP Route > BGP Instance from the service tree, and
then configure BGP peers according to the data planning shown in Table 16-80.
3. Click Apply.
Step 3 Create the L3VPN service named VPN 1.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Create L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Create L3VPN Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. In the Service Information area, set the service information parameters according to the
service planning.
Service Attribute VPN 1 VPN 2
Service
Information
Service Name L3VPN-0001 L3VPN-0002
Network type Full-Mesh Full-Mesh
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Service Attribute VPN 1 VPN 2
VRF ID Auto-Assign Auto-Assign
VRF name vrf1 vrf1
RD 100:1 200:1
RT 100:1 200:1

3. In the Node List area, click Add > NPE Node. In the dialog box that is displayed, select
NPE1, NPE2, and NPE3 by using the Ctrl key.
4. Click > to add the selected NE, and then click OK.
The window for creating an L3VPN service is displayed.
5. Click Details to configure the detailed parameter information in the parameter list
according to the service planning.
The basic service information such as the VRF name, RT, and RD is displayed as the values
configured previously. In this step, you need to set the following parameters.
Service Attribute VPN 1
SAI Interface NPE1, NPE2, and NPE3: GE
1/1/1
IP Address/Mask NPE1: 192.168.0.1/24
NPE2: 192.168.1.1/24
NPE3: 192.168.2.1/24
BGP AS No. 100
Peer Destination IP Address NPE1: 192.168.0.2
NPE2: 192.168.1.2
NPE3: 192.168.2.2
Peer AS No. NPE1: 65410
NPE2: 65420
NPE3: 65430
Route Import Route Type Direct

6. After setting all parameters, click OK.
The created VPN1 service is displayed in the service list.
Step 4 Create the L3VPN service named VPN 2.
Create VPN 2 according to the service planning by following the procedure for creating VPN
1. Here, all the service parameters of VPN 1 and VPN 2 are listed.
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Table 16-81 VPN parameter planning
Service Attribute VPN 1 VPN 2
Service
Information
Service Name L3VPN-0001 L3VPN-0002
Network type Full-Mesh Full-Mesh
VRF ID Auto-Assign Auto-Assign
VRF name vrf1 vrf1
RD 100:1 200:1
RT 100:1 200:1
Node List Node Name NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3
NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3
Node LSR ID NPE1: 1.1.1.1
NPE2: 1.1.1.2
NPE3: 1.1.1.3
NPE1: 1.1.1.1
NPE2: 1.1.1.2
NPE3: 1.1.1.3
SAI Interface Name NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3: GE 1/1/1
NPE1, NPE2, and
NPE3: GE 1/1/2
IP Address/Mask NPE1: 192.168.0.1/24
NPE2: 192.168.1.1/24
NPE3: 192.168.2.1/24
NPE1: 192.168.1.1/24
NPE2: 192.168.2.1/24
NPE3: 192.168.0.1/24
BGP AS No. 100 100
Route
Import
Route Type Direct Direct
Peer Destination IP Address NPE1: 192.168.0.2
NPE2: 192.168.1.2
NPE3: 192.168.2.2
NPE1: 192.168.1.2
NPE2: 192.168.2.2
NPE3: 192.168.0.2
Peer AS No. NPE1: 65410
NPE2: 65420
NPE3: 65430
NPE1: 65410
NPE2: 65420
NPE3: 65430

Step 5 Verify the configurations. Take VPN 1 as an example.
1. Choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (traditional style) from the
main menu or select Bearer Network Service Configuration in Application Center and
choose Service > L3VPN Service > Manage L3VPN Service (application style) from the
main menu.
2. In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria as required. Then click Filter. The
services meeting the filter criteria are displayed in the query result area.
3. In the service list, view Running Status of VPN 1 is normal. If yes, it indicates that VPN
1 is created successfully.
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If not, check whether the service accessing interface is Up and whether the BGP peer
parameters are correctly set.
4. Optional: In the service list, select VPN 1. Right click VPN 1 and choose Test and
Check from the shortcut menu to check the VRF connectivity.
a. On the Test and Check tab page, select the paths to be diagnosed. In this example,
each VPN service has six paths.
b. On the Diagnosis Option tab page, select Service Check and VRF Ping.
c. Click Run.
d. On the Result tab page, view the diagnosis result.
----End
16.4.2 Example for Configuring a Hub-Spoke VPN Service
This topic provides an example for configuring the Hub&Spoke VPN service.
16.4.2.1 Network Configuration
This topic provides the networking diagram of the sites of the Hub&Spoke VPN service.
Figure 16-13 shows the networking diagram of the Hub&Spoke VPN service. The
communication between the Spoke-CE sites is controlled by the central site Hub-CE.
Specifically, all the Spoke-CE sites can communicate with site Hub-CE, but the Spoke-CE sites
cannot communicate with each other. Three sets of PE equipment exist in this network. Each
set of the PE equipment is connected to a CE site. The following shows the connectivity between
any two sites.
l Site Spoke-CE1 and site Hub-CE can communicate with each other.
l Site Spoke-CE2 and site Hub-CE can communicate with each other.
l Site Spoke-CE1 and site Spoke-CE2 cannot communicate with each other.
Figure 16-13 Networking of the Hub&Spoke VPN service

