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Client
Architect
N o-tior,.c'[
CoH^pa.i9
Ptt
Engineer responsible
BRR.ogers
Lo vrd.on
9/tt
/es
Building Regulation authority
or other and
Date of submission
I
T.
Tke. b,lU^4
Peg"rLa,tL*e
B58 t
(o
rt.i.
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.,ctural
b36199 P^rt
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2.
Co^c-.e-tr-. Pa<t t \ggl
1995, a.,'.d,
Palt3 \9BB
1
Relevant Building
Regulations and
Design Codes
Laborof-n1
^"^d"
Ofl* Btock
lntended use of structure
t Prour
[o.
a,t( atentc*.,fs
Fire resistance requirements
--=-L:a@re
,,
- lia'les
=
t.SLp/*
Ffoors - vvtposezl (r,o) a,wd oartvLr"".a
(
l,o\
=
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t, F[oo.s a-'A Sfo,*rt
-
0.5 W/rt
Lx k".
".al'
CLaAdw,g
=
5.O kNy*
General loading conditions
Speed
Factors
21w,/ser- (b"s;a)
so.= 1,o5 Sb
=
1.11, S; -- 1.O. S. = l.o.
5' = 1.o
Co.=o'84
,
C?u=
+o'8(t.o^t)
,'<r;='o'zQe^) tc,r=o.ozs
\^/ind loading condilions
3ewe.e
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(nssrro
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b\e 3.2)
Exposure conditions
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bu*-y
?-ersqre
=
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Subsoil. conditions
&(-
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Foundation type
6rad.z
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(aserro Tabte 3.f)
Material data
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=
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Other rblevant information
(r
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surmrmary
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C C
1,12'V TIE PeoVIgtON
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=
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=
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LEVEL 2 FLOOR PLAN
Buildins fire1
r --:-,-L+
r-l'
t les
r-+
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-To
plado'{ns
Slalion.approach.load
NOTE: Ail dimensions are in metres
1
Retail
Unit
I
STATIONAPPFTOACHROAD
A I ,A
LEVEL 1 FLOOR PIAN
Ai$ing ralwaytsads
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SECTION A.,\
FIGURE Q6
Question
6. Railway station buitding
CIient's requilements
1. A 2-storey raihvay station building. The gr.ound floor (level 1) accommodaies offrces, retail unjts, pubLic toiiets
and pedestrian acccss to the adjacent railruay platforms. The upper floor (level
2) accommodates offices and
2.
.1.
toilet facilities. See Figure
Q6.
A minimum headroou! of 3.5nr is to be pror-ided to ali level 1 floorg. A minimum headr.oqn bf 3.0rn is to be
provided to all ievel 2 floors. There is no resiricbion on the overall. height of the building.'
Ti:e building is to be constructed on the.site of a pre.i'ious single storey station building which
q'as
demolished
due to excessive darnage causecl by severe differential'setilement. A temporary ticket offce is in operation unlil
the coustruction of the ne-w building is complete.
Internal columns are only permitied in ttre internalwalls of the building. Exten'al colurrrns are to be kept to a
milimum- particularly in the south elevation
(adjacent
to the station approach road) and the north elevaiion
(adjacent
to the railway platforrns) oflevel 1.
The level 1 elevation adjacent to the station approach road is to be glazed.
q'ith
automatic doors for pedesHal
access. The glazed elevations are to be proiected with electrically operated roller shutters wben the station
facililies and retaii units are not in use.
Srater tanks ald electrical equipmerrt are to be located above the level 2 ceilings.
Claclding to tl:e roof and level 2 elevations
j-s
to be selected to minirnise enerfJ- consumption and maintenance
cosLs. L,evel 2 windorvs are 2.0m wide x 1.5m high.
A minimum t hour fire resistance is required for all the principal
structu.ral elements.
Imposed. Loading
L Roof
5.
6.
l-
8.
0.6 kNin'z
Level 1 and 2 floors; levd 2 ceilings 5.0kN/m1
Loadings include an allowance for.par-bihions, finishes and services.
Site Conditions
10. I'l:e site is flat ancl level and is located in a coastal town centre.
Basic wind speed is 44m,/s based on a 3-second gust; the equivalent mean hourly wind speed is 22mis.
