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4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC

BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997

EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Integration
4U97-1a)!
Evaluate
2
0
5
x + 4
dx
}
.
4
4U97-1b)!
Evaluate
sin
cos
d
4
u
u
u
t
0
4
}
.

( )
1
3
2 2 1
4U97-1c)!
Find
1
2 x x + 3
dx
2
+
}
.

1
2
tan
x +1
2
C
-1
+
4U97-1d)!
Find
4t - 6
(t +1)(2t
dt
2
+
}
3)
.
Ln
c (2t
t +1)
2
2
+3)
(

4U97-1e)!
Evaluate x sec x dx
2
0
3
t
}
.

3
3
t Ln2
4U96-1a)!
Evaluate
4
(2 x)
dx
2
+
}
1
3
.

8
15

4U96-1b)!
Find sec tan
2
}
u u u d .

1
2
tan
2
u + c
4U96-1c)!
Find
5t 3
t(t 1)
dt
2
2
+
+
}
.
3 Ln |t|+ Ln (t
2
+ 1) + c
4U96-1d)!
Using integration by parts, or otherwise, find x x dx tan

}
1
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995

1
2
(x
2
tan
-1
x + tan
-1
x x) + c
4U96-1e)!
Using the substitution x = 2sinu, or otherwise, calculate
x
4 x
dx
2
2
1
3

}
.
t 3
4U96-3b)!
i. Show that (sin ) cos x xdx
k
k 2
0
2
1
2 1
=
+
}
t
, where k is a positive integer.
ii. By writing (cos ) ( sin ) x x
n n 2 2
1 = , show that (cos )
( )
x dx
k
n
k
n
k
k
n
2 1
0
0
2
1
2 1
+
=
=

+
|
\

|
.
|

}
t
.
iii. Hence, or otherwise, evaluate cos
5
0
2
xdx
t
}
.
i) Proof ii) Proof iii)
8
15

4U96-7b)!
i. Let f(x) = Lnx - ax + b, for x > 0, where a and b are real numbers and a > 0. Show that
y = f(x) has a single turning point which is a maximum.
ii. The graphs of y = Lnx and y = ax - b intersect at points A and B. Using the result of part (i),
or otherwise, show that the chord AB lies below the curve y = Lnx.
iii. Using integration by parts, or otherwise, show that
1
k
}
Lnx dx = k Lnk - k + 1.
iv. Use the trapezoidal rule on the intervals with integer endpoints 1, 2, 3,..., k to show that
Lnx dx
k
1
}
is approximately equal to | |
1
2
1 Lnk Ln k + ( )! .
v. Hence deduce that k e k
k
e
k
! <
|
\

|
.
|
.
Proof
4U95-1a)!
Find }
dx
x(lnx)
2
.
+
1
ln x
c
4U95-1b)!
Find } x
e
dx
x
.
e
x
- xe
x
+ c
4U95-1c)!
Show that
6t 23
(2t 1)(t 6)
dt ln 70
1
4
+
+
=
}
.
Proof
4U95-1d)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Find
d
dx
(x sin x)
1
, and hence find sin x dx
1
}
.

x
1 x
sin x
2
1

+

, x sin x 1 x c
1 2
+ +
4U95-1e)!
Using the substitution t = tan
x
2
, or otherwise, calculate
dx
5 3sin x 4cos x
0
2
+ +
}
t
.

1
6

4U95-4c)!
i. Show that, if 0 < x <
t
2
, then
sin(2m 1)x
sin x
sin(2m 1)x
sin x
2 cos(2mx)
+

= .
ii. Show that, for any positive integer m, cos(2mx)dx 0
0
2
=
}
t
.
iii. Deduce that, if m is any positive integer,
sin(2m 1)x
sin x
dx
sin(2m 1)x
sin x
dx
0
2
0
2
+
=

} }
t t
.
iv. Show that, if m = 1 then,
sin(2m 1)x
sinx
dx
2 0
2

=
}
t
t
.
v. Hence show that
sin 5x
sin x
dx
2
0
2
=
}
t
t
.
Proof
4U95-7a)!
Let ( ) I sin x dx
n
n
0
2
=
}
t
, where n is an integer, n > 0.
i. Using integration by parts, show that, for n > 2, I
n
n
I n n =

|
\

|
.
|

1
2
ii. Deduce that I
2n 1
2n
2n 3
2n 2
. . .
3
4
1
2 2
2n
=

t
and
I
2n
2n + 1
2n
2n
. . .
4
5
2
3
2n+1
=

2
1
1.
iii. Explain why I
k
> I
k + 1.

