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Reflection is a response to past experience and involves conscious recall and examination of
the experience as a basis for evaluation and decision-making and as a source for planning
and action.
Teachers can usefully reflect on experiences arising in their professional practice or on an
idea that relates (or might relate) to professional practice.Willingness to self-criticism is a
key part of it.
Gibbs & Atkins and Murphy 6 steps Cyclic Process model of reflection.
1 .Identify
2. Explore feelings
3. Describe
4. Analyse
5. Evaluate
6. Learn
Levels of Reflection:-
Hatton & Smith (1995):
1. Descriptive writing: Just description, no discussion beyond it.
2. Descriptive reflection: Description + Some justification
3. Dialogic reflection: Stepping back from Events + mulling about discourse with self &
exploring the discourse
4. Critical reflection: Influences of multiple factors which may not present at that time.
Critical Reflection is the highest level
Critical reflection becomes critical when we can begin to think about how considerations of
power under gird, frame and distort educational processes and interactions" and when we
can question the assumptions and Practices that may seem to make our teaching lives
easier but may be counterproductive to our efforts in the long run.

Implications of critical reflection on teachers.
1) Helps in problem solving
2) Connections between educational process and teaching learning process
3) Growth and development of ones personality.
4) Enliven the class by challenging, stimulating and interesting for students.
5) Enable to provide rationale behind practice.
6) Take informed actions that can be justified.

Reflective diary is an objective & systematic approach to improve the ease &
effectiveness of the style of teaching. It is as a mirror of the mind. In this mode, journals
invite learners to find language deep within self to array one's hopes, dreams,
disappointments, concerns and resolves.
Reflective Diary is a written script of an individual which helps a person to reflect and
look at ones own decision and reaction over a situation.
Assessment criteria of a reflective diary
1) Presentation and legibility
2) Creative thinking
3) Honesty and self assessment
4) Clarity and good observation of events
5) Thoroughness of reflection and self awareness
6) Depth and detail reflective accounts
7) Relationship with entries, theories and course
8) Willingness to revise ideas
9) Self assessment and honesty
10) Representation of different cognitive skills.
Some areas of reflection
Instances, events
Student teacher relationship
Student student relationship
Teachers experiences
Time management
Mid day meal
Reflection is a systematic way of thinking which usually considered as critical
Various models which explain the level and type of reflection have come up that
critical reflection is the highest level of reflection.
Critical reflection involve looking for all the related aspects/factors and their
influence on the event (without any personal biases), on which reflection is being
done and take future course of work under the influence of it.
Reflection can go in and on action as per the need.
Reflective journal assessment can be done in number of ways.
Teachers who explore their own teaching through critical reflection develop
Changes in attitudes and awareness which they believe can benefit their professional
growth as teachers, as well as improve the kind of support they provide their