11. TVpicaI ground conditions:
Grorurd level
-
3.0m
3.0rn'6.0m
6.0m
-
12.0m
ClayfiIl.C=40kN1m'?.
Loose Sand and Gravel. N vaiues vary- between i and 10.
Very stiff Clay. C
=
250kN/mz.
Aithough no standing water u'as encourrtered in irial excavations, a high moisture content was recorded in the
loose sand and gravel deposits.
Omit from consideration
12. Debailed desigrr ofthe staircases, roller shutter doors and tickel gates
SECTION 1 (50
marks)
a. Prepare a design apprajsal with appropriate sketches indieating trvo distinctland viable solutions for the
proposed structulre including the foundations. Indicate clearly the functional framing, load transfer and
stability aspects of each scheme. Identify the solution you recommend- giwing
""".oo,
for- your choice.
(40
marks)
b. Alter you have completed your design, the clent inforurs you that major underground. seryices and the
.lbundations
of ihe previous-station.building have been,f,ound-in a..3.0nwid.e x.Z]Om d.eep zone_along...the
norbhern edge of the proposed nerv building. Write a letter to your client erplaining how the design and
coustmction rvould be modifi.ed to accommodate these obstructions. (10
marks)
continu.ed. overleof
19
ARMSTRONG
TAYLORU'O
Proiect
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e-mail: info@armstrongtaylor.co.uk
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TAYLOR..,O
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8T26 648
Tel 028 9268 060O. Fax 028 9268 0601
e-mail: info@amistrongtaylor'co'uk
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TAYLOR,.,O
Project
2t>o6
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COIISUTTTNG CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
10 Lisbum Street, Hillsborough. 8T26 648
Tel 028 9268 0600. Fax 028 9268 0601
e-mail: info@armstronglaylor.co.uk
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e-mail: in{o@armstronglaylor.co.uk
ARMSTRONG
TAYLOR..,O
Project
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Q{
Job No
Date
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TAYLOR'-,O
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COHSULTING CIVIL A. STRUCTUF.AT ENGINEERS
10 Lisburn Street, Hillsborough. 8T26 6A8
Tel 028 9268 0600. Fax 028 9268 0601
e-mail: info@armstrongtaylor.co.uk
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Job No
Date
Element
S-r-evw I
Sheet
q
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a
drg ref
(arch)
drg ref
(eng)'
chk'd
by
calc.
by
ARMSTRONG
TAYLOR'-,O
CO}ISULTING CTVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGIHEERS
10 Lisbum Street, Hillsborough, 8T26 6A8
Tel 028 9268 0600. Fax 028 9268 0601
e-mail: info@armstrongtaylor.co. uk
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Date
Element
,
S_rtenE 7
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6
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10 Lisburn Street, Hillsborough, 8T26 648
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Job No
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TAYLOR..,O
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Ctvll. & trn't,cTu*.al EXGTNEERS
10 Lisbum Street, Hillsborough, 8T26 6A8
Tel 028 9268 0600. Fax 028 9268 0601
e-mail: info@armstrongtaylor.co. uk
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ARMSTRONG
COIISULTING CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGIHEERS
10 Lisbum Street, Hiilsborough, 8T26 6Ab
Tel 028 9268 0600. Fax 028 9268 060l
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Column Spacing
Load Paths
Floors
Beams
Partitions
Robustness
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Handrails
Sound
Cladding
Ceiling / Services
Uplift
Accidental Loading
Progressive Collapse
Notional Loads
Snow
Plant
Protected Member.s
Self Weight
4. Loading / Design
l
Constrictions
Structural Tone / Services Zone
Lightweight Construction required
for founds?
Columns
Horizontal / Vertical Ties
Staircases
Parapets
Floor & Roof Loadings
Wind Loads
Earthquake
Safety Factors
Construction Loads
Highway HA / HB
Reduction in Loading due to
Storey Heights
Critical Loading Combinations
Dominant Openings
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lStructE CHARTERED MEMBERSHIP EXAM : 2005
EXAM TECHNTQUE
CLIENTS BRIEF / PROJECT CHECK LIST:
5. Stability ( Wind & Notional
)
Positions for Braced Bays
Out of Plane Torsions
Sway Frame
Bracing
Lift Shatu
Diaphragm action of Floors
Robustness
Calculations required to
proYe stability
6. Fire Resistahce
Hour fire rating?