iv. Hence, using the fact that I
2n - 1
> I
2n
and I
2n
> I
2n + 1
, show that
t t
2
2n
2n 1
2 .4 ...(2n)
1.3 .5 ...(2n 1) (2n 1)
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
|
\

|
.
|
<
+
<
2
.
Proof
4U94-1a)!
Find
i.
4 12
6 13
2
x
x x
dx

+
}

ii.
1
6 13
2
x x
dx
+
}
.
(i) ( ) 2log c
e
x x
2
6 13 + + (ii)
1
2
1
tan
x 3
2
c

+
4U94-1b)!
Evaluate 9
2
3
2
3

}
u du .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995

9
2 3
3
4
t

|
\

|
.
|

4U94-1c)!
Evaluate
11 2
2 1 3
1
2

}
t
t t
dt
( )( )
.
ln 18
4U94-1d)!
Evaluate e sin x dx
2x
0
t
}
.

( )
1
5
2
e 1
t
+
4U94-6a)!
i. Given that sinx
x
>
2
t
for 0
2
< < x
t
, explain why e dx e dx
sin x
0
2
-2x
0
2

} }
<
t
t
t
.
ii. Show that e dx e dx
x x
} }
sin sin
t
t
t
2
0
2
= .
iii. Hence show that e dx e
x
}

sin
( )
0
1
t t
<
e
.
Proof
4U93-1a)!
Evaluate
x
(x 1) x 1
dx
3
8
+ +
}
by using the substitution x + 1 = u.
7
4U93-1b)!
Evaluate
d
2 cos
0
2
u
u
t
+
}
by using the substitution t tan
2
=
u
.

t
3 3

4U93-1c)!
Evaluate sin x dx
1
0
1
2

}
.

t
12
3
2
1 +
4U93-1d)!
i. Find real numbers a, b and c such that
4x 3
(x 1)(x 2)
ax b
x 1
c
x 2
2 2
+
+ +
=
+
+
+
+
.
ii. Hence find
4x 3
(x 1)(x 2)
dx
2
+
+ +
}
.
(i) a = 1, b = 2, c = -1 (ii) ( ) ( )
1
2
ln 2tan x ln c
1
x x
2
1 2 + + + +

4U93-4b)!
Suppose k is a constant greater than 1. Let f(x)
1
1 (tan x)
k
=
+
where 0 x
2
s s
t
. [You may
assume
( )
f
2
0
t
= .]
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
i. Show that
( )
f(x) f
2
x 1 + =
t
for 0 x
2
s s
t
.
ii. Sketch y = f(x) for 0 x
2
s s
t
.
[There is no need to find f '(x) but assume y = f(x) has a horizontal tangent at x = 0. Your
graph should exhibit the property of (b)(i).]
iii. Hence, or otherwise, evaluate
dx
1 (tan x)
k
0
2
+
}
t
.
(i) Proof (ii)
t
2
1
y
x
(iii)
t
4

4U92-1a)!
Find:
i. tan sec u u u
}
2
d .
ii.
2 6
6 1
2
x
x x
dx
+
+ +
}
.
(i)
1
2
2
tan c u+ (ii) logx 6x 1 c
2
+ + +
4U92-1b)!
Evaluate
dx
(x 1)(3 x)
3
2
5
2

}
by using the substitution u = x - 2.

t
3

4U92-1c)!
Evaluate
5 1
1 3 2
0
1
( )
( )( )

+
}
t
t t
dt .
log
4
3
e

4U92-1d)!
i. Find xe dx
x
2
}
.
ii. Evaluate 2x e dx
3 x
0
1 2
}
.
(i)
1
2
x
e c
2
+ (ii) 1
4U92-4a)!
Each of the following statements is either true or false. Write TRUE or FALSE for each statement and
give brief reasons for your answers. (You are not asked to find the primitive functions).
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
i. sin
7
2
2
0 u u
t
t
d =

