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First Stage Project Report on

1. Pawan kumar (42) Mr. JitendraB. Jangid
2. Pankaj Suthar (41)
3. Noman Ansari (40)
4. Nitish Meena (39)
5. Danish Khan (31)



Demand for recycled glass has considerably decreased in recent years, particularly
for mixed-glass. Glass is cheaper to store than to recycle, as conditioners require
expenses for the recycling process. There are several alternatives for the reuse of
composite-glass. According all applications, which require pre-conditioning and
crushing, are more or less limited and unable to absorb all the quantities of waste
glass available. In order to provide a sustainable solution to glass storage, a
potential and incentive way would be to reuse this type of glass as replacement of
Depending on the size of the glass particles as replacement of cement, two
antagonistic behaviours can be observed: alkali- silica reaction, which involves
negative effects, and pozzolanic reaction, improving the properties. The use of fine
particles of glass and glass aggregates in mortars, either separately or combined.
Two parameters based on standardized tests were studied: pozzolanic assessment
by mechanical tests on mortar samples and alkali-reactive aggregate characteristics
and fines inhibitor evaluations by monitoring of dimensional changes. It is shown
that there is no need to use glass in the form of fines since no swelling due to
alkali-silica reaction is recorded when the diameter of the glass grains is less than
1mm. Besides, fine glass powders having specific surface areas ranging from 180
to 540m / kg reduce the expansions of mortars subjected to alkali-silica reaction
(especially when glass aggregates of diameters larger than 1 mm are used
So it is clear that we can use glass powder in replacement of cement
powder by a certain amount beyond and less than that amount decrease the strength
of concrete. Moreover it is a environmentally friendly way to eradicate the waste
generated by glass

Waste are produced by industry is very harmful for environment as well as human
being. So it should be dismantled. A glass is an inorganic product which can be
cooled to a rigid condition without crystallization .Glass is cheaper to store than to
recycle, as conditioners require expenses for the recycling process .Demand for
recycled glass has considerably decreased in recent years, particularly for mixed-
The concrete industry has been making use of industrial mineral wastes like fly
ash, silica fume and blast furnace slag as pozzolana by replacing a part of cement.
While Pozzolanic reaction adds to the strength of concrete and the utilization of
these materials brings about economy in concrete manufacture. It has been
estimated that several million tons of waste glasses are generated annually
worldwide. Only 20 percentage of this waste is recycled and rest 80 percentage
land filled or throw here and there. This waste cause environmental pollution and
harm to the animals.
The key sources of waste glasses are waste containers, window glasses,
windscreen, medicinal bottles, liquor bottles, tube lights, bulbs, electronic
equipments, etc.

Utilization of waste glass is very important for human development because
1. Huge amount of glass waste produce by human increases the need of land to get
2. Use up precious landfill space, decreasing possible area that can be used for
landfills of other waste increasing the need to establish new expansive landfills
3. Lactates and gas releases from the landfill site degrade communities living
condition and harmful to human health
4. Location of most recycling plants are built within low income neighborhoods
because of cheap labor and strict regulation may affect respiratory system if breath
in pollutants. Case-local residents at Mercedes Arumbula claimed that the
neighborhood and kids have developed asthma once the plant was built in their
5. Glass is non-biodegradable (remains in our environment and do not decompose
easily by itself therefore do not have significant environmental and social impact
could result in serious impact after disposal


These are the following scopes of replacements of cement by glass powder:
1) Most soils contain some sulphate in the form of calcium, sodium, potassium
and magnesium. They occur in soil or ground water. Because of solubility
of calcium sulphate is low, ground water contain more of other sulphates
and less of calcium sulphate. If we use glass powder it provide resistance to
sulphate attack on concrete
2) Replacement of cement by glass powder give reduction in environment
pollution because in making of cement it require to burn and grind the
different type of material which produces various toxic gases.
3) In glasses recycling process first glass are collected then they are sorted .the
waste glasses which cant be used send to landfill but these glasses can be
used in concrete
4) Replacement of cement by glass powder is cost saving and environment


The main aim is to determine the durability of concrete containing waste glass
powder as pozzolana. The term glass comprises several chemical varieties
including binary alkali-silicate glass, boro-silicate glass, and ternary soda-lime
silicate glass

Depending on the size of the glass particles used in concrete, two antagonistic
behaviors can be observed: alkali silica reaction, which involves negative effects,
and pozzolanic reaction, improving the properties of concrete.
It is important to recognize that the reactivity of glass depends on its type and
composition and physical features such as the presence of pores and separate solid
phases in the glass . For example, binary glasses such as sodium silicate glass
behaves differently from soda-lime glass such that the binary glasses cause alkali
release and mortar expansion even in combination with low-alkali glass, whereas
soda-lime glasses require high alkali contents in the mortar or concrete to enable it
to react deleteriously and cause expansion


For this purpose concrete 15 to 20 specimens prepared and in these
specimen cement is replaced by glass powder in different percentage as 0%,
5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. And different test performed .By analyzing the
result obtains by these percentages.

1. Material to be used

These are the following materials used in different percentages
with glass powder . these are mixes according to mix design.
a. Glass powder
b. Cement
c. Sand
d. Coarse aggregate
e. Fine aggregate

A .GLASS POWDER: it is mixed in various percentages in the design as
0%, 5%, 10%, 15%

B. CEMENT:- it is reduced as we increase the amount of Glass

C.SAND , FINE and COARSE aggregate is mixed according to the
design mix


Mixing the
Casting cubes
Analyzing the

Test Performed



For each mix three prisms (40 40 160 mm) with embedded stainless steel pins
were cast and used for the ASR test, following the description given in [12]. Each
prism was uprightly placed in a plastic container with a volume of approximately
1.6 liter. First the prisms were placed in a container with water and stored in an
oven at 80C. After 24 hours, the length of each prism was measured (zero reading
between the embedded steel pins), and then the samples were transferred to a
container with a 1M NaOH solution and stored in an oven at 80C. The prisms
stayed in these conditions for 14 days, during which their lengths were measured

Strength measurements were performed at 1, 7 and 28 days after casting. For each
mixture three prisms (40 40 160 mm) were used. After casting, the molds were
covered with plastic in order to prevent the evaporation of water. One day after, the
samples were de molded and subsequently stored in water at room temperature.
The three point flexural bending strength test was performed using a computer
controlled testing machine. After this test, both halves of the broken prisms were
used for the compression strength test

Photocatalytic Oxidation
The experimental conditions applied in this study (shown in Table 3) were in
accordance with [13]. A detailed description of the used test set-up and test
procedure is given in [9]. Two different plates (200 100 30 mm) were cast for
the PCO: a reference sample with gravel (Mix F in Table 2) and a sample with
glass aggregates (Mix C in Table 2). In both samples 5% TiO2 by weight of
cement was applied. After the casting and curing period (28 days), both samples
were tested from two sides: top surface in its original cast form and the bottom
mold-surface after an additional polishing. The unpolished sides have a rough
surface, so there was a larger exposed surface area of the cement paste. The
polished sides have the cement paste layer removed, exposing the aggregates


The replacement of cement by glass powder in concrete generally decreases the
ultimate strength of concrete. The % decrease in 28 days strength of concrete by
replacement of cement with 20% glass powder is only about 10%. It is clear that
about 15% of cement replacement by fine glass powder provide the most optimal
strength results because with this replacement the decrease in strength is less than