Concrete Casing
Spray
Boundary Conditions
Economy
Repetitive construction
possible?
Assumptions
ip Nr^C**(.
Core Positions
Load Path to Foundations
Braced Frame
Shear Walls
Bracing outside Building
Tie PC Unia
Tying of Frame
Fire Boards
lntumescent Paint
Service Routes
I,e
srft&dp- c6lbPY_
Resistance provided byl
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lstructE CHARTERED MEMBERSHTP EXAM : 2005
Il
r EXAM TECHNTQUE
'
CL|ENTS BRTEF / PROJECT CHECK L|ST:
J'
D
9. Movement
Joints
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ThermalJoints
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10. Buildabil ity I Health and Safety
I
I
Settlement
Joints
Moisture
Joints
Steelwork
-
l5-25mm
@
50m c/c
Reinforced Concrete
-
50m c/c
Transportation
Crane Required
Temporary Works
Speed and Economy
Required
Limit of Sizes of
PC Elements
Ground Movements
Plant Movement
Repetition of Work
Night Time Working
Erection Sequence
Temporary Bracing / Propping
Glazing / Falls
Existing Services
Stability of Existing Srructures
(Jas
Hazardous Materials
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Pqnd,
Suggested Procedure for preparing:
structural calculations
1.0 The purpose of the calculations are to:-
i) Show that the design is in accordance with good
structural practice, and, where appropriate;
comply with the current and relevant National
Standards and Building Regulations.
ii) Demonstrate that the design is adequate in
relation to stability, strength and serviceability
requirements.
iii) To aid, instruct and assist the draughtsman
preparing the general arrangement and detailed
drawings.
iv) Provide a permanent record for future reference.
There is a requirement for the calculations to be
comprehensive, self-explanatory and well presented,
and in order to achieve these qualities, they must
conform to:-
v) a standard method of documentation
vr) a logical sequence of presentation
.vii)
a consistent set of units and notation
2.0 Structural Form
Structural stability should be achieved by making an
appropriate choice of the structural form and
alrangement. The use of additional and expensive
features to achieve structural stability should be
avoided. Benefits are gained if the structural engineer
is involved in the design from the earliest possible
moment, and the method of preventing
disproportionate
collapse established.
3.0 Health and Safety at Work Act and C.D.M.
Regulations
These regulations render every designer legally
responsible
for the safety of structures under hiiihei
control, and require a risk assessment to be carried out
on every project.
4-0 Designing
for Stabitity
The following
is a good guide in the process of
qeslgmng
tor stability:_
such as expansion joints, which will nullify the
design assumptions.
iu) Shear walls, bracing, etc., should be.continuous
throughout the height of the building, and any
points of high stress concentrations (i.e.
openings) should be checked.
v) Check for adequate resistance to torsional
moments on asymmetrical buildings by
calculating the shear centre of application of
wind or other horizontal loading.
vi) Position ties in accordance with the relevant
National Standards for reinforced concrete,
structural steelwork, mason-ry and timber.
vii) At bearings, or junctions
of structural members,
and in particular, pre-cast concrete, check that:-
(a) There is adequate overlap of steel
reinforcement
(b) Positive lateral and torsional restraints
(c) Adequate restraint on the longitudinal axjs
viii)
theck
the site history for any special features
such as made-up ground, tunnels, gas mains,
mining, contamination, etc.
ix) Ensure that the stability of the structure during
construction is adequate.
x) Consider the effect of
constfuction joints
on the
structure, and ensure that
where necessary.
,'bxpansion and
stabifity of the
they are
fiovided
xi) When designing stability walls, rigid frames erc.,
for horizontal forces, ensure that the following
criteria are met:-
(a) Check stability against local overturning
ensure that there is an adequate factor
safety
(b) Any horizontal displacements at the top of
the building, relative to the base, should be
restricted to l/500. of the overall height.