}

ii. sin
7
0
0 u u
t
}
= d
iii. e
x

}
=
2
1
1
0 dx
iv. (sin
8
0
2
0 u u u
t
}
= - cos ) d
8

v. For n = 1, 2, 3, ....,
dt
t
dt
t
n n
1 1
0
1
1
0
1
+
s
+
} } +
.
(i) True (ii) False (iii) False (iv) True (v) True
4U91-1a)!
Find:
i.
t 1
t
3
dt
}
;
ii.
e
x
e
2x
+9
}
dx, using the substitution u = e
x
.
(i) + +
1
t
1
2t
c
2
(ii)
1
3
tan
e
3
c
1
x

+
4U91-1b)!
i. Evaluate
5
(2t +1)(2 t)
dt
0
1
}
.
ii. By using the substitution t = tan
u
2
and (i), evaluate
du
u u 3 4
0
2
sin cos +
t
}
.
(i) ln 6 (ii)
1
5
ln 6
4U91-1c)!
Let I sin x dx
n
n
0
2
=
}
t
, where n is a non-negative integer.
i. Show that I (n 1) sin xcos x dx
n
n 2 2
0
2
=

}
t
when n > 2.
ii. Deduce that I
n
=
n1
n
I
n2
when n > 2.
iii. Evaluate I
4
.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii)
3
16
t

4U90-2a)!
Find the exact values of:
i.
x 1
x 2x 5
dx
2
2
3
+
+ +
}

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
ii. 4 x dx
2
0
2

}

(i) 2 5 13 (ii)
t
2
1 +
4U90-2b)!
Find:
i.
dx
(x+1)(x
2
+2)
}
;
ii. cos x dx
3
}
, by writing cos
3
x = (1sin
2
x) cosx, or otherwise.
(i)
1
3
1
6
2 1
lnx 1 ln(x 2)
1
3 2
tan + + + +

x
2
c (ii) sin x sin x c
1
3
3
+
4U90-2c)!
Let I (1 t ) dt, n 1,2,3, . . .
n
2
0
x
n
= + =
}

Use integration by parts to show that I
1
2n 1
(1 x ) x
2n
2n 1
I 1
n
2 n
n
=
+
+ +
+
.
Hint: Observe that (1+t
2
)
n1
+t
2
(1+t
2
)
n1
= (1+t
2
)
n
.
Proof
4U89-2a)!
Evaluate:
i.
2
9
2
0
3
x
dx
+
}
;
ii. x lnx dx
2
1
3
}
;
iii. 4 x dx
2
3
2

}
.
(i)
t
9
(ii) 9 3
26
9
ln (iii)
t
3
3
2

4U89-2b)!
i. Write
4x
2
5x7
(x 1)(x
2
+x+2)
in the form
A
x 1
+
Bx+C
x
2
+x +2
.
ii. Hence evaluate
4x
2
5x7
(x1)(x
2
+x+2)
dx
1
0
}
.
(i)

+
+
+ +
2
x 1
6x 3
x x 2
2
(ii) 2 ln 2
4U88-1a)!
Find the exact value of:
i.
2x
1 2x
dx
0
1
+
}
;
ii.
(log
e
x)
2
x
dx
1
e
}
;
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
iii. cos x dx
1
0
1
2

}
.
(i) 1 3
1
2
log
e
(ii)
1
3
(iii)
t
6
+ 1
3
2

4U88-1b)!
Use the substitution t = tan
u
2
to find the exact value of
du
u
t
sin +
}
2
0
2
.

t
3 3

4U87-1i)!
Prove that:
a.
t +1
t
2
dt
1
2
}
=
1
2
+ log
e
2;
b.
4 dx
(x 1)(x 3)
2log
9
5
e
4
6

=
|
\

|
.
|
}
.
Proof
4U87-1ii)!
a. Use the substitution x =
2
3
sinu to prove that 4 9x dx
3
2
0
2
3
=
}
t
.
b. Hence, or otherwise, find the area enclosed by the ellipse 9x
2
+ y
2
= 4.
(a) Proof (b)
4
3
t
units
2

4U87-1iii)!
a. Given that I x dx
n
n
=
t
}
cos
0
2
, prove that I
n 1
n
I
n n 2
=

|
\

|
.
|

where n is and integer and n > 2.
b. Hence evaluate cos x dx
5
0
2
t
}
.
(a) Proof (b)
8
15

4U86-1i)!
Evaluate
x
x
dx
( ) 2
0
1

}
.
( )
2
3
4 2 - 5
4U86-1ii)!
Use integration by parts to show that tan x dx
4
1
2
log 2
1
0
1
e

}
=
t
.
Proof
4U86-1iii)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Find numbers A, B, C such that
x
4x
A
B
2x 3
C
2x 3
2
2
9
+