Figure 16-14 shows the NE planning diagram.
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Figure 16-14 NE planning diagram

16.4.2.2 Service Planning
This topic describes the planning of the parameters such as IP addresses, interfaces, and protocol
types involved in this example in table format.
In the case of the Hub&Spoke networking, the communication between the Spoke-CE sites in
the same VPN is controlled by the central site Hub-CE. Specifically, the traffic between the
Spoke-CE sites is forwarded by the central site Hub-CE in addition to the Hub-PE sites.
Table 16-82 MPLS parameter planning
Parameter UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
MPLS
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
MPLS L2VPN
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-83 MPLS interface parameter planning
Parameter UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
Interface
Name
GE 3/1/1 GE 3/1/1 GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
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Parameter UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

Table 16-84 VPN parameter planning
Service Attribute Value
Service
Information
Service name L3VPN-0001
Signal Type Dynamic
Network type Hub-Spoke
VRF ID Auto-Assign
VRF name vrf2
RD 100:1
NPE RT 200:1
UPE RT 100:1
NE List Node Name UPE1, UPE2, and NPE
Node LSR ID UPE1: 1.1.1.1
UPE2: 1.1.1.2
NPE: 1.1.1.3
VRF Configuration
General Import RT UPE1: 200:1
UPE2: 200:1
NPE: 100:1
Export RT UPE1: 100:1
UPE2: 100:1
NPE: 200:1
Route
Configuratio
n - BGP
AS No. 100
Route Import Route Type UPE1, UPE2, and NPE: Direct
Peer Destination IP
Address
UPE1: 192.168.1.2
UPE2: 192.168.0.2
NPE(VRF-IN):192.168.2.2/24
NPE(VRF-OUT):192.168.3.2/24
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Service Attribute Value
Peer AS No. UPE1: 65410
UPE2: 65420
NPE: 65430
AS No. Self-
Loop Times
NPE(VRF-OUT):1
SAI Interface Name UPE1, UPE2, and NPE: GE 1/1/1
IP Address/Mask UPE1: 192.168.1.1/24
UPE2: 192.168.0.1/24
NPE(VRF-IN):192.168.2.1/24
NPE(VRF-OUT):192.168.3.1/24

Table 16-85 MP-IBGP
Service
Attribute
UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
IP Address 1.1.1.3 1.1.1.3 1.1.1.1
1.1.1.2
AS No. 100 100 100

16.4.2.3 Configuration Process
This topic describes how to configure the Hub&Spoke VPN service described in the example.
Prerequisites
l You must have known the networking, requirements, and service planning of the example.
l You are an NMS user with "Maintenance Group" authority or higher.
Procedure
Step 1 Enable MPLS and LDP on PE1 and the related interfaces.
Perform configurations on every node based on data planning.
1. Double-click the NE in the Main Topology to access the NE Explorer.
2. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > Global MPLS Configuration
from the service tree.
Do as follows to configure global MPLS:
a. On the General tab page, select the Enable MPLS, Enable LDP, Enable MPLS
TE and Enable MPLS L2VPN check boxes and set LSR ID.
iManager U2000 Unified Network Management System
Operation Guide for IP Service Management 16 Configuration Examples-Routing
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b. Click Apply.
Table 16-86 MPLS parameter planning
Parameter UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
MPLS
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
LSR ID 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3
LDP
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable
MPLS L2VPN
Enable
MPLS
L2VPN
Enable Enable Enable

3. Choose MPLS Management > MPLS Configuration > MPLS Interface from the service
tree.
Configure MPLS interface as planning.
a. Right-click in the MPLS interface list and choose Enable MPLS from the shortcut
menu.
b. In the dialog box that is displayed, select the interface to be configured and click
OK.
c. Select the interface from the MPLS interface list and click Configure. The Configure
MPLS Interface dialog box is displayed.
d. Click the LDP tab and select the Enable LDP check box.
e. Click the MPLS TE tab and select the Enable MPLS TE and Enable RSVP-TE
check box.
f. Click OK.
Table 16-87 MPLS interface parameter planning
Parameter UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
Interface
Name
GE 3/1/1 GE 3/1/1 GE 3/1/1
GE 3/1/2
Enable
MPLS
Enable Enable Enable
Enable LDP Enable Enable Enable

Step 2 Configure MP-IBGP peer relationships between PEs to exchange VPN routing information.
iManager U2000 Unified Network Management System
Operation Guide for IP Service Management 16 Configuration Examples-Routing
Issue 03 (2014-05-15) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
462
Perform configurations on every NE based on data planning.
Table 16-88 MP-IBGP
Service
Attribute
UPE1(Spoke-PE1) UPE2(Spoke-PE2) NPE(Hub-PE)
IP Ad