Inter storey distortion should be limited to
U250 of the storey height under
consideration
(c) In certain cases, particularly tall steel
framed buildings and steel chimneys, it may
be necessary to check for wind-induced
oscillations and provide damping systems
Consider the following factors in the design
(a) Fire resistance required, and the effects of
damage by fire
(b) Compatibility of structural materials used
with the required design life of the building
(c) For cladding and facing materials ensure
that the fixings can accommodate movement
to
of
i)
ii)
'The overall
stability of the structure in the
transverse
and longitudinal
directions should be
checked
using wind loads or notional forces.
Check that the most adverse combination of
unfactored
loads do not exceed
$e
safe bearing
capacity
of the soil.
Any floor or roof acting as a horizontal
diaphragm
should not have any discontinuities,
iii)
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MEMBERSHTp
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Superstr-ucture
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Structural
Grid Layout
Column
Spacing
Load
paths
Floors
Beams
parcitions
Robustness
Handrails
Sound
4.
Loading
/ Design
Ctadding
Ceiling
/ Services
Uptift
Accidental
Loading
Progressive
Collapse
Notional
Loads
Snow
plant
Protected
Members
Self Weight
.
:,
Constrictions
Structural
Zone/
Services
Zone
Lightweight
Construction
required
for foundsl
Columns
Horizontal
/ Vertical
Ties
Staircases
Parapets
Floor
& Roof Loadings
Wind Loads
Earthquake
Safety Factors
Construction
Loads
Highway
HA / HB
Reduction
in Loading
due to
Storey
Heights
Critical
Loading
Combinations
Dominant
Openings
&r.
Y.
D.
D
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D
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lStructE CHARTERED
MEMBERSHtp
EXAM
: 2005
EY^M TECHNTQUE
CLIENTS
.BRIEF
/ PR
5. Stability ( Wind & Notional
)
t
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t'-
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'
I
f
Positions for Braced Bays
Out of Plane Torsions
Sway Frame
t'ractng
Lift Shafu
Diaphragm action of Floors
'
Robustness
Calculations
required to
prove stabiliry
6. Fire Resistahce
Hour fire rating?
Concrete Casing
Spray
Boundary
Conditions
Economy
Repetitive
construction
possiblel
Assumptions
Core Positions
Load Path to Foundations
Braced Frame
Shear Walls
Bracing outside Building
Tie PC Units
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dori{ 6s aet)&,ai
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nol/hq
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lstructE
CHARTERED
r'.rEMBERSHrp
EXAM
: 2005
EXAM
TECHNIQUE
9.
Movement
Joints
Setrlemenr
Joints
Moisture
Joints
Steelwork
-
l5_25mm
@
50m c/c
Reinforced
Concrete _
50m c/c
10.
Buildability
I Health
and Safety
Transporcation
Crane Required
Temporary
Works
Speed
and Etonomy
. Required
Limit of Sizes of
PC Elements
Ground
Movements
Plant Movement
ThermalJoints
Repetition
of Work
Night Time Working
Erection
Sequence
Temporary
Bracing
/
propping
Glazing / Falls
Existing Services
Stabiliry of Existing
Structures
Gas
Hazardous
Materials
Heut[n L
g^/fftt
al t<)o&-
{14 a-
c.b,/t/t
(q"@uW
Wd2r
urby
b/a+p\a tryrJ4l
NA[>,rnaiL(t
?t,
/AL
r4rr(
/-{+,i&
a,i#-(,ili
tti.
0,,/,;.
+
ty,rt^L a /+KL
astu?g^^+
+
bl-
tu*L{ nd
*uv
PTn/"
Suggested
Procedure
for preparing
structural
calculations
iii) To aid, instruct
and
preparing
the general
drawings.
irr) Provide a permanent
assist the draughtsman
arrangement
and detailed
record for future reference.