+
+
.
Hence evaluate
x
2
4x
2
9
dx
0
1
}
.
A
1
4
= , B
3
8
= , C = -
3
8
;
1
4
3
16
log 5
e

4U86-1iv)!
Using the substitution t = tan(
1
2
u), or otherwise, show that
1
1
3 1
0
3
+
=
t
}
sinu
u d .
Proof
4U85-1i)!
Find:
a. x cos x dx
0
3t
}
;
b.
1
x
2
+ 4x +5
dx
0
1
}
.
(a) -2 (b) 0.1419 (to 4 decimal places)
4U85-1ii)!
Find real numbers A, B, C such that
x
(x 1)
2
(x2)

A
x 1
+
B
(x1)
2
+
C
x 2
.
Hence show that
x
(x 1) (x 2)
dx 2log
3
2
1
2
0
1
2
e

=
|
\

|
.
|
}
.
A = -2, B = -1, C = 2, Proof
4U85-1iii)!
Use the substitution x = a - t, where a is a constant, to prove that f(x)dx = f(a t)dt
0
a
}
0
a
}
. Hence, or
otherwise, show that x x dx ( ) 1
1
10 100
99
0
1
=
}

.
Proof
4U84-1i)!
Show that:
a. 4 xlog x dx 7e e
e
8 2
e
e
4
=
}
;
b.
dx
xlog
e
x
= 2log
e
e
e
4
}
2.
(a) Proof (b) Proof
4U84-1ii)!
Evaluate:
a.
x 1
x 1
dx
2
0
3
+
+
}

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS INTEGRATION HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
b.
x 6
x 5
dx
4
4
+
+

}

c. sin 4x cos 2x dx
6
6

}
t
t
.
(a) log 2
3
e
+
t
(b) 21
1
3
(c) 0

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
Volumes
4U97-3a)!
y
x
O
(3, 2) C(0, 2)

In the diagram, the shaded region is bounded by the x axis, the line x = 3, and the circle with centre
C(0, 2) and radius 3. Find the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated about the y
axis.

8
3
t units
3

4U97-5a)!
i. Sketch the graph of y = -x
2
for s s 2 x 2.
ii. Hence, without using calculus, sketch the graph of y = e
-x
2
for s s 2 x 2.
iii. The region between the curve y = e
-x
2
, the x axis, the y axis, and the line x = 2 is rotated
around the y axis to form a solid. Using the method of cylindrical shells, find the volume of
the solid.
i)
Y
-4
-2 2
X
ii)
1
y
x
O
-2 2
iii) t 1
1

|
\

|
.
|
e
units
4
3

4U96-3a)!
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
x + y
2
= 0
0
-1
1
4 1
x
y
S

The shaded region is bounded by the lines x = 1, y = 1, and y = -1 and by the curve x y + =
2
0. The
region is rotated through 360 about the line x = 4 to form a solid. When the region is rotated, the line
segment S at height y sweeps out an annulus.
i. Show that the area of the annulus at height y is equal to t( ) y y
4 2
8 7 + + .
ii. Hence find the volume of the solid.
i) Proof ii)
296
15
t units
3

4U95-3b)!
The circle x + y is rotated about the line x = 9 to form a ring.
When the circle is rotated, the line segment S at height y sweeps out an annulus.
0
4
s
4
-4
-4
x
y
x = 9

The x coordinates of the end-points are x
1
and - x
1
, where x
1
= 16
2
y Error! Switch argument
not specified..
i. Show that the area of the annulus is equal to 36t 16
2
y Error! Switch argument not
specified.
ii. Hence find the volume of the ring.
(i) Proof (ii) 288t
2
units
3

4U94-3b)!