1.0 The purpose
of the calculations
are to:-
i) Show tliat the design is in accordance with good
structural practice,
and, where app.op.iate,
comply with the current and relevani'National
Standards and Building Rbgulaiions.
ii) Demonstrate
that the ae-sign is adequate
in
relation ro srability, strength and servileability
requircments
such as expansion joints,
which will nullify the
design assumptions.
iv) Shear walls,
bracing, erc., should be conrinuous
throughout
the heighr of the building, and any
'
points
of
-
high stress coircentraiions
(i.e.
openings) should be checked.
v) Check for adequate
resistance to torsional
moments on asymmetrical
buildings
by
calculatin-e
the shear centre of application
of
wind or other horizontal loading.
vi)
Position ties in accordance iitn ti," relevanr
National
Standards
for reinforceJ concrere,
structural steelwork,
mason_ry and timber.
vii)
At.bearings,
or junctions
of structural
members,
and in particular,
pre-cast concrete, check that:_
(a) There is adequate
overlap of sreel
reinforcement
-
(b) Positive lateral and torsional
restraints
G)
Adequate restraint on the longitudinal
axis
Check the srre history for any ipecial f.uiur.,
such as made-up ground,
tunnels, gas mains,
mining, contamination,
etc.
Ensure thar the stability of the structure
during
construction
is adequate..
Consider
the effect of ,
-'expansion
and
construction joints
on the .tu6itity
--of
the
structure, and ensure that they are pirovided
where necessary.
When designing stability walls, rigid frames etc.,
for horizontal
forces, ensure thai the following
criteria are met:-
There is a requirement
for the calculations
to be
comp.rehensive,
self-explanatory
and well presented,
and in order to achieve these qualities,
they musi
conform to:-
v) a standard
method of documentation
yil
a logical sequence of presenration
t
vii) a consistenr
set of uniis and notation
2.0 Structural
Form
Structural
stability
shou-ld be achieved by making an
appropriate
choice
of the structural
form
-and
arrangement.
The use of additional
and expensive
features
to achieve
structural
stability should be
avoided.
Benefits
are
,gained
if the stru;iurai
engineer
is involve.d
in the design from the
"urii"r,
possible
moment,
and the
method of preventing
disproportionate
collapse
established.
I
1.0
Health
and Safety
at Work Act and C.D.M.
Regulations
These
rcgulations
render
every designer
legally
responsible
for the safety of
"rru"ru."r-
inJer nisArer
control,
and require
a risi assessmentt;
U" .urn.a out
on evcry project.
4.0 Designing
for Stabitity
l]_:_::]aytne !s,
a good guide
in the process
of qeslgnrng
for stability:_
viii)
ix)
x)
xi)
(a)
Check stability against
ensure that there is an
safety
local overturning
to
adequate factor
of
i)
(b)
Any horizontal
displacemenrs
at rhe top of
the building,
relative to the base, should be
resrricted
to l/500 of the overall height.
Inter storey distortion
should be limited to
11250 of the storey height under
consideration
(c)
In certain cases, particularly
tall steel
framed buildings and steel chimneys,
it may
be necessary to check, for wini_induced
oscillations-and
provide
damping systems
Uonsrder the following
factors in the design
stage:-
The-
overall
stability
of the structure
in the
Iransverse
and
longitudinal
direction,
,t ooia U.
checked
using
winj
rord;;.
;;;i;;il;:"r:'
ch3ck
thar
the
most adverse
combination
of
unfactored
loads
do not
exceed the safe bearing
capacity
of the soil.
*ny.
floor
or roof
acting
e
as a horizontal
diaphragm
should
not have any discontinuities,
(a)
Fire resistance
damage by fire
and the effects of
(b)
Compatibility
of structural materials used
with the required design life of the buildins
For cladding and facing materials .nru?"
that the fixings can accommodate
movement
(c)
::';ffi#;' r:':'an:'i : 1
:!"
ar'i; ri:l;:lr:"i,ti:l:l:.:r'i.'.r-1..:::'.ili:rl:1:-{;l:iii'ilir-.1:'l'
(d)
due to therm-al effects and rnoisture_ ete. ThE
fixings should be of a mechanical
.fail-safe'
type, and be resistant to corrosion.
For large structures, where different sections
o,f--the work are designed and detailed by
different designers, ensure that there * n6
:.i
deficieneies or discontinuities
at the
.
interfaCe,
,
' ,
:------- !i
-.'Y
(e)
Carry out a risk assossment and ensure that
the proposed solution cornplies with the
C.D.M. Regulations.
t
Iffi*---