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
-2 x
y
2 4 6
0
E
t = 0

The graph shows part of the curve whose parametric equations are
x t t = +
2
2, y t t =
3
, t >0.
. i. Find the values of t corresponding to the points O and E on the curve.
ii. The volume V of the solid formed by rotating the shaded area about the y axis is to be
calculated using cylindrical shells.
Express V in the form V f t
a
b
=
}
2t ( ) dt .
Specify the limits of integration a and b and the function f(t). You may leave f(t) in
unexpanded form.
Do NOT evaluate this integral.
(i) t = 1, 2 (ii) V 2 (t t 2)(t t)(2t 1) dt
2 3
1
2
= + +
}
t
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U93-6a)!
The solid S is generated by moving a straight edge so that it is always parallel to a fixed plane P. It is
constrained to pass through a circle C and a line segment L. The circle C, which forms a base for S,
has radius a and the line segment L is distance d from C. Both C and L are perpendicular to P and sit
on P in such a way that the perpendicular C at its centre O bisects L.
P
O
l
S
F
G
E
C
a
d
x

i. Calculate the area of the triangular cross-section EFG which is parallel to P and distance x
from the centre O of C.
ii. Calculate the volume of S.
(i) a x d
2 2
units
2
(ii)
1
2
a
2
d t units
3

4U92-5a)!

2a
a
x
a
a

The solid S is a rectangular prism of dimensions a a 2a from which right square pyramids of base
a a and height a have been removed from each end. The solid T is a wedge that has been obtained
by slicing a right circular cylinder of radius a at 45 through a diameter AB of its base.
Consider a cross-section of S which is parallel to its square base at distance x from its centre, and a
corresponding cross-section of T which is perpendicular to AB and at distance x from its centre.
i. The triangular cross-section of T is shown on the diagram.
Show that its area is
1
2
2 2
( ) a x .
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
ii. Draw the cross-section of S and calculate its area.
iii. Express the volumes of S and T as definite integrals.
iv. What is the relationship between the volumes of S and T? (There is no need to evaluate
either integral).
(i) Proof (ii)
x
a
A B
C
A = a
2
- x
2
(iii) V 2 (a x ) dx
S
2 2
0
a
=
}
,
V (a x ) dx
T
2 2
0
a
=
}
. (iv) V V
T
1
2 S
=
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U91-5b)!
E
B
O
Figure 1
Water surface
D
C
A
F
G
H
H
E
a
C'
F
G
Water
Figure 2
Figure 3
h
a
F
D
O
C
H

A drinking glass having the form of a right circular cylinder of radius a and height h, is filled with
water. The glass is slowly tilted over, spilling water out of it, until it reaches the position where the
waters surface bisects the base of the glass. Figure 1 shows this position.
In Figure 1, AB is a diameter of the circular base with centre C, O is the lowest point on the base, and
D is the point where the waters surface touches the rim of the glass.
Figure 2 shows a cross-section of the tilted glass parallel to its base. The centre of this circular section
is C' and EFG shows the water level. The section cuts the lines CD and OD of Figure 1 in F and H
respectively.
Figure 3 shows the section COD of the tilted glass.
i. Use Figure 3 to show that FH =
a
h
(h x) , where OH = x.
ii. Use Figure 2 to show that C'F =
ax
h
and ZHC'G = cos
-1
x
h
|
\
|
. .
iii. Use (ii) to show that the area of the shaded segment EGH is
a cos
x
h
x
h
1
x
h
2 1
2
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|

(
(
.
iv. Given that cos d cos 1
1 1 2
=
}
u u u u u , find the volume of water in the tilted glass of
Figure 1.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv)
2a h
3
2
units
3

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
4U90-3a)!
x
y
y = e
- x
- a a
S
t

The region under the curve y = e
x
2
and above the x axis for a sx sa is rotated about the y axis to
form a solid.
i. Divide the resulting solid into cylindrical shells S of radius t as in the diagram. Show that
each shell S has approximate volume oV= 2tte
t
2
ot where ot is the thickness of the shell.
ii. Hence calculate the volume of the solid.
iii. What is the limiting value of the volume of the solid as a approaches infinity?
(i) Proof (ii) t(1 e )
a
2

units
3
(iii) t units
3

4U89-5b)!
P
O
Z
X Y
B
T
oa
A

Let ABO be and isosceles triangle, AO = BO = r, AB = b.
Let PABO be a triangular pyramid with height OP = h and OP perpendicular to the plane of ABO as in
the diagram. Consider a slice S of the pyramid of width oa as in the diagram. The slice s is
perpendicular to the plane of ABO at XY with XY || AB and XB = a. Note that XT || OP.
i. Show that the volume of S is
r a
r
b
ah
r
a

|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
o , when oa is small. (You may assume that the
slice is approximately a rectangular prism of base XYZT and height oa.)
ii. Hence show that the pyramid PABO has volume
1
6
hbr.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
iii. Suppose now that ZAOB =
2t
n
and that n identical pyramids PABO are arranged about O as
centre with common vertical axis OP to form a solid C. Show that the volume V
n
of C is
given by V
n
=
1
3
r
2
hnsin
t
n
.
iv. Note that when n is large, the solid C approximates a right circular cone. Using the fact that
sinx
x
approaches 1 as x approaches 0, find lim
n
V
n
. Hence verify that a right circular cone of
radius r and height h has volume
1
3
tr
2
h.
(i) Proof (ii) Proof (iii) Proof (iv)
1
3
tr h
2

4U88-7a)!
K
L
H
J
M
I
20cm
xcm
16cm
4cm
hcm

FIGURE NOT TO SCALE
i. A trapezium HIJK has parallel sides KJ = 16 and HI = 20cm. The distance between these
sides is 4cm. L lies on HK and M lies on IJ such that LM is parallel to KJ. The shortest
distance from K to LM is h cm and LM has length x cm. Prove that x = 16 + h.
ii.
20cm
16cm
12cm
10cm

FIGURE NOT TO SCALE
The diagram above is of a cake tin with a rectangular base with sides of 16cm and 10cm. Its
top is also rectangular with dimensions 20cm and 12cm. The tin has depth 4cm and each of
its four side faces is a trapezium. Find its volume.
(i) Proof (ii) 794 cm
2
3
3

4U87-5i)!
a. On a number plane shade the region representing the inequality (x - 2R)
2
+ y
2
s R
2
.
b. Show that the volume of a right cylindrical shell of height h with inner and outer radii x and
x + ox respectively is 2txhox when ox is sufficiently small for terms involving (ox)
2
to be
neglected.
c. The region (x - 2R)
2
+ y
2
s R
2
is rotated about the y axis forming a solid of revolution called
a torus. By summing volumes of cylindrical shells show that the volume of the torus is given
by: V = 4t
2
R
3
.
4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
(a)
2R
R 3R x
y
(x - 2R)
2
+ y
2
s R
2
(b) Proof (c) Proof
4U86-5i)!
a. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle ABC are (0, 2), (1, 1), (-1, 1) respectively and H
is the point (0, h). The line through H, parallel to the x-axis meets AB and AC at X and Y.
Find the length of XY.
b. The region enclosed by the triangle ABC, defined in (a) above, is rotated about the x axis.
Find the volume of the solid of revolution so formed.
(a) (4 - 2h) units (b)
8
3
t
units
3

4U85-5ii)!
a. Using the substitution x = asinu, or otherwise, verify that (a
2
x
2
)
1
2
dx =
1
4
ta
2
0
a
}
.
b. Deduce that the area enclosed by the ellipse
x
a
y
b
1
2
2
2
2
+ = is tab.
c.
h
H

The diagram shows a mound of height H. At height h above the horizontal base, the
horizontal cross-section of the mound is elliptical in shape, with equation
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
2
+ = ,
where =1
h
2
H
2
, and x, y are appropriate coordinates in the plane of the cross-section.
Show that the volume of the mound is
8tabH
15
.
Proof
4U84-5)!

4 UNIT MATHEMATICS VOLUMES HSC
BOARD OF STUDIES NSW 1984 - 1997
EDUDATA: DATAVER1.0 1995
x
y
- a 0 a
t t
S

i. The diagram shows the area A between the smooth curve y = f(x), -a s x s a, and the x axis.
(Note that f(x) > 0 for -a s x s a and f(-a) = f(a) = 0). The area A is rotated about the line
x = -s (where s > a) to generate the volume V. This volume is to be found by slicing A into
thin vertical strips, rotating these to obtain cylindrical shells, and adding the shells. Two
typical strips of width ot whose centre lines are distance t from the y axis are shown.
a. Show that the indicated strips generate shells of approximate volume 2t f(-t)(s -
t)ot, 2t f(t)(s + t)ot, respectively.
b. Assuming that the graph of f is symmetrical about the y axis, show that V = 2tsA.
ii. Assuming the results of part (i), solve the following problems.
a. A doughnut shape is formed by rotating a circular disc of radius r about and axis in
its own plane at a distance of s(s > r) from the centre of the disc. Find the volume
of the doughnut.
b. The shape of a certain party jelly can be represented by rotating the area between
the curve y = sinx, 0 s x s t, and the x axis about the line x =
t
4
. Find the
volume generated.
(i)(a) Proof (b) Proof (ii)(a) 2t
2
r
2
s units
3
(b) 3t
2
units
3